Category Archives: final year project topics and materials for mass communication students with abstract in Nigeria

WESTERN TELEVISION PROGRAMMES ON THE CULTURAL VALUES OF THE NIGERIAN YOUTHS

THE IMPACT  OF WESTERN TELEVISION PROGRAMMES ON THE CULTURAL VALUES OF THE NIGERIAN YOUTHS: A CASE STUDY OF ESUT STUDENTS, ENUGU. 

Click here to download our android mobile app to your phone  for more materials and others

COMPLETE PROJECT  MATERIAL COST 3000 NAIRA

 

                                   ORDER NOW

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
 GTBANK
Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

We also accept :   ATM transfer , online money  transfer 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>

Call Help Desk Line :  08074466939,08063386834.

After Payment Send Your Payment Details To

08074466939 Or 08063386834,   The Project Title  You  Selected On Our Website , Amount Paid, Depositor Name, Your Email Address, Payment Date. You Will Receive Your Material In Less Than 1 Hour Once Will Confirm Your Payment.

WE HAVE SECURITY IN OUR BUSINESS.   

MONEY BACK GUARANTEE

You may also need:  web design company in nigeria   

Bulk sms company in Nigeria

 

mass communication project topics

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

The Roots                                                                                                        1

Maintaining the edge                                                                            4

Television in Nigeria                                                                            10

Background of the  study                                                  13

Statement of the research problem                                                 16

Objectives of the study                                                      17

Significance of the study                                                   18

Research questions                                                                        20

Research hypothesis                                                                      21

Conceptual and operational definition                               22

Assumption                                                                                   24

Limitations of the study                                                     25

 

CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

2.1              Sources of literature                                                                 27

2.2              The Review                                                                                         28

2.3              Summary of literature Review                                                             32

 

CHAPTER THREE

METHODOLOGY

3.1              Research method                                                                                 47

3.2              Research Design                                                                                  48

3.3              Measuring instrument                                                              48

3.4              Data collection                                                                                     49

3.5              Data Analysis                                                                          50

3.6              Expected Result                                                                                   51

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.1              Data analysis                                                                           54

4.2              Results                                                                                                 65

4.3              Discussions                                                                                          71

 

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1              Summary                                                                                             79

5.2              Recommendation for further study                                          80

 

Bibliography                                                                                        89

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

THE ROOTS

Why are we what we are? Third world!

There are two broad competiting paradigms or models of theoretical understanding that seek to explain why some countries are poor and other are wealthy, why some are “first world” and others” Third world”.  These broad competiting paradigms are theory of “modernization” and the theory of “imperialism”.  Each paradigms has its own “clue concepts” or key explanatory categories” (Hagen 1962).

For modernist theorists the determinant of the social economic situation of any country is the concept of “modern” and its permutation and big categories such as “institutional differentiation” “development” “development”, “nation building”, “economic growth” “advanced industrial societies”, “Westernized” , “backward”, “primitive”, “tribalized” and many more.

On the other hand, those who employ the theory of imperialism have as their concepts such terms as “dependence”, “colonialism”, “liberation”, “Exploitation”, “late capitalist societies” or “societies in the stage of monopoly  capitalism”.

The backbone of the theory of modernization has been derived from a convergence of sources in the  social sciences in the western societies over a long period of time.

What modernization theorists most often end up with is ethnocentric piratical recipes which admonish the poor societies to imitate them all the way and they would acquire a sudden leap into the 21st century.  In order words, join the Calvinistic cruet and you will experience a sudden leap into modernity.

The theory of imperialism on the other hand derives its concepts from Marxist sources.  In a nut shell, the wealth and poverty of nations result from the global process of exploitation.  This is the situation that Andre Gunder Frank (1969) refers to as the “the development of under development”.

The problem of the poor countries  with particular reference to Nigeria is not the lack of technological know how, cultural traits conducive for development, or modern institutions, as is touted by modernists theorists, but that they have been subjected to the exploitation of the international capitalist system and its special imperialist agents, both domestic and alien.

The fundamental conceptual instrumentarium of the critique of imperialism is provided in lenin’s theory of imperialism.

“Imperialism: the highest stage of “capitalism” (1916).  The basic pronouncement in the book seems to be that the evils associated with foreign capitalist penetration of the poor countries are the necessary concomitants of capitalism in its present stage.

Nevertheless modernization theorists have also continued to argue that the present influence of the west is not the result of their exploitation of the third world countries.  They state that this particular argument gives the poor societies” a moral legitimacy” to demand aid or trade concessions.  Sort of  “reparation” from their alleged exploiters.  However the agree that rich countries depend on poor ones for certain raw materials but that this dependency is declining, and that a great decline in this dependence is expected in view of technology innovations and search for alternative resources nearer home.

Whatever may be the case the fact remains that the fattest profits for developed countries come from their overseas investments.  Offiong (1980) argues that it would be wrong to say that the industrialized nations will decrease their dependence on raw materials on the third world nations.

“They will continue to maintain a global policy designed to protect the sources of their crucial raw materials and markets for their finished products”.

MAINTAINING THE EDGE

It is true that bourgeoisies social scientists in the west (The united states being the headquarters) and even in third world countries have gone out of their way to discredit the Marxist-Leninist theory, social scientists in the west must have undertaken the actions as a sort of strategy. But for those in third world only ignorance could answer for their action.

Indeed the Euro African connection from it’s inception, some five centuries ago to the independence decade (1960s), visited Africa with the holocaust of slaving, the trauma of invasion and conquest the humiliations and complexes of occupation, and with a systematic and continuing impoverishment:

In the 1960’s and 1970’s, it became apparent that the west European Expansionism was retreating.  The question then, according to Chinweizu (1978) was “were the Europeans retreating forever or were they retreating to regroup for another assault upon the rest of us”.  From  the situation in the current dispensation, it is clear that the answer to Chinweizu’s question is that the west Europeans were retreating to regroup for another assault against us.   The difference is that today the united states of America (who came out of the second world victorious) is the leader of the regroup. Again the assault is now more subtle but less no powerful than physical assault.

The genesis began with the acceptance and adopted of the modernists solution to underdevelopment.  One of such theories which relate to this subtle method of assault-international communication is given by Lerner (1956).  In his  concept of “empathy”, Lerner states that the inhabitants of third world nations must learn to empathize with the west for modern  transformation of their societies to be possible.

Schramm (1964) on the other hand developed an interesting model in which he equates the level of social development to various nations.  Access to these modern mass media (Radio, Television, Films, Telephone and newspapers) is also linked to individual modernity.

Nigeria and other third world countries have reacted to these findings by inventing a substantial amount of their foreign exchange earnings to import radio and Television transmitters and sets.  Thus setting the stage for imperialism.

Thomas L. MC phial (1981) described this new form of imperialism through the media as “Electronic imperialism”.  He stresses that over the years, there have been but a few major trends in empire building.  The first era which occurred during the Greece-Foman period was characterized by military conquests.  The second era which was during the middle age involved mutant Christianity.  The third era which lasted between the 17th and middle of 20th century was essentially mercantile colonialism fueled by industrial revolution and a desire to both import raw materials and find export markets for the finished products.

World war I and II not only stopped major military expansion movement but also placed the industries of the west in command of vial trade routes and practices.

By the middle of the 20th century there began a shift to a service based economy in the west which relies substantially on telecommunication systems, which traditionally geographical borders and barriers to international communications are being rendered obsolete.

The post industrial society with information related services being the corner stone, has significant implication for industrial nations alike.  Military and mercantile colonialism of the past may be replaced by “Electric colonialism” in the future.  It might become possible that a nation state may now be able to move from the stone Age to the information Age, without having passed through the interring steps of industrialization.

From MC Phial’s explanation many countries including Nigeria could be said to be on the with electronics.  This trend is indicated by the dependency relationship between third world counties as Nigeria and the industrialization countries as Japan and America. Third world countries depends on industrialization ones for communication hardware, produced soft wares, and related information protocols, that vicariously establish a set of foreign norms, values, and expectations which in varying degrees, may alter the domestic cultures and socialization processes.  Essentially, Electronic colonialism of the 18th and 19th centuries.

The above reality has resulted in upsurges of nationalism in many third world countries.  The nationalists show parallel concern for political, economic as well as cultural control over their own destinies.  This concerns have over the years been typified with terms as “Non Aligment” “New international Economic order”, and New world information order” respectively for political, economic and cultural issues.

It is with the cultural issues that students of journalism and telecommunication find theoretical and research interesting for instance, two of the largest issues international concern that link the third and west, and frequently on opposing sides, are the performance of the major wire services, (Associate press AP, Reuters, Agence France press Afp, united press international UPI).  The major television broadcast syndicates (Visnews and UPIIN) and direct broadcast satellites (DBS).

These big time players in the milieu of international communications are firmly owned and controlled by western Europe and U.S to serve their interest.  It has been sufficiently documented that western News media especially the American News media have been consistently found.

(Schiller 1976) to portray Africans as dangerous, unstable, non present, non active, unproductive and therefore always in need of help.  Little wonder why a little European boy, when he saw an elegantly dressed African gentlemen in the international City of Geneva, said to his mother “mummy he’s hungry  him some money”.  This shows the power if the media to shape perceptions especially when there are no alternative sources of information.

Likewise individuals and  groups in Africa are exposed to the media of the west.  If news about Africa in the Western news media is all about confusion, backwardness, then Africans will logically have negative perceptions about themselves and their African neighbours.  Such a situation is what structurelist call a disgussed form of cultural imperialism.  In this type of set up, where the developed nations dominate the flow of news or mediate the flow of news to and fro, to and among the developing nations, there is created a state of dependency, a desire and ability to develop and think more like the developed nations.

TELEVISION IN NIGERIA

“It is simply impossible to exaggerate the impact of television on our lives and the lives of our children.  It is often said but nonetheless worthy of  repetition that television has altered our consciousness, our manner of relating to other people and world, our decisions about the expenditure of our wealth and the use if our leisure reordered our lives that we do  not yet recognize the change”.  Television, that which has occupied the central position in the issue of international communication especially intercultural and cross cultural  communication issues, came into being in 1884 with the perception of the  scanning disk by Paul Nikpow.  The scanning disk was a forerunner of modern Television.

In 1923 Vlodimir Zworkin, a Russian resident America invested the picture tube-conoscope  which he later perfected in 1929 by developing the catholery tube –Kinescope.  Television broadcasting began first in Britain in 1936, and followed by United states of America in 1939.

Television and Television broadcasting in Nigeria developed along regional lines.  In 1959, the Western Nigerian Television INNTV was  established by the western region government.  The Eastern Nigerian  government followed suit in 1960 with the establishment of Eastern Nigeria Television (ENTV) Enugu and so it continued.

As at 1997, there were two privately owned satellite television stations in Nigeria.  African independent television AIT Lagos and many broadcast international MBI one partial satellite television transmission station (NTA Network); 42 cable television stations, II private radio stations, 23 state television stations, 28 NTA stations; and nine private television stations.  Television is now obviously the most important medium for entertainment in most parts of the world.  It most obviously involves the content of the screen –programs, actions, people and places.

Many social scientists agree that all of the interesting effects of television can be traced to the images on the screen.  The exclusive cause of changes in perceptions, judgments, evaluations, emotions and even bodily functions is thought to be information in two-dimensional florescent light that  appears within the boundaries of the tube.

The government of the federal republic of Nigeria understands the ability of television to affect peoples ways if life  that it set out in the cultural policy documents to keep Nigerian television Nigerian.

Processing the roles which television should play and policy states that Television should be used to project Nigeria arts and culture and value system.

  1. At least 70% of television programmes should be produced locally.
  2. The programme content of television  should be made relevant to Nigerian realities history and achievements.  The extent to which these  aims can be achieved is limited by very many factors bordering on globalization of information and privatization and commercialization of the broadcast industry.

With the introduction of Direct Broadcast satellite (DBS), the government owned stations had easy access to foreign produced programmes coming mainly foreign from Europe and America.

Also by commercialization and privatizing the industry, it became difficult for government owned television stations to continue to carry out their social obligations with out government funding.  The private television provided very stiff completion and were attracting more advertising revenue than government owned  media houses.

It is an effort to attract advert revenue which is ensured by packaging programmes that will attract a lot if viewers that the major government television stations NTA broadcasts foreign programmes such as soap  operas, music videos, cartoons movies etc.

 

1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The last ten years have witnessed the privatization and commercialization of the broadcast medium. It has witnessed the most pervasive period of foreign television programmes and films into Nigeria.  The foreign television programmes states and western Europe and even when they are not from these places as the cases with soap operas from Mexico, they are only local variations of international capitalism.

American made programmes particularly are seen in  practically every country where television exists.  It is believed to exert influential power in various countries.  There is no question that one of the more remarkable phenomena of the 21st century is the widespread diffusion and accompanying popularity of American films and television entertainment programmes throughout the world Guback (1969), Lee (1980); Tunshall (1977); Wells (1972).

It is my belief in line with that if most local critics of American television industry (Hamelink 1983; Schiller 1989, 1976; Mattelert 1970) that the United states and western Europe hold sway over the economics as well as the cultures of third would countries.

In Nigeria as exemplified by trends in Enugu metropolis and use where, western exports of television entertainment are shown in NTA Enugu, ESBSTV, minaj systems, channels, MGM, Cartoon Network, CNN international, TNT classical movies, ESPN – Expanded sports programme Network) channels provided by various satellite transmission operators as DSTV, Multi choice, music television, Euro sports etc.

I am aware that the inclusion of NTA Enugu and ESBS in course of foreign television programmes might raise eyebrows.  There inclusion is due to the fact that most of their programmes which have been documented to be viewed most by youths, expose youths to foreign cultures.  Such programmes include soap operas, movies and youths programmes as “our generation” and defunct youth perspectives.

“Our Generation “ is shown on NTA Enugu while “Youth perspectives” is shown on ESBS.  The two programmes are presented by youth and are regrettably replete with music video of western origin dominated by rap stars as Tupac shakur (late) Beyonce Ashanti, 50 – cent, Sean Paul, Kell Rowland  big, Queen Latita, Eeline Dion etc.

it is my belle that western television especially American television exports is conscious/strategic “weapons” aimed at subduing the cultural values of less developed countries.

There could be no more explicit admission of this strategic communication they one made byu sig Mickelson, president Radio free Europ/Radio liberty in Jan 21, 1977, about the move by the solviet union and third world countries for balanced flow of introduction in defence of indigenous interests and culture against the dominance of the west.  Mictleson states that success of this campaign would have effect of moving the philosophy and practices of the third world societies further away from those of the western world, alienating and isolating our own philosophy and practices.

 

1.2       STATEMENT OF THE RESEARITY PROBLEMS

The average Nigerian youth, it is oberserved is always eager to be associated with the developed nations the Europe and north America.  He sees the western countries as a model.  He “thinks” western while  earnestly hoping that one day he will be in the white works.

Many Nigerian youths tend to imitate western cultures  especially American cultures.  Nigerian youths either talk” or dress American.  The Nigeria youth appears to see everything America western in  a positive light at the expense of local cultures, norms and values.

Nigeria university student have low me  a set of brain washed youths who think more of the trancient and canal ideals of  western cultures, rather than their own.  This has led top increase in the rate of violence, rape, gengsterism, weird dressing, juveniles delinquency, drug addition, excessive desire for foreign products, sexual perversion unpatriotism, burning desire to migrate to the U.S and western European countries etc.  All of which have tremendous negative effect on our bid for national development.

 

1.3       OBJECTIVE OF THE TSUDY

  1. To  isolate western television and examine its pervasive impact on the cultural values of Nigerian University Students
  2. To show how the contents of western TV. Programmes effects Nigerian  university students.
  3. To show if their perspection of the west affects their attitude towards western TV. Programmes.
  4. To show the relationship between exposure and the desire to migrate to the U.S and Western Europe.
  5. To show the implications of the western TV culture on Nigeria as a state.
  6. To make recommendations based on the findings of this research.

 

 

 

1.4       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE TSUDY

It has been observed and stated severally that moral bankruptcy among Nigerian youth especially university students is growing in leaps and bounds.  Local cultures, values, tradition, norms and mores are sacrificed at the alter of modernity.  Excessive positive perception of the western world by Nigerian youths may translate to umpatriotism for their own country.

This study is an offshoot of the  concern for the possible dilution, domination and finally absorption of the African/Nigerian culture which until the present has been characterized with good neighbourliness, respect for elders, virtuousness, group or community orientation and collectivism.

 

 

The Nigerian youths perception of western especially, American behavioural norms and values as better than their own, is a key element in preparing them for acculturation leading to low Nigeria self-image, high projected self image and a flaring desire to migrate to the west especially to the united states of America.

It will not be unusual in a visit of any university in Nigeria to find individuals imitating behavioural modes of dress, attitudes, and  mannerisms of the personalities they  admire including fictional characters with whom they identify on TV. Idolized and imitated international, are modes of dressing, and often personal idiosyncratic behaviours of popular stars as notorious Big (Late), 50 Cent, Sean Paul, Michael  Jackson, late Tupec-Shakur, Ashanti, Kelli, Rowland, Celine Dion, and such characters as Van Damm, Schwarzenegger, Silverster Stallon, Leonardo Decaprio, Jennifer Lopez, Chuck Noris etc.

 

 

It has been observed and disturbingly that Nigerian University students in increasingly greater numbers, adopt and imitate behaviours aid life styles portrayed by dominant cultures of countries outside their own to the influence of which they have become exposed.

 

 

Such a situation is not healthy for a developing country as Nigeria especially now that genuine attempts are being made at putting in place a credible democratic process. The conduct of this research at this time will enable the government to know what role the media  can play in the development of any country and therefore enable them harness the mass media especially TV to help in the democratic process, and the development process in general.

The research is also particularly timely because as a result of technological developments process and economic pressures, international programmes movements especially from U.S and western European countries are likely to increase.  The result of this research will enable the government and other policy makers to put adequate measures in place to check the movements and its effects.

 

 

Most research on emigration in economic and demography has concentrated not on the role of information but on economic and political conditions.  From the result of this research, the government will understand if a fine-turning of international broadcast industry could help  tackle the issue of brain drain.

 

 

1.5              RESEARCH QUESTIONS

  1. Do Nigerian youths expose themselves more to TV. Than other media?
  2. Do they prefer western TV. Programmes to locally produced ones and why if yes?
  3. does exposure to foreign TV programmes affect Nigerian youths attitude to the western nations?
  4. In what ways do these attitudes manifest in the behaviours  of Nigerian youths.
  5. Do Nigerian youths identify more with local or foreign TV. Stars ?
  6. Will improvement of local TV./movies industries improve Nigerian youths preference for local TV. Products

 

Continue reading WESTERN TELEVISION PROGRAMMES ON THE CULTURAL VALUES OF THE NIGERIAN YOUTHS

Share This:

The IMPACT OF COMMUNICATION IN ORGANISATIONAL EFFICIENCY

The IMPACT OF COMMUNICATION IN ORGANISATIONAL EFFICIENCY (a case study of NEPA ZONAL OFFICE Enugu)

 

Click here to download our android mobile app to your phone  for more materials and others

COMPLETE PROJECT  MATERIAL COST 5000 NAIRA OR $10 , 

. A FRESH TOPIC NOT LISTED ON OUR WEBSITE COST 50,000 NAIRA ( UNDERGRADUATE) OR 100,000 FOR SECOND DEGREE STUDENTS. $500. PLUS  FREE SUPPORT UNTIL YOU FINISH YOUR PROJECT WORK. CONTACT US TODAY, WE MAKE A DIFFERENT. DESIGN AND WRITING IS OUR SKILLED.  DESIGN AND WRITING IS OUR SKILLED.

Note: our case study can be change to suit your desire location . we are here for your success.

                                   ORDER NOW

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
 GTBANK
Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment :
Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
 Account Number:  0117780667. 
Swift Code: GTBINGLA 
Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANKER SECURITY GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>DELIVERY PERIOD FOR BANK PAYMENT IS  LESS THAN 2 HOURS

How to transfer from your bank account to All  Nigeria banks without internet

1. Access Bank:
—-*901#

2. EcoBank:
—-*326#

3. Fidelity Bank:
—-*770#

4. FCMB:
—-*389*214#

5. First Bank
—-*894#

6. GTB:
—-*737#

7. Heritage Bank:
—-*322*030#

8. Keystone Bank:
—-*322*082#

9. Sky Bank:
—-*389*076*1#

10. Stanbic IBTC:
—-*909#

11. Sterling Bank:
—-*822#

12. UBA:
—-*389*033*1#

13. Unity Bank:
—-*322*215#

14. Zenith Bank:
—-*966#

15. Diamond Bank
—-*710*555#

To know your BVN, dial
—-*565*0#.

E.g for First bank…   *894 *Amount *Acct. No. #

Please dail d code from d number u used to register d account from the bank

CALL OKEKE CHIDI C ON :  08074466939,08063386834.

AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO

08074466939 or 08063386834, YOUR PROJECT TITLE  YOU WANT US TO SEND TO YOU, AMOUNT PAID, DEPOSITOR NAME, UR EMAIL ADDRESS,PAYMENT DATE. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR MATERIAL IN LESS THAN 2 HOURS ONCE WILL CONFIRM YOUR PAYMENT.

WE HAVE SECURITY IN OUR BUSINESS.   

MONEY BACK GUARANTEE

Click here to download our android mobile app to your phone  for more materials and others

 

 

ABSTRACT

The research was carried out in Enugu and the purpose was to determine the impact of communication on organizational efficiency. Oral interviews and questionnaire developed by the researcher were the instrument for data collection.

This study proved that the efficiency and effectiveness of an organization to co-ordinate its activity well depends on its level of communication network.

For the study to come to a reasonable point data collected from primary and secondary sources were analyzed using rank order score.

Three hundred and sixteen staff were selected as population sample from NEPA Enugu zonal office considering the above the limitations of the study were examined conclusion and recommendation given based on the finding.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Cover page

Title page

Approval page

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Table of content

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study
  • Statement of problem
  • Purpose of the study
  • Research question
  • Significance of the study

 

CHAPTER TWO

  • Literature review
  • Types of communication and their uses
  • Computer
  • Satellite
  • Tax
  • Telephone
  • Switch board
  • Telex
  • Radio
  • Problem of effective communication
  • Types and channel of communication
  • Communication process
  • Importance of communication in an organization

 

CHAPTER THREE  

  • Research design
  • Area of study
  • Population of the study
  • Sample and sampling procedure
  • Instrument for data collection
  • Validation of instrument
  • Method of data collection
  • Source of data
  • Method of data analysis

 

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Presentation and analysis of data
  • Research question

 

CHAPTER FIVE

  • Discussion of results

5.1     Discussion findings

  • Conclusion
  • Recommendation
  • Limitation of the study

Reference

Questionnaires

 

CHAPTER ONE

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

What is today known as national electric power authority is a merger of the electricity cooperation of Nigeria (ECN) and Niger Dam authority (NDA) the former was created by the federal government responsible for major policies of mines and power. It was empowered to generate transmitted distribute and sale electricity. Consequently to take over all government downed undertaken throughout the country and to establish new ones if considered economically viable.

The history of the present day NEPA would not be complete if the old police works department (PWD) of the government, which in 1896 installed the first 60kw generating set in Lagos is not mentioned.

In 1895 the preliminary investigation and planning were carried out by the public works department in Lagos at a cost of ₤ 3,206.00 The following year 1896 the their government of southern Nigeria allocated the sum of ₤1200.00 for the establishment of the first power station in Lagos which today is still the headquarter of NEPA in Lagos. Mr. 1 Pooke was the first chief electrical engineer of the establishment known as the Lagos electric supply. The power station operated within the hours of 6.00pm to 11.00p, daily and the maximum power demand continued to increase as a result of extension of supply to Iddo and Fbette Metta area. Further effort was made to increase the generating capacity of the power station. By 1915 the total installed capacity has risen to 320kw and to 420kw in 1921.

In 1924 the system introduced 2, and 3 phase 4 wire with 50 cycles and is still in use till date. As the demand continued to increase following the understanding that the use of electricity was no longer the exclusive reserve of the rich but an essential factor in development it became.

 

 

Share This:

THE ROLE OF THE BROADCAST MEDIA IN THE CAMPAIGN AGAINST HIV/AIDS IN NIGERIA

THE ROLE OF THE BROADCAST MEDIA IN THE CAMPAIGN AGAINST HIV/AIDS IN NIGERIA

Click here to download our android mobile app to your phone  for more materials and others

COMPLETE PROJECT  MATERIAL COST 5000 NAIRA OR $10 , 

. A FRESH TOPIC NOT LISTED ON OUR WEBSITE COST 50,000 NAIRA ( UNDERGRADUATE) OR 100,000 FOR SECOND DEGREE STUDENTS. $500. PLUS  FREE SUPPORT UNTIL YOU FINISH YOUR PROJECT WORK. CONTACT US TODAY, WE MAKE A DIFFERENT. DESIGN AND WRITING IS OUR SKILLED.  DESIGN AND WRITING IS OUR SKILLED.

Note: our case study can be change to suit your desire location . we are here for your success.

                                   ORDER NOW

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
 GTBANK
Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment :
Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
 Account Number:  0117780667. 
Swift Code: GTBINGLA 
Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANKER SECURITY GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>DELIVERY PERIOD FOR BANK PAYMENT IS  LESS THAN 2 HOURS

How to transfer from your bank account to All  Nigeria banks without internet

1. Access Bank:
—-*901#

2. EcoBank:
—-*326#

3. Fidelity Bank:
—-*770#

4. FCMB:
—-*389*214#

5. First Bank
—-*894#

6. GTB:
—-*737#

7. Heritage Bank:
—-*322*030#

8. Keystone Bank:
—-*322*082#

9. Sky Bank:
—-*389*076*1#

10. Stanbic IBTC:
—-*909#

11. Sterling Bank:
—-*822#

12. UBA:
—-*389*033*1#

13. Unity Bank:
—-*322*215#

14. Zenith Bank:
—-*966#

15. Diamond Bank
—-*710*555#

To know your BVN, dial
—-*565*0#.

E.g for First bank…   *894 *Amount *Acct. No. #

Please dail d code from d number u used to register d account from the bank

CALL OKEKE CHIDI C ON :  08074466939,08063386834.

AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO

08074466939 or 08063386834, YOUR PROJECT TITLE  YOU WANT US TO SEND TO YOU, AMOUNT PAID, DEPOSITOR NAME, UR EMAIL ADDRESS,PAYMENT DATE. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR MATERIAL IN LESS THAN 2 HOURS ONCE WILL CONFIRM YOUR PAYMENT.

WE HAVE SECURITY IN OUR BUSINESS.   

MONEY BACK GUARANTEE

Click here to download our android mobile app to your phone  for more materials and others

 

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to ascertain the role of Mass media in the campaign against HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. Factors such as media campaigns, AIDS campaign messages, sexual   behaviour and the extent in which the campaigns structures the masses were posed to establish their relative influence on the entire masses toward HIV/AIDS.

An empirical survey diligently conducted from 82 Division Barracks, Federal secretariat complex and the Mass communication students IMT. Enugu HND finals. Data were analysed to determine the effect on the mass media campaign against AIDS.

The findings show that media campaigns have been observed to be the quickest means of eradicating the AIDS menace, as well as restructure the attitude of the masses through the use of condoms stickling to one partner and avoiding casual sex.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE

APPROVAL PAGE

DEDICATION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

ABSTRACT

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
  • STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
  • OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
  • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
  • RESEARCH QUESTIONS
  • RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • ASSUMPTION OF TERMS
  • ASSUMPTION
  • SCOPE & LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

  • THE REVIEW
  • THE MEDIA CAMPAIGN AGAINST AIDS
  • ASSESSMENT OF THE MEDIA EFFECT
  • SUMMARY OF THE LITERATURE REVIEW

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

  • RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
  • RESEARCH METHOD
  • RESEARCH DESIGN
  • RESEARCH SAMPLE
  • MEASURING INSTRUMENT
  • DATA COLLECTION
  • METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
  • EXPECTED RESULT

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.1    DATA   ANALYSIS

4.2    ANALYSIS OF RESEARCH

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, IMPLICATION & RECOMMENDATION

  • SUMMARY
  • CONCLUSION
  • IMPLICATION OF FINDINGS
  • RECOMMENDATION

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

For broadcast media campaign on any issue to interest the public, it must not be regarded as fallacious or unsystematically prepared but rater involving message on existing public interest to the people based on experiences, facts, beliefs, socio- economic and educational backgrounds.

Against this background the federal government in conjunction with other countries of the world through the World Health Organization (WHO) decided to embark on massive campaigns against AIDS pandemic in the country.

The broadcast media, as part of its effort to eradicate this deadly scourge which  has defied the federal government through the ministry of Health in 1986 established the National AIDS control Programmes in response to public concerns raised the presence of Human Immune Deficiency syndrome Virus (HIV) infestation in Nigeria.

Again, in response to the evidence and the debate on the existence if AIDS in Nigeria the then minister of Health, Profession Olukoye Ranson Kuti in 1987, instituted the National expert Advisory committee on AIDS (NEACA) and was charged with the responsibility of establishing whether or not AIDS exist in Nigeria . they were also mandated to advise the government as well as draw up programmes strategies and activities to prevent control of HIV infection in the country.

The report from the committee stated that “HID and AIDS existed in Nigeria and warned that unless immediate steps were taken to prevent the spread of the diseases, the country would be faced with tremendous health problem” This necessitate the establishment of AIDS Co-ordinating units and twenty one (21) testing facilities in the various states of the federation. Training was conducted for personnel to man these centres. There were also public enlightenment activities and production of educational materials like posters, handbills, pamphlets, and books on AIDS.

In February 1989, a two weeks workshop was organized by the Federal Ministry of Health, and other Human services Organization including states ministries of health with the technical assistance from the global programme on AIDS (GPA), world bank and other international agencies to   address the issue of AIDS in Nigeria. In march 1990, a resources mobilization meeting was convened with participation by the Federal ministry of Health, by the World Health Organization, Global Programme on AIDS and other International denor agencies.

Share This:

VIEWER SHIP OF TELEVISION PROGRAMMERS IN ENUGU STATE

VIEWER SHIP OF TELEVISION PROGRAMMERS IN ENUGU STATE (A CASE STUDY OF ENUGU SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT)

 

Click here to download our android mobile app to your phone  for more materials and others

COMPLETE PROJECT  MATERIAL COST 5000 NAIRA OR $10 , 

. A FRESH TOPIC NOT LISTED ON OUR WEBSITE COST 50,000 NAIRA ( UNDERGRADUATE) OR 100,000 FOR SECOND DEGREE STUDENTS. $500. PLUS  FREE SUPPORT UNTIL YOU FINISH YOUR PROJECT WORK. CONTACT US TODAY, WE MAKE A DIFFERENT. DESIGN AND WRITING IS OUR SKILLED.  DESIGN AND WRITING IS OUR SKILLED.

Note: our case study can be change to suit your desire location . we are here for your success.

                                   ORDER NOW

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
 GTBANK
Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment :
Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
 Account Number:  0117780667. 
Swift Code: GTBINGLA 
Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANKER SECURITY GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>DELIVERY PERIOD FOR BANK PAYMENT IS  LESS THAN 2 HOURS

How to transfer from your bank account to All  Nigeria banks without internet

1. Access Bank:
—-*901#

2. EcoBank:
—-*326#

3. Fidelity Bank:
—-*770#

4. FCMB:
—-*389*214#

5. First Bank
—-*894#

6. GTB:
—-*737#

7. Heritage Bank:
—-*322*030#

8. Keystone Bank:
—-*322*082#

9. Sky Bank:
—-*389*076*1#

10. Stanbic IBTC:
—-*909#

11. Sterling Bank:
—-*822#

12. UBA:
—-*389*033*1#

13. Unity Bank:
—-*322*215#

14. Zenith Bank:
—-*966#

15. Diamond Bank
—-*710*555#

To know your BVN, dial
—-*565*0#.

E.g for First bank…   *894 *Amount *Acct. No. #

Please dail d code from d number u used to register d account from the bank

CALL OKEKE CHIDI C ON :  08074466939,08063386834.

AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO

08074466939 or 08063386834, YOUR PROJECT TITLE  YOU WANT US TO SEND TO YOU, AMOUNT PAID, DEPOSITOR NAME, UR EMAIL ADDRESS,PAYMENT DATE. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR MATERIAL IN LESS THAN 2 HOURS ONCE WILL CONFIRM YOUR PAYMENT.

WE HAVE SECURITY IN OUR BUSINESS.   

MONEY BACK GUARANTEE

Click here to download our android mobile app to your phone  for more materials and others

 

 

 

ABSTRACT

This research work was carried out in order to find out what the populace of Enugu south thinks or feels about television programme in Enugu state. The research also attempted to look into people work related to the research topic.

During research, the people of Enugu south were used as the populace of study, questionnaires were the major instrument of study. Random sampling method was applied to obtain the potion of the population on whom the instruments were administered.

Responses were analyzed on percentage. For the more, the significant problem and question for this research were spelt out in order to help, uphold or reject certain assumption. The data collected from the questionnaires made it possible for the researcher to get the answer agitating his mind. It was noted that on human behavior.

The study was able to find out actually what the populace of Enugu south think or feel about the positive or negative effect toward television programmers in Enugu state.

The research also made recommendation on what should be done to make our television content more result oriented and interesting.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page

Approval page

Dedication

Acknowledgment

Abstract

Table of contents

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study
  • Statement of research problem
  • Objective of the study
  • Significance of the study
  • Research questions
  • Hypothesis
  • Assumptions
  • Definition of terms
  • Scope and limitation of the study Reference.

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

  • Source of literature review
  • Literature review
  • Theoretical frame work
  • Summary of literature review

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research method & Design

3.2 Population of study

3.3 Sample size

3.4 Method of data collection

3.5 Procedure for data Analysis

3.6 Measuring used to ensure validity & reliability

3.7 Instrument for gathering Data

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.1 Data Analysis

4.2 Result

4.3 Discussion of the finding

CHAPTER FIVE

Summary

Recommendation

Conclusion

References

Appendix

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

In this challenging society of our Nigeria, science and technology has brought profound changes on how mass media bring value to their customer. The tendency that must of the time, especially in the developing countries, the media practioners must package their programme very well to sustain their viewership. In doing it is imperative to take into conderation their supposedly diverse composition of the audience for viewership interest. Because of lack of this knowledge will mar the efforts of the station keep pace with prose trend in mass communication industry especially broadcast media.

Importantly taking the audience for granted as a result of professional ignorant or other reasons will not anger well at this information communication age. As Marshall Mac Luhah (1960) describe the world as a global village, a world join together and transformed by television and other marvous of the electronic age.

One of the outstanding features of the media communication is composition of the audience. The audience of television is highly heterogeneous with members having several distinctive characteristics, different interest and they are scattered in all over the nation with different socio-economic strata.

Based on the heterogeneity of the audience it is obvious that views differ among members of mass media audience. While some use particular station programme others depend on the others. Some may want to watch entertainment programmers while some might prefer thoughtful vital programmers like News, current affairs, commentaries or documentaries depending on their likes.

This corroborates with uses and gratification theory propounded by Swanson (1979) Because uses and grati8fication is audience centers asking what people do with media rather than what media do to people Rubin (1985) states that uses and gratification is grounded in a functional paradigm of social influence. Since the functional approach examine. The relationship between the media, individuals and society.

One of the plan in which an audience is active is though the use of selective exposure. It is the tendency of accepting to express yourself to communication that goes with your own values system, altitudes and viewpoint. The concept of self selective exposure helps the active audience to control what he watches, to what he listens to and read, selective reading and listening are the function selective exposure.

With the society becoming more complex; this, recognition of these view, interest researchers set out to ascertain viewership of television in Enugu south through empirical support.

You can but the newspaper of your choice, you can also watch the movie you like, you choose from many television programmers and Radio, and if you find yourself watching something you do not like you can tune to another channel. Different view have been presented in an attempt to determing why people watch television programmers.

 

Share This:

A CASE FOR COMMUNITY RADIO IN INFORMATION BETWEEN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS IN ENUGU STATE

A CASE FOR COMMUNITY RADIO IN INFORMATION BETWEEN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS IN ENUGU STATE

 

Click here to download our android mobile app to your phone  for more materials and others

COMPLETE PROJECT  MATERIAL COST 5000 NAIRA OR $10 , 

. A FRESH TOPIC NOT LISTED ON OUR WEBSITE COST 50,000 NAIRA ( UNDERGRADUATE) OR 100,000 FOR SECOND DEGREE STUDENTS. $500. PLUS  FREE SUPPORT UNTIL YOU FINISH YOUR PROJECT WORK. CONTACT US TODAY, WE MAKE A DIFFERENT. DESIGN AND WRITING IS OUR SKILLED.  DESIGN AND WRITING IS OUR SKILLED.

Note: our case study can be change to suit your desire location . we are here for your success.

                                   ORDER NOW

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
 GTBANK
Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment :
Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
 Account Number:  0117780667. 
Swift Code: GTBINGLA 
Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANKER SECURITY GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>DELIVERY PERIOD FOR BANK PAYMENT IS  LESS THAN 2 HOURS

How to transfer from your bank account to All  Nigeria banks without internet

1. Access Bank:
—-*901#

2. EcoBank:
—-*326#

3. Fidelity Bank:
—-*770#

4. FCMB:
—-*389*214#

5. First Bank
—-*894#

6. GTB:
—-*737#

7. Heritage Bank:
—-*322*030#

8. Keystone Bank:
—-*322*082#

9. Sky Bank:
—-*389*076*1#

10. Stanbic IBTC:
—-*909#

11. Sterling Bank:
—-*822#

12. UBA:
—-*389*033*1#

13. Unity Bank:
—-*322*215#

14. Zenith Bank:
—-*966#

15. Diamond Bank
—-*710*555#

To know your BVN, dial
—-*565*0#.

E.g for First bank…   *894 *Amount *Acct. No. #

Please dail d code from d number u used to register d account from the bank

CALL OKEKE CHIDI C ON :  08074466939,08063386834.

AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO

08074466939 or 08063386834, YOUR PROJECT TITLE  YOU WANT US TO SEND TO YOU, AMOUNT PAID, DEPOSITOR NAME, UR EMAIL ADDRESS,PAYMENT DATE. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR MATERIAL IN LESS THAN 2 HOURS ONCE WILL CONFIRM YOUR PAYMENT.

WE HAVE SECURITY IN OUR BUSINESS.   

MONEY BACK GUARANTEE

Click here to download our android mobile app to your phone  for more materials and others

 

ABSTRACT

The issue of information imbalance has generated a lot of controversy in international setting with accusations and counter accusations from both the North (developed countries) and the South (developing centrs).

This insidious phenomenon, in the name of information imbalance has crept. Into the information flow between my urban and rural areas. As an Igbo adage has it: “one should struggle for land before struggling for mat”. In the holy Bible also, there is an admonition that one should first remove the log in one’s eye to enable one see the speak in another’s.

I should first try to remedy my domestic information imbalance before joining others to condemn information imbalance at the international level.

This study “ A case for community Radio in information Balancing between the urban and Rural Areas in Enugu State” tends to support other research works done on information imbalance.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page

Approval page

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Table of content

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

  • Background to the study
  • Problem statement
  • Significance of the study
  • Research hypothesis
  • Definition of terms
  • Limitations of the study

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

  • Literature review
  • References

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

  • Research method
  • Research design
  • Research sample
  • Method of data analysis
  • Summary

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

  • Introduction of data analysis
  • Analysis of questionnaires
  • Analysis of hypothesis

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS

  • Summary and conclusions
  • Recommendations

Bibliography

Questionnaires

CHAPTER ONE

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Radio developed out of scientific advances made in the fields of electricity and magnetism. The first transmission of an electromagnetic message over wire was made in 1844 by Samuel F.B. Morso. By 1861 a transcontinental high-speed electric communication system was signaling across nations.

During the period (1860s) that the telegraph and the telephone were demonstrating and perfecting long-distance communication by wire, James Clerk Maxwell predicted (1864) and Heinrich Hertz demonstrated (1887) that variations in electric current produce waves; that such waves can be transmitted through space without wires, at the speed of light.

These theories stimulated much experimentation. The most successful being guglielmo Marconi’s work in the late 1890’s. Marcomi received a patent for his wireless telegraph in 1897. By 1901, he was sending wireless dot-dash transmission across the Atlantic. Through the work of such men as Reginald Fesseaden and Lee De Forest, high quality wire less voice communication carried by electromagnetic waves become possible.    Thus the stage was set for radio broadcasting.

However, radio broadcasting came to Nigeria in stages. The first was the introduction of wire broadcasting; radio distribution or rediffusion – relay or distribution of programmes from abroad through a central receiver. This was achieved by means of wires connected to loud speakers. It was then handled by the P and T loud speakers.

Later in 1948, new local programmes were added such local programmes were news features, entertainments and local announcements. It now operated under the call sign “Radio Nigeria” the workers prepared the programmes, read the news and translated it to local languages.

An urgent need for an alternative means of broadcasting that would serve greater majority of the people came up. When the RDS was not meeting up with reaching the masses in the colonies with war propaganda. To achieve this, additional stations had to be establish first at Ibadan, then at other provincial levels.

 

Share This: