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THE PROBLEM OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

THE PROBLEM OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN ENUGU METROPOLIS

A CASE STUDY IN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND TECHNOLOGY (I.M.T) CAMPUS III ENUGU

 

 

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Abstract

This research work is aim at examining the practices and problems solid waste management with particular reference to IMT Campus III.

The research choose the random sampling Technique based on the population concentration from three (3) location within  the study area.

The data obtained were analysed using percentage statistics method. From the analysis of data and discussion the practices in the use include open dumps and open burning which indicate poor management.

 

To ensure proper management the researcher recommended that government should device new and appropriate strategies in solid waste management that involves on the spot separation for possible recycling, through supervision of authorities involved in the waste management and grass roof campaign to ensure strict adherence to the rules guiding waste management. With the above recommendation waste and the health implication of improper management becomes a thing of the past.

 

 

Table of contents

CHAPTER ONE

1.1            Introduction

1.2            Statement of the Problem

1.3            Purpose of the Study

1.4            Research Question I

1.5            Hypothesis

1.6            Significance of the Study

1.7            Scope of the Study

1.8            Limitation of the Study

CHAPTER TWO

2.1            Literature Review

2.1.1     Concept of Solid Waste

2.1.2     Source and Types of Solid Waste

2.1.3     Waste Minimization and Treatment

2.4            Solid Waste Management Practices

2.5            Resources Recovery

2.6            Disposal Techniques

 

CHAPTER THREE:    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1            Introduction

3.2            Research Design

3.3            Population Sample

3.4            Refused Site Selection

3.5            Sources of Data

3.6            Instrument for Data Collection

3.7            Validity and Reliability of Instrument

3.8            Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

4.1            Analysis of Management and Fiscal Problems of Waste Management

4.2            Solutions to Above Problems

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1            Discussion and Findings

5.2            Implications for Environmental Management

5.3            Recommendation

5.4            Conclusions

Bibliography

 

 

 

 

Chapter one 

Introduction

Background of the study

Refuse generation started with the history of man and gained more attention when man began to live in communities. During the 1st century with industrial revolution rapid population growth in the develop world and the volume of waste produce was relatively small. Today in developing nations, like, Nigeria, solid waste accumulate in every city causing serious health and environmental hazard.

 

The practice of dumping waste on streets, roads, streets and unapproved sites lead to breeding to rats, flies and out break of plagues as well as ecological impacts, such as water and air pollution. This is because the capacity of nature to dilute, disperse or absorb or dispose of its unwanted residues in the atmosphere, water way and land is limited. It is against this background that the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) was established in 1988 manage and protect the environment. The decree establishing the agency also provided for the establishment of State Environment Protection Agencies (SEPA) in all the States of Federation.

 

However, the prevailing economic condition in the country coupled with negative attitude of the citizens made it difficult for proper solid waste management and environmental protection solid waste consists of biodegradable (that is substance that can be broken down by bacteria) and non biodegradable (that is substance that cannot be broken by bacteria) materials and these are usually deposited at refuse dumps and other unapproved sites. They pile up in heaps blocking road and drainage, road, network thereby consisting environmental hazards. The inhabitants of the neighborhood sometimes set the heaps of refuse ablaze in an attempt to reduce the size. This practice further deteriorate the environment since people are exposed to danger of air pollution.

 

 

1.2            STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 

Changes in Technology brings about changes in the consumption habit of the citizenry and therefore the composition of waste materials.

Thus a lot of non-biodegradable waste (that is substance that cannot be broken by bacteria) are generated and since non-biodegradable are not easily absorbed or diluted naturally such waste accumulate in heaps along major streets. The stinking odour and blackish liquid effluence emanating from such heaps especially during the rainy season constitute environmental hazards and degrade the aesthetic values of our environment.

They as well encourage breeding of mosquitoes and communicable diseases. Therefore the rate of generation of solid waste is not matched with the rate of evacuation as a result of problems ranging from lack of funds and professional experience staffs of bureaucracy and redtapism.

 

 

1.3            PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The purpose of this study is to

(i)                To determine the composition of solid waste in campus III

(ii)             To examine the different management strategies being adopted in solid waste management by the institution as well as ENSEPA. Enugu State environmental Protection Agencies.

(iii)           To identify problem militating against solid waste management in campus III IMT Enugu Institute of Management and Technology.

(iv)           To suggest appropriate and effective measures that will ensure efficient solid waste management in campus III IMT Institute of Management and Technology Enugu.

 

1.4            RESEARCH QUESTIONS

In an attempt to identify the approaches and problems of solid waste management in campus III IMT with a view of finding appropriate management strategies, the following research questions were formulated:

(i)                What are the major components of solid waste generated in campus III IMT.

(ii)             To what extent does the composition of waste influence  the management practices?

(iii)           What are the reasons for the inadequate as well as inefficient collection and disposal of solid waste by (ENSEPA).

(iv)           What measure are likely to improve the existing situation constraints or management techniques.

(v)             What is the level of public awareness of poor solid waste management.

 

1.5            HYPOTHESIS

 

 

Continue reading THE PROBLEM OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

HOUSEHOLD WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

HOUSEHOLD WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN ZARIA CITY
KADUNA STATE

 

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Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

We also accept :   ATM transfer , online money  transfer 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>

Call Help Desk Line :  08074466939,08063386834.

After Payment Send Your Payment Details To

08074466939 Or 08063386834,   The Project Title  You  Selected On Our Website , Amount Paid, Depositor Name, Your Email Address, Payment Date. You Will Receive Your Material In Less Than 1 Hour Once We Confirm Your Payment.

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ABSTRACT
In Nigeria and particularly in Zaria city of Kaduna state, open dumping is still the most common household waste disposal method/practice. This type of practice is un hygienic and environmentally unfriendly. This research is aimed at effective household waste management practices in the study area. The research found that there are some other types of management or disposal method in practice in the study area, these include the use of packing and burning, dumping in pits outside the house and dumping in streets by residents, wheel barrows. Also included are scavengers, Ministry of Environment and private organizations that are involved in household waste.

 

Data for the study include the use of observations, questionnaire administration and oral interviews in data gathering and analysis. The research, recommends that the state government should provide household waste management equipment and vehicles, generators on loan for waste management authorities. Waste management such as the construction of sanitary land fills, purchase of incinerators for recycling plants, encourage waste to wealth practices as this would actually reduce the amount of waste that would be physically available in the study area.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
One of the greatest hazards of man today is poor sanitary condition of his environment, which is being caused by his daily activities, such as waste generation, increase in population and attendant increase in agricultural, industrial and commercial activities.

Wastes are substances, materials or objects discarded as worthless or unwanted, defective or of no further value for human economic productive, activities or processes (Okechukwu, 1995).
U.S AD-Hoc Group for science and technology (1969), and Adegoke (1990) defined waste as substances and materials or objects which are disposed off according to the provision of a national law. Basically, wastes can exist in three different states-gaseous, liquid and solid. The people are more sensitive to solid waste than to the others. This is because solid wastes have the potential of accumulating and physically insulting the environment.
In the past, the advance effects of human activities were spread over large expense of land and sea. With the measure increase in pollution in recent times and the growth of cities and rapid industrialization, waste discharge have multiplies concentrated at a few model points.

 

Solid wastes are unwanted materials that cannot flow directly into steams or rise immediately in the air. They are non-liquid, non-gaseous residues of manufacturing, construction, cooking, recreation, agriculture and other activities that use and then discard materials.

 

They include glasses, bottles, outdated newspapers, carton, plastic, bottles, abandoned automobiles and automobiles parts, discarded cooking utensils, wraps, dead animals et cet era.
Effective solid waste management is achievable only when socio-economic factors are integrated into solid waste management studies. This approach would, according to Hudson and Marks (1977), make it possible to predict not only the expenditure pattern of a household and how much waste would be generated by each particular item consumed, but also the qualities of wastes generated by household.

 

The first note worthy attempt at studying this problem based on this approach was made by Boyd and Hawkins (1971) With limited success, it would be argued that this approach may make it possible to transform the data generated into an input a national solid waste generation projection since that household is the basic wait of consumption and waste generation. Projection of this nature would assist urban environmental planner to better and rationally tackle this problem of waste urban areas. In addition, waste management agencies may use the results of such studies as an instrument for improving or initiating innovations in waste management practices.
It is the realization of the need to highlight the socio-economic aspects of wastes generation and management and their implication for solid wastes managements that provided a case for the present study of Zaria city area of Kaduna state.

 

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Improper waste management leads to pollution and subsequently degradation of the environment. It also adds substances that affect the environment, which because of their nature and quantity constitute a menace to the health and well being of the individuals, the society and the environment as a whole. The Environmental Act of the United Kingdom defines waste as any substance or object which the holder discards or intends to discard (Freeman, 1990).

 

The available infrastructure for absorbing wastes generated by urban dwellers in Nigeria is grossly inadequate, consequently uncontrolled proliferation of solid wastes dumps is a common feature of most Nigerian cities. These solid wastes appears in various sizes. For example, they could be small, medium, or large depending on the number of households that the dumps serve. In most cases, these dumps are located at the backyards of the dwelling units, roadsides, gutters, streams, abandoned buildings and so on.

Most solid waste dumps are usually invaded by scavenging animals which scatter the wastes to make them breeding grounds for disease vector such as rats and flies. Besides direct contamination of water bodies by these waste, leachartes from decomposing and purifying solid wastes percolate into soil and nearby water sources which could cause disease to humans when consumed. This is particularly the case of un-collected solid wastes which find their way either back to the neighborhoods or into open river channels which become blocked, thus creating favorable breeding grounds for mosquitoes and in some cases block drainage ways, causing floods.

 

For solid wastes to be effectively managed to ensure the acceptable level of environmental quality required for sustainable growth and development in the urban settings, developing or applying accurate methods of estimating the amount of waste generated and disposed constitute a fertile area of research.
Such methods require accurate information on the types and quantities of solid wastes, generated by households the socio economic profiles of the household waste management systems and mechanisms used by the households and the waste disposal strategies.

 

 

 

Continue reading HOUSEHOLD WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

THE PROBLEM OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

THE PROBLEM OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN ENUGU METROPOLIS

A CASE STUDY IN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND TECHNOLOGY (I.M.T) CAMPUS III ENUGU

 

Abstract

This research work is aim at examining the practices and problems solid waste management with particular reference to IMT Campus III.

The research choose the random sampling Technique based on the population concentration from three (3) location within  the study area.

The data obtained were analysed using percentage statistics method. From the analysis of data and discussion the practices in the use include open dumps and open burning which indicate poor management.

To ensure proper management the researcher recommended that government should device new and appropriate strategies in solid waste management that involves on the spot separation for possible recycling, through supervision of authorities involved in the waste management and grass roof campaign to ensure strict adherence to the rules guiding waste management. With the above recommendation waste and the health implication of improper management becomes a thing of the past.

Table of contents

CHAPTER ONE

1.1            Introduction

1.2            Statement of the Problem

1.3            Purpose of the Study

1.4            Research Question I

1.5            Hypothesis

1.6            Significance of the Study

1.7            Scope of the Study

1.8            Limitation of the Study

CHAPTER TWO

2.1            Literature Review

2.1.1     Concept of Solid Waste

2.1.2     Source and Types of Solid Waste

2.1.3     Waste Minimization and Treatment

2.4            Solid Waste Management Practices

2.5            Resources Recovery

2.6            Disposal Techniques

 

CHAPTER THREE:    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1            Introduction

3.2            Research Design

3.3            Population Sample

3.4            Refused Site Selection

3.5            Sources of Data

3.6            Instrument for Data Collection

3.7            Validity and Reliability of Instrument

3.8            Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

4.1            Analysis of Management and Fiscal Problems of Waste Management

4.2            Solutions to Above Problems

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1            Discussion and Findings

5.2            Implications for Environmental Management

5.3            Recommendation

5.4            Conclusions

Bibliography

 

Chapter one

 

Introduction

Background of the study

Refuse generation started with the history of man and gained more attention when man began to live in communities. During the 1st century with industrial revolution rapid population growth in the develop world and the volume of waste produce was relatively small. Today in developing nations, like, Nigeria, solid waste accumulate in every city causing serious health and environmental hazard.

The practice of dumping waste on streets, roads, streets and unapproved sites lead to breeding to rats, flies and out break of plagues as well as ecological impacts, such as water and air pollution. This is because the capacity of nature to dilute, disperse or absorb or dispose of its unwanted residues in the atmosphere, water way and land is limited. It is against this background that the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) was established in 1988 manage and protect the environment. The decree establishing the agency also provided for the establishment of State Environment Protection Agencies (SEPA) in all the States of Federation.

However, the prevailing economic condition in the country coupled with negative attitude of the citizens made it difficult for proper solid waste management and environmental protection solid waste consists of biodegradable (that is substance that can be broken down by bacteria) and non biodegradable (that is substance that cannot be broken by bacteria) materials and these are usually deposited at refuse dumps and other unapproved sites. They pile up in heaps blocking road and drainage, road, network thereby consisting environmental hazards. The inhabitants of the neighborhood sometimes set the heaps of refuse ablaze in an attempt to reduce the size. This practice further deteriorate the environment since people are exposed to danger of air pollution.

1.2            STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 

Changes in Technology brings about changes in the consumption habit of the citizenry and therefore the composition of waste materials.

Thus a lot of non-biodegradable waste (that is substance that cannot be broken by bacteria) are generated and since non-biodegradable are not easily absorbed or diluted naturally such waste accumulate in heaps along major streets. The stinking odour and blackish liquid effluence emanating from such heaps especially during the rainy season constitute environmental hazards and degrade the aesthetic values of our environment.

They as well encourage breeding of mosquitoes and communicable diseases. Therefore the rate of generation of solid waste is not matched with the rate of evacuation as a result of problems ranging from lack of funds and professional experience staffs of bureaucracy and redtapism.

1.3            PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The purpose of this study is to

(i)                To determine the composition of solid waste in campus III

(ii)             To examine the different management strategies being adopted in solid waste management by the institution as well as ENSEPA. Enugu State environmental Protection Agencies.

(iii)           To identify problem militating against solid waste management in campus III IMT Enugu Institute of Management and Technology.

(iv)           To suggest appropriate and effective measures that will ensure efficient solid waste management in campus III IMT Institute of Management and Technology Enugu.

 

1.4            RESEARCH QUESTIONS

In an attempt to identify the approaches and problems of solid waste management in campus III IMT with a view of finding appropriate management strategies, the following research questions were formulated:

(i)                What are the major components of solid waste generated in campus III IMT.

(ii)             To what extent does the composition of waste influence  the management practices?

(iii)           What are the reasons for the inadequate as well as inefficient collection and disposal of solid waste by (ENSEPA).

(iv)           What measure are likely to improve the existing situation constraints or management techniques.

(v)             What is the level of public awareness of poor solid waste management.

 

1.5            HYPOTHESIS

 

 

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