Category Archives: research topics and material in construction technology

USE OF BUILDER’S PLANT IN CONTRACT EXECUTION BY INDIGENOUS CONTRACTORS IN NIGERIA

USE OF BUILDER’S PLANT IN CONTRACT EXECUTION BY INDIGENOUS CONTRACTORS IN NIGERIA

(PROBLEMS AND REMEDY IN THE USE OF BUILDER’S PLANT IN ENUGU STATE)

 

 

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ABSTRACT

This project report explains the use of builder’s plant in contract execution by indigenous contractors in Nigeria and the maintenance management of those builders plant. This report also deals on the scope and definition of builder’s plant. Furthermore, this project report deals with the aim, objective and importance of the study and also provide the literature review which deals with the need for application of plant in contract execution and the implications of the relevant plants in various contract particularly in Enugu state. Down is some possible factors that militate against a successful contract made by unavailability of builder’s plant. In addition, it also emphasizes on the method adopted in the research of this study. The write up further explains how long a particular machine can be use and it will be due for maintenance and also how breakdown are being taking care of in some construction companies. At the end, it deals with the corrective measure to be apply in upgrading the use of construction plant in contract execution in Nigeria.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

1.0  Background of the Study                                         1

1.1      Statement of the Problem                                 2

1.2      Aims and Objectives of the Study                      3

1.3      Scope of the Study                                          4

1.4      Significance of the Study                                         4

1.5      Limitation of the Study                                     6

1.6      Research Questions                                          7

1.7      Definition of Related Terms                               7

CHAPTER TWO

2.0  LITERATURE REVIEW                                       10

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0  RESEARCH METHODOLOGY                               24

3.1      Research Design                                              24

3.2      Area of Study                                                  25

3.3      Scope of Work                                                25

3.4      Population                                                      25

3.5      Instrumentation                                              26

3.6      Validation of Instrument                                   28

3.7      Method of Data Collection                                 28

3.8      Method of Data Analysis                                   28

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.1      Findings and Data Analysis                                29

4.2      Statement of Breakdown in Plants                      29

4.3      Presentation of Data Analysis                            34

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0  DISCUSSION, FINDINGS, CONCLUSION

AND RECOMMENDATION                                   36

5.1      Discussion of the Study                                    36

5.2      Conclusion                                                      39

5.3      Recommendations                                           40

Bibliography                                                    42

Questionnaire                                                  4

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0  BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Science and technology have been striving hard to enhance the living standard of man by eliminating stressful method of production with the invention of more efficient and productive methods. This scientific advancement is spread over all areas of human endeavor.

Therefore in the indigenous construction, where the traditional method of construction was providing difficult and tedious with such problem of high work load without adequate skilled labour to carry out the work efficiently and effectively to meet the societal demand.

Hence, the use of builder’s plant by the Nigeria indigenous contractors to supplement the shortage of labour, there by requiring a minimal skilled labour for a relatively large volume of work, and by increasing the speed of construction, can result to earlier completion, enabling the building owner to occupy the building and recover his capital outlay at an earlier date.

Mechanical plant/builder’s plant may also be introduced to carry out operations for which manual labour is not available or is in short supply or to carry out operation which cannot be done either economically or physically by manual labour.

The introduction of this builder’s plant can reduce the effort required to be made by the operators in carrying out his work and can improve his working condition.

 

 

1.1  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Certain setback exists over the years to militate against the various indigenous construction firms in Enugu state from the use of builder’s plant in construction work. These operational problems may includes the following:

–             Lack of exposure – The ability of the indigenous contractors to be expose to construction plant as professional.

–             Lack of capital – The money involve for purchasing or hiring of the construction plant which is needed by the indigenous construction firms.

Availability of trained manpower – The use of powered and sophisticated factors based, mobile and fixed machinery in building construction industry, etc.

Meanwhile, these operational problems confronting the indigenous contractors if overlook or neglected might impede the industrialization process of the construction industry in Enugu state.

Therefore in view of these observations, there is absolute need for remedy and prevention of the problems from further confrontation of the indigenous contractors.

 

 

Continue reading USE OF BUILDER’S PLANT IN CONTRACT EXECUTION BY INDIGENOUS CONTRACTORS IN NIGERIA

ANALYSIS OF CONVENTIONAL PROCUREMENT STRATEGIES AND THEIR APPLICATION IN NIGERIA CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

ANALYSIS OF CONVENTIONAL PROCUREMENT STRATEGIES AND THEIR APPLICATION IN NIGERIA CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY .

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ABSTRACT

Procurement systems and project organization provide the framework for implementation and development of projects. Procurement systems and project organizations are well studied and established for major developments and in developed countries in particular. When these systems are used in developing countries for major commercial, social and infrastructure developments, appropriate results are seldom achieved. This may be due to a variety of factors, which include systematic, environmental, cultural, economic, legal, political and social cultural amongst others. Not withstanding this, a major challenge in the establishment of appropriate and sustainable procurement systems and project organizational models for low-cost housing and infrastructure. The proper aims to propose a generic model of procurement system and project organization based on theory and practice as a basis for the implementation and development of low-cost housing.

 

 

 

                  TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION                                                                   1

1.1            Background of the Study                                                        1

1.2            Statement of the Problem                                              2

1.3            Purpose of the Study                                                     2

1.4            Research Questions                                                                 3

1.5            Research Hypothesis                                                     3

1.6            The Scope of the Study                                                 4

1.7            Significance of the Study                                                         4

1.8            Definition of Terms                                                                 5

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     LITERATURE REVIEW                                                        7

2.1     Procurement Methods                                                    7

2.2     Application of Procurement Strategies in

Nigerian Construction Industry                                     7

2.3     Statutory Duties of a Builder in any

Procurement Strategies in Nigeria                                  15

2.4     Construction Industry                                                   18

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     RESEARCH METHODOLOGY                                             20

3.1            Research Design                                                            20

3.2            Population of the Study                                                 20

3.3            Source of Data                                                                        22

3.4            Location of Data                                                            22

3.5            Method of Investigation                                                 23

3.6            Instrument for Data Collection                                      23

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.1            Analysis of Data                                                           24

4.2            Presentation of the Data                                                          24

4.3            Testy of Hypothesis                                                                29

4.4            Discussion of Findings                                                  32

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION                        34

5.1            Recommendations                                                                   34

5.2            Conclusion                                                                     35

 

References                                                                      37

Questionnaire                                                                          39

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Procurement has been seen to be process of obtaining or buying supplies of something like fixed assets (land, building, etc) especially for individual and government.

 

Therefore, procurement strategies has become a fashionable term with our construction industry, practitioners and researchers determines the overall framework and structure of responsibilities within the process, it is also a key factor contributing to the overall client satisfaction and project success. Procurement strategies and their application is of important in our construction industry.

 

However, one must not be carried by which ever method of procurement strategies proposed for a construction project, the major issue is the different types of procurement are contractual obligations, responsibilities and line of communication between the parties. One thing to remember is that which ever method that is used, the statutory duties of the professionals are always distinct and mandatory. Hence the engagement of a builder in the procuring contract is statutorily required and highly recommended whichever procurement strategy that is adopted.

 

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The general aim of study is to ascertain by reviewing, evaluating and identifying how procurement strategies can be applied in our Nigeria construction industry. Therefore, this issue raised the researcher’s interest to know how procurement strategies can be applied in our construction industry particularly Nigerian economy.

 

 

1.3     PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

  • To determine what are the procurement strategies;
  • To know its application in our Nigerian construction industry;
  • To know the statutory duties of a builder in construction industry;
  • To know what is construction industry.

 

1.4     RESEARCH QUESTIONS

  1. What are the procurement strategies?
  2. Where can they be applied in Nigerian construction industry?
  3. How can we know the statutory duties of a building in our construction industry?
  4. What is construction industry?

 

1.5     RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

 

 

 

Continue reading ANALYSIS OF CONVENTIONAL PROCUREMENT STRATEGIES AND THEIR APPLICATION IN NIGERIA CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

THE ROLE OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT AUTHORITIES IN MINIMIZING BUILDING COLLAPSE IN NIGERIA

THE ROLE OF  LOCAL GOVERNMENT AUTHORITIES IN MINIMIZING BUILDING COLLAPSE IN NIGERIA

 

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ABSTRACT

The incidences of buildings collapse has become very frequent in recent times, particularly within the country. These incidences of collapse buildings have continued “embraces’ professionals and stakeholders alike in the construction industry, even as all efforts are being made to stem the side of occurrences and mishap.

We read on the pages of newspapers or hear from our radios or television sets, news of buildings collapsing and killing or maiming of occupants or workmen on what may now be regarded as a recurrent feature of our national life. It is in dead a very sad aspect of our socio-economic life that we should allow those who do not possess the skills at appropriate levels to design and supervise the erection of buildings and other structures. In view of the every rising prices of goods and services in the country, I think it is about time that those whose duties, it is to act, come out with suitable building codes and bylaws that will guarantee the lives and properties of innocent citizens, who may still perish due to such avoidable mistakes, that have been responsible for the untimely death of occupants of building structures in the recent past. This study is also addressing the need for the local government-authorities to play their roles in the construction industry to stem the spate of building collapse in Nigeria.

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0  INTRODUCTION                                               1

1.1  Background of the Study                                         1

1.2  Statement of the Problem                                 5

1.3  Objective of the Study                                      5

1.4  Relevant Research Question                              6

1.5  Scope and Delimitation of the Study                   6

1.6  Significance of the Study                                         7

1.7  Definition of Terms                                          8

 

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0  LITERATURE REVIEW                                       9

2.1  Historical Background                                       9

2.2  Roles of the Local Government Council Areas              11

2.3  National Building Code                                      15

2.4  Supervisor Control Measure                               17

2.5  Design and Construction Deficiencies                  18

2.6  Negligence, Ignorance and Poor Supervision        19

2.7  Maintenance of Buildings                                   19

2.8  Mis-use of Building                                           20

2.9  Soil Conditions                                                       21

2.10 Construction Malpractices                                 21

2.11 Post Construction Activities                               23

2.12 Materials Quality                                              24

2.13 Fire Hazards                                                    25

2.14 Structural Failure                                             24

2.15 Inexperience of the Builders                              28

 

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.1  Research Methodology                                      30

3.2  Sources of Data                                               30

3.2.1 Primary Data                                                 30

3.2.2 Secondary Data                                              31

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.1  Presentation of Data Analysis                            32

4.2  Responses Collected from Individuals

in the Questionnaire                                                34

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0  SUMMARY, CONCLUSION

AND RECOMMENDATIONS                                 50

5.1  Summary                                                       50

5.2  Conclusion                                                      52

5.3  Recommendations                                           55

 

References                                                      66

Appendix                                                        68

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0  INTRODUCTION

1.1  BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The Nigerian experience have shown that buildings collapse have taken a lot of lives and properties hence, the need to stop the large increase in the number of buildings collapsing in the country. In the last quarter of 2011, there was a catastrophic collapse of a 5-story hospital building under construction in pape Abuja that led to loss of lives and injuries. There has been series of buildings collapse in Nigeria from North to South, West to East, the story is the same. These ugly incidences that have now become some reoccurring decimal all over Nigeria have sent a lot of Nigerians to their early raves and have equally turned hundreds to disables and also make them homeless.

 

Whenever this ugly monster shows its face stakeholders always look for whom to blame, because this incidences of collapse buildings has continued to “embarrass” professionals and stakeholder alike in the construction industry. Most at times, the largest proportion of the blame goes to the institutions that are responsible fro the training of professionals in the building industry are ready to accept the blame, infact, they prefer shifting the blames on each other. Even as all efforts are being made to stem the tide. There I should be urgent need to set in motion a mechanism that would ensure that the incidences of collapsed buildings was eradicated or reduced to the barest minimum.

 

However, it is the work of the architect and the structural engineer to ensure that the structures will not be liable to collapse in Nigeria, were considered as design errors.

 

Failure in design is often attributed to coincidence of factors rather than just a single cause a greater attention is being placed on design errors or inadequacies, where a major factor is the chain of events leading to collapse. The cause of the above is obviously structural and is common in Nigeria, as a result of quacks who practice as structural engineers and architects. These quacks often make errors in their assumptions regarding loading and flexural conditions, coupled with poor detailing and drafting, carelessness in treatment of constructions, improper location, inadequate attention to thermal and shrinkage effects; others are inadequate site investigation, improper planning and absence of professionals to give the technical input, improper selection of materials and lack of maintenance.

A look at most collapsed buildings, shown that often, it is the absence of building code and regulation leads to collapse, mostly due to structural issues.

 

According to Parker Gay, Mac Guire (1958), the negligence and ignorance constitute building collapse in Nigeria. Majority of owners of collapse buildings are illiterates who are ignorant of the existence of professionals in the building industry. Failure in building also occurs as a result of misuse of buildings. Buildings of different structural designs serve different purpose, structural design for residential building is different from industrial building.

 

Despite the various efforts, the rate of building collapse to date has continued unabated with two building collapsing in Lagos within a week. Government at all levels have not shown or displayed concern for the ugly occurrences. Most of design and plans are good but no monitoring and supervision. Most time, owners of buildings and other professionals want to cut corners. Howe can good quality work be guaranteed when there is no sincerity on the part of those involved and professional are not allowed to the job.

 

Thus in Nigeria today, all building specifications are to maintain the British Standard (BS). This gave to the Enugu Urban District Council Building Bye Law. This has undergone a lot of modification since 1954 and the most recent which was standard for the whole state.

 

Regrettably, the operatives noted, the increasing rate of buildings collapse witnessed in Nigeria in recent years has reach such a disturbing state that governments and federal and sate levels had to step up attention at adopting intervention measures to minimize the ugly situation in the building industry.

 

 

1.2  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The building collapse syndrome has taken a lot of lives and properties in Nigeria due to

–             Non-professionals and quacks involved in the construction process, in the Nigerian experience;

–             The use of sub-standard materials, components and products;

–             Improper planning;

–             Absence of building code/regulations in the industry;

–             Lack of maintenance culture;

–             Inadequate soil investigation;

–             Poor detailing and drafting, etc.

 

 

1.3  OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

(i)         The aim of this project is to stop the increasing number of the building collapse in the country, so as to protect the health, safety and general welfare of the building users.

(ii)       To eliminate the incessant collapse of buildings in the country, so as to protect image of the country within the comity of nations.

 

1.4  RELEVANT RESEARCH QUESTIONS

 

 

Continue reading THE ROLE OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT AUTHORITIES IN MINIMIZING BUILDING COLLAPSE IN NIGERIA

AN APPRAISAL OF BUSINESS CONTINUITY PLAN BY FACILITIES MANAGERS IN NIGERIA

AN APPRAISAL OF BUSINESS CONTINUITY PLAN BY FACILITIES MANAGERS IN NIGERIA

 

 

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ABSTRACT
Happenings all over the world have shown that no business facility is devoid of disaster. It is in the light of the above that good facilities management practice, demands a proactive approach to such problems by preparing business continuity plan (BCP). This research project is undertaken to appraise the plans prepared by the facilities management firms in Nigeria as fall back measure in case of any disruption in organizations business procedures. Field survey was undertaken with structured questionnaire and oral interviews with stakeholders as the instruments of research.

 

Purposive sampling was adopted in the interview. Seventy questionnaires were distributed out of which forty three were completed and returned, giving 61.4% response. Results showed that although facilities managers in Nigeria are well aware of the risk portfolio of their organizations, but adequate measures are not put in its proper place to prevent and prepare for any eventuality. For example, respondents opinion on how often BCP is being used in managing facilities shows that 65.1% do not use it often, 69.8% agreed that BCP is based on demand by client/organization. The outcome of the result of the study showed that even if BCP is in use, it is not proactive, also refusal of government and clients to request for BCP contributed to the lack of preparation of plan.

 

It was recommended that government should make it mandatory for all organizations to request facilities managers to prepare BCP to guide and prepare for any eventuality in the form of disasters and their position as part of their financial statement. Professional bodies and associations affiliated to disaster management, should assist organizations by organizing workshops, training, awareness campaigns for personnel of such organizations.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
While governments, not-for-profit institutions, and non-governmental organisations also deliver critical services, private organisations must continuously deliver products and services to satisfy shareholders and to survive. Although they differ in goals and functions, business continuity planning (BCP) can be applied by all governments.

 

Elliot et al (1999) defines business continuity planning as identifying an organisation’s exposure to internal and external threats and synthesizes hard and soft assets to provide effective prevention and recovery for the organisation, while maintaining competitive advantage and value system integrity.

 

There is much misunderstanding of business continuity management (BCM) and as yet no commonly practiced methodology for the assessment of an organisation in this regard (Honour 2001). Elliot et al (1999) noted that there is no structured implementation of capabilities to directly address the risks presented to us in the modern world. These newly emphasized risks in partnership with the inherent vulnerabilities resulting from the lack of a structured approach to BCM calls for a more robust and measurable means of protecting our continuity management that is continuity assurance.
As the name implies, continuity assurance is concerned with actively planning to avert the threat or reduce from the act, though this recovery is implicit in the approach detailed in this work.

 

1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
Management of facilities in developing countries like Nigeria is replete with a lot of problems. Prominent among them is the disruption of business operations, delays, ineffective or poor quality service. This is due to lack of clear understanding of those organisations risk profile or portfolio and absence of proactive measures that will ensure the continuation of critical business operations. As a result of the aforementioned, this affects the organisations in many ways, e.g. service provision is poor or substandard, profit maximization is seriously affected and the reputation of the organisation is equally affected, etc.

 

1.3 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
Emergency Preparedness and Business Continuity is one out of the eleven (11) core competencies in the management of facilities. This needs a holistic study of the core competencies to see ways and means for effective facilities management. Business Continuity Plan (BCP) is suppose to be properly put in place for any business to strife, be it small, medium or big.

 

It is in the light of the above that a critical look at plans that are supposed to be put in place by FM for business to continue and also to mitigate any negative effect of any disaster on the organisation.
It is an acknowledged fact that one of the important and necessary conduction for smooth successful and effective management of any facility devoid of any interruption that may have far reaching impact on the organization is the putting in place proactive measure to ensure the continuation of critical activities considering the facilities management practice in Nigeria (being at the development stage) a feedback system is needed or information is needed on how this important activities were undertaken especially the approach adopted, (1) quality of the plan, (2) how they are implemented and (3) problems relating to the implementation and above all the quality of human resource who prepares and implement (facilities management) this will enable the facilities management practice to benefit from such results.

 

 

Continue reading AN APPRAISAL OF BUSINESS CONTINUITY PLAN BY FACILITIES MANAGERS IN NIGERIA

AN APPRAISAL OF BUSINESS CONTINUITY PLAN BY FACILITIES MANAGERS IN NIGERIA

AN APPRAISAL OF BUSINESS CONTINUITY PLAN BY FACILITIES MANAGERS IN NIGERIA

COMPLETE PROJECT  MATERIAL COST 3000 NAIRA

 

                                   ORDER NOW

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
 GTBANK
Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

We also accept :   ATM transfer , online money  transfer 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>

Call Help Desk Line :  08074466939,08063386834.

After Payment Send Your Payment Details To

08074466939 Or 08063386834,   The Project Title  You  Selected On Our Website , Amount Paid, Depositor Name, Your Email Address, Payment Date. You Will Receive Your Material In Less Than 1 Hour Once We Confirm Your Payment.

WE HAVE SECURITY IN OUR BUSINESS.

MONEY BACK GUARANTEE

You may also need:  web design company in Nigeria   

Bulk sms company in Nigeria

 

 

 

ABSTRACT
Happenings all over the world have shown that no business facility is devoid of disaster. It is in the light of the above that good facilities management practice, demands a proactive approach to such problems by preparing business continuity plan (BCP). This research project is undertaken to appraise the plans prepared by the facilities management firms in Nigeria as fall back measure in case of any disruption in organizations business procedures. Field survey was undertaken with structured questionnaire and oral interviews with stakeholders as the instruments of research.

 

Purposive sampling was adopted in the interview. Seventy questionnaires were distributed out of which forty three were completed and returned, giving 61.4% response. Results showed that although facilities managers in Nigeria are well aware of the risk portfolio of their organizations, but adequate measures are not put in its proper place to prevent and prepare for any eventuality. For example, respondents opinion on how often BCP is being used in managing facilities shows that 65.1% do not use it often, 69.8% agreed that BCP is based on demand by client/organization.

 

The outcome of the result of the study showed that even if BCP is in use, it is not proactive, also refusal of government and clients to request for BCP contributed to the lack of preparation of plan. It was recommended that government should make it mandatory for all organizations to request facilities managers to prepare BCP to guide and prepare for any eventuality in the form of disasters and their position as part of their financial statement. Professional bodies and associations affiliated to disaster management, should assist organizations by organizing workshops, trainings, awareness campaigns for personnel of such organizations.

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
While governments, not-for-profit institutions, and non-governmental organisations also deliver critical services, private organisations must continuously deliver products and services to satisfy shareholders and to survive. Although they differ in goals and functions, business continuity planning (BCP) can be applied by all governments.

Elliot et al (1999) defines business continuity planning as identifying an organisation’s exposure to internal and external threats and synthesizes hard and soft assets to provide effective prevention and recovery for the organisation, while maintaining competitive advantage and value system integrity.

 

 

There is much misunderstanding of business continuity management (BCM) and as yet no commonly practiced methodology for the assessment of an organisation in this regard (Honour 2001). Elliot et al (1999) noted that there is no structured implementation of capabilities to directly address the risks presented to us in the modern world. These newly emphasized risks in partnership with the inherent vulnerabilities resulting from the lack of a structured approach to BCM calls for a more robust and measurable means of protecting our continuity management that is continuity assurance.
As the name implies, continuity assurance is concerned with actively planning to avert the threat or reduce from the act, though this recovery is implicit in the approach detailed in this work.

 

 

1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
Management of facilities in developing countries like Nigeria is replete with a lot of problems. Prominent among them is the disruption of business operations, delays, ineffective or poor quality service. This is due to lack of clear understanding of those organisations risk profile or portfolio and absence of proactive measures that will ensure the continuation of critical business operations. As a result of the aforementioned, this affects the organisations in many ways, e.g. service provision is poor or substandard, profit maximization is seriously affected and the reputation of the organisation is equally affected, etc.

 

 

 

Continue reading AN APPRAISAL OF BUSINESS CONTINUITY PLAN BY FACILITIES MANAGERS IN NIGERIA

FLOOD GENERATING STRUCTURES IN KUBWA URBAN LANDSCAPE

FLOOD GENERATING STRUCTURES IN KUBWA URBAN LANDSCAPE

COMPLETE PROJECT  MATERIAL COST 3000 NAIRA

 

                                   ORDER NOW

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
 GTBANK
Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

We also accept :   ATM transfer , online money  transfer 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

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ABSTRACT
This research work examined flood generating structures on Kubwa urban landscape Bwari Area Council. It is a combination of field observation through the distribution of questionnaire to the residents of the area and library research. Background for the study was discussed as well as problems were identified such as the causes and devastating effects of flooding in Kubwa which necessitated the need for this study. Research objectives were stated among which is to identify the flood generating structures and the areas vulnerable to flooding. Research questions and hypotheses were formulated to guide in achieving the objectives.

 

The study reviewed both theoretical and related empirical literatures under headings such as the concept of flood, types of floods, effects of flood, pattern of floods among others. The study adopted the quasi-experimental research design which is a combination of both survey and field work. 170 respondents were selected using the stratified random sampling technique from each of the study areas; structured questionnaires were distributed to them.

 

The researcher used both descriptive and inferential statistics to analyze the data obtained from the respondents and field work. The questionnaires were analyzed and presented in tables using frequency and simple percentages; while the data about the generating structures were analyzed using the standard multiple regression technique to estimate how the parameters (i.e. ponds, drainage, polythene, vegetation and house clustering) affect the rate of flooding. Some of the findings of the study revealed that the major cause of flooding in the area is rainfall and lack of sufficient drainage system, which occur mostly from July to September annually to high amount of rainfall within that period.

 

The residents close to the drainage or blocked surfaces experience higher rate of destruction than those far away from the drainage. It was among other things recommended that there should also be regular and periodic sanitation exercise to clear refuse in drainages as this will go a long way in averting possible incidences of flooding; ponds should be well taken care to avoid escalation of floods in addition to construction of dry dams/levees for the purpose of flood control as well as flood-mapping of vulnerable areas as these will go a long way in reducing the incidence of flooding in the study area.

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
The world at large has in the recent past developed great concern over environmental issues such as global warming and its effect; flood which constitute a great problem to man, is both human-induced (anthropogenic) and natural disasters. Global warming is as a result of human activities such as deforestation, the release of carbon monoxide into the atmosphere in various ways and thereby creating hole in the ozone layer. The Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC, 2007), fourth assessment report reveals that the frequency of heavy precipitation has increased over most land areas that appear to be consistent with the global warming phenomenon.

 

The impact of global warming on specific regions of the world has been estimated and predicted that “heavy precipitation events which are very likely to increase in frequency will augment flood risk”. This means that floods will get more severe in areas that are already prone to such disaster. They also observed increase in atmospheric water vapour, extreme temperature and increase in intense tropical cyclones in some regions.

 

Natural and Anthropogenic disasters had from prehistoric periods had serious impact on man and his environment. Natural disasters and anthropogenic disasters could come in form of earthquakes, cyclones, volcanic eruptions, landslides and floods. Impact of disasters on men are exacerbated by a number of factors which include poor land use planning, population growth, environmental mismanagement, increasing levels of vulnerability, poor governance and climatic change.

 

The loss of human lies, loss of assets and rise in the cost of reconstruction efforts as a result of flooding has placed Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) on the policy agenda of many countries especially those areas prone to flooding. The hope of realizing the International Strategy in Disaster Reduction (ISDR)’s aim in reducing disaster is to mobilize the governments of different countries, United Nations (UN) agencies, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), multi and bilateral agencies, regional bodies, private sector and civil societies to unit efforts in building a resilient societies by developing a culture of prevention, preparedness against and managing disaster (UN-ISDR, 2003).

 

Floods accounted for about 30 percent of all the natural disasters and 40 percent of the fatalities (Schecham & Hewitt, 1969). Flood is the outcome of a rainfall events or cumulative effects of episodic events, that comes man-induced disaster because of violation of the sanctity of the hydrologic cycle through man’s quest to control nature,(Adefolalu, 2008). Flood incidents are becoming annual events in all parts of Nigeria with varying degrees of impacts on man and his environment. The yearly report in various parts of Nigeria has been that of flood causing destruction and the death of many people and rendering people homeless. The destruction of scores of houses and many social infrastructures such as schools, roads and bridges are n the increase.

 

Human factors responsible for flood in many areas are the improper operation of water resources infrastructure such as dams, and reservoirs, which were constructed to contain water and provide means of livelihood in times of need. Such structures introduce elements of risk to people upstream and downstream. These risks include destruction of unique habitats and biodiversity therein. There is also the possibility of levee and drain breakage, improper refuse disposal habit and occupation of the floodplain and impervious caused by trampling, roads and bridges constructions.
The need to reduce the effects of flood hazards or disaster becomes very imperative because it is difficult to control basic atmospheric processes which produce floods. The first step attempt by man in the process flood disaster reduction is to identify the factors responsible for flood in any flood prone areas. The occurrence of flood in Kubwa satellite town of the Federal Capital Territory in 2012 is one of the most recent severe flood disasters in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT). There are no records of flood disaster reported in the Federal Capital Territory before 2012, which indicates that flooding in the area can be attributed to the influx of people into the FCT which led to the emergence of various human activities in the area in recent time. Hence there is need to examine the phenomenon and proffer solution.

 

 

1.2 Statement of Research Problem

Flood has been an old time disaster that had plagued man and his environment in the world at large. In the recent past, most parts of the states in Nigeria had witnessed flood especially during high rainfall frequency and intensity.

In the past four decades, economic losses due to natural hazards such as, floods disasters have increased in folds and have also resulted in major loss of human lives and livelihoods, the destruction of economic and social infrastructure, as well as environmental damages during this period (Munich Re, 2002). Recurring floods and other disasters have been identified as a serious threat to sustainable development. Floods cause about one third of all deaths, one third of all injuries and one third of all damage from natural disasters (Askew, 1999).

 

Nigeria has suffered immeasurable losses to flood disaster – ranging the Imo State flood of (1988, 1989) which left over 50 people dead, 10,000 rendered homeless, oil and power infrastructures submerged; Ilorin also suffered a heavy casualty following the 1988 flood which left over 100 villages destroyed, 10,000 families displayed, over 70 km of farmland and 440 hectares of sugarcane plantation destroyed (Akintola & Williams, 2006).

In 2012, Nigeria was hit by a large wave of flood which was probably the biggest and most deadly flood disaster in Nigeria’s history, which affected about 2/3 of the federation, leaving scores of people dead and properties worth billions destroyed, with Kubwa District in the FCT having more than a fair share of the disaster.

One important point to note about flooding in this part of the world is that they are mostly human induced as a result of some harmful environment practices such as dumping of refuse in drainages, building on water ways, failure to adhere to building regulations among others.

Despite the obvious adverse effects of flooding, little has been done to savage the situation or correct the abnormalities, and hence, flood continues to threaten Nigeria’s wellbeing as well as the lives and properties of the citizens.

In the past, many works have been done on assessment of flood vulnerability risk but majorities of this work do not provide a reasonable solution to this devastating disaster and also lack of proper techniques to assess the flood risk, this is a major gap which this research intends to fill.

It is in the light of the above problem, that the researcher embarked on this study to determine the flood generating structures in Kubwa Urban landscape as well as suggest mitigating measures to curb the menace of flooding.

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Continue reading FLOOD GENERATING STRUCTURES IN KUBWA URBAN LANDSCAPE

AN APPRAISAL OF INMATES’ REHABILITATION FACILITIES IN KADUNA AND ZARIA PRISONS

AN APPRAISAL OF INMATES’ REHABILITATION FACILITIES IN KADUNA AND ZARIA PRISONS

 

 

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ABSTRACT
This central thrust of this research is to appraise the inmates’ rehabilitation facilities in Nigerian Prisons using Kaduna and Zaria prison as a case study. Against this backdrop, this study attempts to empirically appraise the inmates’ rehabilitation facilities in Nigeria prison with Kaduna and Zaria Prisons as the case study.

 

To achieve this, sample size of 145 inmates, 37 staff was selected through simple random sampling by the use of prison register. Qualitative and Quantitative data were collected through the use of questionnaire and interview method. Also the analysis of data was through the combination of qualitative and quantitative analysis. This result of the data analysis showed that the respondents varied in socio-demographic characteristic such as age, sex, marital status, educational qualification, religion etc.

 

further, the data showed that many of the inmates said that there is rehabilitation facilities such as carpentry, work, electrical work, shoe making etc. though some opined that despite the existing scheme it was only meant for convicts and awaiting trial were excluded from the benefiting in such schemes.

 

The study also found that: Provision for rehabilitation services is still neglected and not international best practices compliance; the incarceration condition of the inmates with respect to accommodation, feeding and medication does not meet the United Nation’s standard minimum rules for the treatment of prisoners; prison inmates of these prisons prefer one rehabilitation services to the other. The most preferred rehabilitation service is recreational activity-football.

 

Despite the aforementioned problems the prison still has been able to play the role of rehabilitation at a small measure.Based on these findings, it was recommended among others that deliberate efforts should be made by the Federal Government and prison service providers to reform the Nigerian prisons and make it international best practice compliance. There is also the need to introduce more rehabilitation services, facilities and reformative programmes such as training inmates on Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and giving adequate awareness programmes so as to rehabilitate prison inmates and stop recidivism.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION:
1.1 Background of the Study
The noble goal of the prisons services is to reform those who pass through the prison gates and also to protect the society from the convicted felons. It also serves to keep in safe custody persons legally sentenced to jail and identify the cause of inherent anti social behavior and treat and reform them to become law-abiding citizens. The prison also has the responsibilities to train inmates in trades that will make them useful to themselves and the society at large. (prisons lecture manual 2003).

According to the Jarma (2001) these objectives are not being met in Nigeria, he contend that instead of reforming inmates the prisons system is hardening them and subjecting them to horrible, degrading conditions and punishment, sometimes exceeding the crime committed, the process makes them to become physicals and psychological damaged, with the feeling of been unwanted, unloved and abandoned in uncaring environment.

Most studies of prison in Nigeria have been concerned with the sociological analysis of the prisons as social systems that have examined inmates (Sarki 2003, Muhammad, 2005).

Yet little attention has been given to the other factors that lead to the failure, in achieving the stated objectives i.e reforming, rehabilitation and reintegration. Such factors are inmates’ rehabilitation facilities which are almost in obsolete state and poor management in handling the available one. Inmates’ rehabilitation facilities which comprised of inmates’ accommodations, skill acquisition facilities, education facilities, recreational facilities e.t.c are inadequate or in state of disrepair. Many prisons in Nigeria have no basis utility services e.g toilet, water, light, medicine, etc and where they have are severely limited. (Asokhia M.O 2012)

Though Nigeria government budges a little amount in comparison with other countries in the world with almost the same population size but corruptions, poor management, unprofessionalism n handling the facilities are the accelerating factor to this unwanted situation. (Ogundipe 2008)

To find a solution to these problems and proposed ways of improvement in the management of inmates’ rehabilitation facilities are the question that this project will address.

 

 

1.2 Statement of the Problem
One of the cardinal’s objectives of prison system is to wear prisoners away from crime and other anti-social activities and give them direction that will enable them lead normal live again. The idea is to employ the period of incarceration to impact other offenders the need to be law-abiding (prison lecture manual 2007)

Prisons are conceived as corrective institutions. They already are or are fast becoming so in many part of the world. They are usually structure to identify the peculiar problems of each inmate and device means of guiding the individual out of problems (Muhammad .B. 2005)

Studies however reveal that Nigeria prison rather than being reformative and rehabilitative they are punitive, degrading and dehumanizing and leave the prisoners with least opportunity of re-entry in to the society (Basher Tanimu 2010).

Finding however reveal that several factors are responsible for these undesirable situation here are some: corruption which has eaten deep into the fabrics of Nigerian, inadequate funding and bad management make many prisons to lack essential inmates’ rehabilitation facilities e.g accommodation, skill acquisition, educational and recreational facilities and were they exist they are grossly inadequate for the population, in some prisons officials complain of lack of portable water, inadequate sewage facilities which is having devastating effect on the health of inmates’(Muhammad .B. 2010)

Thus Nigeria needs conductive prisons, where function of reforming, rehabilitation and reintegration would be accomplished, not prisons that been regard as punishment ground, and it is as a result of all these aforementioned problems that this research work is being carried out.

 

 

 

 

Continue reading AN APPRAISAL OF INMATES’ REHABILITATION FACILITIES IN KADUNA AND ZARIA PRISONS