Category Archives: chemical engineering projects for college students

MODIFICATION OF MODEL SEDIMENTATION TANK

MODIFICATION OF MODEL SEDIMENTATION TANK

 

Click here to download our android mobile app to your phone  for more materials and others

COMPLETE PROJECT  MATERIAL COST 5000 NAIRA OR $10 , 

. A FRESH TOPIC NOT LISTED ON OUR WEBSITE COST 50,000 NAIRA ( UNDERGRADUATE) OR 100,000 FOR SECOND DEGREE STUDENTS. $500. PLUS  FREE SUPPORT UNTIL YOU FINISH YOUR PROJECT WORK. CONTACT US TODAY, WE MAKE A DIFFERENT. DESIGN AND WRITING IS OUR SKILLED.  DESIGN AND WRITING IS OUR SKILLED.

Note: our case study can be change to suit your desire location . we are here for your success.

                                   ORDER NOW

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
 GTBANK
Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment :
Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
 Account Number:  0117780667. 
Swift Code: GTBINGLA 
Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANKER SECURITY GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>DELIVERY PERIOD FOR BANK PAYMENT IS  LESS THAN 2 HOURS

How to transfer from your bank account to All  Nigeriabanks

1. Access Bank:
—-*901#

2. EcoBank:
—-*326#

3. Fidelity Bank:
—-*770#

4. FCMB:
—-*389*214#

5. First Bank
—-*894#

6. GTB:
—-*737#

7. Heritage Bank:
—-*322*030#

8. Keystone Bank:
—-*322*082#

9. Sky Bank:
—-*389*076*1#

10. Stanbic IBTC:
—-*909#

11. Sterling Bank:
—-*822#

12. UBA:
—-*389*033*1#

13. Unity Bank:
—-*322*215#

14. Zenith Bank:
—-*966#

15. Diamond Bank
—-*710*555#

To know your BVN, dial
—-*565*0#.

E.g for First bank…   *894 *Amount *Acct. No. #

Please dail d code from d number u used to register d account from the bank

CALL OKEKE CHIDI C ON :  08074466939,08063386834.

AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO

08074466939 or 08063386834, YOUR PROJECT TITLE  YOU WANT US TO SEND TO YOU, AMOUNT PAID, DEPOSITOR NAME, UR EMAIL ADDRESS,PAYMENT DATE. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR MATERIAL IN LESS THAN 2 HOURS ONCE WILL CONFIRM YOUR PAYMENT.

WE HAVE SECURITY IN OUR BUSINESS.   

MONEY BACK GUARANTEE

 

 

ABSTRACT

The project done was the modification of model sedimentation tank. The equipment was made of maslte metal of 16 gauges thickness. Two valves was connected, one for water inlet and the others for water out let at the bottom of the tank.

Pumping machine was connected fro pumping in of water into the system. Evolutional test which entails the testing of the constructional work in order to know whether the component needs any adjustment was also carried out.

The maintenance procedure is written in the book to avoid constant failure during experimentation. At the end of the test of the modification work, it was seen that the machine is very useful to student for their laboratory experiment based on sedimentation process.

The amount of experience gained and the understanding of students’ problems has therefore been methodology based on the production of this book.

The total cost of the modification project was put a the sum of eight thousand on hundred and twenty naira (N8,120.00) only. This includes both the fabrication and installation cost. It is cheap and easily affordable. This project will be of good use to student during their practical work, to lecturers as well as the general public.

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction                                                                 1

Types of Sedimentation                                            2

Aim and advantages                                                  6

Application of Sedimentation                                  6

 

CHAPTER TWO

Literature review                                                        9

Model sedimentation tank circuit diagram            10

Principle of operation                                                11

Historical aspect                                                        14

CHAPTER THREE

Constructional procedure                                         26

CHAPTER FOUR

Cost and Estimation                                                  29

CHAPTER FIVE

Discussion/Conclusion                                             31

Recommendation                                                       34

Reference                                                                    38


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Sedimentation tanks, used on a continuously flowing basis, are widely used in water treatment plants. In general, the solid materials to be removed have very low settling velocities because of the small particle sizes and density differences together with the effects of hindered settling due to particle concentrations.

These low settling velocities means that the continuous flow tanks must have long retention times to allow the particles to settle at the base before dean waters flows out of the system. Thus, the extent of particle removal by settling tanks is governed both by the settling properties of the solids and the flow characteristics in the settling zone. Determination of the hydraulic characteristic by traces injection of the inflow to the tank has proved a valuable technique both in model tanks as well as in industrial units.

The Armfield sedimentation tank has been designed to demostate the principles and operation of traces method to evaluate the overall hydraulic characteristic in particular the residence time distribution with various configurations of baffles is the tank. More over, experiments with the settlin efficiency of fine solids may be undertaken, and compared with model prediction based on the residence time models constructed with tracer results. The differences between ideal and non ideal flow are thus demonstrated. The equipment has relevance to courses in both public health and sanitary engineering, as well as to process engineering studies.

 

TYPES OF SEDIMENTATION

          Sedimentation machines are of different form since it is influenced by the kind of forces acting on the particles in the suspension. Generally, it could be divided into two broad types, centrifugal sedimentation and gravity sedimentation machine which could be operated either through batch sedimentation or continuous sedimentation.        

 

CENTRIFUGAL SEDIMENTATION

          In centrifugal sedimentation, separation is achieved by the application of centrifugal force which causes the solid particles in the suspension to migrate through the fluid radically away from the axis of rotation depending on the difference in densities between the particles may be intermittent as in the case of the glass as laboratory centrifuge.

In industrial centrifuges, the rotational speed and the centrifugal force is so much that the liquid surface becomes virtually, cylindrical coaxial with the axis of rotation. This ensures quickest settling of the particles on the walls of centrifuge bowl. The liquid phase discharge is usually continuous, while the sold phase deposited on the surface of the bowl can be removed intermittently either manually or by the action of a cutes knife. The time depends on the density of the particle. If the particles have a lesser density than the liquid, it can be removed from the surface of the liquid with a skimming tube.

GRAVITY SEDIMENTATION

          This is also a form of sedimentation is which the machine utilizes only or majorly gravitational force for its operation. This is the principle which the sedimentation study apparatus utilizes. It can operate by hindered settling at incipient sedimentation but with time the settling become laminar.

BATCH SEDIMENTATION

          These are the several stages in the settling of flocculated suspension and the different zones formed as sedimentation proceeds. In this operation, the concentration of the solid is high enough that the sedimentation of solid particle is hindered by others in a way that solids at a given level settle at a common velocity.

Initially, at incipient sedimentation, the particles are uniformly dispersed in liquid but as time progresses four zones exists in the system. They are the clear liquid zone, the concentrated zone, the transition region and the settled solid region. Initially the transition region and the settled region are not usually distinct but as time progresses, they appear. But after some minutes/hours the clear liquid zone is very distinct, the sedimentation study apparatus used in the laboratory utilizes thus batch sedimentation process. It enables the engineer to be able to observe the sedimentation process easily so that he could apply the necessary principles in the design of a thickener.

THICKENING

          The purpose of thickening a slurry is usually to increase the concentration of a relatively large quantity of suspended solid is a feed stream. The sediment can be of importance or the liquid may be required as the case may be.

CLARIFICATION

          This involves the process of getting a relatively clear liquid effluent by the removal of small quantity of suspended particles in a suspension usually flocculates are added to the suspension to assist is coagulation and ease the clarification process which is an aspect sedimentation, the flocs formed tend to hold some liquid is them, but as the weight of the solid balances the compressive force of the flocs the liquid is expelled and the settling stops. The factors which affect rate are liquid and particles densities, fluid viscosity, degree of flocculation and particle size, shape and concentration.

SETTLING TEST

The choice of test method used is settling test depends to some extent upon the temperature of the feed. Its flocculating characteristics, the required supernatant clarity and the e available.    

This aspect of sedimentation using the sedimentation tank involves the classical glass test which is used for all feed material that settle without a clearly defined and

APPLICATION OF SEDIMENTATION

Sedimentation has a broad applicability is industrial process. It is usually used to separate solid particles from the effluent suspension. In the sewage treatment process sedimentation is used to separate solid waste from solution.

It is also used in water treatment process in other to remove mineral substances and particulate solids from the water after flocculation and coagulation has been effected.       

AIMS OF THE SEDIMENTATION TANK

          With far application of sedimentation enumerated above, the importance of a technical know how of the process is deemed necessary. This apparatus helps the student to know the fundamentals of sedimentation applications and principles.

 

ADVANTAGES OF THE SEDIMENTATION

          The apparatus is designed to help student in the field of interest to know how the process is carried out and also to know the principles surrounding the process of sedimentation.

The apparatus also helps the student to know the variable factors affecting the process in practical sense such factors research

  1. The effect of density on sedimentation rate
  2. The effect of solute concentration on sedimentation rate
  • The effect of particle size on sedimentation rate.

From the little knowledge which the student obtains from the elementary process as involved

FABRICATION OF CENTRIFUGAL MIXER

 FABRICATION OF CENTRIFUGAL MIXER

 

Click here to download our android mobile app to your phone  for more materials and others

COMPLETE PROJECT  MATERIAL COST 5000 NAIRA OR $10 , 

. A FRESH TOPIC NOT LISTED ON OUR WEBSITE COST 50,000 NAIRA ( UNDERGRADUATE) OR 100,000 FOR SECOND DEGREE STUDENTS. $500. PLUS  FREE SUPPORT UNTIL YOU FINISH YOUR PROJECT WORK. CONTACT US TODAY, WE MAKE A DIFFERENT. DESIGN AND WRITING IS OUR SKILLED.  DESIGN AND WRITING IS OUR SKILLED.

Note: our case study can be change to suit your desire location . we are here for your success.

                                   ORDER NOW

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
 GTBANK
Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment :
Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
 Account Number:  0117780667. 
Swift Code: GTBINGLA 
Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANKER SECURITY GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>DELIVERY PERIOD FOR BANK PAYMENT IS  LESS THAN 2 HOURS

How to transfer from your bank account to All  Nigeriabanks

1. Access Bank:
—-*901#

2. EcoBank:
—-*326#

3. Fidelity Bank:
—-*770#

4. FCMB:
—-*389*214#

5. First Bank
—-*894#

6. GTB:
—-*737#

7. Heritage Bank:
—-*322*030#

8. Keystone Bank:
—-*322*082#

9. Sky Bank:
—-*389*076*1#

10. Stanbic IBTC:
—-*909#

11. Sterling Bank:
—-*822#

12. UBA:
—-*389*033*1#

13. Unity Bank:
—-*322*215#

14. Zenith Bank:
—-*966#

15. Diamond Bank
—-*710*555#

To know your BVN, dial
—-*565*0#.

E.g for First bank…   *894 *Amount *Acct. No. #

Please dail d code from d number u used to register d account from the bank

CALL OKEKE CHIDI C ON :  08074466939,08063386834.

AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO

08074466939 or 08063386834, YOUR PROJECT TITLE  YOU WANT US TO SEND TO YOU, AMOUNT PAID, DEPOSITOR NAME, UR EMAIL ADDRESS,PAYMENT DATE. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR MATERIAL IN LESS THAN 2 HOURS ONCE WILL CONFIRM YOUR PAYMENT.

WE HAVE SECURITY IN OUR BUSINESS.   

MONEY BACK GUARANTEE

 

 

ABSTRACT

 

Fabrication of centrifugal mixer in accordance with the project is a little manual constriction carried out to show the similarity of the big industrial centrifugal mixer used for the mixing of solid, liquid and gases in a company.

In the construction it was successfully achieved base on the useful instruction and material suitable for the fabrication. Materials like metal sheet of 14 gage metal sheet from pure iron is used. The metal sheet was first of all measured and marked, while the cutting commences immediately to get difference sizes   for the work. It was fitted after the cutting and assembled together by welding.

Finally, a sizeable container with centrally mounted shaft that can rotate on its axis. At the end of the shaft is attached a flat blade that carries out the actual work of pushing liquid outward towards the walls of the container. The basis design features of the paddle include the diameter of the shaft blade which should be 60mm to 80mm of the inside diameter of the vessel. The width of the blade is 30.5mm of is actual length. Generally, a paddle has either a pair of blade or two pairs of blade mounted at an interval. Then, it   was sandpapered and painted which the final construction work of paddles is produced.

It was certified by the supervisors as small scale fabrication of centrifugal mixer.

CHAPTER ONE:      INTRODUCTION

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 1
  • AIMS AND OBJECTIVE OF STUDY 3
  • SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF STUDY                      4
  • PURPOSE OF MIXING 5
  • PROBLEMS ENCOUNTER 6
  • METHOD OF RESEARCH 6
  • SIGNIFICANT OF STUDY 7

 

 

 

CHAPTER TWO:      LITERATURE REVIEW

  • DEFINITION OF MOTION 8
  • TYPES OF MOTION 8
  • THEORY OF MIXING 19
  • TYPES OF MIXER                                                   22
  • FABRICATION 30
  • VARIOUS TYPES OF METAL WORKING 31

 

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY                             33

 

CHAPTER FOUR:    RESULT/ANALYSIS                                38

 

CHAPTER FIVE:     DISCUSSION                                   40

CONCLUSION/RECOMMENDATION                               41   

 

REFERENCES                                                                 43

APPENDIX                                                                       45

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0   INTRODUCTION

In the fabrication of centrifugal mixer, it is evidently known that centrifugal mixer is an operation by names arranged centrally in a vessels. Its movement at the end of a verticals shaft affects the turning motion inside the vessel. In order words, mixer is equipment used to prepare a uniform combination o two or more substances to achieve a uniform product. It is aimed to obtain a desirable degree of mixing in which the product in the mixer may be homogenous or heterogeneous. The mixing or blending of liquid substances depends on the creation of flow current which transport unmixed materials to the mixing zone adjacent to the impellers.

The centrifugal mixer consists of different points which make up the product, namely:

  • The shaft
  • The impellers which is located near the bottom of the vessel fixed on the pole axis of he vessel which was connected with the manual handle of the mixer
  • A vessel/tank where the mixable are introduced
  • Outlet tape through which the mixtures are removed
  • Borest/bearing which help in the easy turning of the impeller to mix the product.

 

1.1   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

During mixing, it does not require external force. Blending is achieved by convective current a mechanism of spontaneous movement of fluid elements from a region of high temperature to a lesser one. This lends to the uniform distribution of fluid elements into the entire content of the mixer. In some of them, the rotation is by the device in others. It is the container vessel that carries out the rotation. Also in a few others both shaft and container vessels rotate. Baffles are incorporated in some of the machines for specific duties. Some of these machines include ribbon blender, bumbling mixer, screw mixer and impact mill.

Furthermore, in ribbon blender has various designs for specific application. It consists of horizontal shaft that is mounted with two counteracting ribbon agitators. Each of the two ribbon agitators direct the flow of solid particles in opposite way, the anticlockwise agitator rotating at a slower speed  in relation to the higher needed clockwise agitator. Mixing emanates from the turbulence included by the contracting through mechanical shuffling of the solid particles.

 

1.2   AIMS AND OBJECTIVE OF STUDY

Mixers are classified into three types based on the material of handling. They are

  1. Impeller mixers for liquids
  2. Mixers for paste and plastic solids
  3. Mixers for dry-solid powder.

There is no clear demarcation on the specific are of application of these classes of mixers. However, the selection of any mixer for a specific function depends on

  • Power requirement
  • Viscosity of the material
  • Characteristics properties of the fluid
  • Behaviour of material during mixing and
  • Length of time required for the mixing operation.

 

1.2.1 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF STUDY

This problem can be limited by choosing an appropriate mixer and taking all the necessary precaution in the mixing of product to avoid overtaking.

The cortex which occurs in the mixing of liquid phases can be stopped by the use of baffles. This obstruction of the flow patterns of the mixing fluid has to be minimized or eliminated if high degree of mixing has to be achieved. The swirling and vortexing have to properly checkmate. Baffles are basically metallic rod of given size installed vertically near the walls of the agitator vessel. As pointed out earlier, vortexing creates entrainment of stagnant liquid comprising series of papers which hinder the directional flow of mixing.

 

 

 

1.3   PURPOSE OF MIXING

It was certified that substances or materials are mixed up for a different purposes depending on the objectives of the processing step.

The purpose of mixing may be considered deliberately as:

  • Suspending solid particles
  • Blending mixable liquids
  • Promoting heat transfer between the liquid and a heat exchanger eg. Coil or jacket
  • Dispensing a gas through the liquid in the form of small bubbles
  • Reducing partial agglomerate
  • Contracting or dispersing immiscible liquid.

The above mentioned purposes could be considered as the major reason of mixing.

 

 

 

 

1.4   PROBLEMS ENCOUNTER

In centrifugal mixer the problem encountered during mixing is the overtaking or mass switching of the liquid.

Overtaking occurs in the mixing process which   causes reduction in the fluid velocity and the impeller velocity and thereby decrease the effectiveness of the mixing process. Vortex occur when there is gas-liquid surfaces or phases.

If the mixing tank is small in size, the overtaking can be prevented by installing the impeller of centre or at an angle with the vertical or fixing the impeller to the side of the tank.

 

1.5   METHOD OF RESEARCH

This project titled fabrication of a centrifugal mixer. The process of research was done through google search, textbooks and a practical operation was also carryout for the success of the project.

During the process of research we encounter difficulties. However, the most pestering part of the work was the difficulty in getting the mild steel metals divide with the required characteristics. And we could not easily get a data book that could give us the information we needed. However, reference made to some text, helped us to overcome most of our problem.

 

1.6   SIGNIFICANT OF STUDY

The future development in the aerospace industries will hinge mainly upon the case with which structures and engine can be cooled; the modern mechanical, electrical and manual plants require efficient dissipation of losses convert to thermal energy, the design of chemical engineering plant is usually governed by the impeller blade, unit operation in the agitator and the analogues of civil engineer must be taken in account of thermal effects in the fabrication and structures of the centrifugal mixers.

The processes of fluid from the impeller mixer are brought to a reasonable temperature by

PRODCUTION OF WOOD ADHESIVE

PRODCUTION OF WOOD ADHESIVE.

 

 

Click here to download our android mobile app to your phone  for more materials and others

COMPLETE PROJECT  MATERIAL COST 5000 NAIRA OR $10 , 

. A FRESH TOPIC NOT LISTED ON OUR WEBSITE COST 50,000 NAIRA ( UNDERGRADUATE) OR 100,000 FOR SECOND DEGREE STUDENTS. $500. PLUS  FREE SUPPORT UNTIL YOU FINISH YOUR PROJECT WORK. CONTACT US TODAY, WE MAKE A DIFFERENT. DESIGN AND WRITING IS OUR SKILLED.  DESIGN AND WRITING IS OUR SKILLED.

Note: our case study can be change to suit your desire location . we are here for your success.

                                   ORDER NOW

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
 GTBANK
Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment :
Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
 Account Number:  0117780667. 
Swift Code: GTBINGLA 
Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANKER SECURITY GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>DELIVERY PERIOD FOR BANK PAYMENT IS  LESS THAN 2 HOURS

How to transfer from your bank account to All  Nigeriabanks

1. Access Bank:
—-*901#

2. EcoBank:
—-*326#

3. Fidelity Bank:
—-*770#

4. FCMB:
—-*389*214#

5. First Bank
—-*894#

6. GTB:
—-*737#

7. Heritage Bank:
—-*322*030#

8. Keystone Bank:
—-*322*082#

9. Sky Bank:
—-*389*076*1#

10. Stanbic IBTC:
—-*909#

11. Sterling Bank:
—-*822#

12. UBA:
—-*389*033*1#

13. Unity Bank:
—-*322*215#

14. Zenith Bank:
—-*966#

15. Diamond Bank
—-*710*555#

To know your BVN, dial
—-*565*0#.

E.g for First bank…   *894 *Amount *Acct. No. #

Please dail d code from d number u used to register d account from the bank

CALL OKEKE CHIDI C ON :  08074466939,08063386834.

AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO

08074466939 or 08063386834, YOUR PROJECT TITLE  YOU WANT US TO SEND TO YOU, AMOUNT PAID, DEPOSITOR NAME, UR EMAIL ADDRESS,PAYMENT DATE. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR MATERIAL IN LESS THAN 2 HOURS ONCE WILL CONFIRM YOUR PAYMENT.

WE HAVE SECURITY IN OUR BUSINESS.   

MONEY BACK GUARANTEE

 

ABSTRACT

Adhesive is a substance that holds materials together by surface attachment, while wood adhesive is a substance that is used to hold plywood for furniture works. This substance is essential and has universal applications. Thus the aim of this research work is to produce it using cassava starch as a base binder. Starch is also used in industries to produce ethanol and glucose for textile industries, laundry and paper adhesive industries. It is of great importance to paper, wood and furniture industries and the need to produce a more stable adhesive locally to minimize cost remains the investigating factor for embarking on this research work. The method of wood adhesive production used in this work was the questionnaire work was the geletinization method. In the production, the optimum geletinization temperature was found to be 800c while the optimum temperature of dextrin formation is 1400c. The production involves the souring of the starch from cassava, determination of the various additives employed in the production. The materials used in the production works were sourced in line with the objectives of the research. The following components were used: starch extracted from cassava which is responsible for the adhesion force that holds two bodies together, calcium carbonate (CaCo3) for viscosity improvement, formaddehyde as preservative, natrosol cellulose as a thicker and water as solvent. Experimental analysis was based on all the factors that influence the stability of an adhesive example pH values, viscosity, tack time, boarding strength etc. the values obtained were compared with the standard brands and were found to compare favourably with other standard adhesives. Formulation B showed the most desirable characteristics and hence is the optimum sample. An adequate cost analysis was also carried out to determine the feasibility of the project on a commercial venture. Thus, a locally sourced product (wood adhesive) that can complete with similar product in terms of properties but at a much reduced cost was produced. The shelf life and teak time of the product were determined and found to be good. The wood adhesive was established to be water resistant.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1            HISTORICAL BACKGROUND (PREAMBLE)

Technology has played an important role in man’s development and thus, has helped to shape the world as it is seen today. This could be seen in all facets of industrial ventures, hence the introduction of new products into the market. Man’s growing desire to hold two or more substance together by surface attachment so that they can be used a s a single piece coupled with the technological advancement has given birth to a broad range of adhesive production to serve this purpose.

 

The technique of adhesive bonding has come of age. It is not possible to say when the practice was first developed and used. From history, history made us to believe that the first adhesive even made or used by man was probably clay, animal glue and resinous exudates from trees, of which is known to go back a very long way over 3300 years ago.

 

The Egyptians used vegetable glue adhesives in wood works and in the production of Papyri. It was during the 19th century that there was technological advancement which led to the sourcing and production of varieties of adhesive. In 1912, F.G Parkins found out that starch could be converted by mild caustic soda solution into a liquid glue that was stable at room temperature. Most of the popular adhesive currently in use in the country are imported as such the clamour for adhesive that are locally produced has been on primary concern for embarking on this project. It is the aim of this project to produce wood adhesive from local raw materials using maize or corn or cassava as the case study or reference study. Though starch can be extracted from plants for example corn, barley, wheat and potatoes and cassava but for simplicity sake have to be reduced to maize and cassava.

 

1.2            MEANING OF ADHESIVE

There is no universally accepted definition of adhesive, however an adhesive is defined by its usage. It could be defined a substance capable of holding materials together by surface attachment.

The need to hold two or more substances together by surface attachment so that they can be used as a single piece without damage done to the adherents and with more uniform distribution of stress calls for the production of adhesive. Adhesive development has evolved into a field practically on its own, where the market for more specialized adhesives has emerged.

 

They are now used for a variety of purposes ranging from packaging materials, book binding, hold wood together, brake lining, where they would have reduced surface to surface contact required. The reasons for joining these surfaces is the get a composite is to effect every handling and create a better outlook.

The working properties of the different adhesives vary therefore various methods were used to obtain an adhesive to serve a defined purpose.

 

1.3            AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

  1. Because of the growing need for adhesive in our industries, it is the aim of this project to produce wood adhesive from local raw materials.
  2. It seeks to utilize our available resources that are abundant in nature and cheap to secure.
  3. It is also aimed at producing wood adhesive for our industries so that we can achieve self and economic reliance by reducing our dependence on imported variety or foreign adhesive.
  4. It also helps to create employment for unemployed youths since adhesive industry does not require complex machinery.

1.4            THE SCOPE OF THE PROJECT

FABRICATION OF CANDLE MOULD WITH TWENTYFOUR (24) HOLES.

FABRICATION OF CANDLE MOULD WITH TWENTYFOUR (24) HOLES.

 

Click here to download our android mobile app to your phone  for more materials and others

COMPLETE PROJECT  MATERIAL COST 5000 NAIRA OR $10 , 

. A FRESH TOPIC NOT LISTED ON OUR WEBSITE COST 50,000 NAIRA ( UNDERGRADUATE) OR 100,000 FOR SECOND DEGREE STUDENTS. $500. PLUS  FREE SUPPORT UNTIL YOU FINISH YOUR PROJECT WORK. CONTACT US TODAY, WE MAKE A DIFFERENT. DESIGN AND WRITING IS OUR SKILLED.  DESIGN AND WRITING IS OUR SKILLED.

Note: our case study can be change to suit your desire location . we are here for your success.

                                   ORDER NOW

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
 GTBANK
Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment :
Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
 Account Number:  0117780667. 
Swift Code: GTBINGLA 
Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANKER SECURITY GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>DELIVERY PERIOD FOR BANK PAYMENT IS  LESS THAN 2 HOURS

How to transfer from your bank account to All  Nigeriabanks

1. Access Bank:
—-*901#

2. EcoBank:
—-*326#

3. Fidelity Bank:
—-*770#

4. FCMB:
—-*389*214#

5. First Bank
—-*894#

6. GTB:
—-*737#

7. Heritage Bank:
—-*322*030#

8. Keystone Bank:
—-*322*082#

9. Sky Bank:
—-*389*076*1#

10. Stanbic IBTC:
—-*909#

11. Sterling Bank:
—-*822#

12. UBA:
—-*389*033*1#

13. Unity Bank:
—-*322*215#

14. Zenith Bank:
—-*966#

15. Diamond Bank
—-*710*555#

To know your BVN, dial
—-*565*0#.

E.g for First bank…   *894 *Amount *Acct. No. #

Please dail d code from d number u used to register d account from the bank

CALL OKEKE CHIDI C ON :  08074466939,08063386834.

AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO

08074466939 or 08063386834, YOUR PROJECT TITLE  YOU WANT US TO SEND TO YOU, AMOUNT PAID, DEPOSITOR NAME, UR EMAIL ADDRESS,PAYMENT DATE. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR MATERIAL IN LESS THAN 2 HOURS ONCE WILL CONFIRM YOUR PAYMENT.

WE HAVE SECURITY IN OUR BUSINESS.   

MONEY BACK GUARANTEE

ABSTRACT

The candle mould has twenty four (24) holes which could produce twenty four (24) quality candle sticks

Aluminum, a non ferrous metal was used as the construction material for the mould the type of casting technique used was green sand mould method.

In the process of moulding the pattern was placed in the flask which contained the green sand.  The flask was turned upside down and the reverse side of the pattern was formed.  This part is called the positive part, the other part of the pattern formed on the moist sand is called the negative part, the two parts were then joint together to form the cope and the drag.

A gate or opening was provided for the pouring of the molten aluminum into the mould.  Gases and fumes were able to escape through the vents.

It was ensured that the molten aluminum filled all parts of the mould with the least delay.  All part of the candle mould  were machined after casting to get a perfect exterior and interior surface finish.

The fabrication  of the   candle mould cost seven thousand (N7,000) naira for both material and labour.

CHAPTER ONE

  • Introduction

CHAPTER TWO

  • Literature review

2.1   Theory of casting processes in the construction of the candle mould

  • Properties of sand mould

CHAPTER THREE

  • Materials of fabrication

3.1   Selection of aluminum as a construction raw material

  • Treatment of aluminum prior to casting.
  • Fabrication test

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Plug preparation

4.1   Fabrication procedure

  • Materials use for the contraction of candle mould
  • Purification of aluminum
  • Constructions method
  • Machining operation
  • Safety precaution

CHAPTER FIVE

  • Method of operation

5.1   Quality control measures

  • Care and maintenance of the candle mould

CHAPTER SIX

  • Cost analysis

CHAPTER SEVEN

  • Conclusion

7.1   Recommendation

Appendix, References

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Casting as a method of fabrication is defined ceramics into a fire proof container or mould to solidify with the purpose of forming a desired shape.  If they are permitted to retain this shape or are reshaped by machining operations only, the objects are called casting.  If the object formed are subjected to subsequent deformation such as rolling forging, the original shape are called ingots.

Casting is one of the oldest fabrication of machine parts, moulds, fitting, equipment etc

There are various methods of casting moulds machine parts and fitting. These include sand mould casting which makes use of sand mould, permanent or metal mould casting which uses metallic mould and ceramics mould casting which uses ceramic mould. Each moulding method has certain inherent advantages and limitation.  The choice of a particular moulding method depends on factors such as size and shape of castings, dimensional accuracy, surface finish metallurgical properties, production, quantities and cost.

 

The mould used for casting may be made of metals sand or ceramics.  Metallic mould are usually permanent mould used where mass production of identical objects are desired such as casting of steel ingots, in cast iron mould, and casting of automobile piston.  Sand mould and ceramics mould are usually temporary moulds.

Sand mould are made of sand moistened    with a binder such as molasses or clay (French sand) and used in this moist condition in which case it is called a green sand mould or it may be baked to dryness and therefore referred to as dry sand mould.

Sand mould casting is the most variable all the forming processes, and provided the greatest freedom of design in terms of shape, size and product quality.  Moreover, sand mould casting is relatively cheap, easily available and can easily be undertaken by small scale production of machine points equipment fitting.

The choice of casting materials depended on such factors as cost, durability, corrosion resistance and metallurgical properties.  The choice of aluminum as the fabrication materials of the candle is due to its relative availability low melting point (6660), high fluidity on melting and corrosion resistance

THE USE OF LOCAL PIGMENTS AND EXTENDERS FOR FORMULATION & PRODUCTION OF EMULSION PAINT

THE USE OF LOCAL PIGMENTS AND EXTENDERS FOR FORMULATION & PRODUCTION OF EMULSION PAINT

 

Click here to download our android mobile app to your phone  for more materials and others

COMPLETE PROJECT  MATERIAL COST 5000 NAIRA OR $10 , 

. A FRESH TOPIC NOT LISTED ON OUR WEBSITE COST 50,000 NAIRA ( UNDERGRADUATE) OR 100,000 FOR SECOND DEGREE STUDENTS. $500. PLUS  FREE SUPPORT UNTIL YOU FINISH YOUR PROJECT WORK. CONTACT US TODAY, WE MAKE A DIFFERENT. DESIGN AND WRITING IS OUR SKILLED.  DESIGN AND WRITING IS OUR SKILLED.

Note: our case study can be change to suit your desire location . we are here for your success.

                                   ORDER NOW

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
 GTBANK
Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment :
Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
 Account Number:  0117780667. 
Swift Code: GTBINGLA 
Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANKER SECURITY GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>DELIVERY PERIOD FOR BANK PAYMENT IS  LESS THAN 2 HOURS

How to transfer from your bank account to All  Nigeriabanks

1. Access Bank:
—-*901#

2. EcoBank:
—-*326#

3. Fidelity Bank:
—-*770#

4. FCMB:
—-*389*214#

5. First Bank
—-*894#

6. GTB:
—-*737#

7. Heritage Bank:
—-*322*030#

8. Keystone Bank:
—-*322*082#

9. Sky Bank:
—-*389*076*1#

10. Stanbic IBTC:
—-*909#

11. Sterling Bank:
—-*822#

12. UBA:
—-*389*033*1#

13. Unity Bank:
—-*322*215#

14. Zenith Bank:
—-*966#

15. Diamond Bank
—-*710*555#

To know your BVN, dial
—-*565*0#.

E.g for First bank…   *894 *Amount *Acct. No. #

Please dail d code from d number u used to register d account from the bank

CALL OKEKE CHIDI C ON :  08074466939,08063386834.

AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO

08074466939 or 08063386834, YOUR PROJECT TITLE  YOU WANT US TO SEND TO YOU, AMOUNT PAID, DEPOSITOR NAME, UR EMAIL ADDRESS,PAYMENT DATE. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR MATERIAL IN LESS THAN 2 HOURS ONCE WILL CONFIRM YOUR PAYMENT.

WE HAVE SECURITY IN OUR BUSINESS.   

MONEY BACK GUARANTEE

 

ABSTRACT

The major aim of this project research work is to produce emulsion paint from locally sourced pigment & extenders.

The materials used for the production was of local source.

The major raw materials used for the production of the emulsion paint: water, titanium iv oxide, calcium carbonate, kaoline, calgon, natrosol, biocide P.V.A, ammonia, deformer (Ginap) kerosene, yellow iron oxide and red iron oxide.

Emulsion paint of two (2) samples was produced, and calcium carbonate locally obtained was used in larger quantity in order to reduce the cost of production of the paint with little of the expensive titanium iv oxide added.

The first sample was a creamy white colour paint, while the second sample has a result of the mixture of blending of locally sourced yellow iron oxide and red iron oxide.  Pigment, that was added to it.  The two (2) samples gave high quality emulsion paints in terms of its brush ability, opacity, coverage, stability etc.

Quality control test carried out on the two (2) samples of emulsion paint showed that the local pigment and extenders used (titanium iv oxide, calcium trioxocarbonate iv, kaoline, yellow iron oxide and red iron oxide) fitted in so well in the paints to give the necessary adhesion, opacity and coverage, with excellent binding effect observed.

CHAPTER OF ONE:

1.0            Introduction

1.1     Objectives of the research project

  • Scope of research work
  • Significance of study

 

CHAPTER TWO:

2.0     Literature Review

2.1            Historical review of paint industry

2.2     Outline of paint technology

2.3     Paint types

  • Emulsion (water-based) paint
  • Latex paint
  • White wash
  • Case in paint
  • Cement paint
  • Linseed emulsion paint
  • Gloss (oil) paint
  • Enamels
  • Traffic paints
  • Making paints
  • Specialties
    • Fire-retardation paints
    • Aerosol colours
    • Insecticide paint
  • Paint composition and formulation
    • Resins (film formers)
    • Solvents
    • Pigments and extenders
  • Exterior building paints – formulation
  • Paint qualities and quality control
  • Description of raw materials for paint manufacture

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     Method of paint formulation

  • Raw materials for paint formulation
  • Raw materials for emulsion paint formulation
  • Functions of the raw materials
  • Formulation of emulsion paint
  • Principles of paint formulation
    • Pigment to binder ratio
    • Pigment volume concentration (PVC)
    • Solid content
    • Weight per volume
  • Process flow diagram (sheet) for production of emulsion paint
  • Block flow diagram for production of emulsion painbt
  • Formulea for samples selection

 

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Quality control test

4.1     Equipments for quality control test

  • Quality control tests and results

 

CHAPTER FIVE

  • Economic evaluation

5.1     Costing for sample A

  • Costing for formulation B
  • Profitability analysis
  • Break-even analysis

 

CHAPTER SIX

  • Discussion
  • Conclusion
  • Recommendation

Reference

Bibliography

Appendix 1

The son standard specification and the test properties of the samples

Appendix 2

Formulation for sample A

Appendix 3

Formulation for sample B

Appendix 4

Manufacture of titanium dioxide from its local ore (ILMENITE)

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Paint is a fluid, or semi-fluid material which may be applied to surfaces in relatively thin layers, and which changes to a solid coating with time.  The coating with time.  The change to a solid material may or may not be reversible, and may occur by evaporation of solvent by chemical reaction, or by a combination of the two.

Paints usually consist of vehicle or binder, a pigment which contributes obscurities colour, hardness and bulk to the film, and a solvent or thinner which controls the consistency.

Paint is basically classified into two, which are gloss paint and emulsion paint.

 

1.1     GLOSS PAINTS (OIL-BASED PAINTS)

These are paints that may be classified according to whether the drying mechanism is predominantly solvent evaporation, oxidation or some chemical reaction.  Gloss paints which dry essentially by solvent evaporation, reply on a fairly hard resin as the vehicle.

Paints which dry by oxidation, the vehicle is usually an oil or an oil-based varnish, these usually contains driers to accelerate the drying of the oil.  Paint based essentially on oil with suitable pigment such as titanium dioxide, extenders, and usually zinc – oxide and white lead, are conventional outside ho use paints because these materials give the combination. Of  properties which meet this requirement .

 

1.0.2  EMULSION PAINTS (WATER- BASED PAINTS)

These are paints with water – soluble vehicle and they includes, calcimines, in which the vehicle is glue and case – in paints, in which the vehicles is casein or soyabean protein.

This project research study is directed towards producing and formulating of emulsion paint (water –thinned paint) from local pigments and extenders as raw materials.  The high demand for emulsion paint for protective and decorative purposes has encourage the development of different equipments for the manufacturing operation.

This piece of research work is due to reducing the high cost of emulsion paint formulation and production, because of the imported raw materials.  (E.g Titanium dioxide), and thereby disclosing a local raw material from our natural domin which could also be used for the same purpose.  An example of this locally obtained raw material for emulsion paint production is calcium carbonate in the form of calcite and dolomite.

 

1.1     OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH WORK

The objectives of the research project work is to study the formulation and production of emulsion paint with the use of local pigments and extenders as raw materials, and its economic value, and also disclosing some locally sourced materials from our local environment that could play the same role with the imported raw materials that are used for emulsion paint production, which causes the cost of emulsion paint production to be high.

However, industrial survey reveals that paint manufacturers in Nigeria looks beyond the country territory for supply, and also, Nigerian paints industry is characterized by importation, starting from solvents which could be obtained in abundance from the country.

 

 

  • SCOPE OF RESEARCH WORK

The scope of this research project work is organized to cover all vital aspect of emulsion paint formulation and production using local pigment and extenders as raw materials from our local environment, which will reduce the cost of emulsion paint production.

The scope will also cover paint types and classifications, characterization and functions of paints, and also chemicals used in the formulation and production of emulsion paint.  However, emphasis will be laid on the systematic procedure of processing the local pigments and extenders used which will also cover the following;

  1. Emulsion paint formulation and production
  2. Run-rest on the following properties of emulsion paint
    1. Drying time
    2. Nature of reversibility
  • PH value
  1. Specific gravity
  2. Obscurity
  3. Viscosity
  • Resistance to external exposure
  • Brush ability

 

  • SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

On considering the high cost of imported raw materials for the production of emulsion paint in the paint industry, which at the end of the production affect the market price, likewise causing economy constrain, there is need to lookout for those locally raw materials such as pigments and extenders (e.g calcium carbonate) which will give such desirable qualities and properties as those of imported raw materials (e.g Titanium Dioxide).

It will be interesting to not6e that chemical Engineering have some of possible solutions towards reduction of high cost of emulsion paint production and also this research project work is directed towards the vital needs for the used of local pigments and extenders as raw materials for the production of emulsion paint of high quality and standards which will stand the test of time and also compete with those emulsion paints produced with imported raw materials.

Finally, this research project work will be of more importance to the paint manufacturers in the country, who spend lost of money for importations of raw material, while they are bless with much raw materials as pigments and extenders for emulsion paint production in their country, it will also be of help to students researchers, and also reveals the importance of research among producers for future betterment and economy improvement.