Category Archives: Estate Management Project Material Sample

ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF THE PROVISION OF HOUSING ESTATE ON RESIDENTIAL HOUSING DELIVERY

(A CASE STUDY OF WORLD BANK HOUSING ESTATE OWERRI)

ABSTRACT .

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COMPLETE PROJECT  MATERIAL COST 5000 NAIRA OR $10 , 

. A FRESH TOPIC NOT LISTED ON OUR WEBSITE COST 50,000 NAIRA ( UNDERGRADUATE) OR 100,000 FOR SECOND DEGREE STUDENTS. $500. PLUS  FREE SUPPORT UNTIL YOU FINISH YOUR PROJECT WORK. CONTACT US TODAY, WE MAKE A DIFFERENT. DESIGN AND WRITING IS OUR SKILLED.  DESIGN AND WRITING IS OUR SKILLED.

Note: our case study can be change to suit your desire location . we are here for your success.

                                   ORDER NOW

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
 GTBANK
Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment :
Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
 Account Number:  0117780667. 
Swift Code: GTBINGLA 
Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANKER SECURITY GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>DELIVERY PERIOD FOR BANK PAYMENT IS  LESS THAN 2 HOURS

How to transfer from your bank account to All  Nigeria banks without internet

1. Access Bank:
—-*901#

2. EcoBank:
—-*326#

3. Fidelity Bank:
—-*770#

4. FCMB:
—-*389*214#

5. First Bank
—-*894#

6. GTB:
—-*737#

7. Heritage Bank:
—-*322*030#

8. Keystone Bank:
—-*322*082#

9. Sky Bank:
—-*389*076*1#

10. Stanbic IBTC:
—-*909#

11. Sterling Bank:
—-*822#

12. UBA:
—-*389*033*1#

13. Unity Bank:
—-*322*215#

14. Zenith Bank:
—-*966#

15. Diamond Bank
—-*710*555#

To know your BVN, dial
—-*565*0#.

E.g for First bank…   *894 *Amount *Acct. No. #

Please dail d code from d number u used to register d account from the bank

CALL OKEKE CHIDI C ON :  08074466939,08063386834.

AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO

08074466939 or 08063386834, YOUR PROJECT TITLE  YOU WANT US TO SEND TO YOU, AMOUNT PAID, DEPOSITOR NAME, UR EMAIL ADDRESS,PAYMENT DATE. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR MATERIAL IN LESS THAN 2 HOURS ONCE WILL CONFIRM YOUR PAYMENT.

WE HAVE SECURITY IN OUR BUSINESS.   

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ABSTRACT

This dissertation deals chiefly with an analysis of the effect of the provision of housing estate on residential housing delivery with a case study of world bank housing estate Owerri.  The key impetus for this research on the analysis of the effect of the provision of housing estates on other residential house in this particular area of study arises from its sudden changes in states.

This study examines the effect of this changes on the physical environment and the population of the study area with particular emphasis on the area of provision of residential units and the provision of basic social amenities and infrastructures as be pithy the advancement in the status of the world bank housing estate.

This also examines the sole aim of provided housing estate and the its effect on other residential houses in the area study.

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

1.1  Introduction

1.2  Statement of problems

1.3  Aims and objectives of the study

1.4  Research questions

1.5  Significance of the study the scope of study

1.6  The scope of study

1.7  Limitation of the study

1.8  Over-view of the study

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature review

2.1 Definition of terms

2.2 Factors affecting housing demand

2.3 Factors affecting housing supply

2.4 Housing finance

2.5 Effects of the provision of housing estate on residential housing.

2.6 Efforts to the state federal government to housing delivery system.

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.1 Research design and methodology

3.2 Sources of data collection

3.4 Sample of size

3.5 Method of data collection

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.1 Data presentation and analysis

4.2 Analysis dare collected from the d

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 Findings recommendation, summary and conclusion

5.1 Findings

5.2 Recommendation

5.3 Summary and conclusion

Bibliography appendix

 

 


CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Housing is seen as one of the most important for the physical survival of man after the provision of food. It contributes to the physical and moral hearth of a nation and stimulates the social stability, the work efficiency and the development of the individuals. But in spite of these facts there is on doubt that housing in quantitative terms is still one of the major problems facing the Nigerian Urbanities and governments beside the characteristic slums and conditions it is becoming increasingly difficult for average Nigerians to own houses. Also it is very difficult to procure decent accommodation at reasonable rent in the market. The rent are high in each state and fairly high in the other state capitals, but still not commensurate with the monthly in comes of all categories of low, middle and upper wage earners and the self-employed.

The major cause of high rent is that the supply of housing is fair less than demand. The recommended 20 percent of the monthly income on rent. The problems are more acute in those cities and towns where ad commercial and industrial activities have long been established, fast growing and concentrated cities. To find houses to rent is a big problem and if such houses are eventually found, they are let out at very exorbitant prices that take a large percentage or the monthly income of the acceptant not minding the location and the accessibility of the residence to the place of work. Until recently for an was becoming exceedingly very difficult for an average wage earner as well as the self –employed individuals to build houses of their own within a long period of time say ten years through their private savings. Most civil servants in Nigeria between 1978 and 1988 cloud hardly make some savings not to take of building houses of their own. Also, the cost of building materials is very exhobitant, cost of land, labour and professional fees are very high which has led to the situation whereby the construction cost per square meter is far more than what an individual could meet after the provision of food and other social needs.

Also due to the fact that individual cannot own houses of their own as a result of the high construction cost involved, it has contributed to people hiring at very exorbitant rates because there are more buyers one of housing good than the supply of those goods and services. The effect of this housing shortage mostly predominately in Urban areas not only led to over crowing in several cities, it has also led to many taking shelter under the bridges, schacks and make shifts (as in the case of lagos). The most unfortunate thing is that the existing residential buildings are not suitable to modern needs and lack in converses such as water closets (Wcs),P,Pe-borne water, power supply, open spaces etc. the situation prompted the united Nations to launch the aggressive programme of shelter for all in the year 2000.

To achieve this, the federal government of Nigeria incorporated it in the Nation’s third development plan (1975-1980) and sought to participate actively in the provision of housing for all income groups achieve significant increase in housing supply and bring relief especially to the low income earners and the self- employed who where the most affected by the acute shortage a situation whereby the Urban worker paid over 20% of his monthly income on rent. This has led to the provision of Estates by both the  federal and the state government in order to increase the housing stock available to the Urban population. It is on this background that this work tries to examine the effect of these housing Estates on Residential Housing Delivery.

 

1.2    STATEMENTS OF PROBLEMS

Government all over the world especially in developing countries embarks on the provision of housing Estate for their Wizens, this is usually to argument housing provision by the private sector of the economy. Although these estates were established by law and status, they present management problems inducing legal, physical, Financial, social – political and other problems such that in recent time management of public housing Estate has presented hydra-headed problems. These problems manifest themselves in the form of dilapidated buildings, poor sanctuary and environmental condition all resulting from poor management and lack of maintenance.

This cleary, the crux of the housing problems in Nigeria today relate to the low income groups which constitute the main elements of both Urban and rural population with all these factors mentioned above one sees the housing problems in general as the problems that motivated both the federal and the state government, the Imo state government and the Imo state Urban and housing corporation and all the other state government and housing corporations to formulate their housing programmes. This is because good residential housing gives room for more production.

1.3  AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The main aim of this research work is to evaluate the effect of housing estate on the residential housing provision in the Nigerian Urban cities: To achieve this aim the following objectives are set out.

(1)                     To identify the various housing estates in the study area.

(2)                     To determine the quantity (number)of houses provided through the Imo housing corporation in Owerri

(3)                     To determine the effect of these housing Estate on the residential housing provision

(4)                     To identify problems and constraints of the Imo housing corporate in the provision and management of these housing Estates.

(5)                     To recommend ways of ameliorating the problems in (4) four above with a view of providing more housing Estate in the urban area.

 

1.4                      RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIRES

  1. Mention various housing estate in Imo state Owerri
  2. What is the quantity number of housing provided by the Owerri housing co-operation?
  3. What are the effect of these housing estates on the residential housing provision?
  4. What are the problems encountered by the Owerri housing co-operation in the provision and management of these housing estates?
  5. Recommend ways of ameliorating the problems with a view of providing more housing estates in the urban area.

RURAL MANAGEMENT AS A STRATEGY FOR REDUCING RURAL – URBAN MIGRATION IN NIGERIA

(A CASE STUDY OF ISHIELY LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE)

 

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COMPLETE PROJECT  MATERIAL COST 5000 NAIRA OR $10 , 

. A FRESH TOPIC NOT LISTED ON OUR WEBSITE COST 50,000 NAIRA ( UNDERGRADUATE) OR 100,000 FOR SECOND DEGREE STUDENTS. $500. PLUS  FREE SUPPORT UNTIL YOU FINISH YOUR PROJECT WORK. CONTACT US TODAY, WE MAKE A DIFFERENT. DESIGN AND WRITING IS OUR SKILLED.  DESIGN AND WRITING IS OUR SKILLED.

Note: our case study can be change to suit your desire location . we are here for your success.

                                   ORDER NOW

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
 GTBANK
Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment :
Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
 Account Number:  0117780667. 
Swift Code: GTBINGLA 
Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANKER SECURITY GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>DELIVERY PERIOD FOR BANK PAYMENT IS  LESS THAN 2 HOURS

How to transfer from your bank account to All  Nigeria banks without internet

1. Access Bank:
—-*901#

2. EcoBank:
—-*326#

3. Fidelity Bank:
—-*770#

4. FCMB:
—-*389*214#

5. First Bank
—-*894#

6. GTB:
—-*737#

7. Heritage Bank:
—-*322*030#

8. Keystone Bank:
—-*322*082#

9. Sky Bank:
—-*389*076*1#

10. Stanbic IBTC:
—-*909#

11. Sterling Bank:
—-*822#

12. UBA:
—-*389*033*1#

13. Unity Bank:
—-*322*215#

14. Zenith Bank:
—-*966#

15. Diamond Bank
—-*710*555#

To know your BVN, dial
—-*565*0#.

E.g for First bank…   *894 *Amount *Acct. No. #

Please dail d code from d number u used to register d account from the bank

CALL OKEKE CHIDI C ON :  08074466939,08063386834.

AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO

08074466939 or 08063386834, YOUR PROJECT TITLE  YOU WANT US TO SEND TO YOU, AMOUNT PAID, DEPOSITOR NAME, UR EMAIL ADDRESS,PAYMENT DATE. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR MATERIAL IN LESS THAN 2 HOURS ONCE WILL CONFIRM YOUR PAYMENT.

WE HAVE SECURITY IN OUR BUSINESS.   

MONEY BACK GUARANTEE

 

 

 

ABSTRACT

Rural resources have a lot of potential which needed to be brought into full production as to uplift the values. These values can only be achieved when other resources like times, money, infrastructure, expertise an d the like are applied. The high demand of products is expected to propel the application of the said resources into maximum production which in turn increase the value of rural environment, confirming value to be a function of profit.

Unfortunately, government policies and programmes in the year past failed to reflect the need for balance rural and urban development. Thus, most development polices and programmes are urban – oriented. As a result rural dwellers have been subjected to poverty, unemployment, poor infrastructure, economic and social defects. Incidentally, rural dweller a stick to migration.

Therefore, this study on Rural Development. As a strategy, for reducing Rural – Urban Migrations in Nigeria, a case study of Ishiehi Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, seek to identify rural development programmes/projects extent of rural urban migration and factors responsible for rural urban migration in the study area.

From the findings based on the analysed data, integrated Rural Development Strategy has been pin-pointed and recommended as a feasible and viable measure toward minimizing the rate of rural – urban migration in Nigeria at large and Ishielu in particular.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0              Introduction

1.1       Statement of the Problem

1.2       Aims and Objectives of the Study

1.3       Background and Need for the Study

1.4       Research Question

1.5       Research Hypothesis

1.6       Scope and Limitation of the Study

1.6.1    Delimitation Scope

1.6.2    Limitation

1.7       Significance of the Study

1.8       Theoretical Foundation of the Study

1.8.1    Economics Growth Model and Rural Development Dual Economic Model.

1.8.2    Diffusion Model of Rural Development

1.8.3    Basic Resource Theory.

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0              Literature Review

2.1       Meaning of Development

2.2       Rural Area and Rural Development

2.3       Classification of Rural Development Programme

2.3.1    Local (Community Programmes)

2.3.2    Government Programmes

2.4       Strategy

2.4.1    Rural Development Strategies

2.4.2    The Basic Weeds Approach

2.4.3    The Infrastructural Approach

2.4.4    The Minimum package or Sub-Sectorial Approach

2.4.5    The New Technology Approach

2.4.6    The Functional or Sectorial Programme Approach

2.4.7    The Industrialization Approach

2.4.8    The Community Approach

2.4.9    The Integrated Approach

2.5       General Concept of Integrated Rural Development in Nigeria

2.6       Urban Growth and Migration

 

 

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0              Research Designs and Methodology

3.1                                      Re-Statement of the Problem

3.2               Design and Methodology of the Study

3.3              Sampling Technique and Procedure Employed

3.4              Description of the Study Area

3.5              Method of Data Collection

3.5.1    Primary data Collection

3.5.2    Secondary Data Collection

3.6              Description of Data Collection

3.7              Description of Statistics for Analysing Data

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0              Data Presentation and Analysis

4.1              Personal Characteristics of the Respondents

4.2       Identification of Rural Development Programmes in the study Area.

4.3              Reasons or factors Responsible for Rural Urban Migration

4.4              Extent of Rural – Urban Migration in the Study Area

4.5              Testing of Hypothesis

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0              Findings, Recommendations and Conclusion

5.1              Findings

5.2                                      Recommendation

5.2.1        Strategy’s Institutional Framework

5.2.2                                                         Programmes Under the Strategy

5.2.3    Policies, Principles and Philosophy in the Strategy

5.2.4    Funding the Strategy

5.2.5    Suggestion for further study

5.3              Conclusion

References

                                        CHAPTER ONE

Nigeria, a country in West African sub-region is blessed with abundant natural and material resources. With an estimated current population of over nine hundred and twenty four thousand (924, 000) square kilometers, Nigeria is easily the most populous in African and one of the largest in terms of geographical area. About seventy percent of the population depend on agricultural activities for their livelihood and live in rural communities.

Currently, over forty million out of the total population of over one hundred million people live in urban area. Therefore, the rural area within the geographic entity of the country is whereby majority of the population is found.

Some of the government officials fear of the belief held that urban areas constitute the development potential of the state, the rural areas, have been neglected in terms of development opportunities.

Following the moribund attitudes that existed  in the rural areas the rural dwellers are attracted to the urban areas to benefits from better paying jobs qualitative supply of basic amenities, highs level of commercial, recreational and industrial activities. Arising from the rapid. Urban population growth and physical expansion are very serious physical planning problem such as poor physical layout like Ajegunle, Gwagwa,, Abakpa in Lagos, Abuja, Abakalike and Enugu respectively. Also in the list include mass transit problem inadequate supply of housing, water and other basic social services.

Hence, it is expected that various governments policy maker rural dwellers, planning team and the general public should involve in harnessing the capture and build in preference of the rural dwellers at anytime.

 

1.1       STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Generally in Nigerian, there have been uneven development and glaring inequality of opportunities between the rural and urban area. In spite of the fact that the majority of Nigerian are rural dwellers rural areas still have little or no opportunities for education and employment. No doubt rural areas in Nigeria are characterized by poverty, malnutrition, poor communication, illiteracy unproductive agriculture with the use of traditional implement, general low per capital income. Also includes lack of health facilities, public electricity, borne whole water and motorable roads which hinder them from evacuating foods and industrial raw materials.

Rural development proper should module all and sundry, unfortunately lack of sufficient fund for progamme execution, high cost of building materials and labour, failure to incorporate people affected in planning and in more serious note, the rural dwellers level of understanding is too low that instead of attracting government attention by initiating a project, they expect the government to do every thing for them which is impossible. All these factors problems act as a push against the rural dwellers in the study area to the urban areas, where they can enjoy social amenities and infrastructure such as water supply, electricity, health facilities, tarred roads, and abundant job opportunities. At the end of this study, we shall know how the rural development can be effective means (strategy) for reducing rural – urban migration in Nigerian generally and Ishielu Local Government Area of Ebonyi State particular. The preceding sentence, therefore, form the focus of this research.

 

 

 

 

1.2       AIMS OF OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

Maris system of life is dynamic coupled with his insatiable nature which demands better food, shelter and clothes. These are usually achieved through verity of good jobs efficient use of human and natural resources.

The extensive area of land in the rural area can be put to various industrial and agricultural activities, thereby improving the lots of rural dwellers and urban dweller alike Agriculture provide us with food, medicine, firewood, timber and other raw material to the industries as well as employment and foreign exchange. Unfortunately the rural dwellers and farmers which constitute the largest population in the rural areas have not been properly taken care as regards development and as a result the rural dwellers rush to the urban areas to find alternative jobs and social amenities that abound in the urban areas.

This study therefore, is aimed at carrying out a research as follows

(i)                 To identify rural development programmes /projects available in the study area.

(ii)               To identity reasons/factors responsible for rural – urban migration.

(iii)             To examine the extent of rural urban – migration.

(iv)             To suggest and make feasible recommendation on reducing migration in the study area.

HOUSEHOLD WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

HOUSEHOLD WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN ZARIA CITY
KADUNA STATE

 

COMPLETE PROJECT  MATERIAL COST 3000 NAIRA

 

                                   ORDER NOW

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
 GTBANK
Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

We also accept :   ATM transfer , online money  transfer 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>

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ABSTRACT
In Nigeria and particularly in Zaria city of Kaduna state, open dumping is still the most common household waste disposal method/practice. This type of practice is un hygienic and environmentally unfriendly. This research is aimed at effective household waste management practices in the study area. The research found that there are some other types of management or disposal method in practice in the study area, these include the use of packing and burning, dumping in pits outside the house and dumping in streets by residents, wheel barrows. Also included are scavengers, Ministry of Environment and private organizations that are involved in household waste.

 

Data for the study include the use of observations, questionnaire administration and oral interviews in data gathering and analysis. The research, recommends that the state government should provide household waste management equipment and vehicles, generators on loan for waste management authorities. Waste management such as the construction of sanitary land fills, purchase of incinerators for recycling plants, encourage waste to wealth practices as this would actually reduce the amount of waste that would be physically available in the study area.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
One of the greatest hazards of man today is poor sanitary condition of his environment, which is being caused by his daily activities, such as waste generation, increase in population and attendant increase in agricultural, industrial and commercial activities.

Wastes are substances, materials or objects discarded as worthless or unwanted, defective or of no further value for human economic productive, activities or processes (Okechukwu, 1995).
U.S AD-Hoc Group for science and technology (1969), and Adegoke (1990) defined waste as substances and materials or objects which are disposed off according to the provision of a national law. Basically, wastes can exist in three different states-gaseous, liquid and solid. The people are more sensitive to solid waste than to the others. This is because solid wastes have the potential of accumulating and physically insulting the environment.
In the past, the advance effects of human activities were spread over large expense of land and sea. With the measure increase in pollution in recent times and the growth of cities and rapid industrialization, waste discharge have multiplies concentrated at a few model points.

 

Solid wastes are unwanted materials that cannot flow directly into steams or rise immediately in the air. They are non-liquid, non-gaseous residues of manufacturing, construction, cooking, recreation, agriculture and other activities that use and then discard materials.

 

They include glasses, bottles, outdated newspapers, carton, plastic, bottles, abandoned automobiles and automobiles parts, discarded cooking utensils, wraps, dead animals et cet era.
Effective solid waste management is achievable only when socio-economic factors are integrated into solid waste management studies. This approach would, according to Hudson and Marks (1977), make it possible to predict not only the expenditure pattern of a household and how much waste would be generated by each particular item consumed, but also the qualities of wastes generated by household.

 

The first note worthy attempt at studying this problem based on this approach was made by Boyd and Hawkins (1971) With limited success, it would be argued that this approach may make it possible to transform the data generated into an input a national solid waste generation projection since that household is the basic wait of consumption and waste generation. Projection of this nature would assist urban environmental planner to better and rationally tackle this problem of waste urban areas. In addition, waste management agencies may use the results of such studies as an instrument for improving or initiating innovations in waste management practices.
It is the realization of the need to highlight the socio-economic aspects of wastes generation and management and their implication for solid wastes managements that provided a case for the present study of Zaria city area of Kaduna state.

 

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Improper waste management leads to pollution and subsequently degradation of the environment. It also adds substances that affect the environment, which because of their nature and quantity constitute a menace to the health and well being of the individuals, the society and the environment as a whole. The Environmental Act of the United Kingdom defines waste as any substance or object which the holder discards or intends to discard (Freeman, 1990).

 

The available infrastructure for absorbing wastes generated by urban dwellers in Nigeria is grossly inadequate, consequently uncontrolled proliferation of solid wastes dumps is a common feature of most Nigerian cities. These solid wastes appears in various sizes. For example, they could be small, medium, or large depending on the number of households that the dumps serve. In most cases, these dumps are located at the backyards of the dwelling units, roadsides, gutters, streams, abandoned buildings and so on.

Most solid waste dumps are usually invaded by scavenging animals which scatter the wastes to make them breeding grounds for disease vector such as rats and flies. Besides direct contamination of water bodies by these waste, leachartes from decomposing and purifying solid wastes percolate into soil and nearby water sources which could cause disease to humans when consumed. This is particularly the case of un-collected solid wastes which find their way either back to the neighborhoods or into open river channels which become blocked, thus creating favorable breeding grounds for mosquitoes and in some cases block drainage ways, causing floods.

 

For solid wastes to be effectively managed to ensure the acceptable level of environmental quality required for sustainable growth and development in the urban settings, developing or applying accurate methods of estimating the amount of waste generated and disposed constitute a fertile area of research.
Such methods require accurate information on the types and quantities of solid wastes, generated by households the socio economic profiles of the household waste management systems and mechanisms used by the households and the waste disposal strategies.

 

 

 

Continue reading HOUSEHOLD WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

DURABILITY OF SOME FLOOR FINISHES IN BUILDING PROJECTS

(A CASE STUDY OF FLOOR FINISHES WITHIN ENUGU METROPOLIS).

 

Click here to download our android mobile app to your phone  for more materials and others

COMPLETE PROJECT  MATERIAL COST 5000 NAIRA OR $10 , 

. A FRESH TOPIC NOT LISTED ON OUR WEBSITE COST 50,000 NAIRA ( UNDERGRADUATE) OR 100,000 FOR SECOND DEGREE STUDENTS. $500. PLUS  FREE SUPPORT UNTIL YOU FINISH YOUR PROJECT WORK. CONTACT US TODAY, WE MAKE A DIFFERENT. DESIGN AND WRITING IS OUR SKILLED.  DESIGN AND WRITING IS OUR SKILLED.

Note: our case study can be change to suit your desire location . we are here for your success.

                                   ORDER NOW

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
 GTBANK
Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment :
Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
 Account Number:  0117780667. 
Swift Code: GTBINGLA 
Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANKER SECURITY GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>DELIVERY PERIOD FOR BANK PAYMENT IS  LESS THAN 2 HOURS

How to transfer from your bank account to All  Nigeria banks without internet

1. Access Bank:
—-*901#

2. EcoBank:
—-*326#

3. Fidelity Bank:
—-*770#

4. FCMB:
—-*389*214#

5. First Bank
—-*894#

6. GTB:
—-*737#

7. Heritage Bank:
—-*322*030#

8. Keystone Bank:
—-*322*082#

9. Sky Bank:
—-*389*076*1#

10. Stanbic IBTC:
—-*909#

11. Sterling Bank:
—-*822#

12. UBA:
—-*389*033*1#

13. Unity Bank:
—-*322*215#

14. Zenith Bank:
—-*966#

15. Diamond Bank
—-*710*555#

To know your BVN, dial
—-*565*0#.

E.g for First bank…   *894 *Amount *Acct. No. #

Please dail d code from d number u used to register d account from the bank

CALL OKEKE CHIDI C ON :  08074466939,08063386834.

AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO

08074466939 or 08063386834, YOUR PROJECT TITLE  YOU WANT US TO SEND TO YOU, AMOUNT PAID, DEPOSITOR NAME, UR EMAIL ADDRESS,PAYMENT DATE. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR MATERIAL IN LESS THAN 2 HOURS ONCE WILL CONFIRM YOUR PAYMENT.

WE HAVE SECURITY IN OUR BUSINESS.   

MONEY BACK GUARANTEE

 

                                   ABSTRACT

Floor finishes is a vital component in any building structure and lots of

defects happen to the floor finishes though many of them could be

traceable to the sub floor defect. The objective of the study is to clearly

identify the various types of floor finishing prevalent in Enugu Metropolis,

their strength and weakness, also to study the cause of failure in floor

finish and how to correct them. Finally the research will evaluate the

maintenance culture of occupants regarding their floor finishing within the

metropolis. The study commences with the review of some past relevant

literature with the intention of making use of the important facts.

Data were collected using the questionnaires and analysis of the collected

data also made line with the hypothesis and are processed by the use of

tables, focus was on the generation summary statistics such as

percentages. The result of the study showed that without a proper

maintenance culture on floor finishes, deterioration and failure in floor

finish will be a reoccurring decimal in our building structure. The study

revealed that most of the defects in floor finishes emanated from defects

in structural floors or the improper laying of beds or joint on which applied

floor finishes are laid and as a result of this, where defects occur relaying

of the finishes is the only answer to the problems but care must be taken

to avoid dis-stabilizing the stability of the structural floor and maintain even

level between newly laid finishes and old ones. The following

recommendations are made:

  1. Before any material is used as floor finishes, it should be tested and

analyzed in order to determine and establish the compressive strength

and duration.

  1. Emphasis should be laid on suitable materials /finishes than cheep

materials/finishes, so as to reduce failure in finishes.

  1. Knowledge of finishes serviceability duration should be known.
  2. A good maintenance culture should be maintained.

As this will go along way to enhance the life span of our various floor finishes.

 

 

Chapter one

1.0 Introduction ========================================= 1

1.1 Background of the study ================================ 4

1.2 Aims and objective of the study =========================== 5

1.3 Statement of the study ================================== 5

1.4 Research questions =================================== 6

1.5 Research hypothesis =================================== 7

1.6 Scope and limitation of study ============================= 7

1.7 Definition of terms common in this study ===================== 7

Chapter two

2.1 Literature review ====================================== 9

2.2 Floors and their associated finishes ========================= 10

2.3 Concrete Finish =================================== 11

2.4 Terrazzo Finish =================================== 13

2.5 Granolithic Concreting ================================= 17

2.6 Thin Surface Finish =================================== 21

2.7 Jointless Floor finish ================================== 22

2.8 Linoleum =================================== 25

2.9 Cork Tiles and Carpets ======== ======================== 27

2.10 Appearance ========================================= 31

2.11 Slipperiness ========================================= 31

2.12 Warmth ============================================ 32

2.13 Quietness ============================================32

2.14 Resilience ========================================== 33

2.15 Resistance to abrasion ====================== =========== 33

2.16 Resistance to water and other liquids ====================== 33

2.17 Atmospheric moisture ================================ 34

2.18 Indentation ========================================= 34

2.19 Impact ============================================ 35

2.20 Resistance to sunlight ================================== 35

2.21 Resistance to moulds and fungi =========================== 35

2.22 Resistance to temperature and fire ========================= 36

Chapter three

3.1 Methodology design ================================== 37

3.2 Sample Size ======================================== 38

3.3 Method of collecting data =============================== 39

3.4 Primary data ======================================== 40

3.5 Secondary sources ==================================== 40

3.6 Questionnaire Design ================================= 40

3.7 Description of questionnaire ============================ 41

3.8 Technique for data organization/analysis ==================== 41

Chapter four

4.0 Data Presentation/analysis ============================== 42

Chapter five

5.0 Summary conclusion and recommendation ================== 52

5.1 Summary ========================================= 52

5.2 Conclusion ======================================== 53

5.3 Recommendation =================================== 53

Reference ============================================= 55

Appendix ============================================= 57

List of the table

Table 3.2.1 Percentage of returned questionnaires 39

Table 4.2.1 Stratification of responding professions 42

Table 4.2.2 Classification of building type 43

Table 4.2.3 Type of floor finishes in use by respondents 43

Table 4.2.4 Factors influencing choice of floor finish 44

Table 4.2.5 Years of occupancy of property 45

Table 4.2.6 Frequency of maintain ace work on floor finish 45

Table 4.2.7 Relationship between failures in finishes and maintain ace

Culture 46

Table 4.2.8 Can the failure in floor finishes be caused by functional

Failure in the structure 47

Table 4.2.9 Can the cost of maintaining floor finishes affect the

Maintenance culture of such a floor finishes 48

1

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Floor finishes are the final substance applied on the surface of floor

before the floor is put to use. Most floor systems of a building are not

exposed to the climatic element and their weathering effects, since a

floor system must support traffic however durability, resistance to wear

and easy of maintain are critical factors in the selection of a floor

system and its finish. The desired finishes and their visual properties

(materials, color, texture and pattern) help to determine the choice of

floor system which can mostly support these finishes

The choice of and preparation of specification for flooring systems to

protect substrates from chemical attach or provide hygienic finishes is

an exercise all too often couched in financial considerations.

Floor finishes except in a few special constructions do not contribute to

the strength of floor; they are therefore used for one or more of the

following reasons.

  1. To provide an attractive appearance.
  2. To increase the comfort and safety to the user.

iii. To hide certain services like cable/pipes in the floor.

  1. Protect the structural floor from wear tear or corrosion.

Each of this primary function that is considered to be the most

important will depend on the proposed use.

Many materials that are used as finishes on floors, each one have

properties suited to a particular usage, durability and ease of cleaning

are essential in all. Case of specific services requirement may call for

special properties such as resistance to hard wear, comfort to users

2

and attractive appearance. At home good appearance and comfort will

be more important.

Any given floor finish must provide the desired balance of properties

and must be sufficiently durable. It will be expected to last for a period

commensurate with its initial cost, the cost of replacement and any

cost arising from disorganization associated with its replacement and

this implies that from all ramification of its need, a good value is

required.

A lot of factors affects the life of a floor finish, most important is the

ever-present abrasive action of traffic, the action of liquid in producing

dimensional changes, erosion and corrosion, the impact of falling

object and the dent caused by heavy loads. There is therefore a series

of secondary requirement that the finish must fulfill, which will depend

on the condition of services though they must be considered in relation

to those four mentioned above.

When selecting floor finish many factors deserve consideration but not

all the factors are of equal importance, furthermore, requirement vary

in different parts of the building, for instance, resistance to oil, grease,

moisture is relevant in a kitchen but not on a bedroom, and

appearance could be important in a lounge but is of little consequence

in a store.

The essential properties to be considered are:

  1. a) Durability: The material must have a reasonable life to avoid

premature replacement with resultant textured, cost and

inconvenience.

  1. b) Resistance to wear: This includes resistance to indentation

where the floor has to withstand heavy furniture, fittings or

equipment and resistance to abrasion in building subject to

heavy pedestrian traffic and moveable equipment.

3

  1. c) Economy: Reasonable initial and maintenance cost, having

regards to the class of building and the particular building.

  1. d) Resistance to oil, grease, and chemicals: This is particularly

important in domestic kitchen, laboratory and some factory.

  1. e) Resistance to moisture: This is important in domestic

bathrooms, entrance passage and halls and in some industrial

buildings.

  1. f) Ease of cleaning: This is of increasing important in many classes

of building as the labour intensive cleaning cost continue to rise

in a disproportionate rate.

  1. g) Warmth: Some finishes are much warmer than other and this

may be an important consideration.

  1. h) Non – Slip qualities: These are particularly important in

bathrooms and kitchen where floors may become damp.

  1. i) Sound absorption: Libraries need floor finishes with high degree

of sound absorption.

  1. j) Appearance: This is an important consideration in many rooms

of domestic building, although the current tendency to fully

carpet rooms may not justify the provision of more expansive but

attractive floor finishes such as wood blocks and strip flooring.

  1. k) Resilience: Some flexibility or “given” is often desirable.

For industrial installations, despite the importance of floor

specifications for floor finishes generally reflect short-term budget

rather than long term stability, inviting early failure. Financial

considerations for floor finishes should be confined to comparing bids

for the ideal specifications complied with the end use in mind.

There are many specific considerations to be taken into account when

deriving a suitable specification for a given situation, not least the

following:

4

  1. The location of the structure to be protected, its method of

construction and condition if it is an existing substrate.

  1. The composition, concentration and temperatures of all fluids or

solids which may be in contact with floor surface as a result of

the inherent processes, if these vary from area to area it should

be clearly stated and designated area clearly marked to allow

selection of materials appropriate to each area.

  1. Loading characteristics of the substrate and their ability to

withstand additional superimposed loads from toppings, tiles,

brick or composite surfacing.

  1. Details of pedestrian and wheeled traffic, including wheel

loadings and the nature of wheel contact surface.

  1. Detail of isolated activities such as drum handling and storage

and the loading involved, and the areas to which they apply.

  1. The type of floor drainage contemplated i.e. outlets or drainage

channels.

  1. The nature, concentration and temperature of all cleaning agents

which will be used on the floor including any materials used for

cleaning equipment and pipe work since these are usually

discharged on the floor or preferable into channels.

Comprehensive information from the end user in these respect will

give the specifier the maximum information with which to derive an

appropriate specification for a durable finish.

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Finishes generally do not contribute to the strength of the floors but it

adds beauty or co lour to the floor. There is wide variety of material for

floor finishes and each should be evaluated within the context of

5

Enugu Metropolis in relation to the above mentioned requirement, so

that it can be suitable for any particular type of usage.

Enugu is the capital city of Enugu State, Nigeria. It has a population of

668,862 (2007 estimate). The people of Enugu belong largely to the

Igbo ethnic group, which is one of the three largest ethnic groups in

Nigeria. Enugu was originally the capital of the Eastern Region from

Nigeria’s independence in 1960. On May 27, 1967 Enugu was made

the capital of East Central State, while on May 30, 1967, it was

declared the first capital of the short-lived nation of the Republic of

Biafra. Enugu became a major center for the mining of the coal

discovered by Albert Ernest Kitson in the Udi plateau. The Nigerian

coal corporation has been based in Enugu since its creation in 1950.

In this study, the research will evaluate the floor finishes in building as

prevalent within the Enugu Metropolis (Residential, Industrial and

Office buildings). The research will also study the cause of failure in

finishes and means of handling the causes so as to improve on the

performance of different floor finishes.

The research will identify maintenance medium of floors in order for

the serviceability strength of these finish to be maximized.

1.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The aim of this study is to ascertain the durability of some floor

finishing in building projects within Enugu Metropolis.

THE OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY ARE AS FOLLOWS

  1. The various types of floor finishing prevalent in Enugu

Metropolis, their strength and weakness.

6

  1. To study the cause of failure in floor finish and how to correct

them.

  1. To evaluate the maintenance culture of occupants regarding

their floor finishing within the metropolis.

1.3 STATEMENT OF THE STUDY

CONFLICT RESOLUTION IN LANDLORD AND TENANT RELATIONSHIP

CONFLICT RESOLUTION IN LANDLORD AND TENANT RELATIONSHIP:  A CASE STUDY OF LAGOS METROPOLIS

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15. Diamond Bank
—-*710*555#

To know your BVN, dial
—-*565*0#.

E.g for First bank…   *894 *Amount *Acct. No. #

Please dail d code from d number u used to register d account from the bank

CALL OKEKE CHIDI C ON :  08074466939,08063386834.

AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO

08074466939 or 08063386834, YOUR PROJECT TITLE  YOU WANT US TO SEND TO YOU, AMOUNT PAID, DEPOSITOR NAME, UR EMAIL ADDRESS,PAYMENT DATE. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR MATERIAL IN LESS THAN 2 HOURS ONCE WILL CONFIRM YOUR PAYMENT.

WE HAVE SECURITY IN OUR BUSINESS.   

MONEY BACK GUARANTEE

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0 Background of study                                                     1

1.1 Statement of Research problem                                      2

1.2 Aim and objectives                                                                2

1.3 Research questions                                                               3

1.4 Justification of study                                                      3

1.5 Limitation of study                                                         4

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 Introduction                                                                  5

2.1 Creation of landlord and tenant relationship                      5

2.2 Socio economic justification of the relationship                  8

2.3 Termination of the relationship                                                10

2.4 Conceptual framework and definition                                       11

2.5 Causes of conflict in landlord and tenant relationship         13

2.6 Consequences of conflict in landlord and

tenant relationship                                                         15

2.7 Conflict Resolution                                                         16

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Description of study area                                                       23

3.2 Research design and source of data                                        23

3.3 population 0f study                                                        24

3.4 Sampling technique and determination of sample size               24

3.5 Procedures for data collection and analysis                               25

 CHAPTER FOUR

 PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

4.1 Presentation and analysis of data                                    26

CHAPTER FIVE

 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, RECOMENDATIONS AND

CONCULSION                                                                 

5.1 Summary of findings                                                     36

5.2 Recommendations                                                         36

5.3 Conclusion                                                                    37

5.4 Suggestion for further study                                           38

References                                                                39

Appendices                                                                        48

 

 

LIST OF TABLES

Table 0.1:  Summary of critical selection criteria in dispute resolution

Table 1:  distribution of Respondents                                            26

Table 2:  Accommodation Distribution                                            27

Table 3:  Mode of creation of Tenancy                                           28

Table 4:  Main causes of landlord and tenant conflicts                     28

Table 5:  Money related causes of conflicts in landlord and

Tenant relationship                                                                29

Table 6:  The methods adopted in resolving landlord and

tenant conflicts                                                            29

Table 7:  Non- litigation method of resolving landlord and

tenant conflict                                                               30

Table 8:  Litigation time used in resolving landlord and

tenant dispute                                                             30

Table 9:  ADR time used in resolving landlord and tenant conflicts                                                                                                    31

Table 10:   Cost of resolution of conflicts in landlord and

Tenant using Litigation                                                   31

Table 11:   Cost of resolution by alternative dispute resolution method                                                                                                      32

Table 12:   Respondent – Litigation’s impression of litigation                    32

Table 13:   Effectiveness of ADR over litigation                                       33

Table 14:   Prominence of rental issue in landlord and tenant conflict                                                                                                        33

 

 

 

 

ABSTRACT

Landlord and tenant relationship is a common everything phase describing the legal relation existing between the lessor and lessees of that estate which is created whenever one person ( lessor) vests on another person (lessee) the right to exclusive possession and use of a given real property for a duration certain or capable of ascertain ability. This study is aimed at determine the causes of conflicts in landlord and tenant relationships and resolution of the conflict with a view to proffering more dynamic landlord and tenant conflict resolution strategies.

In landlord and tenant relationship, conflict can prevent landlord from earning a fair returns on his rent accruing from the property just as the desire of the tenant to derive maximum utility from his occupation will suffer defeat.

To aid carrying out this study, two types of data will be applied. These are based on primary and secondary source of data collection.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

        INTRODUCTION

  • BACKGROUND OF STDUY

The objectives of landlord and tenant relationships is to enable the landlord look after and maintain his property in order to keep at-float in the property market in order to gain optimal returns from the property while tenants, on the order hand, want the best value for the rent paid and all the services stipulated during lease negotiations.

Hence lease is both a contract and a conveyance it sets forth the terms of the agreement between the parties (landlord and tenant).it enables the landlord regulate tenant occupation while enabling tenant known precisely his right and obligations for his occupation.

The history of landlord and tenant relationship socio-economically and legally, dates back to creation when the first landlord the lord God, leased his property the Garden of Eden to the tenant Adam to “dress it  and to keep it, and to freely eat of every tree of the Garden” while the tenant like manner and without denying or tampering with the landlords reversionary interest, the breach of which was epitomized by eating of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil Gen(2 : 15-4).

The social and economic contributions of landlord relationship recommend the relationship for proper attention and protection to ensure cordiality in its operations.

This research was informed by the personal desire of the researcher to find solution to the problems besetting the relationship with a view to ensuring its peaceful and beneficial existence since that forms the bedrock of successful property management.

 

 

 

1.1 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH   PROBLEMS

An essential ingredient in the achievement of the objective of landlord and tenant in entering into contract is cordial relationship although the interest of the parties are not mutually exclusive, conflict in the relationship can prevent landlord from earning a fair returns on his investment in the property just as the desire of the tenant to derive maximum utility from occupation will also suffer defeat, the society will be worse of it.

Therefore, to give opportunity to all ranks of interests associate with the particular property to be exercised without friction the lease sets out rights and obligations for both landlord and tenant.

Today neither the landlord nor the tenant meets his obligations under the lease because with the steady fall in the real value of his income the tenant finds it difficult to pay his rent promptly or sufficiently of utility bills. The landlord still wants to derive maximum utility from his temporary occupation. The obvious consequence is conflict in relationship between landlord and tenant, and the objective of the relationship will hardly be realized in the presence of conflict.

1.2   AIM AND OBJECTIVES

The main aim of this study is to proffer resolution of conflict which has being in existence between landlord and tenant relationship.

The following objectives will be adopted to achieve the aim:

  • To ascertain causes of conflict in landlord and tenant relationship.
  • Identify methods adopted in resolution of these conflicts
  • Assess method adopted in resolution of the conflict
  • Identify and recommend ways of improving resolution of conflicts in landlord and tenant relationship.

1.3   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

Against the above background, this study was undertaking to address the following research question:

1 what constitute a landlord and tenant?

2 what are the causes of conflict in landlord and tenant relationship?

3 what are the consequence of conflict between a landlord and tenant?

4 what are the method to be adopted in  conflict resolution

5 what are the benefits of conflict resolution in landlord and tenant relationship.

1.4 JUSTIFICATION OF STUDY

This study will be of immense assistance to both landlord and tenant in maintaining a cordial relationship for peaceful co-existence and also to the estate surveyor and valuers in clear understanding of lease terms and enforcement of leases on both the landlord and tenant from the initial stage to the conclusion of the lease agreement to avert conflicts.

STUDY AREA

According to Oni (2009) Lagos is the largest city in Nigeria with the estimates of its population varying considerably but generally range from 10 to 15.5 million people. It is the second largest city in Africa located at 6(degrees) 34’ 60”N, 3(Degrees) 19’ 59”E along the West Africa coast. It is the former capital city of Nigeria replaced by Abuja on 12th December 1991 but remains the commercial centre of Nigeria the city of Lagos is expected to hit 24.5 million population marks and thus be among ten most populous cities in the world by the year 2015.

The Lagos metropolitan area spreads over much of Lagos state, which itself covers an area approximately 3,345 square kilometres. It is located on four principal islands and adjacent parts of mainland by bridges and landfills, with major sections of the metropolis that include the old city serving as the commercial district on western Lagos island Ikoyi island is situated east of Lagos island and joined to it by a landfill, while Apapa is the chief port district located on the mainland- other components of the metropolis are Victoria island, industrialised Iddo island consisting of mainland suburbs, Ebute meta, Yaba, Surulere, Ajegunle, Shomolu, Agege, Mushin and Ikeja (Oni, 2008).

Research of this study is carried out only on landlord and tenant of developed properties occupied for residence and commercial that are being managed by Estate surveyors and Valuers in Lagos metropolis were investigated.

LIMITATION

DURABILITY OF SOME FLOOR FINISHES IN BUILDING PROJECTS

(A CASE STUDY OF FLOOR FINISHES WITHIN ENUGU METROPOLIS). 5000 naira for complete material .

                                   ABSTRACT

 

Floor finishes is a vital component in any building structure and lots of

defects happen to the floor finishes though many of them could be

traceable to the sub floor defect. The objective of the study is to clearly

identify the various types of floor finishing prevalent in Enugu Metropolis,

their strength and weakness, also to study the cause of failure in floor

finish and how to correct them. Finally the research will evaluate the

maintenance culture of occupants regarding their floor finishing within the

metropolis. The study commences with the review of some past relevant

literature with the intention of making use of the important facts.

Data were collected using the questionnaires and analysis of the collected

data also made line with the hypothesis and are processed by the use of

tables, focus was on the generation summary statistics such as

percentages. The result of the study showed that without a proper

maintenance culture on floor finishes, deterioration and failure in floor

finish will be a reoccurring decimal in our building structure. The study

revealed that most of the defects in floor finishes emanated from defects

in structural floors or the improper laying of beds or joint on which applied

floor finishes are laid and as a result of this, where defects occur relaying

of the finishes is the only answer to the problems but care must be taken

to avoid dis-stabilizing the stability of the structural floor and maintain even

level between newly laid finishes and old ones. The following

recommendations are made:

  1. Before any material is used as floor finishes, it should be tested and

analyzed in order to determine and establish the compressive strength

and duration.

  1. Emphasis should be laid on suitable materials /finishes than cheep

materials/finishes, so as to reduce failure in finishes.

  1. Knowledge of finishes serviceability duration should be known.
  2. A good maintenance culture should be maintained.

As this will go along way to enhance the life span of our various floor finishes.

 

 

Chapter one

1.0 Introduction ========================================= 1

1.1 Background of the study ================================ 4

1.2 Aims and objective of the study =========================== 5

1.3 Statement of the study ================================== 5

1.4 Research questions =================================== 6

1.5 Research hypothesis =================================== 7

1.6 Scope and limitation of study ============================= 7

1.7 Definition of terms common in this study ===================== 7

Chapter two

2.1 Literature review ====================================== 9

2.2 Floors and their associated finishes ========================= 10

2.3 Concrete Finish =================================== 11

2.4 Terrazzo Finish =================================== 13

2.5 Granolithic Concreting ================================= 17

2.6 Thin Surface Finish =================================== 21

2.7 Jointless Floor finish ================================== 22

2.8 Linoleum =================================== 25

2.9 Cork Tiles and Carpets ======== ======================== 27

2.10 Appearance ========================================= 31

2.11 Slipperiness ========================================= 31

2.12 Warmth ============================================ 32

2.13 Quietness ============================================32

2.14 Resilience ========================================== 33

2.15 Resistance to abrasion ====================== =========== 33

2.16 Resistance to water and other liquids ====================== 33

2.17 Atmospheric moisture ================================ 34

2.18 Indentation ========================================= 34

2.19 Impact ============================================ 35

2.20 Resistance to sunlight ================================== 35

2.21 Resistance to moulds and fungi =========================== 35

2.22 Resistance to temperature and fire ========================= 36

Chapter three

3.1 Methodology design ================================== 37

3.2 Sample Size ======================================== 38

3.3 Method of collecting data =============================== 39

3.4 Primary data ======================================== 40

3.5 Secondary sources ==================================== 40

3.6 Questionnaire Design ================================= 40

3.7 Description of questionnaire ============================ 41

3.8 Technique for data organization/analysis ==================== 41

Chapter four

4.0 Data Presentation/analysis ============================== 42

Chapter five

5.0 Summary conclusion and recommendation ================== 52

5.1 Summary ========================================= 52

5.2 Conclusion ======================================== 53

5.3 Recommendation =================================== 53

Reference ============================================= 55

Appendix ============================================= 57

List of the table

Table 3.2.1 Percentage of returned questionnaires 39

Table 4.2.1 Stratification of responding professions 42

Table 4.2.2 Classification of building type 43

Table 4.2.3 Type of floor finishes in use by respondents 43

Table 4.2.4 Factors influencing choice of floor finish 44

Table 4.2.5 Years of occupancy of property 45

Table 4.2.6 Frequency of maintain ace work on floor finish 45

Table 4.2.7 Relationship between failures in finishes and maintain ace

Culture 46

Table 4.2.8 Can the failure in floor finishes be caused by functional

Failure in the structure 47

Table 4.2.9 Can the cost of maintaining floor finishes affect the

Maintenance culture of such a floor finishes 48

1

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Floor finishes are the final substance applied on the surface of floor

before the floor is put to use. Most floor systems of a building are not

exposed to the climatic element and their weathering effects, since a

floor system must support traffic however durability, resistance to wear

and easy of maintain are critical factors in the selection of a floor

system and its finish. The desired finishes and their visual properties

(materials, color, texture and pattern) help to determine the choice of

floor system which can mostly support these finishes

The choice of and preparation of specification for flooring systems to

protect substrates from chemical attach or provide hygienic finishes is

an exercise all too often couched in financial considerations.

Floor finishes except in a few special constructions do not contribute to

the strength of floor; they are therefore used for one or more of the

following reasons.

  1. To provide an attractive appearance.
  2. To increase the comfort and safety to the user.

iii. To hide certain services like cable/pipes in the floor.

  1. Protect the structural floor from wear tear or corrosion.

Each of this primary function that is considered to be the most

important will depend on the proposed use.

Many materials that are used as finishes on floors, each one have

properties suited to a particular usage, durability and ease of cleaning

are essential in all. Case of specific services requirement may call for

special properties such as resistance to hard wear, comfort to users

2

and attractive appearance. At home good appearance and comfort will

be more important.

Any given floor finish must provide the desired balance of properties

and must be sufficiently durable. It will be expected to last for a period

commensurate with its initial cost, the cost of replacement and any

cost arising from disorganization associated with its replacement and

this implies that from all ramification of its need, a good value is

required.

A lot of factors affects the life of a floor finish, most important is the

ever-present abrasive action of traffic, the action of liquid in producing

dimensional changes, erosion and corrosion, the impact of falling

object and the dent caused by heavy loads. There is therefore a series

of secondary requirement that the finish must fulfill, which will depend

on the condition of services though they must be considered in relation

to those four mentioned above.

When selecting floor finish many factors deserve consideration but not

all the factors are of equal importance, furthermore, requirement vary

in different parts of the building, for instance, resistance to oil, grease,

moisture is relevant in a kitchen but not on a bedroom, and

appearance could be important in a lounge but is of little consequence

in a store.

The essential properties to be considered are:

  1. a) Durability: The material must have a reasonable life to avoid

premature replacement with resultant textured, cost and

inconvenience.

  1. b) Resistance to wear: This includes resistance to indentation

where the floor has to withstand heavy furniture, fittings or

equipment and resistance to abrasion in building subject to

heavy pedestrian traffic and moveable equipment.

3

  1. c) Economy: Reasonable initial and maintenance cost, having

regards to the class of building and the particular building.

  1. d) Resistance to oil, grease, and chemicals: This is particularly

important in domestic kitchen, laboratory and some factory.

  1. e) Resistance to moisture: This is important in domestic

bathrooms, entrance passage and halls and in some industrial

buildings.

  1. f) Ease of cleaning: This is of increasing important in many classes

of building as the labour intensive cleaning cost continue to rise

in a disproportionate rate.

  1. g) Warmth: Some finishes are much warmer than other and this

may be an important consideration.

  1. h) Non – Slip qualities: These are particularly important in

bathrooms and kitchen where floors may become damp.

  1. i) Sound absorption: Libraries need floor finishes with high degree

of sound absorption.

  1. j) Appearance: This is an important consideration in many rooms

of domestic building, although the current tendency to fully

carpet rooms may not justify the provision of more expansive but

attractive floor finishes such as wood blocks and strip flooring.

  1. k) Resilience: Some flexibility or “given” is often desirable.

For industrial installations, despite the importance of floor

specifications for floor finishes generally reflect short-term budget

rather than long term stability, inviting early failure. Financial

considerations for floor finishes should be confined to comparing bids

for the ideal specifications complied with the end use in mind.

There are many specific considerations to be taken into account when

deriving a suitable specification for a given situation, not least the

following:

4

  1. The location of the structure to be protected, its method of

construction and condition if it is an existing substrate.

  1. The composition, concentration and temperatures of all fluids or

solids which may be in contact with floor surface as a result of

the inherent processes, if these vary from area to area it should

be clearly stated and designated area clearly marked to allow

selection of materials appropriate to each area.

  1. Loading characteristics of the substrate and their ability to

withstand additional superimposed loads from toppings, tiles,

brick or composite surfacing.

  1. Details of pedestrian and wheeled traffic, including wheel

loadings and the nature of wheel contact surface.

  1. Detail of isolated activities such as drum handling and storage

and the loading involved, and the areas to which they apply.

  1. The type of floor drainage contemplated i.e. outlets or drainage

channels.

  1. The nature, concentration and temperature of all cleaning agents

which will be used on the floor including any materials used for

cleaning equipment and pipe work since these are usually

discharged on the floor or preferable into channels.

Comprehensive information from the end user in these respect will

give the specifier the maximum information with which to derive an

appropriate specification for a durable finish.

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Finishes generally do not contribute to the strength of the floors but it

adds beauty or co lour to the floor. There is wide variety of material for

floor finishes and each should be evaluated within the context of

5

Enugu Metropolis in relation to the above mentioned requirement, so

that it can be suitable for any particular type of usage.

Enugu is the capital city of Enugu State, Nigeria. It has a population of

668,862 (2007 estimate). The people of Enugu belong largely to the

Igbo ethnic group, which is one of the three largest ethnic groups in

Nigeria. Enugu was originally the capital of the Eastern Region from

Nigeria’s independence in 1960. On May 27, 1967 Enugu was made

the capital of East Central State, while on May 30, 1967, it was

declared the first capital of the short-lived nation of the Republic of

Biafra. Enugu became a major center for the mining of the coal

discovered by Albert Ernest Kitson in the Udi plateau. The Nigerian

coal corporation has been based in Enugu since its creation in 1950.

In this study, the research will evaluate the floor finishes in building as

prevalent within the Enugu Metropolis (Residential, Industrial and

Office buildings). The research will also study the cause of failure in

finishes and means of handling the causes so as to improve on the

performance of different floor finishes.

The research will identify maintenance medium of floors in order for

the serviceability strength of these finish to be maximized.

1.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The aim of this study is to ascertain the durability of some floor

finishing in building projects within Enugu Metropolis.

THE OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY ARE AS FOLLOWS

  1. The various types of floor finishing prevalent in Enugu

Metropolis, their strength and weakness.

6

  1. To study the cause of failure in floor finish and how to correct

them.

  1. To evaluate the maintenance culture of occupants regarding

their floor finishing within the metropolis.

1.3 STATEMENT OF THE STUDY

 

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ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF THE PROVISION OF HOUSING ESTATE ON RESIDENTIAL HOUSING DELIVERY

(A CASE STUDY OF WORLD BANK HOUSING ESTATE OWERRI)

This dissertation deals chiefly with an analysis of the effect of the provision of housing estate on residential housing delivery with a case study of world bank housing estate Owerri.  The key impetus for this research on the analysis of the effect of the provision of housing estates on other residential house in this particular area of study arises from its sudden changes in states.

This study examines the effect of this changes on the physical environment and the population of the study area with particular emphasis on the area of provision of residential units and the provision of basic social amenities and infrastructures as be pithy the advancement in the status of the world bank housing estate.

This also examines the sole aim of provided housing estate and the its effect on other residential houses in the area study.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

1.1  Introduction

1.2  Statement of problems

1.3  Aims and objectives of the study

1.4  Research questions

1.5  Significance of the study the scope of study

1.6  The scope of study

1.7  Limitation of the study

1.8  Over-view of the study

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature review

2.1 Definition of terms

2.2 Factors affecting housing demand

2.3 Factors affecting housing supply

2.4 Housing finance

2.5 Effects of the provision of housing estate on residential housing.

2.6 Efforts to the state federal government to housing delivery system.

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.1 Research design and methodology

3.2 Sources of data collection

3.4 Sample of size

3.5 Method of data collection

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.1 Data presentation and analysis

4.2 Analysis dare collected from the d

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 Findings recommendation, summary and conclusion

5.1 Findings

5.2 Recommendation

5.3 Summary and conclusion

Bibliography appendix

CHAPTER ONE

 INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Housing is seen as one of the most important for the physical survival of man after the provision of food. It contributes to the physical and moral hearth of a nation and stimulates the social stability, the work efficiency and the development of the individuals. But in spite of these facts there is on doubt that housing in quantitative terms is still one of the major problems facing the Nigerian Urbanities and governments beside the characteristic slums and conditions it is becoming increasingly difficult for average Nigerians to own houses. Also it is very difficult to procure decent accommodation at reasonable rent in the market. The rent are high in each state and fairly high in the other state capitals, but still not commensurate with the monthly in comes of all categories of low, middle and upper wage earners and the self-employed.

The major cause of high rent is that the supply of housing is fair less than demand. The recommended 20 percent of the monthly income on rent. The problems are more acute in those cities and towns where ad commercial and industrial activities have long been established, fast growing and concentrated cities. To find houses to rent is a big problem and if such houses are eventually found, they are let out at very exorbitant prices that take a large percentage or the monthly income of the acceptant not minding the location and the accessibility of the residence to the place of work. Until recently for an was becoming exceedingly very difficult for an average wage earner as well as the self –employed individuals to build houses of their own within a long period of time say ten years through their private savings. Most civil servants in Nigeria between 1978 and 1988 cloud hardly make some savings not to take of building houses of their own. Also, the cost of building materials is very exhobitant, cost of land, labour and professional fees are very high which has led to the situation whereby the construction cost per square meter is far more than what an individual could meet after the provision of food and other social needs.

Also due to the fact that individual cannot own houses of their own as a result of the high construction cost involved, it has contributed to people hiring at very exorbitant rates because there are more buyers one of housing good than the supply of those goods and services. The effect of this housing shortage mostly predominately in Urban areas not only led to over crowing in several cities, it has also led to many taking shelter under the bridges, schacks and make shifts (as in the case of lagos). The most unfortunate thing is that the existing residential buildings are not suitable to modern needs and lack in converses such as water closets (Wcs),P,Pe-borne water, power supply, open spaces etc. the situation prompted the united Nations to launch the aggressive programme of shelter for all in the year 2000.

To achieve this, the federal government of Nigeria incorporated it in the Nation’s third development plan (1975-1980) and sought to participate actively in the provision of housing for all income groups achieve significant increase in housing supply and bring relief especially to the low income earners and the self- employed who where the most affected by the acute shortage a situation whereby the Urban worker paid over 20% of his monthly income on rent. This has led to the provision of Estates by both the  federal and the state government in order to increase the housing stock available to the Urban population. It is on this background that this work tries to examine the effect of these housing Estates on Residential Housing Delivery.

 

1.2    STATEMENTS OF PROBLEMS

Government all over the world especially in developing countries embarks on the provision of housing Estate for their Wizens, this is usually to argument housing provision by the private sector of the economy. Although these estates were established by law and status, they present management problems inducing legal, physical, Financial, social – political and other problems such that in recent time management of public housing Estate has presented hydra-headed problems. These problems manifest themselves in the form of dilapidated buildings, poor sanctuary and environmental condition all resulting from poor management and lack of maintenance.

This cleary, the crux of the housing problems in Nigeria today relate to the low income groups which constitute the main elements of both Urban and rural population with all these factors mentioned above one sees the housing problems in general as the problems that motivated both the federal and the state government, the Imo state government and the Imo state Urban and housing corporation and all the other state government and housing corporations to formulate their housing programmes. This is because good residential housing gives room for more production.

1.3  AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The main aim of this research work is to evaluate the effect of housing estate on the residential housing provision in the Nigerian Urban cities: To achieve this aim the following objectives are set out.

(1)                     To identify the various housing estates in the study area.

(2)                     To determine the quantity (number)of houses provided through the Imo housing corporation in Owerri

(3)                     To determine the effect of these housing Estate on the residential housing provision

(4)                     To identify problems and constraints of the Imo housing corporate in the provision and management of these housing Estates.

(5)                     To recommend ways of ameliorating the problems in (4) four above with a view of providing more housing Estate in the urban area.

 

1.4                      RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIRES

  1. Mention various housing estate in Imo state Owerri
  2. What is the quantity number of housing provided by the Owerri housing co-operation?
  3. What are the effect of these housing estates on the residential housing provision?
  4. What are the problems encountered by the Owerri housing co-operation in the provision and management of these housing estates?
  5. Recommend ways of ameliorating the problems with a view of providing more housing estates in the urban area.

 

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THE NATURE AND CONSEQUENCES OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY IN NIGERIA: A STUDY OF ENUGU NORTH LGA, ENUGU STATE

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