Category Archives: Estate management project material samples

INVESTMENT IN AGRICULTURAL PROPERTY AS A CATALYST

INVESTMENT IN AGRICULTURAL PROPERTY AS A CATALYST IN ORUMBA NORTH L.G.A OR ANAMBRA STATE

 

 

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ABSTRACT

Investment in agriculture was purely on subsistence basis in the past until recent when it has been operated on large scale. It is a booming venture in developed countries of world. In Nigeria, it is mainly focused on cash crops. Live stocks, fishery. Wood lands pasture lane etc. Most of them are owned by government and their agents. The emphasis and campaign placed on agricultural property investment has made individuals to embark on such venture. Due to the fact that the benefit derived from agriculture and numerous, the government has started giving proper attention to investing in agricultural properties rather than hoping on oil for the economy. In this project research work, the main objectives are to discuss, on the investment in agricultural properties as a catalyst in Orumba North local Government Area, the types and their importance the impacts, problems affecting it etc. Going by the widely prevalent thirst are urge for investing in agricultural property however, my recommendations are conclusion are very lively to favour the positive effects.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPER ONE

  • Introduction

1.1     Background of study

1.2     Statement of problem

1.3     Research questions

1.4     Purpose of the study

1.5     Significant of the study

1.6     Limitation of the study

1.7     Definition of terms

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     Literature Review

2.1     History / overview

2.2     Source of investment (investment options)

2.3     Property as an investment

2.4     Investment in Agricultural property in Nigeria

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     Research methodology

3.1     Background and location of the study

3.2     Types of Agricultural property investment in Orumba North L.G.A

3.3     The benefits of Agricultural property investment

3.4     Research Methodology and data collection

3.5     Sources of data collection

3.6     Types of technique used

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     Problems affecting agricultural property investment.

4.1     The impact of agricultural investment property

4.2     Problems affecting agricultural property

4.3     Possible solution to the problems

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1     Summary

5.2     Conclusion

5.3     Recommendation

References

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION:

1.1   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Investment in agricultural property is not advanced as that of developed countries of the world. Agricultural property investment amounts to all investment operation in such property as cash crops, livestock, pasture land, cottage etc.

Nigeria generally is blessed with fertile and large area of land with abundant human and natural resources, which if harnessed effectively under the guide and supervisor of the experienced property manager  (Estate surveyors) will help a lot in solving the battered economy of Nigeria.

Inspite of the numerous benefit derived from agricultural properties, Nigeria still give it little attention they keep on hoping on crude oil for the economy instead of diversifying her investment in other resource like Agricultural property.

With the benefit ard returns realizable form the investment in agricultural properties, it will serve as an alternative. Sources of life and a catalyst for speeding development of rural areas.

1.2   STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Investment in Agricultural properties in rural areas amounts to under utilization of both natural and human resources to boost the increase in production of food and cash crops etc in large quantity.

This work is made to know how agricultural investors would achieve their objectives. It will be shown that agricultural property investment is a worthwhile and beneficial venture forming the catalyst to rural development and economic revetry of Nigeria’s battered economy.

 

1.3   RESEARCH QUESTION

Due to some hindrance encountered in agricultural investment in some area: the following questions were emanated on its effect to the area of study.

  1. Will agricultural investment reduce the increase of unemployment in the country?
  2. Is there any formal training for investors?
  3. can the investors in agricultural properties receive any grant, from he government?
  4. What are the major problem facing the investment in agricultural properties?

1.4   PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The main purpose of this research work of agricultural investment as a catalyst to Orumba North Local Government area centers of the following:

i       To assess agricultural property investment as a catalyst to rural, development.

ii      To assess different investment as an agricultural property.

iii     To examine investment in agricultural properties in order to assessing the benefits.

iv     To examine the problems facing the investors in Agricultural property.

v      The make recommendations on how the agricultural properties can be handled in order to make the best use of it.

 

1.5   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This project work is basically concerned on the returns from investment in agricultural property, therefore, every effort is eared to explore and expose some.

To that effect, the study limit itself within the bounds of investment operations in agricultural properties in Orumba North local government area. it does organized in such a way that the study is made on specific benesity from the government and individual or private investors point of view.

 

  • LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

Some unavoidable limitation encountered by the researcher when conducting the project have hindered a comprehensive research work. These includes:

  • Time Dimension: The time factor has a serious input in conducting this research work. Time lay between the short academic calendar makes the researcher to rush the work thereby boycotting some necessary findings.
  • Lack of finance: Since the research work being done within limited income while there is a drastic increase in the cost of terms like transportation fare, typing and binding. These are the major expenses involved in it which has to be limited to the available income.

1.7               DEFINITION OF TERMS

INVESTMENT: This is the giving up of a capital sum in return for an income or benefit to be derived periodically. At times, the return is a lump sun or in a non-monetary form (benefit).

AGRICULTURE: This means as the cultivation of the land for the purpose of producing food for man, feed for animals and raw materials for industries.

PROPERTY: This is the right an individual or group of individual exercise over a thing. It includes the exclusive right to use, possess and exclude others.

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AGRICULTURAL PROPERTY INVESTMENT: This is he operation on such properties as cash crops. Livestock, pasture lane, cottages and farm, houses, dairy and arable faming and fishing.

RURAL AREA: It refers to that portion of area which are situated outside urban and cities location. Rural areas are predominantly undeveloped lands occupied of green or natural environment viably grass, forestry etc.

DEVELOPMNET: This is a systematic enrolment of potentialities of a thing. For example land.

RURAL DEVELOPMENT: This term is used to improve the economic and social life or the people the rural area such as housing, electricity, water,

 

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LANDLORD AND TENANT RELATIONSHIP, ITS EFFECTS ON PROPERTY VALUES IN OWERRI URBAN OF IMO STATE

LANDLORD AND TENANT RELATIONSHIP, ITS EFFECTS ON PROPERTY VALUES IN OWERRI URBAN OF IMO STATE

 

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ABSTRACT

In long-term business relationships the customer experience is affected by how the customer perceives the quality of customer relationship. The purpose of this paper is to understand the customer relationship quality construct in tenant relationships in a business-to-business environment.

METHODOLOGY / APPROACH: The theoretical framework is adapted from relationship marketing literature and this is then applied in case study settings to five customer companies in a landlord and tenant relationship. The paper framework of 13 relationship quality attributes and applies these to the case companies. Findings: The results suggest that some of the suggested relationship quality attributes have an importance in a landlord relationship while some suggested attributes have less value.

Research limitations /implications:- The case studies were conducted in companies that occupy office premises in multi-user.

Originality/value: This paper introduces theoretical understanding from relationship marketing literature into the real estate and adds practical understanding of customer relationship management into the rental business.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

  • Introduction

1.1     Background of study

1.2     Statement of problem

1.3     Aim and objectives,

1.4     Research questions

1.5     Significant of the study

1.6     Scope of the study

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     Literature Review

2.1     Guidelines for tenants

2.2     Landlord-Tenant Relationship defined

2.3     A landlord- Tenant Relationship checklist  communication – a critical skill

2.4     Landlord – Tenant

2.5     Landlord – Tenant Relationship

2.6     Landlord – Tenant Responsibilities

2.7     Landlord – Tenant Relationship: Rent increase

2.8     Managing Landlord – Tenant Relationship: A strategic perspective.

2.9     Recovery of premises: An assessment of Landlord – Tenant law in Nigeria.

2.10   Changes not only will affect Landlord, tenants, but could alter property values too.

2.11   The tenant’s property.

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     Researhc methodology

3.1     Research design

3.2     Method of data collection

3.3     Sample size

3.4     The sampling technique

3.5     Data Analysis technique

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     Presentation and Analysis of data

4.1     Data presentation

4.2     Hypothesis

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1     Summary of findings

5.2     Conclusion

5.3     Recommendation

References

Questionnaire

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION:

Admassiey. (1995), The purpose of this article is to analysze the impact of a landlord and tenant ordinance (LTTO) on property values, using time series data for the city of Evanston, Illinois, where the ordinance has been enacted since 1975. The empirical data analysis, which includes a trend analysis of heroin price indices for both rental and owner-occupied property has shown that L.T.O is not likely to significantly affect HOUSING VALUES. Those remedies provided in the landlord and tenant ordinance are not likely to be radical departures from the current practices such as housing / building code, and can therefore not be expected to affect housing values substantly.

This research was supported by a grant from the office if Real Estate Research at the university of Illinois. We acknowledge helpful comments from professor peter colwell, and the good research assistance of Theresa Cherniak and Michael Duncan.

Acting in landlord and tenant malters for commercial owners or occupiers requires knowledge of legislation (such as the landlord and tenant Act 1954) and case law as well as and understanding other commercial property.

JH Walter has a rich supply of comparable evidence on which to draw to establish a verifiable basis for rent review or lease renewal backed by the experience of our surveyors whi are also active agents in the market place. Brought together with technical and legal data, this make us well placed to negotiate the best deal for our clients whatever the market conditions while giving realistic advice about the possible outcome of dispute resolution.

 

Restructuring of lease can prove an attractive proposition for both landlord and tenant. We offer advice to ensure that clients pay and receive compensation at appropriate levels to reflect changing rental income, lease term and capital value. At lease expiry, both owners and occupiers seek our support in dilapidations claims. (Dilapidation: the extent to which the property falls short of the repairing obligations of lease). We negotiate claims including guidance on the distinction between repair and improvement and the limit of tenant liability on claims where diminution in value (Lost Value) is less than the cost of repair. We advised in rent review of a prominent shop in an unusual retail pitch but one attractive to specialist retailers. Gathering evidence form nearby lettings and other reviews, we helped our client understanding the opportunities and argument possible including adjustments for location, return frontage, unusual layout and repairing obligation beyond matters of value, we gave guidance on required notices and issues of timing in connection with other rights and obligations in the lease.

HISTORY

          The landlord and tenant relationship is defined by existence of a leasehold estate.

i      Traditionally, the only, obligation of the landlord in the united states was to grant the estate to the tenant.

ii     Although in England and Wales, it has been clear since 1829 that a landlord must put a tenant into possession.

iii    Modern landlord – tenant law includes a number of other rights and duties have been codified in the uniform presidential landlord and tenant Act.

  • STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

1)      An essential ingredient in the achievement of the objective of landlord and tenant in entering into contract is cordial relationship although the interest of the parties are not mutually exclusive, conflict in the relationship can prevent landlord from earning a fair returns on his investment in the property just as the desire of the tenant to derive maximum utility from occupation will also suffer defeat, the society will be worse of it.

2)      Therefore to give opportunity to all ranks of interests associate with the particular property to be exercised without friction the lease sets landlord and tenant.

3)      The landlord nor the tenant meets his obligations under the lease because with the steady fall in the real value of his income the tenant finds it difficult to pay his rent promptly or sufficiently of utility bills. The obvious consequence is conflict in relationship between landlord and tenant.

 

1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES

          The main aim of this study is to proffer resolution of conflict which has being in existence between landlord and tenant relationship.

  1. To ascertain causes of conflict in landlord and tenant relationship.
  2. Identify methods adopted in resolution of these conflicts
  3. Identify and recommend ways of improving resolution of conflicts

in landlord and tenant relationship.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

          This study was undertaking to address the following research question.

  1. What constitute a landlord and tenant?
  2. What are the causes of conflict in landlord and tenant relationship?
  3. What art h method to b adopted in conflict resolution.

 

1.5     SIGNIFICANC OF TH STUDY

  1. Certificate or other document relating to any land, lease, or change.
  2. Summon any person to appear before him and give information relating to any land, lease, or change in question.
  • Refuse an application for registration where any instrument, certificate plan or other document has not been produced pursuant to paragraph or where an act required by the Registrar to be performed has not been performed
  1. Administer Oaths or affirmations.
  2. Require that any proceedings, information or explanation be conducted or given on Oath, as the case may be.

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1.6     SCOPE OF THE STUDY

After the coming into force of this act, land a lease or a charge registered under this Act may not be disposed off, except in accordance with this Act, and nay disposition, except under this Act for the purpose of creating, transferring, varying or affecting any estate, right or interest in any land, lease or charge is of no effect.

Nothing in section 40 shall be construed as preventing an unregistered instrument form operating as a contract, but no action may be brought upon any contract for the sale or other disposition of land or any interest in land, unless the agreement upon while such action is brought or some memorandum or note thereof is in writing and signed by the party to be charged or by some other person there unto by him lawfully authorized.

 

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EFFECT OF POPULATION GROWTH ON LAND RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT

EFFECT OF POPULATION GROWTH ON LAND RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT”. A CASE STUDY IN ABA URBAN OF  ABIA STATE

 

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ABSTRACT

This study is focused on the “effect of population growth on land resources development”. A case study in Aba urban of Abia state. It is a comprehensive research on the course of population growth problems, and benefits of the growth on land development. There is no doubt that at present, there is link between development and population growth.

However, the fact that the two opinion are related to each other in many cases, it is the main negative relationship between population and growth and the level of land development as said in the study is that programmes for controlling the rate of population growth should be encouraged. Therefore, it is common practices among countries to have a population census every ten years to know the number of people in that country such as males, females, age and occupational groups. The main point of this write-up is emphasizes on the physical components of environment because population growth has effected buildings, roads, land use and development which makes up the urban areas.

 

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION                                                                                                    1

AIMS AND OBJECTIVE                                                                                         2

THE SCOPE OF THE STUDY                                                                                4

ORGANIZATION  OF THE STUDY                                                                     4

CHAPTER TWO

THE STUDY AREA                                                                                                 6

CHAPTER THREE

DATA METHODOLOGY                                                                                       8

DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDING                                                                       8

SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS                                             9

CAUSES OF POPULATION GROWTH                                                               10

THE EFFECT OF POPULATION                                                                          12

EFFECTS OF TRANSPORTATION                                                                      12

EFFECTS ON HOUSING AND ACCOMMODATION                          13

EFFECTS ON WATER AND ELECTRICITY                                                       14

EFFECTS ON THE IMPROVEMENT  ON    LAND                                          14

EFFECTS ON DEMAND FOR FOOD                                                                  15

EFFECTS ON  URBAN LAND USE                                                                      15

 

CHAPTER FOUR

THE CONCEPT OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT                                                  17

POPULATION                                                                                                         18

EDUCATION                                                                                                            20

URBAN LAND USE CONTROL                                                                           20

HOUSING                                                                                                                 21

TRANSPORTATION                                                                                              22

RECREATION                                                                                                          22

 

CHAPTER FIVE

RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION                                                   24

RECOMMENDATION                                                                                           24

CONCLUSION                                                                                                         27

REFERENCE            S                                                                                                          29

QUESTIONNAIRES                                                                                                31       

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

The common problem facing most state in Nigeria today is how to improve the standard of living of the vast majority of their people.

Consequently, most state like Abia is involved in a variety of programmes designed to speed up the process of socio-economic and physical development. Development planners in different parts of Abia have realized in relent time that understanding of the population in the development process of Abia is important.

 

This is due to the fact that population has big impact on the economic, social and physical development of Abia state. It is therefore, certain that the population factor can do much to either promote or frustrate a state’s uppermost development objective.

This study on population impact on land development at this time the state population increased with inadequate economic and physical growth of the state that needs a study to fight against its contents future occurrence. Information has been shown that this state population has reached the four million and if measure are not taken quickly, the situation could lead to HUNGER, POVERTY, DISEASE, OVERCROWDING and can no longer be allowed in both the developed and undeveloped state. All these consequence of increasing in number of people will have a general effect on land development, the identified effects like overcrowding and poverty is what the study will aim at finding solution to its improvements.

 

AIM AND OBJECTIVES

  1. To find out the effect of population growth on land development in Aba.
  2. To identity the problems associated with the effect and ways of solving them in other to better the life of the growing population.
  3. To find ways of minimizing the population growth in Aba.
  4. In other to achieve the already state objective, the main facts and figures used in this study were gathered through personal efforts and various approaches were also adopted. This includes:

1        Field survey: In other to get some of the information already

stated, field survey method was adopted which covered areas like Obioma Ngwa, Osisioma Ngwa, Isiala Ngwa, Isiala Ngwa South, Aba South and Aba North.

  1. Information population census residence at Aba.
  2. Personal interviews were held with individual and government parastatals.
  3. Sources from Aba Local Government Authority.
  4. Reference to journal, Newspaper and books for relevant.
  5. Survey were conduced in several areas within the Estate Surveyors and valuers forms in Aba metropolis which help to compile and analysed to five the result presented in this study.

 

THE SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This study is concerned with the causes and the general problems of population growth in Aba metropolis. The result will give the growth of population and its effect on land development. Based on the findings, recommendations will be laid out for development of the area.

Land is an ever-increasing demand for due to the increasing number of people based on these arguments that the physical, social and economic impacts of population growth are to be fully integrated. The research will give information on reason for increasing growth of people in the area and it’s impact on amenities.

 

ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY

Effect of population growth land development is divided into five chapters. The first chapter deals with the introduction discussion on the study area and its people. The second chapter high lights on the study area and difficulties.

The third chapter deals on the data analysis and findings, socio-economic, characteristic, physical development, effect of population growth and transportation, effect of housing and accommodation, effect on improvement on land and urban land use. Chapter four deals with population control, standard of living, education, urban land use, housing, transportation, recreation while lase chapter five deals on recommendation, conclusion, biography and questionnaires.

 

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THE PROBLEM OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

THE PROBLEM OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN ENUGU METROPOLIS

A CASE STUDY IN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND TECHNOLOGY (I.M.T) CAMPUS III ENUGU

 

 

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Abstract

This research work is aim at examining the practices and problems solid waste management with particular reference to IMT Campus III.

The research choose the random sampling Technique based on the population concentration from three (3) location within  the study area.

The data obtained were analysed using percentage statistics method. From the analysis of data and discussion the practices in the use include open dumps and open burning which indicate poor management.

 

To ensure proper management the researcher recommended that government should device new and appropriate strategies in solid waste management that involves on the spot separation for possible recycling, through supervision of authorities involved in the waste management and grass roof campaign to ensure strict adherence to the rules guiding waste management. With the above recommendation waste and the health implication of improper management becomes a thing of the past.

 

 

Table of contents

CHAPTER ONE

1.1            Introduction

1.2            Statement of the Problem

1.3            Purpose of the Study

1.4            Research Question I

1.5            Hypothesis

1.6            Significance of the Study

1.7            Scope of the Study

1.8            Limitation of the Study

CHAPTER TWO

2.1            Literature Review

2.1.1     Concept of Solid Waste

2.1.2     Source and Types of Solid Waste

2.1.3     Waste Minimization and Treatment

2.4            Solid Waste Management Practices

2.5            Resources Recovery

2.6            Disposal Techniques

 

CHAPTER THREE:    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1            Introduction

3.2            Research Design

3.3            Population Sample

3.4            Refused Site Selection

3.5            Sources of Data

3.6            Instrument for Data Collection

3.7            Validity and Reliability of Instrument

3.8            Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

4.1            Analysis of Management and Fiscal Problems of Waste Management

4.2            Solutions to Above Problems

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1            Discussion and Findings

5.2            Implications for Environmental Management

5.3            Recommendation

5.4            Conclusions

Bibliography

 

 

 

 

Chapter one 

Introduction

Background of the study

Refuse generation started with the history of man and gained more attention when man began to live in communities. During the 1st century with industrial revolution rapid population growth in the develop world and the volume of waste produce was relatively small. Today in developing nations, like, Nigeria, solid waste accumulate in every city causing serious health and environmental hazard.

 

The practice of dumping waste on streets, roads, streets and unapproved sites lead to breeding to rats, flies and out break of plagues as well as ecological impacts, such as water and air pollution. This is because the capacity of nature to dilute, disperse or absorb or dispose of its unwanted residues in the atmosphere, water way and land is limited. It is against this background that the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) was established in 1988 manage and protect the environment. The decree establishing the agency also provided for the establishment of State Environment Protection Agencies (SEPA) in all the States of Federation.

 

However, the prevailing economic condition in the country coupled with negative attitude of the citizens made it difficult for proper solid waste management and environmental protection solid waste consists of biodegradable (that is substance that can be broken down by bacteria) and non biodegradable (that is substance that cannot be broken by bacteria) materials and these are usually deposited at refuse dumps and other unapproved sites. They pile up in heaps blocking road and drainage, road, network thereby consisting environmental hazards. The inhabitants of the neighborhood sometimes set the heaps of refuse ablaze in an attempt to reduce the size. This practice further deteriorate the environment since people are exposed to danger of air pollution.

 

 

1.2            STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 

Changes in Technology brings about changes in the consumption habit of the citizenry and therefore the composition of waste materials.

Thus a lot of non-biodegradable waste (that is substance that cannot be broken by bacteria) are generated and since non-biodegradable are not easily absorbed or diluted naturally such waste accumulate in heaps along major streets. The stinking odour and blackish liquid effluence emanating from such heaps especially during the rainy season constitute environmental hazards and degrade the aesthetic values of our environment.

They as well encourage breeding of mosquitoes and communicable diseases. Therefore the rate of generation of solid waste is not matched with the rate of evacuation as a result of problems ranging from lack of funds and professional experience staffs of bureaucracy and redtapism.

 

 

1.3            PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The purpose of this study is to

(i)                To determine the composition of solid waste in campus III

(ii)             To examine the different management strategies being adopted in solid waste management by the institution as well as ENSEPA. Enugu State environmental Protection Agencies.

(iii)           To identify problem militating against solid waste management in campus III IMT Enugu Institute of Management and Technology.

(iv)           To suggest appropriate and effective measures that will ensure efficient solid waste management in campus III IMT Institute of Management and Technology Enugu.

 

1.4            RESEARCH QUESTIONS

In an attempt to identify the approaches and problems of solid waste management in campus III IMT with a view of finding appropriate management strategies, the following research questions were formulated:

(i)                What are the major components of solid waste generated in campus III IMT.

(ii)             To what extent does the composition of waste influence  the management practices?

(iii)           What are the reasons for the inadequate as well as inefficient collection and disposal of solid waste by (ENSEPA).

(iv)           What measure are likely to improve the existing situation constraints or management techniques.

(v)             What is the level of public awareness of poor solid waste management.

 

1.5            HYPOTHESIS

 

 

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HOUSEHOLD WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

HOUSEHOLD WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN ZARIA CITY
KADUNA STATE

 

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ABSTRACT
In Nigeria and particularly in Zaria city of Kaduna state, open dumping is still the most common household waste disposal method/practice. This type of practice is un hygienic and environmentally unfriendly. This research is aimed at effective household waste management practices in the study area. The research found that there are some other types of management or disposal method in practice in the study area, these include the use of packing and burning, dumping in pits outside the house and dumping in streets by residents, wheel barrows. Also included are scavengers, Ministry of Environment and private organizations that are involved in household waste.

 

Data for the study include the use of observations, questionnaire administration and oral interviews in data gathering and analysis. The research, recommends that the state government should provide household waste management equipment and vehicles, generators on loan for waste management authorities. Waste management such as the construction of sanitary land fills, purchase of incinerators for recycling plants, encourage waste to wealth practices as this would actually reduce the amount of waste that would be physically available in the study area.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
One of the greatest hazards of man today is poor sanitary condition of his environment, which is being caused by his daily activities, such as waste generation, increase in population and attendant increase in agricultural, industrial and commercial activities.

Wastes are substances, materials or objects discarded as worthless or unwanted, defective or of no further value for human economic productive, activities or processes (Okechukwu, 1995).
U.S AD-Hoc Group for science and technology (1969), and Adegoke (1990) defined waste as substances and materials or objects which are disposed off according to the provision of a national law. Basically, wastes can exist in three different states-gaseous, liquid and solid. The people are more sensitive to solid waste than to the others. This is because solid wastes have the potential of accumulating and physically insulting the environment.
In the past, the advance effects of human activities were spread over large expense of land and sea. With the measure increase in pollution in recent times and the growth of cities and rapid industrialization, waste discharge have multiplies concentrated at a few model points.

 

Solid wastes are unwanted materials that cannot flow directly into steams or rise immediately in the air. They are non-liquid, non-gaseous residues of manufacturing, construction, cooking, recreation, agriculture and other activities that use and then discard materials.

 

They include glasses, bottles, outdated newspapers, carton, plastic, bottles, abandoned automobiles and automobiles parts, discarded cooking utensils, wraps, dead animals et cet era.
Effective solid waste management is achievable only when socio-economic factors are integrated into solid waste management studies. This approach would, according to Hudson and Marks (1977), make it possible to predict not only the expenditure pattern of a household and how much waste would be generated by each particular item consumed, but also the qualities of wastes generated by household.

 

The first note worthy attempt at studying this problem based on this approach was made by Boyd and Hawkins (1971) With limited success, it would be argued that this approach may make it possible to transform the data generated into an input a national solid waste generation projection since that household is the basic wait of consumption and waste generation. Projection of this nature would assist urban environmental planner to better and rationally tackle this problem of waste urban areas. In addition, waste management agencies may use the results of such studies as an instrument for improving or initiating innovations in waste management practices.
It is the realization of the need to highlight the socio-economic aspects of wastes generation and management and their implication for solid wastes managements that provided a case for the present study of Zaria city area of Kaduna state.

 

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Improper waste management leads to pollution and subsequently degradation of the environment. It also adds substances that affect the environment, which because of their nature and quantity constitute a menace to the health and well being of the individuals, the society and the environment as a whole. The Environmental Act of the United Kingdom defines waste as any substance or object which the holder discards or intends to discard (Freeman, 1990).

 

The available infrastructure for absorbing wastes generated by urban dwellers in Nigeria is grossly inadequate, consequently uncontrolled proliferation of solid wastes dumps is a common feature of most Nigerian cities. These solid wastes appears in various sizes. For example, they could be small, medium, or large depending on the number of households that the dumps serve. In most cases, these dumps are located at the backyards of the dwelling units, roadsides, gutters, streams, abandoned buildings and so on.

Most solid waste dumps are usually invaded by scavenging animals which scatter the wastes to make them breeding grounds for disease vector such as rats and flies. Besides direct contamination of water bodies by these waste, leachartes from decomposing and purifying solid wastes percolate into soil and nearby water sources which could cause disease to humans when consumed. This is particularly the case of un-collected solid wastes which find their way either back to the neighborhoods or into open river channels which become blocked, thus creating favorable breeding grounds for mosquitoes and in some cases block drainage ways, causing floods.

 

For solid wastes to be effectively managed to ensure the acceptable level of environmental quality required for sustainable growth and development in the urban settings, developing or applying accurate methods of estimating the amount of waste generated and disposed constitute a fertile area of research.
Such methods require accurate information on the types and quantities of solid wastes, generated by households the socio economic profiles of the household waste management systems and mechanisms used by the households and the waste disposal strategies.

 

 

 

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