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The united states africa command and stability of african states: issues and prospects

The united states africa command and stability of african states: issues and prospects

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CHAPTER ONE

1.0     General Introduction-    –         –         –         –         –         –         –         1

1.1     Background to the Study –      –         –         –         –         –         –         1-5

1.2     Statement of the Research Problem-        –         –         –         –         5-6

1.3     Objectives of the Study-         –         –         –         –         –         –         6-7

1.4     Assumption          –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         7

1.5     Significance of the Study        –         –         –         –         –         –         7-8

1.6     Scope of the Study        –         –         –         –         –         –         –         8-9

1.7     Research Methodology          –         –         –         –         –         –         –          9

1.8     Method of Data Collection      –         –         –         –         –         –         10

1.9     Method of data Validation       –         –         –         –         –         –         10

1.10   Weakness of Research Methodology      –         –         –         –         11

1.11   Limitations of the Study-         –         –         –         –         –         –          11-12

 

CHAPTER TWO

 

20      Literature Review          –         –         –         –         –         –                  13

2.1    Introduction –         –         –         –         –         –         –                  13

2.2    The Concept of United State African

Command  –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –                  13-15

2.3    The mission of United States African

Command  –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –                  15-17

2.4   The Concept of African Stability        –         –         –         –                  18-21

2.5    Review of Related Literature  –         –         –         –         –                  22-25

2.6   Theoretical review          –         –         –         –         –         –                  26-27

 

CHAPTER THREE

 

3.0     Regional Perspective and Analysis of Issues Concerning

The Operation of AFRICOM on the African Continent –                  28

3.1     Introduction          –         –         –         –         –         –         –                   28

3.2     Regional Perspective on the United States

African command          –         –         –         –         –         –                  28-35

3.3     Analysis of Issues Concerning Operation of the

United States African Command     –         –         –         –                   35-45

3.4     The Impact of United States African Command on

African Stability   –         –         –         –         –         –         –                   45-50

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER FOUR

 

4.0   Prospects and Strategies for Regional Collaboration

on the Operation of AFRICOM –         –         –         –         –                   51

 

4.1    Introduction –         –         –         –         –         –         –                   51

4.2     Prospects for United States African Command in

Africa         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –                   51-53

4.3     Strategies to Mitigate Issues Concerning

Operations of  AFRICOM       –         –         –         –         –                   53-55

 

CHAPTER FIVE

 

5.0     Conclusion and Recommendations          –         –         –                   56

5.1     Conclusion –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –                   56-58

5.3     Recommendations        –         –         –         –         –         –                   59

Bibliography         –         –         –         –         –         –         –                   60-64

Appendix I  –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –                   65

Appendix II –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –                   66-71

Appendix III          –         –         –         –         –         –         –                   72-75

Bio-Data     –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –                   76

 

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

  1. AU –         African Union
  2. AGOWA –         Africa Growth Opportunity Act
  3. AFRICOM –         African Command
  4. ACOTA –         Africa Contingency Operation Training

Assistance

  1. APS    –         African Partnership Station
  2. ARCRF –         African Rapid Crisis Response Force
  3. AMU    –         Arab Maghreb Union
  4. CSL    –         Cooperative Security Location
  5. ECOWAS –         Economic Community of West African

States

  1. GWOT   –         Global War On Terror
  2. GAO    –         Government Accountability Office
  3. IMET    –         International Military Education

Programme

  1. PEPFAR –         Presidential Emergency Plan For AIDS

Relief

  1. SADC   –         South African Development Cooperation
  2. TSTCP   –         Trans-Sahara Counter Terrorism

Partnership

  1. US      –         United States
  2. US DOD –         United States Department Of Defense

 

LIST OF TABLE

 

3.34.1         Interagency Personnel at AFRICOM Headquarters    –         43

 

 

LIST OF FIGURES

 

3.2.1            Overlapping Areas of Interest between the

United States Nigeria South Africa and Ethiopia         –         34

3.3.1.2        United States Military Engagements Across

the Globe for the Period 1980-2011          –         –                   36

3.3.2.3        Pattern of Terrorist Attacks on US Targets        –                   38

3.3.3.4        Areas of Overlap and Divergent Interest between

United States and China in the Africa Continent          –         41

3.3.4.5        Interagency Personnel at AFRICOM Headquarters    –         44

 

 

ABSTRACT

This research was focused towards 5 objectives. These were to ascertain the objectives of United State African Command (AFRICOM), establish regional perspective on AFRICOM and evaluate the veracity of the issues raised on the operation of the outfit. Other objectives of the research were to explore prospects of collaboration between AFRICOM and African countries and to proffer strategies for mitigating contending issues for enhanced collaboration in furtherance of African stability.

 

The research adopted the descriptive research method to achieve its objective. AFRICOM was discovered to be a US foreign policy initiative aimed at ensuring a stable African environment in support of US interest. Regional perspective on AFRICOM was however discovered to be negative especially towards the basing of US troops on the continent. The issues raised by African states on the operation of AFRICOM were also revealed to be genuine based on US antecedents and current activities. These issues pertained to undermining of sovereignty, increased vulnerability to terrorism, reenactment of cold war scenario and militarization of US-African policy.

 

The research also identified some aspects of AFRICOM structure, mandate and activities which could be inimical to African stability. These were in the area of upsurge in intrastate conflicts, political instability and aggravation of human security issues. Strategies were therefore proffered to mitigate the contending issues in order to enhance collaboration between African states and AFRICOM. This would entail increased advocacy and diplomacy, review of AFRICOM mandate and the consideration of basing alternatives by the US.

 

 


CHAPTER ONE

1.0       GENERAL INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

The United States and Africa have a long history of engagements and interactions. This relationship spans the different epochs of African history such as the slave trade, colonialism, neocolonialism, cold war and the prevailing global order. The perceived benefit of the engagements to either party is a subject of debate shaped by the socio-political factors at play during the epochs.

 

In this regard, Tshiterek (2003:81-90), observed that during the colonial era, the African region was ignored and left at the mercy of the European colonial powers by the US.  He further noted that the cold war era was characterized by ideological wars between the US and the defunct Soviet Union with attendant negative consequences for the region The US is also believed to have supported authoritarian regimes in Zaire, Sudan and Liberia contrary to the wishes of the people.

 

Generally, US strategic involvement in African affairs in the post cold war era has been noted to be minimal. Ploch (2008; 12), however stated that the manifest lack of interest in US policy towards Africa changed following the 1998 embassy bombings in Kenya and Tanzania and the 20O1 terrorist incident in the US.

 

According to him, the period following the terrorist attacks witnessed a strategic shift in US foreign policy thrust regarding the African region. He further attributed the change in strategic policy to the US GWOT, the drive to secure alternative source of energy and curtailing the rising influence of China in the African region.

 

Consequently, the African region has witnessed increased military, intergovernmental, economic and humanitarian engagements with the US.  In this wise, Diene (2009) in the African Defense Forum Magazine listed some of these engagement to include the AGOWA, PEPFAR and ACOTA. Others are the TSCT, APS and IMET.

 

The idea of the US government to float the US African Command (AFRICOM) on 6 February 2007 is therefore perceived as a continuation of its effort to consolidate its activities in the African region, (Ploch 2008:12). According to the AFRICOM official website, the outfit became operational on 1 Oct 2008 and is charged with the responsibility of coordinating military, humanitarian and developmental activities in all African countries except Egypt.  

 

The former US Principal Deputy under Secretary of Defense Policy, WL Sharp in 2007 stated that the creation of AFRICOM implies that traditional developmental activities carried out by agencies like the USAID now comes under the new outfit. Other US military engagements like ACOTA and TSCT, IMET, and APS will also be coordinated by the AFRICOM.  He further described the US AFRICOM as the latest foreign policy initiative of the US DoD that will bring the needed development and stability to the African continent.

 

Despite its avowed altruistic intents, the US AFRICOM has been criticized and viewed with suspicion by African leaders and interest groups within the continent since its creation. The outfit has been perceived as a hegemonic tool for protection and propagation of US interest in Africa. Many African leaders have expressed concerns that the presence of US troops on the continent could escalate tensions between African nations and also threaten national sovereignty.

 

The US government has been making concerted efforts to assuage the fears so far expressed on the operation of AFRICOM without much success. The contending issues regarding AFRICOM have so far hindered its smooth take off. This is buttressed by the inability to find a location for AFRICOM headquarters within the African region. According to the US AFRICOM Website, the headquarters of the outfit is at the moment temporarily located in Stuttgart Germany.

 

The issues which AFRICOM professes to address in the African continent could be said to be in existence. This is because the African continent is bedeviled with political turmoil, economic instability and general insecurity. The continent has experienced intra-state conflicts in Liberia, Sierra Leone, Sudan and Somalia.  Political crisis have been recorded in Kenya, Niger, Zimbabwe and Cote D ’voire within the last decade.

 

Furthermore, a wave of political unrest which began in Algeria this year is presently engulfing Libya where NATO forces are trying to enforce peace. Gilbert et al (2009:269) also noted that the unstable political situation in the continent is further aggravated by the human security challenges confronting the continent in the areas of poverty, child and maternal mortality, HIV/Aids, unemployment and environmental degradation.

 

The gloomy outlook notwithstanding, the African continent has not been enthusiastic in its response to the US AFRICOM initiative despite its professed altruistic intents. This therefore warrants a closer examination of the issues involved. In this regard, this study intends to examine the contending issues in order to unravel or determine their genuineness. The study seeks to establish if the issues raised on AFRICOM are based on US antecedents in the continent or parochial interest of African leaders.

The correlation between AFRICOM and stability of African states will also be explored in the study. Prospects for collaboration between African states and AFRICOM as well as strategies to enhance its operations in furtherance of mutual interest are also covered in the study.

 

 

1.2       STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM

The contemporary strategic environment characterized by revolution in information communication technology has integrated the global economic system and introduced fresh security challenges. In the present dispensation, adverse economic development in one region affects other members of the international community. Furthermore, contemporary threats such as terrorism, piracy and transnational crimes now transcend geographical boundaries necessitating international collaborative efforts to combat them.

 

The African continent has long complained of neglect and unfair treatment in the prevailing economic system. The continent is also grappling with human security challenges which require intervention from the international community. The US AFRICOM is one of such foreign policy initiatives designed to assist the African continent in to address political, economical, security challenges. The smooth take off of the command has however been hindered by the level of resistance and suspicion exhibited by African countries towards the outfit.

 

This study will therefore seek answers to the following questions:

  1.      What is the US AFRICOM and its objective?
  2.      What is the regional perspective regarding AFRICOM?
  3. What are the contending issues regarding the operation of AFRICOM?
  4. What is the relationship between AFRICOM and African stability?
  5. What are the prospects for collaboration between the US AFRICOM and African countries?

 

 

1.3       OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The broad objective of this study is to examine the impact of US AFRICOM on the stability of African states. The specific objectives of the study are:

  1. To establish the objective for creation of US AFRICOM.
  2. To establish the regional perspective on the operation of AFRICOM.
  3. To scrutinize the contending issues regarding the operation of US AFRICOM.
  4. To establish the impact of US AFRICOM and stability of the African continent
  5. To explore prospects for collaboration between the US   AFRICOM and African countries.

    

 

1.4      ASSUMPTIONS

This study is based on the following assumptions:

  1. That AFRICOM was established to protect US interest in Africa.
  2. That regional perspective and attitude towards AFRICOM would be negative.
  3. That African political leaders have the capacity to take a collective stand on the issue of operation of AFRICOM in the continent.
  4. That AFRICOM as presently constituted would lead to instability on the African continent.
  5. That there are prospects that both the US and the African continent if the concerns expressed by Africans is factored into the operation of the outfit.

 

 

1.5  SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study is considered significant as it will contribute to the ongoing debate on the US AFRICOM project and its impact on stability of the African continent. The findings of the research would also contribute to existing literature and conceptualization of future international collective security models hence contributing to efforts towards global security.

 

The study would also assist African leaders in formulation of policies regarding the vexed AFRICOM project as an objective assessment of contending issues would be undertaken. It is also hoped that the data generated and analyzed would spur further researches on US AFRICOM hence contributing to existing literatures and serving as reference materials for scholars on the subject.

 

 

1.6      SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The US AFRICOM project could be said to be a relatively new concept having being conceived just about three (3) years ago. The study would therefore cover relevant issues on the AFRICOM project beginning from when it was conceived in 2007 till date. Particular emphasis would be made to the views of African countries and interest groups within the continent on the operation of the project.

 

Since the study seeks to establish possible impacts of US AFRICOM on African stability, the entire continent is therefore taken into focus with special emphasis on the regional groupings. Comparisons were therefore made to the activities of other US commands particularly the CENCOM and EUCOM and their affect on the stability of the regions they operate.

 

The US CENCOM and EUCOM were chosen because of their traditional relationship with the African continent being the precursors of AFRICOM. Their areas of responsibility also cover Europe which experienced conflicts (former Eastern bloc) and the Middle East where issues of oil politics, terrorism and conflicts are prevalent. These are some of the issues AFRICOM professes to tackle in Africa.

 

 

1.7       RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

             The study utilized the descriptive research methodology using the casual comparative research design (ex-post factor)   to seek answers to its research objectives.  According to Olayiwola (2007), the casual comparative research design is a retrospective study of the relationship between a naturally occurring event the independent variable which in this study is AFRICOM and its outcome the dependent variable which is African Stability. 

Consequently, this study will draw inferences from the operations of other US military commands and their impacts on the stability of the regions which they are situated to establish the impact of AFRICOM on African stability.

 

1.8     METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION

The study utilized primary and secondary sources extensively to collect information and data used in the research. The primary data   were sourced through interviews with the Nigerian military chiefs and officials of the Institute for Peace and Conflict Resolution Abuja. The secondary data were sourced from the internet, journals, newspaper publications, government publications and other electronic data.

 

1.9       METHOD OF DATA VALIDATION

The data collection from the diverse sources was validated by establishing the reliability of the source of information particularly the electronic documents. In this regard, the frequency of quotation of   publications particularly electronic documents by other scholars also assisted in the validation process.  Furthermore the credibility and reliability of the information was assessed by comparing such data with information from other sources. The validation process was further enhanced by obtaining the counsel of experienced military officers retired and serving as well as experts in the field of international relations.  The data and findings of this research is presented  descriptively in simple language using bar charts, pie charts, maps and tables to facilitate comprehension.

 

 

1.10   WEAKNESS OF RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

          The ex-post factor research design is a systematic enquiry in which

the researcher does not have direct control over the independent

variables because their manifestations has already occurred or are inherently not manipulated,.  The researcher was therefore unable to manipulate the independent variable (AFRICOM) an inherent shortfall of the ex-post factor research design. The study therefore assumed that since US AFRICOM and African stability have a relationship one must be the cause and the other the effect. The relationship established between AFRICOM and African stability could therefore have been accentuated by other variables. These variables could be multifaceted and relative to the different regions in which the US commands operate.

 

1.11      LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

                       The researcher encountered some problems during the cause of the study.   These were in the aspects of the inability of the researcher to interview US government and AFRICOM officials due to the stringent procedures at the US embassy in Nigeria and also the location of the headquarters of the outfit in Germany. This limitation was however overcome by extensive use of US government official websites and publications such as the AFRICOM and DoD websites as well US Congress Research Reports. The limitations therefore do not cast aspersion on the quality and findings of the research.

 

 

 

 

Continue reading The united states africa command and stability of african states: issues and prospects

the armed forces in peace support operations: prospects for nigerian military personnel

THE ARMED FORCES IN PEACE SUPPORT OPERATIONS: PROSPECTS FOR NIGERIAN MILITARY PERSONNEL SECONDMENT FOR UNITED NATIONS JOB

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CHAPTER ONE

1.0    INTRODUCTION –         –         –         –         –                             

 

1.1    Background of the Study      –         –         –         –         –         1-5

1.2    Statement of the Problem   –         –         –         –         –         5-6

1.3    Objective of the Study          –         –         –         –         –         6-7

1.4    Significance of the Study      –         –         –         –         –         7-8

1.5    Scope of the Study       –         –         –         –         –         –         8

1.6    Limitation  –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         8-9

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER TWO

PAGES(S)

2.0    LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK –         –          –         –         –         –         –         10

 

2.1    Introduction        –         –         –         –         –         –         –         10-11

2.2    Armed Forces     –         –         –         –         –         –         –         11-14

2.3    Concept of Peace Support Operations  –         –         –         15-20

2.4    Nigeria Armed Forces Participation in Peace Support

Operations          –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –          20-22

2.5    Job Secondment          –         –         –         –         –         –         –          22-25

2.6    Benefits of Secondment       –         –         –         –         –         25-29

2.7    Theoretical Framework        –         –         –         –         –         29-31

2.8    Summary   –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         31-32

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY          –         –         –         33

 

3.1    Introduction        –         –         –         –         –         –         –         33

3.2    Research Design                    –         –         –         –         –         –          33-34

3.3    Area of Study      –         –         –         –         –         –         –         34

3.4    Population          –         –         –         –         –         –         –         34

3.5    Identification of Variables    –         –         –         –         –         35

3.6    Statement of the Hypothesis        –         –         –         –         35

PAGES(S)

3.7    Instruments of Data Collection     –         –         –         –         36

3.8    Validation of Instruments    –         –         –         –         –         36-37

3.9    Relability of Instrument       –         –         –         –         –         37

3.10  Methods of Data Collection and Analysis       –         –         38

3.11  Weakness of Methodology  –         –         –         –         –         38

3.12  Summary   –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         39

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0    DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION  –         40

 

4.1    Introduction        –         –         –         –         –         –         –         40

4.2    Respondents Profile    –         –         –         –         –         –         41-44

4.3    Analysis of Data           –         –         –         –         –         –         45

4.4    Nigeria’s Military Personnel in United Nations Peace

Support Operations     –         –         –         –         –         –         45-51

4.5    Challenges to The UN Military Personnel on

Secondment to United Nations Jobs     –         –         –         51-56

4.6    Strategies for Enhancing the Prospects of Nigerian

Armed Forces Personnel in Secondment to United

Nations jobs        –         –         –         –         –         –         –         56-59

4.7    Summary   –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         59-60

 

 

CHAPTER FIVE

 

PAGE(S)

5.0    CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS     61

5.1    Conclusion –         –         –         –         –         –         –         61-63

5.2    Recommendations      –         –         –         –         –         –         63

Bibliography       –         –         –         –         –         –         –         64-69

Appendix I –         –         –         –         –         –         –         70-72

Appendix II          –         –         –         –         –         –         –         73-74

Appendix III        –         –         –         –         –         –         –         75-76

 

 

 

 


LIST OF TABLES

Serial Title of Table Page No
(a) (b) (c)
4.2.1 Distribution of Respondents by Arms of Service 42
4.2.2 Participation in United nations Peace Support Operations by Respondents 43
4.4.3 Answers of Respondents on the Participation of Nigeria Military Personnel in UN PSO 46
4.4.4 Opinion of Respondents on the Benefits to the Nigeria Military Personnel in Secondment for United Nations Jobs 49

 


 

LIST OF FIGURES

Serial Title of Table Page No
(a) (b) (c)
4.2.1 Percentage of Questionnaire Returned and not Returned 41
4.2.2 Percentage  of Respondents by Arms of Service 43
4.2.3 Percentage of Respondents that have Participated in United Nations Peace Support Operations 44
4.4.4 Chart showing Percentage of Respondents on the Performance of Nigeria Military Personnel in UN PSO 47
4.4.5 Graph Showing Percentage of Respondents on the Question of Benefits to the Nigeria Military Personnel on Secondment to United Nations Job 49

 

 

LIST OF ABBREVIATION

 

  1. AHQ –         Army Headquarters

 

  1. AU –         Africa Union

 

  1. ECOWAS –         Economic Community of West Africa

States

 

  1. CFRN –         Contribution of the Federal Republic of

Nigeria

 

  1. DATOPS –         Department of Army Training and Operations

 

  1. HQ –         Headquarters

 

  1. MOD –         Ministry of Defence

 

  1. NA –         Nigerian Army

 

  1. NAF –         Nigerian Air force

 

  1. NN –         Nigerian Navy

 

  1. OAU –         Organisation of Africa Unity

 

  1. PSO –         Peace Support Operation

 

  1. TCC –         Troops Contributing Country

 

  1. UN –         United Nations

 

  1. UNAMSIL –         United Nations Missions in Sierra Leone

 

  1. UNDPKO –         United Nations Department of

Peacekeeping Operations

 

  1. UNIFIL –         United Nations Interim Force in Liberia

 

  1. UNMIL –         United Nations Missions in Liberia

 

  1. WW I & II –         World War I & II

 

 

 

ABSTRACT

 

This research was carried out to compare Nigerian Armed Forces participation in United Nations Operations and its prospects for job secondment. The study was geared at determining 4 distinct objectives. These were to confirm if there was a relationship between Nigerian Military involvement in Peace Support Operations and jobs in the UN.

 

Thereafter, Nigerian military personnel performance in UN PSO was considered. It also considered the challenges for UN jobs. Finally, strategies were proffered for enhancing the capacity of members of the Nigerian the capacity of members of the Nigerian Armed Forces for Jobs in the UN. The descriptive analytical method was used for this study.

 

The research dwelt on the area of study based upon the involvement of the Nigerian Armed Forces in PSO. It further identified the prospects of Nigerian Armed Forces in secondment for UN jobs. Furthermore, it revealed the commendation participation of Nigeria in most peace support operations under the UN.

 

To this end, MOD/AHQ should publish vacancies for UN jobs. Also, the MOD was implored to set up a committee to address the problem appointment and selection for secondment. Furthermore, the imperative of making the MOD/AHQ request for vacancies from the UN for job secondment for its personnel was considered. Finally, the study highlighted the need for the Nigerian Army Peacekeeping centre to include civil participation international relations and diplomacy in its curriculum

 


 

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0    INTRODUCTION

 

1.1    BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The civilization of man has evolved through conflicts, wars and strives. Some of these conflicts have claimed a lot of lives and caused the destruction of properties leaving behind displacement of people and a life of uncertainty. This has cost humanity greatly in the areas of the economic, environmental, social, and military development, (Yusuf 2008:2).

 

As a result of this, man has found it necessary to put in place mechanisms by which these conflicts and wars can be prevented, managed or resolved. Hence, the establishment of international and regional bodies and organizations whose primary aim is to check and curb such occurrences of an evolving or imminent war.

 

The League of Nations was established by the end of the First World War (WWI), in 1919. The primary aim of establishment was to maintain peace, stability and international security. It however failed for many reasons which include the German invasion of her neighbouring countries in 1936, (Gaje 2006:1). This eventually led to the World War II (WWII).

 

In further quest to establish a lasting peace and global security, some of the major powers which were involved in WWII established the United Nations (UN). The UN was thus established on the 24 October, 1945. Its primary aim was to prevent wars and to enhance world-wide development, (Sheikh 2003:594-595).

 

The bid to save humanity from the scourges of war and create a peaceful and just future for the entire world, strategies and policies were made by the UN in the sphere of global administration. The UN Charter therefore stipulates amongst others, the sovereign equality of all nations, and peaceful settlement of disputes and the renunciation of the threat of force, (Alger 1998:56).

 

The Charter made provision for the non intervention in the internal affairs of member nations and the taking of effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to peace. It further allows the suppression of acts of aggression or other breaches of peace, (UN 1993:1).

 

As part of the mechanisms put in place for a sustainable peace in the global setting, the UN has embarked upon PSO. This is only an endpoint of early preventive measures which when put in place could fail. It includes preventive diplomacy. The term PSO was first used by the military to describe organised international assistance initiatives to support the maintenance, monitoring and building of peace and prevention of resurgent violent conflict.

 

There are two categories of PSOs which includes peacekeeping and peace enforcement. Peacekeeping operations monitor and support the establishment of peace, usually in the context of a peace agreement and peace enforcement operations, (Johnson http://www.huntalternatives.
org/download/38_peace_support.pdf).

 

The activities of PSO which could involve combat and the use of force therefore creates the need for the military in this respect. Therefore the involvement of the military in PSO has been at the establishment of the UN itself as most of the conflicts in the world have been armed conflicts, (Warfare Publication 2nd Edition:1-3).

 

Over the years especially at the beginning of the 21st Century, military involvement in peace effort has been redefined. This is as stated in Chapters VI and VII of the UN Charter. It encapsulates the holistic term called PSO which entails not only peacekeeping and peace enforcement but also peace building and peacemaking.

 

So far, the involvement of the members of the Nigerian Armed Forces in PSO and the UN intervention in various conflicts in the world has been quite remarkable. This has involved the use of military personnel from all contributing members of the UN. Nigeria is a major TCC to the UN since inception of PSO. Nigeria since her independence has also been an active participant of most military expeditions in PSO for the UN, (Dokubu 2005:252). Successive governments have remained committed to Nigeria’s peacekeeping efforts. Nigeria has continued to increase its participation in PSO in human and material resources contribution in line with increase in conflict all over the world. This has cost the nation a lot in training and maintaining its personnel to meet the challenges of PSO especially in the current dispensation. This has necessitated the establishment of the Peacekeeping Wing of the Infantry Centre and School, Jaji, Nigeria.

The training of personnel and the involvement of members of the armed forces in PSO creates a platform and advantage for the members in many ways. One of advantages such is the building of the average military personnel not only in international relations but also in international conflict management.

 

This creates the prospect for the members of the Nigerian armed forces secondment for jobs in the UN. This is evident in some notable appointments of Nigerian military personnel who have at one time or the other been absolved by the UN to carry out some official roles as a result of their involvement in previous PSOs. The middle cadre officers, despite experience gained from participation in UN PSO are not being seconded to the UN.

 

 

1.2    STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The Nigerian military over the years have participated in various PSOs around the world. In spite of the long history of the military’s involvement in PSO, there have been a lot of challenges which has prevented the average Nigerian military personnel to have a high standing in its secondment for jobs in the UN.

 

It is therefore against this backdrop that this study seeds to answer the following questions:

  1. Is there a relationship between involvement of members of the armed forces in PSOs and jobs in the UN?
  2. How is the performance of Nigerian military personnel in UN PSOs?
  3. What are the challenges constraining Nigerian Armed Forces in securing secondment for UN jobs?
  4. What are the strategies for enhancing the capacity of the members of the Nigerian Armed Forces for jobs in the UN?

 

1.3    OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The main objective of the study is to evaluate the involvement of members of the Nigerian Armed Forces in PSO as a secondment for UN jobs. The specific objectives are to:

  1. Examine the relationship between the military involvement in PSOs and jobs in the UN.
  2. Examine the performance of Nigeria military personnel in UN PSOs.
  3. Identify the challenges confronting Nigerian Armed Forces in securing secondment for jobs in the UN.
  4. Proffer strategies for the enhancement of the capacity of members of Nigerian armed forces for jobs in the UN.

 

1.4    SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The importance of this study is appreciable in the fact that the role of the Nigerian armed forces in PSO has been quite remarkable. Hence, the need for government to see it as advantage for military personnel secondment for jobs in the UN.

This study will also assist the Ministry of Defence as well as individual members of armed forces to focus and realize its role and capacity in PSO as well as the advantage of secondment in the UN. It will also contribute to the existing body of knowledge especially on the involvement of the military in PSOs. It will finally be a reference material to researchers, commanders and staff officers involved in PSOs.

 

1.5    SCOPE

The study covered the period of 1978 to 2010. This marked the period when the Nigerian Armed Forces started significant participation in PSOs in the United Nations with the United Nations Interim Forces Lebanon (UNIFIL). The study utilized the UN, OAU/AU and ECOWAS PSOs as case studies to evaluate the level of training of the Nigerian Armed Forces for PSOs

 

1.6    LIMITATION

This study was impaired by the dearth of sufficient literature on the concept of job secondment in the military. However, this limitation was mitigated by resorting to manuals questionnaires and interviews conducted with some former participants of PSOs in the Nigerian Armed Forces. This therefore created a leverage for the validity of the study.

 

 

 

 

Continue reading the armed forces in peace support operations: prospects for nigerian military personnel

Kidnapping In Nigeria: Implications And Challenges For National Security

Kidnapping In Nigeria: Implications And Challenges For National Security

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

                                                                                PAGE(S)

 

TITLE PAGE…………….…………………………….       ….   i
CERTIFICATION……………………………………..…..  ii
DEDICATION……………………………………………..  iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT…………………………………  iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS…………………………………   v – ix

LIST OF TABLES…………………………………………  x

LIST OF FIGURES……………………………………….. xi

LIST OF ABBREVIATION ………………………………. xii – xiii

GLOSSARY OF TERMS…………………………………. xiv-v

ABSTRACT………………………………………………..  xvi

CHAPTER ONE

 
INTRODUCTION                                                         PAGE(S)

 

BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY………………………. 1 –  4

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM……………………….       4 – 5

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY…………………………… 6

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY…………………………        6

SCOPE OF THE STUDY…………………………………..  7

METHODOLOGY……………………………………………  7

LIMITATION OF THE STUDY……………………………  7 – 8

HYPOTHESIS…………………………………………….. 8

ENDNOTES ………………………………………………   9 – 10

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW                                           PAGE(S)

GENERAL………………………..………………………    11 – 12

CONCEPT OF PROCUREMENT…….……………….   12 – 13

CONCEPT OF CENTRALISED PROCUREMENT….   13 – 14

DETERMINANTS OF EQUIPMENT

PROCUREMENT…………………………………………  14 – 15

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CENTRALISED

PROCUREMENT SYSTEM AND THE ARMED

FORCES…………………………………………………..  15  – 16

SUMMARY………………………………………………..  16 – 17

ENDNOTES………………………………………………   18 – 19

 

 

CHAPTER THREE

 

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY                               PAGE(S)

 

RESEARCH DESIGN…………………………………..    20 – 21

SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUES…………..   21

INSTRUMENT OF DATA COLLECTION……………… 21 – 22

POPULATION…………………………………………….. 22

VALIDATION OF INSTRUMENT……………………….. 22 – 23

METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION……….…………… 23

METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS………………………… 23 – 24

WEAKNESS OF THE METHODOLOGY………………. 24

SUMMARY………………………………………………… 24 – 25

 

CHAPTER FOUR

 

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS                PAGE(S)

 

 

INTRODUCTION…………………………………………  26

DATA PRESENTATION…………………………………  26 – 27

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION………….   28 – 30

FINDINGS ON THE PROBLEMS OF CURRENT

CENTRALISED PROCUREMENT SYSTEM…………   30 – 34

AN OVERVIEW OF PROCUREMENT SYSTEM

OF SELECTED COUNTRIES…………………………..  34 – 35

PROCUREMENT SYSTEM IN SOUTH AFRICA……..  35 – 36

PROCUREMENT SYSTEM IN INDIA………………….  37 – 41

PROSPECTS OF CURRENT CENTRALISED

PROCUREMENT SYSTEM……………………………..  41 – 45

STRATEGIES FOR THE ENHANCEMENT OF

CENTRALISED PROCUREMENT SYSTEM FOR

THE  NIGERIAN ARMED FORCES……………………  45

INITIATION OF IDEA…………………………………….  46 – 47

 

PROPOSED PROCUREMENT PLANNING

COMMITTEE…………………………………………….    47

PROPOSED JOINT PROCUREMENT CELL………..   48 – 49

PROPOSED DEFENCE PROCUREMENT

COUNCIL…………………………………………………   49 – 51

PROPOSED PROCUREMENT PROCESS…………..  52

PROPOSED PROCUREMENT MONITORING

COMMITTEE……………………………………………..  52 – 53

OTHER STRATEGIES…………………………………..  54 – 57

ENDNOTES………………………………………………   58 – 59

 

CHAPTER FIVE

 

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS                   PAGE(S)

 

CONCLUSION ………………………………………….    60 – 62

RECOMMENDATIONS …………………………………          62 – 64

ANNEX A………………………………………………….  A-1-A-4

 

ANNEX B………………………………………………….  B-1 – B-3

ANNEX C………………………………………………….  C – 1

ANNEX D………………………………………………….  D – 1

ANNEX E………………………………………………….  E – 1

ANNEX F…………………………………………………..  F – 1

ANNEX G………………………………………………….. G – 1

ANNEX H………………………………………………….  H – 1

ANNEX I…………………………………………………… I  – 1

 

REFERENCES

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY ……………………………………….     65 – 68

 

 

 

LIST OF TABLES

 

Serial Title of Table Page No(s)
(a) (b) (c)
1. Distribution of Respondents in Groups 41
2.

 

 Showing Respondents Opinion on Wide Spread Kidnapping in Nigeria Especially in the South- South and South East  

 

42

3. Showing Respondents Opinion on Bad Leadership and Political Factors as one of the Causes of kidnapping  

45

4. Showing Respondents Opinion on Poverty as one of the Courses of Kidnapping 48
5. Showing Respondents Opinion on Unemployment as one of the Causes of Kidnapping  

51

6. Showing Respondents Opinion on Political Implications of Kidnapping for National Security  

54

7. Showing Respondents Opinion on Social Implication of Kidnapping for National Security  

58-59

8. Showing Respondents Opinion on Economic Implications of Kidnapping for National Security  

62

9. Showing Respondents Opinion on How to Address the Menace of Kidnapping  

67-68

10. Showing Respondents Opinion on Strategies to Curb the Menace of Kidnapping in Nigeria  

69-70

 

 

 

LIST OF FIGURES

 

Serial Title of  Figure Page No (s)
(a) (b) (c)
1. Chart Showing Percentage of Respondents in Groups  

41-42

2. Chart Showing Percentage of Respondents on wide Spread Kidnapping in Nigeria Especially in South-South and South East  

43-45

3. Pie Chart Showing Percentages of Respondents on Bad Leadership and Political Factors as One of the Causes of Kidnapping  

46-48

4. Pie Chart Showing Percentages of Respondents Opinion on Poverty as One of the Causes of Kidnapping 49-50
5. Pie Chart Showing Percentages of Respondents on Unemployment as one of the Causes of Kidnapping 52-53
6. Pie Chart Showing Percentages of Respondents on Political Implications of Kidnapping for National Security 55-58
7. Chart Showing Percentages of Respondents on Social Implications of Kidnapping for National

 

59-61
8. Pie Chart Showing Percentages of Respondents on Economic Implications of Kidnapping for National Security 63-67
9. Chart Showing Percentage of Respondents Opinion on How to Address the Menace of Kidnapping in Nigeria 68-69
10.  Bar Chart Showing Percentages of Respondents Opinion on Strategies to Curb the Menace of Kidnapping in Nigeria 70-71

 

 

 

 

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

 

  1. AFCSC –       Armed Forces Command and Staff College
  2. AU –       African Union
  3. CAS –       Chief of the Air Staff
  4. CIA –       Central Intelligence Egency
  5. ECOWAS – Economic Community of West African State
  6. LGA –       Local Government Area
  7. MASOB –       Movement for the Survival of Ogoni People
  8. NA          –       Nigerian Army
  9. NAF –       Nigerian Airforce
  10. NEPAP –       National Poverty Eradication Programme
  11. NDPVF –       Niger Delta People Volunteer Force
  12. NEEDS –       National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy
  13. NN          –       Nigerian Navy
  14. NP –       Nigerian Police
  15. NNPC –       Nigerian National Petroleum Commission
  16. SPDC –       Shell Petroleum Development Coy
  17. UN –       United Nation
  18. USA –       United State of America
  19. MEND      –       Movement for the Emancipation of Niger Delta

 

 

 

 

 

ABSTRACT

        This study examined the implications and challenges of kidnapping for national security.

 

The objective of the study was to among other things identify, the causes of kidnapping in Nigeria as well as its implications for the national security and the strategies to curb it.

 

The studies discuss varying views on the concept of kidnapping and national security. Kidnapping started in Nigeria as a result of the agitations in Niger Delta to get the attention of the Government and the International Communities Concerning their plight.     

 

   The methodology involved the analysis of data from both primary and secondary sources. The study was limited to the Niger Delta and South Eastern state of the Country. The research questions were answered after the analysis of the Data.

 

The study identified political, social and economic implications of military for National Security. The study also brought to the fore the salient point that bad political leadership, poverty and unemployment  are some of the factors that have encouraged kidnapping in Nigeria.   

 

   The study apart from identifying the implications of kidnapping for national security, it also proffered some solutions. One of which is the Government should address the problems of poverty and unemployment in the country.

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

 

1.0     GENERAL INTRODUCTION

 

 

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

 

On 23 Oct 09, Paul and Rachel Chandler, a couple from Tunbridge, Kent in Great Britain went for a sailing adventure from Tanzania to Seychelles. Midway into their course, they were ambushed by some pirates from Somalia and held hostage for 388 day; approximately 13 months.

 

The pirates later demanded for a ransom      of 1million United States of America (USA) dollars as the condition for the release of the couple. They eventually released them on 14 Nov 10 after the last part of the required ransom was paid.1

 

Prior to the 1990s, incidences of kidnapping and hostage taking were among the news items that were reported in the Nigerian news media that happened in other parts of the world. That time, Nigerian society was relatively secured and her national security was not facing the challenges of kidnapping or hostage taking. Today however, kidnapping has become one of the challenges to Nigeria’s national security.

 

Kidnapping is the act of taking a person against his or her will or from the control of a parent or guardian, from one place to another usually through violence, force, threat or intimidation under circumstances in which the person so taken does not have freedom of movement, will or decision.

 

Although it is not necessary that the purpose be criminal, the capture usually involves some related criminal act such as holding the person for ransom, sexual and or sadistic abuse.2 The word ‘kidnap’ originated from Scandinavian language ‘kid’ which means child. Kidnapping originally meant stealing a child, but now the      concept applies to adults also.(Gerald Hill http//legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com)

 

The history of kidnapping in Nigeria is traceable to the Niger Delta regions where over 80 per cent of Nigeria’s crude oil is deposited.3 The exploration and exploitation of this crude oil led to the influx of expatriates into that region. These expatriates form part of the staff of oil companies like Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) and Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC) which are involved in the oil exploration.

 

The oil exploration in Niger Delta led to gas flaring and oil spillages into the seas. This affected the source of livelihood and occupation of the people of Niger Delta which was mainly fishing and other aquatic cultures. Many of the youths of this area lost their source of livelihood and could not have alternative means of livelihood especially through gainful employment in the oil servicing companies in their neighbourhoods.

 

Furthermore, government did not do much in developing the region. Apparently, government’s presence in terms of good road networks, pipe-borne water, good schools and hospitals were lacking. Accordingly, the people of Niger Delta felt marginalized by the government. Some of their leaders like Ken Saro Wiwa and 8 others, who spoke against this supposed injustice and marginalization, were killed by the instruments of the state.4

 

This situation led to the emergence of various armed militant groups in Niger Delta agitating for control of the resources in their land. These militant groups included Movement for the Emancipation of Niger Delta (MEND), Niger Delta People’s Volunteer Force (NDPVF) and Movement for the Survival of Ogoni People (MOSOP). These groups used various means to draw the attention of government and the international community to the deplorable condition in which they believe they lived. Their activities included disruptions of oil work by setting oil wells ablaze and taking expatriate oil workers hostage.

­­

One of such incidents took place on 31 Jul 00. On this date,   about 100 militant youths held 165 oil workers hostage till 5 Aug in an oil drilling rig owned by SPDC in Ekeremo Local Government Area (LGA) of Bayelsa State.5 Hostage taking at this stage was mainly a way of getting government’s attention. Later on however, the militants started asking for ransom, before they would free their victims. This marked the genesis of known cases of kidnapping in Nigeria.

 

Today, kidnapping is no longer one of the ways the militants drew government’s attention to the deplorable conditions of living in Niger Delta. The menace of kidnapping is now reported across the length and breadth of Nigeria from the East, West and North to the Southern parts. Victims of kidnapping now cut across expatriates, politician, civil servants, actors, industrialists, clerics, journalists, women and children. Kidnapping in Nigeria has become pandemic. Some of the many reasons for its spread might be economic others political, while some could be religious. Whatever the reason for kidnapping, its implication and challenges for national security has become worrisome.

 

National security is the continued ability of a country to pursue its internal life without serious interference.6  National security of a state is one of the determinants of the survival of the state. In this regard, governments of nations consider its national security very vital to its continued existence.

 

Speaking at the flagging off ceremony of his presidential campaign in Lafia Nasarawa State, President Goodluck Jonathan said that he will not play politics with national security. Additionally he affirmed that armed robbers, kidnappers, terrorist and all those whose activities overtly or covertly threaten the security of Nigeria should be prepared for the fight his government would give them.7

 

In view of the implications of kidnapping to national security government at all levels are taking stringent measures to curb the menace. For example the government of Rivers and Abia States have passed a bill into law conferring death sentence on anyone convicted of the crime of kidnapping.8

 

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

 

Nigeria is a country with great human and natural resources for growth and development. If these potentials are well harnessed, it would invariably lead to a strong economy where national security is guaranteed. However, the country has not been able to harness these abundant human and national potentials. Consequently, the country’s economy is still at the cradle and its national security is frosted with many challenges.

 

This state of affairs has resulted in the feeling of insecurity especially among the youths and increased the pressure and restiveness in the polity. Bad political leadership, unemployment, corruption and poverty are among the factors that are believed to be responsible for this feeling of insecurity. Furthermore, perceived injustice in the socio-economical balance in the country has contributed significantly to the despair by the citizens particularly the youths. It is believed that these conditions have contributed to the wide spread kidnapping across the country.

 

President Goodluck Ebele Jonathan commented on kidnapping in the light of its challenges to national security. He said, ‘…the security challenges crawled in gradually as if it would not be too harmful and government failed to take frontal attack as at that time until it became a cancer now that needs surgical operation and probably a radio-therapy to cure… no part of this country will be allowed to be a sanctuary for criminals – robbers or kidnappers’.9

 

Based on the foregoing, this study seeks to proffer answers to the following research questions:

 

  1. What factors are responsible for wide spread kidnapping in Nigeria?

 

  1. What is the relationship between kidnapping and national security?

 

  1. What are the implications and challenges of kidnapping to national security?

 

  1. What strategies could be adopted to curb the menace of kidnapping in Nigeria?

 

1.3     OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

 

The objective of the study is:

 

  1. To identify the factors responsible for wide spread kidnapping in Nigeria.

 

  1. To determine the relationship between kidnapping and national security.

 

  1.   To determine the implications and challenges of kidnapping to national security.

 

  1. To proffer strategies that could help in curbing the menace of kidnapping in Nigeria.

 

1.4     RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

 

There is a notion that the stability and peaceful co-existence of a country can only be effectively threatened by the use of force of arm against the government or its agencies. Therefore nations often pay more attention to training and equipping its armed forces to be able to defend the country from any attack. However, in many instances, insecurity of individual citizens has effectively exposed some countries to serious security challenges. The recent incidents in Tunisia, Egypt and currently Libya readily come to mind.10

 

Some of the causes of insecurity to citizens of countries include armed robbery, kidnapping, unemployment and poverty. This study seeks to establish that the increased rate of kidnapping in Nigeria is a major threat to the stability of the country. In addition, that some of the reasons this vice is on the increase is because of bad political leadership, unemployment, poverty, and corruption among others. Conversely if these issues are addressed by the government the menace would reduce.

 

1.5     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

 

The study will contribute to the advancement of knowledge on the causes of kidnapping and its implications to national security. Secondly its findings would help the government and various government agencies to appreciate the importance of national security in nation building. Furthermore, it would help to stimulate further research on the menace of kidnapping in Nigeria and how it has affected Nigeria’s national security objectives.

 

It is also hoped that the study would add to the existing literatures and body of knowledge on the implications and challenges of kidnapping to national security. In addition, this research work would provide a reference material for future studies in this area.

 

 

1.6     SCOPE OF THE STUDY

 

Kidnapping is a very broad concept which would require considerable amount of time, effort, resources and literature to adequately address. However, this study would concentrate on some of the kidnappings that took place in Nigeria from the year 2000 – 2010. Within the period under review, references would centre on cases of kidnapping in the South-South and South Eastern parts of Nigeria.

 

The paper would take a cursory look at the factors responsible for the menace as well as determine the relationship between kidnapping and national security. Furthermore, the implications and challenges of kidnapping to national security will be looked into before strategies to curb the menace of kidnapping would be proffered.

 

1.7     LIMITATIONS

 

The major limitation of this study was inadequate time and resource materials.  The researcher would have wished to travel to locations where kidnapping occurred more frequently to get information from the security personnel who are regularly confronted with the menace. Another limitation was that some of the respondents were unwilling to divulge sufficient information because of fear.

 

Furthermore the concept of national security is intangible. Therefore using sensory experience to measure the concept was relatively impossible. Notwithstanding the aforementioned limitations, the researcher was persuaded that the information gotten from the willing respondents was true and represents a correct picture of the cases of kidnapping in Nigeria within the period under review. In addition, the researcher ensured that neither the quality of the research, nor the outcomes of its findings was compromised.

 

1.8     RESEARCH METHOD

 

The data for the study were derived from both primary and secondary sources. Primary data were collected through the use of questionnaires and oral interview with people considered relevant to the subject matter. Secondary data on the other hand were collected from newspapers, journals, other unpublished materials and the internet.

 

 

 

 

Continue reading Kidnapping In Nigeria: Implications And Challenges For National Security