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The classification and knowledge development by technical librarians

The classification and knowledge development by technical librarians

 in academic libraries in anambra state.

Table of Contents

Chapter one

1.0   introduction – –      –      –      –      –      –      1

  • Background of the study – –      –      –      4
  • Statement of the problem – –      –      –      8
  • Purpose of the study –  –      –      –      –      9
  • Significance of the study – –      –      –      11
  • Research questions –    —     –      –      –      12
  • Scope of the study –      –      –      –      –      12
  • Limitation of the study –      –      –      –      13
  • Definition of the terms –       –      –      –      14

 

Chapter two

Literature review

2.0   introduction – –      –      –     –      –      –      14

2.1   the concept/meaning of classification and

knowledge development in academic libraries    18

2.2   knowledge development in libraries             20

2.3   important of library classification         –     –      22

2.4   types of library classification scheme   –      25

2.5   library and information education and

Training –       –      –      –      –      –      –      27

2.6   the technical section of the library       –      29

2.7   the economic value of information and

Knowledge –    –      –      –      —             –      33

2.8   other initiative that facilitate access to

Knowledge and information in african –              35

2.9   the role of academic libraries        –      –      37

2.10  the role of innovation libraries and

Information services      –      –      –      –      38

 

Chapter three

3.0   research methodology – –      –      –      –      40

3.1   design of the study –      –      –      –      –      40

3.2   area of the study –  –      –      –      –      –      41

3.3  population of the study –      –      –      –      41

3.4   sample and sampling techniques –      –      42

3.5   instrument for data collection –    –      –      43

3.6   validation of the study – –      –      –      –      44

3.7   reliability of the instrument –       –      –      44

3.8   distribution and retrieval of instrument      44 3.8        method of data analysis –     –      –      –      45

 

Chapter four

4.0   data presentation and analysis    –      –      46

4.1   presentation of findings –      –      –      –      46

4.2   discussion/analysis of findings    –      –      53

 

Chapter five

Summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations

5.1   summary of findings-    –      –      –      –      55

5.2   conclusion –    –      –      –      –      –      –      56

5.3   recommendations  –      –      –      –      –      58

5.4   area for further studies –       –      –      –      59

References –    –      –      –      –      –      –      61

Appendix a –   –      –      –      –      –      –      63

Appendix b     –     –      –      –      –      –      64


Abstract

The major purpose of this work was to investigation classification and knowledge development by technical librarians in academic libraries in anambra state it was also directed to find out the factors militating against effective knowledge development in academic libraries, survey design was considered most appropriate and was adopted. The population of the study was 400,000 people while the sample sizes was 400 respondents selected using the taro yamane formula for sample selection. It was found out that inadequate facilities is one of the factors affecting knowledge development in academic libraries in anambra state. It was found out there was lack of accessibility and utilization of academic libraries in anambra state. In conclusion, it was concluded that anambra state has been described by researchers as a failed state due to it’s incapacitations to provide enabling environment for knowledge development in academic libraries. It was recommended that both anambra state and private individuals should join hands in building up effective academic libraries which will enhance effective knowledge development in anambra state, the researcher also brought forward. Icts knowledge development in academic library as the area for further research work in anambra state.


 

Chapter one

  • Introduction

Library classification forms part of the field of library and information science. It was a form of bibliographic classification (library classification are used in library catalogues, while “bibliographic classification”, also covers classification used in other kinds of bibliographic data bases). It goes hand in hand with cataloguing and classification, sometimes grouped together as technical services. The library professionals who engages in the process of cataloguing and classifying library materials is called a cataloguer or catalog librarian. Library classification scheme are one of the two tools used to facilitate subject access. The other consist of alphabetical indexing language such as thesauri and subject headings.

Library classification of a piece of work consists of two steps. Firstly, the aboutness of the material is ascertained. Next, a call number (essentially, a book’s address) based on the classification scheme in use at the particular library will be assigned to the work using the notation of the systems.

However, a library classification is a system of grouping the like terms and separating them from the unlike one’s. Library classification documents library materials or any information (books), serials, audio visual material, computer files, maps manuscripts, realia) according to their subject and allocating a call number (information needed) to that information resources. Bibliographic classification schemes group entitles together that are relevant the same subject, typically arrange in a hierarchical tree structure (like classification schemes used in biology). A different kind of classification scheme called a faceted classification scheme is also widely used which allows the assignment. It multiple classifications to an objects, enabling the classification to be orderly in multiple ways. Barr jim (2009) knowledge management is about cooperation and contact.

It is important to note that unlike subject headings or thesauri where multiple terms can be assigned to the same work, in library classification schemes, each work can be placed in one class. This is due to shelving purposes. A book can have only one physical place. However, in cataloguing one may have main entries as well as added entries most classification scheme like dewey decimal classification (ddc) and library of congress classification scheme also add a cutter number to each work which adds code for the author of the work.

Classification system in libraries generally play two roles. Firstly, they facilitate subject access by alloying the user to find out what is available in a give library on a particular topic. Secondly, they provide a known location for the information source to be accessed leg where it is shelved.

Lawrence sand giles cl (2006) accessibility information on the web nature.

 

  • Background to the study

Library plays a very important role in this economic and industrial development of developed countries. As early as 1995, ifidon (1995) demonstrated how libraries (i.e academic, public and special libraries) were important building blocks in the economic and industrial development of developed countries ifidon (2005) documented several information services that were provided by libraries in canada, germany and united kingdom (uk) to the industry. Community which includes: providing access to patents… informations, reference services borrowing privileges, current awareness services, inter library cooperations, translation services etc. The range of these services varied according to the resources which can be tapped and the financial support given by local government and industries. A study of kansas public libraries in the united states of america also showed that nearly a third of business and economic development organization in all pars of the state used public libraries as a resources high proportions of business that have their own libraries also use the resources and services of public libraries in most cases in the united state of america (usa) such as library system of lancaster country (pa) and the cecil country (md) public library. Small business information centre (hamilton pennell, 2008).

Most libraries in african are still in a weak position to successful playing their roles in economic and industrial development. Libraries are still tied in the traditional role of providing access to information resources by only acquiring processing and disseminating library materials.

Originally libraries were small, served the monitory and possessed a collection of books imported from colonial countries. This situation has not changed even when independence came to many african states. Most libraries have renamed with the tittle content generated from the north, as their development was ignored in favour of the efforts to uplift poverty. Further, the rising cost of journal prices and adequate and expensive distribution mechanisms on knowledge and innovations in africa have also inhabited libraries to provide access to updated and relevant literature for economic growth and industrial development journal subscriptions normally increase at rate of 11.16% every year beyond the reach of many institutions in africa ngika, (2006).

Academic libraries are among the best developed libraries in africa and they can play a great role in serving the industry community. These libraries are well equipped.

However, there is a significant variation in there development and growth both in quality because their support mainly comes from their institutions with minimum subsidization they receive from government or other affiliations (ocholla, 2008) despite the development of ict, changing nature it will also serve as a guide line for the students scholars in library and information science field of study.

It will also serve as books of record in the field of information science.

 

  • Statement of the problems

It is a common knowledge that the viability of academic library have not been explored nor utilized. This is because of the excruciating in effective equipment of libraries in the nigerian contemporary societies which has been culminating to the traumatizing non-challant attitude of the masses towards sourcing information from libraries, lack of interest in academic study cum knowledge acquisitions from academic libraries in anambra state. It is unfortunate that anambra is a failed state in regards to library building and knowledge acquisitions this is demonstrated by the past governments of anambra state on their failure to support effective library buildings in the state, which has been stigmatizing (militating) knowledge exploration in the academic setting which demoralizes the interested researchers (readers) in anambra state for the past twelve years in which knowledge development in academic library has become a past history in anambra state

 

  • Purpose of the study

In line with the statement of the problems of this study which are not limited to the excruciating lack of effective support towards equipping academic libraries non-challant attitude of masses towards gaining new knowledge from academic libraries lack of proper library classification which makes information difficult for the researches, this work aims to the following;

  • to find out factors affecting classification and knowledge development by technical librarians in academic libraries in the state.
  • To recommend the most possible solutions to those identified factors (affecting) militating against effective classification and knowledge development in academic libraries in this state.
  • To determine the strategy through which government of anambra state will ensure proper and adequate library building in all the academic settings.
  • To examine the level of information accessibility and enhance effective information dissemination for depositions in the academic libraries in anambra state.
    • Significance of the study

This field research work will be significance in the following ways;

  1. It will serve as a book of reference for further research work in anambra state and nigeria general.
  2. This research work will also be significance in enhancing effective classification and knowledge development in nigeria contemporary society and in academic settings generally.
  • It will be of great help in ensuring proper classification in academic libraries in anambra state. It will also serve as a guideline for the students, scholars in library and information. It will also serve as books of record in the field information science.

 

  • Research questions

In line with the statement of the problems and in chronological with the purpose of this research work; the following (4) research questions were posed by the researcher which will guide this field research work.

  • What are the factors affecting effective classification and knowledge development academic libraries in anambra state?
  • To what extent could there be solution to the problems militating against effective classification in academic libraries?
  • To what extent does government of anambra state enhance adequate library buildings in academic environments?
  • To what extent do masses access and utilize the information in academic libraries in the state?

 

  • Scope of the study

This research work is focused on classification and knowledge development by technical libraries in academic libraries in anambra state. It covers the problems affecting effective classification and knowledge in academic libraries. It also touches the solutions to the problems and the strategy designed through ensuring government and provide effective and active participation in academic libraries buildings in the state.

 

  • Limitations of the study

In the course of this study the researcher encounters many impediments and challenges as follows: –

Time constraints: time constraint is one of the major factor that limits this course of study mean while, the researcher faced many activities coupled with her course of study.

Financial constraint: the researcher of a student was financially constraint in the sense that she found it difficult to travel round anambra state from week to week.

Non-challant attitude: of the respondents towards the questionnaires was also one of the factors that limited the researcher.

Some wrong information and fear of giving information among the respondents was also a difficult factor in achieving this research work target.

 

  • Definition of terms
  1. Classification: is a systematic arrangement of things, people, animals, books in groups or categories according to established criteria.
  2. Knowledge development: is the process of capturing, developing, sharing and effectively using organizational knowledge. It refers to a multi disciplined approach to achieving organizational objectives by making the best use of knowledge.
  3. Technical libraries: these are the people that specialize in selecting, acquiring, processing, organizing, and preserving library materials.
  4. Academic library: is a library attached to a higher institution which service (2) two contemporary purposes to support school curriculum and support the research work of the students and lecturers.
  5. Ddc: dewey decimal classification.
  6. Lc: library of congress classification.
  7. Ict: information and communication technology.
  8. Ifla: international federal of library association.
  9. Ala: american library association
  10. Aacr: anglo american cataloguing rule.
  11. Opac: online public access catalogue.

 

 

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Stock acquisition in alex ekwueme library

Stock acquisition in alex ekwueme library

Federal polytechnic, oko anambra state.

Abstract

This research work deals with stock acquisition with a reference to alex ekwueme library, federal polytechnic, oko.

Acquisition is a means by which books and non book materials are collected in a library. The librarian glossary  (2001) defined acquisition as a process of acquiring or the department concerned with acquiring for the library. In chapter one of this research study, there are problems militating against stock acquisition in alex ekwueme library such as lack of fund to build up the library stock, there is a problem of staffing and inadequacy of reading space and furniture.

Chapter two of this research study deals with literature review which discusses the following headings: acquisition, acquisition policy, library materials/stocks, types of library stocks, methods of acquisition, problems of stock acquisition and selection tools. Chapter three of this research study is research methodology which the research adopted survey research/designs because survey deals with interview and questionnaires.

Chapter four of this research study discusses presentation and analysis of data which were drawn and gathered from the research questions as follows:

  1. What are various methods of acquiring library materials at alex ekwueme library?
  2. Are there procedures of book acquisition in the library
  • What are the needs for stock acquisition in academic libraries?
  1. What types of materials are to be acquired in the library?

Based on the findings, the researcher indicated that the main reason for stock acquisition is for dissemination of information.

Chapter five deals with summary, conclusion, recommendation and suggestion for further study. The researcher recommends that the institution management should not depend on government grant alone but should try to allocate more funds for the acquisition of library stocks/materials.

 

Table of Content

Chapter one

1.1    introduction                                                                          1

1.2    statement of problem                                                            7

1.3    objectives of the study                                                           8

1.4    scope of the study                                                                 8

1.5    significance of the study                                                        9

1.6    research questions                                                                9

1.7    definition of terms                                                                 10

 

 

Chapter two

2.0    literature review                                                                    14

2.1    concepts of library and its functions                                     14

2.2    acquisition                                                                             15

2.3    acquisition policy                                                                  17

2.4    library materials/stocks                                                        18

2.5    types of library stock                                                    18

2.6    methods of acquisition                                                          20

2.7    problems of acquisition                                                         22

Chapter three

3.0    research methodology                                                           26

3.1    research design                                                             26

3.2    area of study                                                                 26

3.3    population                                                                             27

3.4    sample and sampling technique                                           27

3.5    treatment procedure                                                     28

3.6    validity of instrument                                                            28

3.7    distribution and retrieval of the instrument                                  28

3.8    data analysis technique                                                        28

 

Chapter four

4.0    presentation and analysis of data                                         29

4.1    presentation and data/findings                                            29

4.2    discussion/findings                                                      32

 

Chapter five

5.0    summary, conclusion, recommendation, suggestion           33

5.1    summary                                                                      33

5.2    recommendations                                                                  34

5.3    conclusion                                                                             35

5.4    suggestion for further studies                                               36

References                                                                             37

Appendixes                                                                            38

Questionnaires                                                             39


Chapter one

Introduction

1 .1  background of the study

The quality of service provided by any library will be determined by the richness of its collection. According to oxford advanced learner’s dictionary 8th edition, stock is a supply of something that is available for use. Stock in library terms refers to book and non book materials in a given library.

The term acquisition means different thing to different people. Evans, (2000) defined acquisition as the process of securing materials for the library collection, whether by purchase as gifts or through exchange programs.

Gorman (1998) described acquisition as the procedure which is primarily concerned with ordering, claiming and receipt of materials for the library.

Acquisition according to bakare (1999) is the means by which books and non book material are collected in a library or group of libraries.

The librarian glossary (2001) defined acquisition as the process of acquiring, or the department concerned with acquiring for the library.

Webster part ii (1984) defined acquisition as the act of acquiring

According to oxford advanced learner’s dictionary, acquisition is the act of getting something especially knowledge and skills.

Wulfekoetter, (1961): acquisition is the means by which additions are made to the library; this involves bringing in new materials into the library stock. These materials maybe acquired through direct purchase, gifts, exchanges, donations, inter-library loan cooperation and legal deposit especially if the government designated the library as a legal depository centre.

It is also the process of obtaining library materials, both books and non book materials, which aims at building up a library collection.

Effective acquisition development can only be possible in any library if the functions of that library are quite clear in a policy statement. It has always been impossible for any library to possess every material.

Stock acquisition in alex ekwueme library, federal polytechnic oko, involves print and non print material. (book and non book materials).

Book acquisition according to adedibu, l.o (1983) is the procurement of library books whether they are acquired by purchase, gift or through exchange.

        books:

These are monographs, textbooks or set of blank sheet of papers bound along one edge and enclosed within protective covers to form a volume especially a written or printed literary composition presented in this way. Librarian glossary (1971)

Stocks acquired are usually housed in a library.

 

Library:

Webster part ii (2004) defined library as a collection of reading materials. Webster’s encyclopedic unabridged dictionary of the english language (1994) defined library as a place set apart to contain books and other materials for reading, study or reference; as a room, set of rooms or building where books may be read or borrowed.

Kumar (1992) defined library as a public institution or establishment charged with the care of a collection of books, the duty of making them accessible to those who require the use of them and the task of converting every person in its neighborhood into a habitual library gore and reader of books.

According to okeke (2001) library is an institution meant to collect, organize, preserve and disseminate informational materials to library patrons.

Chukwuma (2004) defined it as a place where professionally selected and acquired books and non book materials are processed and orderly arranged to make for ease of location, retrieval and use.

Hornby (2010) defined library as a building in which collection of books, cds, newspaper etc are kept for people to read, study or borrow.

Academic library:

According to the librarians glossary of terms (1979) academic libraries are those libraries of universities, university colleges, and all other institutions forming part of or associated with institutions of higher education.

Ezamba n.c. (2004).says that an academic library can be defined as a library attached to tertiary institutions. Academic libraries are varied and distinctive as the institutions they serve.

Obodoeze,f.o.(2004) opines that academic libraries are those libraries that exists in institutions of higher education such as universities, colleges of education, colleges of technology and polytechnics.

Therefore, stock acquisitions in academic libraries are the process or action taken by libraries to build up the library’s collection. Various ways are involved in acquiring library materials such as acquisition by purchase. In purchasing process, there is need for selection before acquisition, acquisition through gifts, exchanges and legal deposit.

Selection involves careful choice of items to be acquired by the library. Selection is based on the needs of user because the library in the polytechnic is primarily set up to support the polytechnic curriculum. Many things are considered during selection and acquisition and they include the objectives of the parent body/institution that is every institution has objectives and materials are acquired in the subject field of the institution’s interest.

Historical background of alex ekwueme library, federal polytechnic oko.

Alex ekwueme library, federal polytechnic, oko is an academic library made up of a network of three libraries located at oko, atani and ufuma campuses. What is today known as the alex ekwueme library, federal polytechnic, oko started in a one (1) room apartment with (400) volumes of books mostly in the field of classic and literature. This was when the anambra state government approved the institution as a college of arts and science to offer a remedial courses for students at the g.c.e ordinary and advanced level examinations. When the institution was upgraded to college of arts, science and technology on june 28, 1980 more books were acquired to provide information resources to facilitate teaching, learning, research and community services.

The growth of the library was sustained with the unassailable objectives of the library, collection development in alex ekwueme library was expectedly dictated by the institutions curricula.

The college was formulized as anambra state polytechnic, oko through edict no. 12 of 1985. The library was moved from the one room it occupied to its present location and more books were acquired to beef up the collection.

The professional librarian mr. U.c.u uchedili was appointed to organize the library in line with established procedure in any academic library. This was during the regime of professor c. Ezeilo as the rector in 1981. In 1993, the quality of its education programmes, the availability of vital infrastructure and personal initiatives of professor ben nwabueze, the minister of education. The polytechnic was taken over by the federal government. At the same time, atani campus of polytechnic was established as one of the visionary strides of professor ben nwabueze.

The nucleus of atani campus library was established with 1,272 volumes of books in the field of computer science, mathematics and satatistics. The first professional librarian, mr. Rowland ofuluo was appointed in 1995 by recommendation of the polytechnic librarian. Dr obiora nwosu left the polytechnic for nnamdi azikiwe university. The polytechnic was at that capacity until june 2010 when mr. F.o obodozie took over as the substantive polytechnic librarian.

Today, alex ekwueme library, federal polytechnic, oko has benefited from tet fund sponsorship, federal government grants and donations from philanthropic individual like dr emeka offor. As a result of these interventions, the library has grown into one of the foremost academic libraries in nigeria. They have also applied to ranforly libraries in england to include alex ekwueme library in global rating of academic libraries.

At present they have 220,000 volumes of books with 120,000 titles. It has equally grown in staff strength with (48) forty eight professional and para professional staff. There is still room for improvement in manpower development.

 

1.2   statement of problems

It is obvious that diverse problems militate against alex ekwueme library in federal polytechnic oko. Recently stock acquisitions in the academic libraries have little or no attention

In many libraries in nigeria especially academic libraries, there is lack of fund to build up library stock. This is because sometimes government do not provide enough fund to acquire library materials which aims at building up the library collections. Sometimes when government maps out fund for a particular institution, those in charge will not use it adequately and judiciously.

There is a problem of staffing in the department compared to the number of library users. In most academic libraries, there are few numbers of staff to compare to the number of users they attend to. When you come to the library, there are lots of students seeking for attention of library staff.

Inadequacy of reading space and furniture is also one of the problems in alex ekwueme library. When materials are been acquired in the library, there is no reading spaces and furniture for the library users.

The above problems affect stock acquisition in alex ekwueme library in federal polytechnic, oko.

 

1.3   objectives of the study

The objectives of the study carried out by the researcher are as follows:

I       to identify the various methods of acquiring library materials at alex ekwueme library, federal polytechnic, oko.

Ii      to ascertain the extent and procedure of book acquisition in the library.

Iii     to determine the needs of stock acquisition in academic libraries.

Iv      to find out the types of materials that are to be acquired in the library.

 

1.4   scpoe of the study

This research work is limited to the acquisition of library materials in alex ekwueme library, federal polytechnic, oko, in orumba north local government anambra state. This research work discusses the acquisition of print and non print materials in the above mentioned polytechnic. This research work will examine the different types of materials which are been acquired by the library, the reasons for the acquisition of those library materials, its importance to library users.

1.5   significance of the study

Few books were written on the field or topic stock acquisitions, what we have severally are materials on collection development in which acquisition is included.

This research work is carried out by the researcher in order to help users especially library science students to identify the processes of stock acquisition in an academic libraries making reference with alex ekwueme library, federal polytechnic, oko so as to  enable them to differentiate between stock acquisition patterns in various libraries (public, school, special and national libraries).

Additionally, the study will help to contribute to the knowledge of anybody who might need information or assistance in the following ways:

  • It will help students and researchers especially library and information science students who may need this work as a reference in the field of stock acquisition.
  • It will serve as a guide to library staff to their users/patrons.

 

1.6   research question

The researcher formulated the following research questions on the assumption that it would aid her in bringing the research work to a logical conclusion.

  1. What are the various methods of acquiring library materials at alex ekwueme library federal polytechnic, oko?
  2. Are there procedures of book acquisition in the library?
  • What are the needs of book acquisition in academic libraries?
  1. What types of materials are needed to be acquired in the library?

 

1.7   definition of terms

Books:

According to librarian glossary (2001), these are monographs, text books or set of blank sheet of paper bound along one edge and enclosed within protective covers to form a volume especially a written or printed literary composition, presented in this way.

Books are non-periodical printed publication of at least forty five (45) pages. It is known that books carry the knowledge of the society and this knowledge is needed every time by the members of the society. As a result of this, books are published constantly to carry information.

Dina and olukola (2002) cited unesco to define book as a non-periodic printed publication of at least (49) forty nine pages exclusive of the covers. A book can therefore be described as a collection of sheets in printed or written form which has been cut, sown, and usually bound between covers into volume. A book may be more than one volume like encyclopedia britannica which has 30 volumes. Books can be divided into fiction and non-fiction.

Non-print materials.

Non-print materials consist of library resources that are not in printed format. They are called audio-visual materials (a.v.m). These materials require special equipment for their use. They require auditory and visual appreciation to use them. They are divided into three:

  1. Audio: they consist of sound recordings produced on magnetic tape. Examples are audio cassettes, audio tapes, records, educational radio programmes, etc.
  2. Visual: visual senses (eyes) are required for their use. Examples are slides, film-strips, transparencies, microfilms, ultra fiche, microfiche, etc.
  • Audio visual: these materials require both audio (ears) and visual (eyes) senses for their use. They include television, videotapes, tape/slide programmes.

Collection development:

This embodies a number of library activities which include the selection of library resources, the acquisition of those materials selected, development plans for sharing resources between libraries, maintenance of resources acquired, weeding, conservation and preservation of library materials.

Selection:

This is the process of choosing books to be included in the library holdings.

Uchedili u.c and uchedili e.e (2006) opined that selection is a process of deciding which materials to acquire for a library collection. It is a matter of systematically determining quality and value. They further suggested reasons for selection in libraries which are as follows:

  1. Achievement of objectives: every library has a set of objectives which represent the basic function of its parent body.
  2. Need/use: library only needs to acquire materials needed by its users. Every library is established with potential users in mind, so selection must be according to their needs because effective collection building cannot take place without reference to the needs of the users.
  • Selection due to variety of resources: library has to select which materials to acquire amongst others in the same subject.
  1. Limited resources: libraries select because no library can afford to buy all that is needs.

Non print materials with reference to alex ekwueme library is in audio visual unit (av unit) .

Uchedili and uchedili (2006) says that non print materials are the audio visual materials. They include:

Equipment;

16mm sound projector,8mm projecter,2×2 slide projector, film stride projector, overhead projector,television,reel-reel player, cassettes,record player, video tape recorder, cameras etc.

Materials;

8mm films, 16mm films, graphic materials, microform, transperencies,multimedia kits etc. These materials require special handling and a good environmental condition. In alex ekwueme library, federal polytechnic, oko they have the following non print materials as mentioned by the polytechnic librarian mr. F.o. oboboeze as follows;

Four overhead projectors, two slide projectors, four television sets, 29 computers, but only six are functioning, four reel-reel tapes, two loud speakers, satellite dish installed by tet fund and white screen for projector

 

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School libraries as an effective instrument for achieving academic excellence

School libraries as an effective instrument for achieving academic excellence

a case study of schools in owerri town

 

Table of Content

Chapter one

1.1   introduction   –      –      –      –      –      –      1

1.2   historical background of secondary school library

In owerri town (capital territory   –       –      14

1.3   statement of the problem –    –      –      –      19

1.4   objective of the study-   –      –      –      –      20

1.5   scope of the study –       –      –      –      –      21

1.6   significance of the study –     –      –      –      22

1.7   research questions –      –      –      –      23

1.8   definition of terms –       –      –      –      –      24

 

Chapter two

2.0   review of related literature –  –      –      –      27

2.1   concept school library –      –      –      –      30

2.2   importance of school libraries  –   –      –      32

2.3   the roles and functions of the school library 36

2.4   service of school library  –             –      –      39

2.5   the school library collections  –     –      –      44

 

Chapter three

3.0   research methodology – –      –      –      –      46

3.1   introduction – –      –      –      –      –      –      46

3.2   design of the study        –      –      –      –      46

3.3   area of the study-   –      –      –      –      –      46

3.4   population of the study –      –      –      –      47

3.5   sample and sampling techniques         –      –      48

3.6   instrument for data collection –    –      –      48

3.7   validation of instrument       –      –      –      49

3.8   method of data analysis        –      –      –      –      49

 

Chapter four

4.0   data presentation and analysis –  –      –      50

4.1   method of data analysis-      –      –      –      51

4.1.2 finding of the study-    –      –      –      –      58

4.1.3 results of interview       –      –      –      –      61

 

Chapter five

  • Summary- –      –      –      –      –      –      63
  • Recommendations – –      –      –      –      64
  • Conclusion –      –      –      –      –      –      66

References –    –      –      –      –      –      –      68

Appendix –      –      –      –      –      –      –      70

Questionnaire –      –      –      –      –      –      71

 

 

Abstract

This project work is on the “school library as an effective instrument for academic excellence of schools on owerri town”. The aim of this research survey is to determine and examine the extent of services being rendered to library users, the stock of the library and to some extent the problems placing the library. The character and efficiency of any institution and that of its various categories of populace is adjusted by its treatment of its central organ the library along with the school, college, the news media and other manifestations of the “knowledge industry” is one of the agencies through which the institution of education exerts its influence on society, the library satisfy the basic information, education, cultural and other needs of its clienteles in their general and specific intellectual fields and pursuits. Information is preserved in the print and non-print medium and the school library acquires, organize, interprets, preserves and stores the information purveying media for easy access and consultation thus, today is the gateway to broadcast world or scholarly information for pupils, students and teachers. School libraries are an information and is indispensable to a pupils or students advancement or self development. The right information at the right time, at the right place to improves the ability of a students, pupils or teacher. School libraries therefore are not the basis of all teaching and learning, it is also essential for promoting and enhancing intellectual or academic pursuits. Also its aim at establishing a firm knowledge of school and general subjects by making choices of these materials to select those which will build up a firm and realistic foundation. The wide range of such materials provides an incentive to use them to impart knowledge and for preparing pupils and students also for their various examinations. In which they give useful experience and increase self confidence and develop basis for more advanced work and they through their use the pupils and students will in the best sense of the words, striving for excellence in their academic. These places the school libraries are at a position of relevance and explains why it is an effective instrument for achieving excellence.


Chapter one

Introduction

1.1   background of study

the word according to the new lexicon webster dictionary of the english language. Library is defined as a room or building housing a collection of books usually arranged according to same plan. Such collection of book on related topics issued by a publisher.

the library has collection of records of human culture in print and non-print information purveying materials housed, preserve, organized, interpreted and managed by a professional librarian, to meet the broad and varying needs of users or clientele, for their information, knowledge, education, research, recreation and aesthetic appreciation.

however the word library is defined as a room or building containing books that can be looked at or borrowed by members of the public or members of the group or organization that owns the library.

according to longman dictionary of english language and culture; a building in which collections of books, cds, newspapers, etc are kept for people to read, study or borrow.

the library is an integral part of any academic institution where it is situated and no such institution can achieve its well throughout objectives without the library. It is not an adjunct to the parent institution, but an indispensable part. It is necessary to have library in our post primary schools because it is the central organ of an academic institution which determines the excellence of the institution in teaching and learning. School libraries are found in elementary post primary and higher schools and house the materials and services that students and teachers requires to carry out their academic activities. Their holdings consist of printed an audio-visual materials that support and extent the curricula and that attempt to make reading attractive to students.

according to encyclopedia americana, they offer reference and inter-library loans in terms of size, 54.6% of school libraries have fewer than 2000 books, while 3% have more than 10000% books. In the early 1990s there were approximately 3500 school libraries in mexico, representing a 24% increase in just two years. School libraries have also extended their missions and the level of their services in recent years.

furthermore, from the above one can see that the school library has a remarkable role in academic excellent of students because the process of teaching and learning cannot be effectively done without incorporating the library of secondary education system. It is therefore an instrument of education excellence. In this regard ishola (2002) says “that whose function is to broaden the education of students by introducing them to spheres of knowledge outside the narrow confines of their school curriculum”

the school library can serve as follows:-

  1. Resource centre: offers a wide variety of materials that information is not only stored in print form but also in non-print.
  2. Teaching agency: teacher students various skills which when acquired enhances their academic performance and discourage leaving by rote.
  • Services agency: offer various services users to aid them make maximum utilization of the library resources.
  1. Recreation agency: guides students in their research work involving using the library by providing minor reference assistance to them.
  2. Educational agency: this is the overall development of an individual, growth, progressive reconstruction of experience and a life long process. The educational roles of the school library are:-
  3. Inculcation of permanent literacy
  4. Promotion of early child education
  5. Enhancement of secondary education
  6. Development of reading habits.

The school libraries thus has challenged the functions of parents, teachers, classroom and the various institutions that were formerly the exclusion, sources of knowledge and information.

The characteristic of the school library:

  1. User: they are made up of the pupils, students and teachers. Some are more intelligent than others or some are eager to read while others are backward. The libraries should give more attention to the less intelligent once in order for them to meet up.
  2. Contents: it contains materials that are book and non-book materials also contains materials based on the syllables and subjects taught at school chosen on basis of its individual merit considering the special needs and problem of the institution and the medium that most effectively conveys the desired content so that its objective will be met.
  3. Location: it is part of the school community. They are to achieve the objectives of the school that set it up the library as a complement.
  4. Functions: it is an integrating factor in the work of the school. The work of the school library is directed towards the definite education aims of the school.

A large percentage of pupil and students in nursery, primary and secondary schools are ignorant of the fact that personal intelligence and more knowledge of a subject does not automatically establish firm knowledge of a subject and excellence in school, the school library is an invaluable and for  achieving academic excellence. Also teachers, parents and libraries are today concerned about the poor reading habits of our students, poor performance at school and fall in our educational standard. This cry has invariably elicited very passionate question in the minds of those who love and care of all round development of these students. The libraries are yearning collectively on how to combat this problem knowing the adverse effect of this ailment first in the lives of the pupils and students, secondly in the progress of a country like ours.

The relationship between school libraries and reading habits and that between school libraries and academic excellence has been a subject of theoretical interest and practical importance amongst librarians. However, this relationship has been established through effective reading and general success in academic pursuit. In the primary schools, the library laid the foundation for reading habits by importing reading skills at the formation stage of the pupils education. In the secondary schools they form the foundation for independent learning at present school and at successive stages of the students life by establishing firmly the reading habits acquired in the primary school. Also the school library communicates information from several information carries, for better understanding and broadcasting of knowledge and there produce profound effects on the various categories of the students populace who acquire the skill of utilizing and assimilating information from the library, thus become more successful than others by virtue of information and knowledge they possess via the library collections.

It was in view of this that morgan (2003) asserts that in the hands of a cultured teacher the school library may serve as a link to bind together the home and school, and to arouse the interest of parents in what and how their children are reading, by referring them to the library.

Teachers can suggest to pupils valuable books suitable for their age, attainment, tastes and necessities. Seldom does a day pass when the vigilant teacher has not an opportunity, either in a class or in private conversation, to drop into the prepared soil of pupils mind a hint of some valuable books to read in the library.

In conclusion “there is no better intellectual and moral influence than that which comes from reading a good book aloud in the family circle” morgan (2003) concludes that:-

Learning with tear is now a thing of the past like wise learning from single textbook. As every good and resourceful teacher knows one of the crimes or worst “sins” a teacher can commit against his students is to feed them with wrong and out-dated information, also for the purpose of education to be fully achieved, students and teachers need to consult several source for better understanding and clarity. Also, nothing could be as dangerous as ignorance and an ill-informed student as they fall prey to rumours and false propaganda. The library selects, acquires and store in a classified arrangement on shelves the best and up-to-date sources of information that keeps staff and students abreast of new developments in knowledge and understanding of the subject matter, encourage practical work and develop the powers of analytical appraisal and of critical thinking.

Learning can be one of the most exciting experience in life, while reading is identified as the single most important determinant of a child’s success at school and in modern society as well. Learning also in modern life depends largely upon ones ability to interpret the printed messages accurately and fully, while reading is an educational task, essential for ones excellence in all academic pursuits. He who has other reasons for learning and reading besides interest in the subject has everything going for him, his interest broadens and cheap source of information during childhood education. Thus ideas absorbed from reading and learning through then remains with the students for the rest of their lives and produces profound effects and influences on their academics. Also the school library in no small measure plays a great part on the attitudes, behaviours, aspiration academic pursuits embarked upon by students and in determining the kind of people they can be

Good readers who have mastered the tasks of reading agree that early exposure to a wide range of printed materials is a highly relevant factor in reading. The handicap most secondary schools students face in reading development is lack of good reading materials. The school libraries are indispensable in the area of provision and proper use of books, this have made them the forum on which the educational activities of our secondary school revolves. It behaves on students numerous information sources to exploit so as to enhance their academic performance and to excel. This way, it lays foundation for a brighter future. Knowledge acquired from the information embedded, in the library and resources is like a fortune rightly acquired. For it is “the heart of the institution and the apex on which the intellectual life of the school and student rest”.

 

  • Historical background of secondary school libraries in owerri town

The development of secondary school libraries in owerri town could not be treated in isolation from that of school libraries in general in owerri which commenced in the early 1950’s.

This historical development of secondary schools library started in government secondary school, owerri now government college, owerri which was established in 1952 and modern school, owerri now girls’ secondary school, owerri established in 1955.

Libraries in secondary school are established in government trade centre, which serves the educational (technical) needs of those students in the technical education sector.

Moreover, due to the type of materials the library stock, it could not serve the general interest of the students in owerri town. For this reason another library was established in the modern school, owerri which now serve various categories of students. Despite the type of materials that the library stocked it contributed immensely to the educational development of the town. This was the state affairs until another library was established in the government secondary school which before then serve as a book depot for schools in the then eastern region, as it was from there that books meant for primary and secondary in the eastern region sent by the then colonia government were deposited for the various number of volumes of books meant for their school. However, it must be noted that the central library at enugu was also providing library service known as “library on wheels” to schools in owerri town (secondary school) before the war, (nigeria civil war). This factor led to the promotion of the establishment of libraries in secondary schools in owerri town which were though largely organized and were left to the part-time of teachers. The libraries then in some of these schools were either location in one classroom or found to be in the principals office.

In 1955 the government college, holy ghost college, girls secondary school owerri were founded. The government technical college, owerri was founded in 1952, federal government girls college, 1973 and bishop lasbrey girls secondary school, 1952 become secondary school in 1986.

In 1957 a library was established in the government college with the aid of the books deposited in the institution. Then a teacher librarian was trained by the administrators who were white men at enugu. It has the largest volume of books amongst all the schools in owerri town which strives till today. The library building had a statue of students clutching a book in a round-about in front of the library to indicates the building. The person in charge of the library holds a degree in library science education.

The government technical college library was established in 1956 for students in the technical and trade sector of education. Its resources is limited to the type of courses offered in the college. This is an n.c.e graduate in technical in education but with librarianship. With background knowledge of librarianship acquired through attending seminars, workshops, conferences and long period of the classroom complex which is located in a large hall. It has volume of books ranging between 1000 to 1500.

In 1973, the federal government girls secondary school owerri was established and in 1974 was founded. The library caters for the interest needs of students in the secondary section and those in higher school section (lower and upper sixth students) this accounts for its large number of volumes of 3,500. The library is manned by a professional librarian with a bachelor of library science degree. Since 1973 the school has achieved its inception. The library is allocated an entire building and has links with the academic feats.

After the conversion of bishop lasbery girls secondary school irette to a secondary school then the library was established in 1986, which is located in one classroom and manned by a teacher librarian. The library has volumes of books ranging between 800 to 1000.

 

1.3  statement of the problem

this study is the investigation of the extent to which school libraries contribute to academic excellence. Also school libraries has effect on the pupils, students and teachers and their indispensable contributions to the teaching and learning programs of the schools is yet to be fully understood. As a result of this problem, what this research study tries to portray is the mechanism by which the school libraries comes about it.

 

  • Objective of the study

The library is a central focus because in every academic institution. The learners and educators achieve this objective through the library which serves as the vehicle of communication or transmission of scholarly knowledge for educational excellence.

School libraries are very indispensable for effective teaching and learning process. The main aim of this study is the town in relation to their academic performance.

  1. To know the impact of school library and program on its various patrons
  2. To find out the impact of reading culture and library skills acquisition on students performance.
  3. To know the extent to which library collections impact knowledge.
  4. To examine the service of the school library.

 

1.5  scope of the study

the scope of this study is limited to schools in owerri town. This covers three boys and three girls secondary school. These six secondary school represent all the geographical area in owerri town.

 

1.6  significance of the study

this study is significant because it will benefit the following:-

  1. School libraries should be able to perceive and teach the students on how to use the library as data banks of information and knowledge for self directed learning and research.
  2. Teachers will know that in order for a student to cope academically and other wise he/she has to become self reliant in obtaining and utilizing information.
  3. Parents guardians are to be acquainted with vital role of the school library and its overall impact on the academic pursuits of their children.
  4. The school principals should also include the habit of using the library in the life of the students.
  5. The state government will also recognize the importance of libraries in the secondary education from this research.

 

1.7  research questions

1)     has any impact of such library on its patron?

2)     does reading culture and skills acquired impact on the performance of the students?

3)     to what extent do the collections imparts knowledge on the users?

4)     what are the services provided by the school library?

 

 

1.8  definition of terms

1)     according to the new lexicon webster dictionary, school is a community of those who teach and those who are taught, especially one of the education of children, usually housed in a building design and equipped for this purpose. The purpose to be achieved is transmission of knowledge, cultural and social values which are acceptable from one generation to another. Also all these should be recorded and preserved in book and other information carrying media, which are collected and preserved by the library for the users to make use of.

2)     library is defined as a room or building housing a collection of books usually arranged according to some plan. Such collection of book on related topics issued by a publisher.

3)     education: is a process of teaching training and learning especially in schools to improve knowledge and develop skills. Example nursery, primary, secondary and higher education.

4)     school libraries are an information agency, they provide ready access to this information and is indispensable to a pupils or students advancement or self development. The right information at the right time, at the right place to improves the ability of a student, pupils or teacher.

5)     questionnaire: it defined as set of question relating to the aim of the study and the hypothesis to be tested to which the respondents are expected to answer in writing.

6)     sampling techniques: is a techniques or method used to minimize error and bias in the study. It also the method that all the elements have equal probability of being selected for investigation.

 

 

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ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment :
Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
 Account Number:  0117780667. 
Swift Code: GTBINGLA 
Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANKER SECURITY GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

OR
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form>DELIVERY PERIOD FOR BANK PAYMENT IS  LESS THAN 2 HOURS

How to transfer from your bank account to All  Nigeriabanks

1. Access Bank:
—-*901#

2. EcoBank:
—-*326#

3. Fidelity Bank:
—-*770#

4. FCMB:
—-*389*214#

5. First Bank
—-*894#

6. GTB:
—-*737#

7. Heritage Bank:
—-*322*030#

8. Keystone Bank:
—-*322*082#

9. Sky Bank:
—-*389*076*1#

10. Stanbic IBTC:
—-*909#

11. Sterling Bank:
—-*822#

12. UBA:
—-*389*033*1#

13. Unity Bank:
—-*322*215#

14. Zenith Bank:
—-*966#

15. Diamond Bank
—-*710*555#

To know your BVN, dial
—-*565*0#.

E.g for First bank…   *894 *Amount *Acct. No. #

Please dail d code from d number u used to register d account from the bank

CALL OKEKE CHIDI C ON :  08074466939,08063386834.

AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO

08074466939 or 08063386834, YOUR PROJECT TITLE  YOU WANT US TO SEND TO YOU, AMOUNT PAID, DEPOSITOR NAME, UR EMAIL ADDRESS,PAYMENT DATE. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR MATERIAL IN LESS THAN 2 HOURS ONCE WILL CONFIRM YOUR PAYMENT.

WE HAVE SECURITY IN OUR BUSINESS.   

MONEY BACK GUARANTEE

 

Information retrieval methods

Information retrieval methods

(a case study of onitsha divisional library)

Chapter one

Introduction

  • Background of the study – –      –      –      -1
  • Statement of the problem – –      –      –      -7
  • Purpose of the study –  –      –      –      –      -7
  • Research questions –    —     –      –      –      -9
  • Hypothesis – –      –      –      –      –      –      -10
  • Significance of the study – –      –      –      -11
  • Scope of the study –      –      –      –      –      -12
  • Limitation of the study – –      –      –      –      -13
  • Definition of the terms –       –      –      –      -13

 

Chapter two

Literature review

2.1   characteristics of investment –     –      –      -16

2.2  importance of investment decision  –   –      -18

2.3   investment appraisal and techniques –       –      -19

2.4   characteristics of a good tax system –  –      -26

2.5   importance of tax in nigeria –       –      –      –      -29

2.6   general features of company tax – –      –      -30

2.7   investment incentives – –      –      –      –      -32

 

Chapter three

Research methodology

3.1   design of the study –      –      –      –      –      -33

3.2   area of the study –  –      –      –      –      –      -34

3.3  population of the study –      –      –      –      -34

3.4   sample of the study –     –      –      –      –      -35

3.5 instrument for data collection –    –      –      -35

3.6   distribution and retrieval of the instrument -36

3.7   validation of the study – –      –      –      –      -36

3.8  method of data analysis –     –      –      –      –37

 

Chapter four

Data presentation and analysis

4.1   test of hypothesis – –      –      –      –      –      -38

4.2   questionnaire analysis/ discussion of finding-48

 

Chapter five

5.1   summary of findings-    –      –      –      –      -55

5.2   conclusion –    –      –      –      –      –      –      -57

5.3   recommendation –  –      –      –      –      –      -58

5.4   suggestion for further study –       –      –      -60

References –    –      –      –      –      –      –      -61

Appendix a –   –      –      –      –      –      –      -62

Questionnaire –      –      –      –      –      –      -63

 

 

Abstract

This study aims at finding the information retrieval system is basically a system that stores records in a file for data relevant to each request. The purpose of such system is to help access and use of knowledge which has been recorded. This study on information retrieval methods: a case study of onitsha divisional library is an investigation into the various means adopted by the library under study in their information retrieval process. Particular attention is paid to existing information retrieval methods use in the library and how suitable they are, the basic advantages of digital information retrieval system over manual were also revealed by the study. The research methodology adopted for the research is the survey method; data was collected using questionnaire together with observation. The study also revealed the information retrieval process in the library is manual which the library organizes each materials through cataloguing, classification and indexing. Base on the problem encountered, some useful suggestions on how to improve on the information retrieval function in the library were made. The study also concluded by suggesting that further research study be made.


Chapter one

Introduction

  • Background of the study

information is a basic human need. It is needed virtually in all facets of human endavour such as teaching, learning, business, decision making, education, travel etc. No modern society can function effectively within the intensive of information whether in print or non print format.

it is therefore pertinent to know how these information can be harness, retrieved and disseminated for use by the user or the society in a modern world. The different methods of information retrieval are therefore discussed in this write up with special interest on onitsha divisional library.

the word information cannot be mentioned in isolation of human beings. Information has been described as the master resource, the chief raw material and the principle product of modern economics. Even before the modern world, the ancient world has been dealing with information gathering storage and retrieval which were done in an ancient ways where papyrus, clay tablets etc were used. Information can be seen as data that have been subjected to some logical processing or functions capable of answering a user’s query, be it recorded, summarized or simply collected that would help in decision making.

information retrieval methods or systems came into beings as a means of ensuring that information generated and recorded do not get lost over time. Before knowledge became, individuals formed the repository of knowledge. With libraries, repository of knowledge began to change into recorded form. Nowadays the quantity of new information being generated is such that no individual can hope to cope with this information explosion and at the same time make them available to users. This led to the use of information retrieval with minimum cost in time, labour and money. Information retrieval method or system therefore is the process of searching some collections of documents in order to identify those documents in order to identify those documents which deals with a particular subject.

reitz (2004) defines information retrieval (ir) as the process, methods and procedure used to selectively recall recorded information from a file of data. In libraries, searches is made typically for a know item or formation on a specific subject, and the five is usually a human readable catalogue or index, or index, or a computer-based information storage and retrieval system, such as an on-line catalogues and bibliography database. In the design of such systems, a balance must be attained between speed, accuracy, cost and effectiveness. Any system that is designed to facilitate the literature searching activity may legitimately be called an information retrieval system. The catalogue, index and bibliography, abstract as well as computers is known as information retrieval systems (irs)

in the library today, instead of the individual storing the knowledge in the brain and mind, we have the corporate store, the library, instead of the individual memory, we have the corporate memory. The library catalogues, bibliographies indexes and computers. These information retrieved systems (tools) contain the bibliographical details of documents such as the author, edition, call-number, publisher, place of publication, date etc. These details help the user to identify the current title, author of the document without which retrieval becomes impossible.

thus, the researcher purposes to investigate the various process adopted by the public library under study in retrieving for use known information items needed to retrieve documents on a particular subject problem and questions encountered.

A brief history of onitsha divisional library

in nigeria, educational activities started with the arrival of the whitemen who introduced their religion to us. In the process, churches and schools were established. A seminar was organized for the development of public libraries in africa and it is hold at the university college, ibadan between 27th july and 21st august, 1953. This seminar focuses on drawing up guidelines for the public library services. The seminar also covered all aspects of public libraries and the major outcome includes the formation of the professional library association then called west african library association (wala). The impact of wala is quite immense.

the eastern nigeria government then under the leadership of late dr. Nnamdi azikiwe too up the chance of unesco (united nations educational and scientific cultural organization) conference and invites professionals from the regions to come and help to establish public library in the region. Late mr. Kalu okorie come and surveyed the eastern region and make recommendations, part of which is that there must be library legislation to give legal backing to the establishment of public library services. This recommendation is accepted by the regional government.

the eastern part of nigeria therefore becomes the first region to have library board and library legislation. The establishment of the library actually takes effect in 1958 with the building of the regional library headquarter at enugu. This quickly followed with the establishment of divisional libraries at port harcourt, ikote ekpne umuahia and later at onitsha and other branch libraries were also established onitsha divisional library was establish in 1967. It is not a separate library of its own. The library is use during the war as onitsha high court until 1972, when the library is renovated and open for users consultation, following the creation of 19 states in 1973 anambra state is created out of the east central state just like imo state, each of the states had libraries within its area of jurisdiction.

on 11th september 1976, anambra state government constitute the state library board with the responsibility of equipping other divisional libraries in the state. This board is set up to serve the people within their community. The acquisition of this library is mainly materials from enugu.

onitsha divisional library is opened on the 28th november 1966, by the military governor, chukwuemeka odumegwu ojukwu. The library has passed through many directors. Because of the creation of the new anambra state in 1991 with its capital at awka, the materials obtain as part of the library’s share were housed at st. Mary’s high school ifitedunu because there is no permanent building for the library board.

the present administration under the leadership of mr. Peter obi give onitsha divisional library a new look as most of the old books has been weeded out and replace with more current ones, furnish it, repaint it, beautify the compound, establish a microsoft centre for e-library services. The microsoft unit building has been completed but equipment it is still in progress (mr. Peter obi) donated reading desks and shelves, tables and chairs for the microsoft centre.

the former director of library is barr. Chris o. Onebunne who retired from service on april 2009 before mr. Osigwe n. Took over from him and become the present director of library services. The incumbent divisional library is nkechi udeze.

 

1.2  statement of the problem

the period under review in this research work is of great importance. It is a period of manual information explosion. It is a period more many retrieval methods exist, where more efficient, rapid and accurate retrieval methods has been developed  such as the use of catalogue card, index and bibliography abstract as well as the computer.

however, there re basic problems which militates against the utilization of these methods or systems. Some of these problem includes: low literacy level, lack of funds, government apathy to libraries, the pitiable conditions of our public libraries.

 

1.3  purpose of the study

this study aims at finding the causes and solutions to the problems of information retrieval methods by the library. The following objectives are:

  1. To identify the available information retrieval system used by library under study
  2. To know the types of information retrieval in the library
  • To discover how information is being organized in the library.
  1. To identify the problems encountered by the library in its information retrieval efforts.
  2. Making useful recommendations of how best to improve on the methods of information retrieval in the library

 

  • Significance of the study

The study is significant because the library users, librarians, administrators and the entire public will see it as a guide to their field of endeavours especially the (librarians)

Again there is no information can only be relevant when it goes to the right people at the right time.

 

1.5  scope of the study

this study is focused on public library only due to financial constraint and time that the researcher cannot be able to cover other libraries like national libraries, academic and special libraries etc.

1.6  research questions

  1. What are the information retrieval methods used in onitsha business library?

Ii.     What are the type of information retrieval onitsha divisional library is operating?

  • How are materials being arranged or organized to enhance easy location?
  1. What are the problems of information retrieval methods in the library?
  2. What are the useful recommendations that should be adopted to improve method of information retrieval in the library under study?

 

1.7  definition of terms

for the purpose of understanding the work the following terms are relevant to point out

  1. Information: this refers to a fact told or communication that is fact is a piece of information that is referred as true. It can also be seen as a processed data which is communicated or received that can be used in making decision.
  2. Public library: it is a library that is publicity funded by forms or individuals. It is sponsored by the federal government, state or local people where the library is built and basic aims of establishing for the provision of information materials that is not restricted to my class of persons in the community public
  3. Information retrieval (ir): this means the systematic storage and recovery of data as from file and catalogue or memory bank of a computer. It equally means document delivery, mail-links, library searches, personal files, catalogue and data base design.
  4. Method: it is a way of doing something or doing things a careful logical way.
  5. System: this is a collected of activities and elements designed to accomplish a goal. It also mean a set of idea, theories, procedure according to which something is done
  6. Information retrieval system: this is a process, methods and procedures used to selectively recall recorded information from a file of data in the libraries.

 

 

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Information needs and resource utilization by people living with hiv/aids

Information needs and resource utilization by people living with hiv/aids

a case study of esut teaching hospital parklane enugu

 

 

 

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. A FRESH TOPIC NOT LISTED ON OUR WEBSITE COST 50,000 NAIRA ( UNDERGRADUATE) OR 100,000 FOR SECOND DEGREE STUDENTS. $500. PLUS  FREE SUPPORT UNTIL YOU FINISH YOUR PROJECT WORK. CONTACT US TODAY, WE MAKE A DIFFERENT. DESIGN AND WRITING IS OUR SKILLED.  DESIGN AND WRITING IS OUR SKILLED.

Note: our case study can be change to suit your desire location . we are here for your success.

                                   ORDER NOW

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
 GTBANK
Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment :
Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
 Account Number:  0117780667. 
Swift Code: GTBINGLA 
Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANKER SECURITY GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>DELIVERY PERIOD FOR BANK PAYMENT IS  LESS THAN 2 HOURS

How to transfer from your bank account to All  Nigeriabanks

1. Access Bank:
—-*901#

2. EcoBank:
—-*326#

3. Fidelity Bank:
—-*770#

4. FCMB:
—-*389*214#

5. First Bank
—-*894#

6. GTB:
—-*737#

7. Heritage Bank:
—-*322*030#

8. Keystone Bank:
—-*322*082#

9. Sky Bank:
—-*389*076*1#

10. Stanbic IBTC:
—-*909#

11. Sterling Bank:
—-*822#

12. UBA:
—-*389*033*1#

13. Unity Bank:
—-*322*215#

14. Zenith Bank:
—-*966#

15. Diamond Bank
—-*710*555#

To know your BVN, dial
—-*565*0#.

E.g for First bank…   *894 *Amount *Acct. No. #

Please dail d code from d number u used to register d account from the bank

CALL OKEKE CHIDI C ON :  08074466939,08063386834.

AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO

08074466939 or 08063386834, YOUR PROJECT TITLE  YOU WANT US TO SEND TO YOU, AMOUNT PAID, DEPOSITOR NAME, UR EMAIL ADDRESS,PAYMENT DATE. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR MATERIAL IN LESS THAN 2 HOURS ONCE WILL CONFIRM YOUR PAYMENT.

WE HAVE SECURITY IN OUR BUSINESS.   

MONEY BACK GUARANTEE

 

Table of Content

Chapter one

introduction

1.1   background to the study       –      –      –      3

1.2   statement of the study  –      –      –      –      9

1.3   purpose of the study      –      –      –      –      18

1.4   scope of the study  –      –      –      –      –      19

1.5   significant of the study –       –      –      –      20

1.6.  Research questions –     –      –      –      –      22

1.7   operation definition of research concepts    23

 

Chapter two

Review of literature

2.1    introduction  –  –       –       –       –       –       –       25

2.2    conceptual framework-     –       –       –       –       26

2.2.1 hiv/aids  –         –       –       –       –       –       –       26

2.2.2 information needs of people living with hiv/aids 33

2.2.3 information used by people living with hiv/aids   36

2.2.4 the extent to which information resources

Encourage and support the people living with

Hiv/aids to take positive action   –       –       –       39

2.2.5 the benefits derived from the use of information

Resources by plwha   –       –       –       –       –       43

2.2.6 the bearers to access and utilization of

Information resources by the plwha   –       –       45

2.2.7 strategies to overcome the barriers of access and

Utilization of information by people living with hiv/aids 49

2.3    empirical studies       –       –       –       –       –       51

2.4    summary of the reviews –  –       –       –       –       57

Chapter three

Methodology

  • Introduction –       –       –       –       –       –       60
  • Research design – –       –       –       –       –       60
  • Area of study – –       –       –       –       –       –       61
  • Population of the study-    –       –       –       –       61
  • Sample –       –       –       –       –       –       –       62

3.6    sampling technique   –       –       –       –       –       63

3.7   instrumentation     –      –      –      –      –      65

3.8   validation of instrument       –      –      –      –      66

3.9   method of data collection      –      –      –      67

3.10  method of data analysis –            –       –       –       68

 

Chapter four

  • Data presentation, analysis and interpretation 69
  • Introduction
  • Discussion of findings

Chapter five

Summary, conclusion and recommendation

  • Introduction – –       –       –       –       –       –       85
  • Summary – –       –       –       –       –       –       85
  • Conclusion – –       –       –       –       –       –       88
  • Recommendations – –       –       –       –       –       89
  • Suggestion for further studies –       –       –       91

References –       –       –       –       –       –       –       92

Appendix i-        –       –       –       –       –       –       95

Appendix ii –      –       –       –       –       –       –       97

Abbreviation/meaning –     –       –       –       –


 

Abstract

The study was carried out on the information needs and resource utilization by people living with human immune deficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome in esut teaching hospital parklane enugu. Health is of utmost important in every human facet, that is the reason why every hand should be on deck to promote it. Chapter one of this research work is concerned with a brief discussion of what hiv/aids is, problems facing people living with hiv/aids (plwha), information needs and resource utilization was focused on. Chapter two deals with review of related literature, the review was focused on hiv/aids. Information needs of people living with hiv/aids, information used by people living with hiv/aids, the extent to which information resources encourage and support the people living with hiv/aids, to take positive action to deal with hiv/aids, the benefits driven from the used information resources, barriers to access and utilization of information, resources and strategies to overcome the barriers. Chapter three shows the method of carrying out the research. Questionnaire will be used for data collection. Chapter four is the analysis and presentation of data collection and discussion of findings while chapter five deals with the summary of findings, recommendation, conclusion and suggestions for further studies.


 

Introduction

one of the most devastating scourges of our time is the problem of human immunodeficiency virus/ acquired immune deficiency syndrome (hiv/aids). Undoubtedly hiv/aids present a major challenge to human development in nigeria. Besides poverty, no problem has given nigeria a more daunting challenge than the present battle with hiv/aids. According to omoniyi (2013), hiv/aids can only be transferred through exchange of body fluid such as blood, semen and vaginal secretions. This means that hiv/aids cannot be contracted through causal contract with infected person either at work, school or at home. Also chagbe (2012) opined that the health of the people is the greatest natural resource of a nation upon which their happiness and power as a nation depends.

moreover, health is of utmost important in every human fact. That is the reason why every hand should be on deck to promote it. For it is when people are healthy that they can work and any nation who’s workforce comprises of sick persons is finished. According to moonie (2013) is of the opinion that most individuals that are affected by the virus are vulnerable to chains of other diseases and the cost of medication eats deep into their savings. Also, some families who have lost their bread winners to this disease are faced with untold hardship such as non payment of school fees, house rents and the consequences of being seat out of school and thrown out by landlords.

In addition, the information needs needed to fight against hiv/aids include: health education, the control of sexual transmitted disease, the establishment and management of surveillance programmes, prevent mother to child transmission, provide and manage antiretroviral therapy programmes, human resources development and government involvement. These information needs will help to combat hiv/aids.

 

 

Chapter one

Introduction

  • Background to the study

Managing information is an important part of coping with illness and includes communicative and cognitive activities seeking, avoiding, providing, appraising, and interpreting information. It is complex in that people’s information needs and behavior vary over the course of their illness and along with the availability and quality of information. In recent years, considerable research has been done on how people living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (plwhiv/aids) manage information. However, understanding of the role of information in the hiv/aids in esut teaching hospital, park lane is still limited, because of the difficulties of reaching different groups of plwha.

This study has been designed to reach many segments of the diverse hiv/aids community and broaden under standing of how information can better assist plwha.

Information can be regarded as a resource that can liberate man. Osuala (2001) refers to information as facts and opinions provided and received during the course of life. A person using such facts generate more information some of which is communicate to others during discussion, by letters, symbols, etc. Aniogbolu, (2008) noted that most information users need information for problem solving, current awareness and recreational purpose. According to aniogbolu (2008), the importance of information utilization by man to his development is becoming more meaningful to him as his information accumulation ability’s is taking a new dimension with the development of highly sophisticated information technology (aniogbolu, anyaobi & olise, 2010).

Information needs is often understood as vague awareness of something missing and culminating in locating information that contributes to understanding and meaning (kuhlthau, 2009). Belkin, brooks and oddy. (2008) in their part saw information needs as a gap in individual’s knowledge in sense making situations. Accessibility to the right information is necessary for the general well being of the individual, institution or organization.

One of the most devastating sources of our time is hiv/aids; undoubtedly hiv/aids presents a major challenge to human development in nigeria. Ojoawo, (2006) apart from poverty, no problem has given nigeria a more daunting challenge than the present battle with hiv/aids. Aids in indeed devastating nigerian communities and poses a real threat to poverty reduction effort and the achievement of the united nation millennium development goals, (unmdg). Indeed hiv/aids presents a serious challenge to human development in nigeria because the exact cause of and spread of the epidemic is still very difficult to calculate.

In nigeria, the first case of aids was diagnosed in 1986. The infection rate has however, grown exponentially. Since then, by june 1999, the federal ministry of health, (fmoh) in nigeria had recorded 26,276 aids cases. Due to fear of stigmatization several cases are not reported through the hospitals, which mean the reported cases were gross under estimations of the rate of occurrence of the epidemic. The national aids/stds control progremmes (nascp) of fmoh estimated that the calculated number of aids cases would have reached 590,000 by the end of 1999 (ojoawo, 2006).

Currently nigeria has become the first country in africa to cross the critical epidemiological threshold of 5%. In fact, it has since been projected that by the 2009 in the absence of major changes in sexual behavior and other control measures, the number of people living with hiv would reach 5 million, of the 40 million people identified to be living with the disease, 3.5 million is the estimated number for nigerian. This amounts to 10% of the 40 million people infected worldwide (unaids/who/unicef, 2002). In a country like nigeria, with limited public capacity and resources to combat the problem, the prevalence rate is 80 high that the hiv virus is infecting more than 30 people a day, and the disease is growing faster that the authorities’ response to it. The prevalence report in nigeria revealed that there is no community in nigeria with zero prevalence (fmoh, 2009).

Ukwuoma (2008) noted that in 2003 and 2008 national antenatal hiv seroprevalence survey in enugu state recorded the prevalence rate in both 2003 and 2008 as 4.9% and 5.1% respectively.

People living with hiv/aids need information to survive. As a matter of fact, information is vital in the daily life of the people living with hiv/aids.

It is a medium of social transformation and communication and an avenue for them (people living with hiv/aids) to get involved in government programmes and policies about hiv/aids. Therefore, good access to information becomes a must for plwha. It is therefore, necessary to consider the information needs of people living with hiv/aids as well as their information resources. This study sought to investigate the information needs and resource utilization by plwha. Using esut teaching hospital park lane, enugu as study setting.

Esut teaching hospital park lane, enugu is situated at gra enugu north local government. It is a reference center for comprehensive treatment and support of people living with hiv/aids.

 

  • Statement of the problem

The cause of the disease hiv/aids, allover the world, relates to individual social behavior such as casual sex, intra venous drugs use (fmoh, 2008). In nigeria however, the leading driving force of the spread of the hiv infection includes low level of education, high level of ignorance, cultural practices that encourage multiple sexual partner such as polygamy and concubine, poverty and lack of access to appropriate reproductive health survives and information particularly the illiterate and young people. The practice of traditional surgery such as bloodletting procedures with unsterilized instrument on infertile women, and non observance of infection control procedures by traditional birth attendants who are heavily patronized in nigeria, may all be responsible for spread of hiv/aids in nigeria.

Other factors blamed for the spread of the epidemic are the other cultural practices that expose people to unsterilized sharp objects used for body scarification and circumcision, the subordinate role of women and their attendant vulnerability which prevents them from negotiating safe sex, ignorance, stigma and discrimination, poverty, illiteracy and the non chalant attitude of some individuals.

In spite of various efforts at both domestic and international levels, nigeria’s situation seems not to translate to any reliable cheering news about hiv/aids epidemic. It is becoming more of a developmental problem than just a health problem. The problem constitutes a major challenge to sustainable human development in nigeria, which must be a concern for all.

Lack of information resources, lack of awareness   of the existence of information resources by the people living with hiv/aids, non-utilization of the available resources by the people living with hiv/aids, high level of illiteracy among people living with hiv/aids, lack of skilled man power to appropriately organize that available resources in esut teaching hospital library for easy accessibility and retrieval by people living with hiv/aids are the major problems faced by the plwha in esut teaching hospital park lane, enugu.

This study focuses on the information needs and resource utilization by people living with hiv/aids (plwha). The case study is esut teaching hospital park lane, enugu. The following are the problems facing plwha

  1. Emptiness: most people living with hiv/aids feel they are empty vessels immediately they have been diagnosed as being hiv positive. The feeling that they have nothing to offer to the society also makes them feel empty and useless. They consequently develop an inferiority complex which worsens their condition. They become helpless.
  2. Absence of counseling: most people living with hiv/aids who know their status were not given pre-test counseling and as such were not prepared psychologically. This affects the psychological well being of the people living with hiv/aids (plwha), thereby leading to depression. Counseling is important to people living with hiv/aids. With counseling, which is supposed to be on-going process, plwha gain and demonstrate courage. Lack of counseling services in our hospitals is greatly affecting plwha. Even hospitals that have trained counselors do not offer appropriate counseling services and are not committed to work.
  3. Lack of family support: experience has shown that some family members abandon and sometimes isolate plwha on the grounds that they have tested positive to hiv. This is largely due to lack of awareness in our families such attitudes lead to suspicious among plwha. This eventually leads to untimely death in most plwha. Hence plwha to believe that it is better to die than to live. There is also little or no family support to give hope to plwha in most homes.
  4. Stigma: this is one of the most subtle and debilitating challenges faced by plwha. It inhibits open, honest communication between them and others. Stigma makes the disclosure of the disease by plwha within the family difficult. Without disclosure, prevention and care are almost impossible, families and communities are deeply intertwined in the african context and should therefore be supported in preventing stigmatization. This will also promote better self esteem among plwha with respect to their careers. It will also eliminate the vicious cycle of self-stigmatization. People living with hiv/aids face stigma in the home, in the health care setting, in the religious sector, while the mass media can as well unintentionally promote stigma, though they have potential to shape the attitude, values and perception of a large member of people.
  5. Human rights violation: existing human rights instruments confirm that discrimination against plwha or those thought to be infected is a violation of their human rights. This is a great challenge facing plwha.
  6. Discrimination: the acts of stigma constitute discrimination based on presumed or actual hiv positive status constitute discrimination based on presumed or actual hiv positive status and violates human rights due to the stigma associated with the rights of plwha. This situation intensifies the negative impact of the epidemic. At the individual level, for example, it causes undue anxiety and distress which by themselves contribute to ill-health. At the level of family and community, it causes people to feel ashamed and to conceal their link with the epidemic, as well as withdraw from participation in more positive social functions. At the level of society, discrimination against plwha reinforces the mistaken belief that such action is acceptable and that those infected with hiv/aids should be ostracized and blamed. This is a great challenge to plwha.

Around the world too there have been numerous instances of hiv/aids related cases of discrimination. People with hiv or those believed to have hiv/aids have been:

  • Segregated in schools and hospitals, and placed under cruel and degrading conductions. Cases of degrading treatment have often been reported in prisons where inmates are often without basic needs, including access to medical care.
  • Refused employment
  • Denied the right to marry
  • Reflected by community
  • Killed because of their sero positive status.
  • Required when returning to their home country to present themselves for an hiv test. Individuals have being denied the right to return to their country on suspicion of being hiv positive. Others have been denied visa and entry permissions.

In conclusion therefore, continuous advocacy campaigns are needed in response to the challenges faced by plwha and to bring about social change. All hand must be on desk to tackle the challenges facing plwha. To win the war against hiv/aids, plwha must be used as agents of change in the society.

 

 

  • Objectives of the study

The main purpose of this study is to depict a comprehensive picture of information need and resource utilization by people living with hiv/aids in esut teaching hospital park lane, enugu. The specific purposes of the study are as follows:

  1. To determine the areas in which people living with hiv/aids needs information esut teaching hospital.
  2. To find out the information resource used by people living with hiv/aids in esut teaching hospital park lane, enugu.
  3. To determine the extent to which information resources encourage and support the people living with hiv/aids to take positive actions to deal with hiv/aids in esut teaching hospital park lane, enugu.
  4. To determine the benefits derived from the use of information resources by the plwha in esut teaching hospital park lane, enugu.
  5. To find out the barriers to access and utilization of information resources by plwha in esut teaching hospital park lane, enugu.

 

  • Scope of the study

This study is limited to esut teaching hospital park lane, enugu, it investigates the information needs and resources utilization by people living with hiv/aids. The research wants to measure the following variables: the areas in which people living with hiv/aids need information, the extent to which information resources encourage and support the people living with hiv/aids, to take positive actions to deal with the hiv/aids, the information resources used by plwha, the benefits derived from the use of information resources by the plwha, and the barriers to access and utilization of information resources by plwha.

 

  • Significance of the study

The significance of this study will be appreciated for the following reasons:

It will accentuate public education and dissemination of information to reduce the stigmatization of persons assumed to be at risk of hiv/aids.

This study will also be important because it will provide psychological and social support to people living with hiv/aids. They should never be abandoned or treated as social outcasts.

The study is important because it will explore the necessary of the political action, that is social workers, individuals, community to participate with other groups to lobby at the state and federal level on behalf of plwha in order to improve their quality of life, protect their civil rights or liberty and to advocates for increased funding for appropriate education, prevention, intervention, treatment services and research.

The study will also serve as database for policy makers in the area of hiv/aids.

The findings of the study will help the government improve the scope and efficiency of its information systems and services where necessary to encourage maximum utilization by plwha.

It will serve as an information base for future scholars in the area.

Finally, it is hoped that the study will help policy makers, health care providers, health workers, information providers, library and information professionals, and other stakeholders in health sectors to respond positively to the information needs of plwha by identifying such needs and exploring avenues to improving will help the plwha to be aware of what is available for them, and perhaps make effective use of the available information resources for enhance health condition.

 

  • Research questions

The following research questions guided the study:

  1. To determine the areas in which people living with hiv/aids needs information esut teaching hospital?
  2. To find out the information resource used by people living with hiv/aids in esut teaching hospital park lane, enugu?
  3. To what extent do people living with hiv/aids seek and share information and what type of resources do they use in sharing and seeking information in esut teaching hospital park lane, enugu?
  4. What impact has hiv information had on the lives of plwha and on basic demography in esut teaching hospital park lane, enugu?
  5. What are the barriers to getting hiv information by plwha in esut teaching hospital park lane, enugu?

 

  • Operational definition of research concepts

The following research concepts are defined according to the way and manner the researcher used in this research work.

  1. Information need: it is defined as an individual or groups desire to locate and obtain information to satisfy a conscious or unconscious need.
  2. Resource utilization: this is the proper use of available information and library resources by people living with hiv/aids in respect to their health status.
  • Hiv: this means human immune deficiency virus.
  1. Aids: stands for acquired immune deficiency syndrome.
  2. Plwha: stand for people living with hiv/aids.

 

Historical background to the study

The university was established as a non residential multi-campus institution. On establishment, the university which was conceived on a presidential model after harvard university made impressive landmarks and stamped its name as the first university of technology and first state university of nigeria.

In 1991, following the creation of enugu state from old anambra state the new government change name from asutech to esut.

Until 2005 when it was relocated to parklane enugu and named esut college of medical/teaching hospital.

Chapter one

introduction

1.1   background to the study       –      –      –      3

1.2   statement of the study  –      –      –      –      9

1.3   purpose of the study      –      –      –      –      18

1.4   scope of the study  –      –      –      –      –      19

1.5   significant of the study –       –      –      –      20

1.6.  Research questions –     –      –      –      –      22

1.7   operation definition of research concepts    23

 

Chapter two

Review of literature

2.1    introduction  –  –       –       –       –       –       –       25

2.2    conceptual framework-     –       –       –       –       26

2.2.1 hiv/aids  –         –       –       –       –       –       –       26

2.2.2 information needs of people living with hiv/aids 33

2.2.3 information used by people living with hiv/aids   36

2.2.4 the extent to which information resources

Encourage and support the people living with

Hiv/aids to take positive action   –       –       –       39

2.2.5 the benefits derived from the use of information

Resources by plwha   –       –       –       –       –       43

2.2.6 the bearers to access and utilization of

Information resources by the plwha   –       –       45

2.2.7 strategies to overcome the barriers of access and

Utilization of information by people living with hiv/aids 49

2.3    empirical studies       –       –       –       –       –       51

2.4    summary of the reviews –  –       –       –       –       57

Chapter three

Methodology

  • Introduction –       –       –       –       –       –       60
  • Research design – –       –       –       –       –       60
  • Area of study – –       –       –       –       –       –       61
  • Population of the study-    –       –       –       –       61
  • Sample –       –       –       –       –       –       –       62

3.6    sampling technique   –       –       –       –       –       63

3.7   instrumentation     –      –      –      –      –      65

3.8   validation of instrument       –      –      –      –      66

3.9   method of data collection      –      –      –      67

3.10  method of data analysis –            –       –       –       68

 

Chapter four

  • Data presentation, analysis and interpretation 69
  • Introduction
  • Discussion of findings

Chapter five

Summary, conclusion and recommendation

  • Introduction – –       –       –       –       –       –       85
  • Summary – –       –       –       –       –       –       85
  • Conclusion – –       –       –       –       –       –       88
  • Recommendations – –       –       –       –       –       89
  • Suggestion for further studies –       –       –       91

References –       –       –       –       –       –       –       92

Appendix i-        –       –       –       –       –       –       95

Appendix ii –      –       –       –       –       –       –       97

Abbreviation/meaning –     –       –       –       –


 

Abstract

The study was carried out on the information needs and resource utilization by people living with human immune deficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome in esut teaching hospital parklane enugu. Health is of utmost important in every human facet, that is the reason why every hand should be on deck to promote it. Chapter one of this research work is concerned with a brief discussion of what hiv/aids is, problems facing people living with hiv/aids (plwha), information needs and resource utilization was focused on. Chapter two deals with review of related literature, the review was focused on hiv/aids. Information needs of people living with hiv/aids, information used by people living with hiv/aids, the extent to which information resources encourage and support the people living with hiv/aids, to take positive action to deal with hiv/aids, the benefits driven from the used information resources, barriers to access and utilization of information, resources and strategies to overcome the barriers. Chapter three shows the method of carrying out the research. Questionnaire will be used for data collection. Chapter four is the analysis and presentation of data collection and discussion of findings while chapter five deals with the summary of findings, recommendation, conclusion and suggestions for further studies.


 

Introduction

one of the most devastating scourges of our time is the problem of human immunodeficiency virus/ acquired immune deficiency syndrome (hiv/aids). Undoubtedly hiv/aids present a major challenge to human development in nigeria. Besides poverty, no problem has given nigeria a more daunting challenge than the present battle with hiv/aids. According to omoniyi (2013), hiv/aids can only be transferred through exchange of body fluid such as blood, semen and vaginal secretions. This means that hiv/aids cannot be contracted through causal contract with infected person either at work, school or at home. Also chagbe (2012) opined that the health of the people is the greatest natural resource of a nation upon which their happiness and power as a nation depends.

moreover, health is of utmost important in every human fact. That is the reason why every hand should be on deck to promote it. For it is when people are healthy that they can work and any nation who’s workforce comprises of sick persons is finished. According to moonie (2013) is of the opinion that most individuals that are affected by the virus are vulnerable to chains of other diseases and the cost of medication eats deep into their savings. Also, some families who have lost their bread winners to this disease are faced with untold hardship such as non payment of school fees, house rents and the consequences of being seat out of school and thrown out by landlords.

In addition, the information needs needed to fight against hiv/aids include: health education, the control of sexual transmitted disease, the establishment and management of surveillance programmes, prevent mother to child transmission, provide and manage antiretroviral therapy programmes, human resources development and government involvement. These information needs will help to combat hiv/aids.

 

 

Chapter one

Introduction

  • Background to the study

Managing information is an important part of coping with illness and includes communicative and cognitive activities seeking, avoiding, providing, appraising, and interpreting information. It is complex in that people’s information needs and behavior vary over the course of their illness and along with the availability and quality of information. In recent years, considerable research has been done on how people living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (plwhiv/aids) manage information. However, understanding of the role of information in the hiv/aids in esut teaching hospital, park lane is still limited, because of the difficulties of reaching different groups of plwha.

This study has been designed to reach many segments of the diverse hiv/aids community and broaden under standing of how information can better assist plwha.

Information can be regarded as a resource that can liberate man. Osuala (2001) refers to information as facts and opinions provided and received during the course of life. A person using such facts generate more information some of which is communicate to others during discussion, by letters, symbols, etc. Aniogbolu, (2008) noted that most information users need information for problem solving, current awareness and recreational purpose. According to aniogbolu (2008), the importance of information utilization by man to his development is becoming more meaningful to him as his information accumulation ability’s is taking a new dimension with the development of highly sophisticated information technology (aniogbolu, anyaobi & olise, 2010).

Information needs is often understood as vague awareness of something missing and culminating in locating information that contributes to understanding and meaning (kuhlthau, 2009). Belkin, brooks and oddy. (2008) in their part saw information needs as a gap in individual’s knowledge in sense making situations. Accessibility to the right information is necessary for the general well being of the individual, institution or organization.

One of the most devastating sources of our time is hiv/aids; undoubtedly hiv/aids presents a major challenge to human development in nigeria. Ojoawo, (2006) apart from poverty, no problem has given nigeria a more daunting challenge than the present battle with hiv/aids. Aids in indeed devastating nigerian communities and poses a real threat to poverty reduction effort and the achievement of the united nation millennium development goals, (unmdg). Indeed hiv/aids presents a serious challenge to human development in nigeria because the exact cause of and spread of the epidemic is still very difficult to calculate.

In nigeria, the first case of aids was diagnosed in 1986. The infection rate has however, grown exponentially. Since then, by june 1999, the federal ministry of health, (fmoh) in nigeria had recorded 26,276 aids cases. Due to fear of stigmatization several cases are not reported through the hospitals, which mean the reported cases were gross under estimations of the rate of occurrence of the epidemic. The national aids/stds control progremmes (nascp) of fmoh estimated that the calculated number of aids cases would have reached 590,000 by the end of 1999 (ojoawo, 2006).

Currently nigeria has become the first country in africa to cross the critical epidemiological threshold of 5%. In fact, it has since been projected that by the 2009 in the absence of major changes in sexual behavior and other control measures, the number of people living with hiv would reach 5 million, of the 40 million people identified to be living with the disease, 3.5 million is the estimated number for nigerian. This amounts to 10% of the 40 million people infected worldwide (unaids/who/unicef, 2002). In a country like nigeria, with limited public capacity and resources to combat the problem, the prevalence rate is 80 high that the hiv virus is infecting more than 30 people a day, and the disease is growing faster that the authorities’ response to it. The prevalence report in nigeria revealed that there is no community in nigeria with zero prevalence (fmoh, 2009).

Ukwuoma (2008) noted that in 2003 and 2008 national antenatal hiv seroprevalence survey in enugu state recorded the prevalence rate in both 2003 and 2008 as 4.9% and 5.1% respectively.

People living with hiv/aids need information to survive. As a matter of fact, information is vital in the daily life of the people living with hiv/aids.

It is a medium of social transformation and communication and an avenue for them (people living with hiv/aids) to get involved in government programmes and policies about hiv/aids. Therefore, good access to information becomes a must for plwha. It is therefore, necessary to consider the information needs of people living with hiv/aids as well as their information resources. This study sought to investigate the information needs and resource utilization by plwha. Using esut teaching hospital park lane, enugu as study setting.

Esut teaching hospital park lane, enugu is situated at gra enugu north local government. It is a reference center for comprehensive treatment and support of people living with hiv/aids.

 

  • Statement of the problem

The cause of the disease hiv/aids, allover the world, relates to individual social behavior such as casual sex, intra venous drugs use (fmoh, 2008). In nigeria however, the leading driving force of the spread of the hiv infection includes low level of education, high level of ignorance, cultural practices that encourage multiple sexual partner such as polygamy and concubine, poverty and lack of access to appropriate reproductive health survives and information particularly the illiterate and young people. The practice of traditional surgery such as bloodletting procedures with unsterilized instrument on infertile women, and non observance of infection control procedures by traditional birth attendants who are heavily patronized in nigeria, may all be responsible for spread of hiv/aids in nigeria.

Other factors blamed for the spread of the epidemic are the other cultural practices that expose people to unsterilized sharp objects used for body scarification and circumcision, the subordinate role of women and their attendant vulnerability which prevents them from negotiating safe sex, ignorance, stigma and discrimination, poverty, illiteracy and the non chalant attitude of some individuals.

In spite of various efforts at both domestic and international levels, nigeria’s situation seems not to translate to any reliable cheering news about hiv/aids epidemic. It is becoming more of a developmental problem than just a health problem. The problem constitutes a major challenge to sustainable human development in nigeria, which must be a concern for all.

Lack of information resources, lack of awareness   of the existence of information resources by the people living with hiv/aids, non-utilization of the available resources by the people living with hiv/aids, high level of illiteracy among people living with hiv/aids, lack of skilled man power to appropriately organize that available resources in esut teaching hospital library for easy accessibility and retrieval by people living with hiv/aids are the major problems faced by the plwha in esut teaching hospital park lane, enugu.

This study focuses on the information needs and resource utilization by people living with hiv/aids (plwha). The case study is esut teaching hospital park lane, enugu. The following are the problems facing plwha

  1. Emptiness: most people living with hiv/aids feel they are empty vessels immediately they have been diagnosed as being hiv positive. The feeling that they have nothing to offer to the society also makes them feel empty and useless. They consequently develop an inferiority complex which worsens their condition. They become helpless.
  2. Absence of counseling: most people living with hiv/aids who know their status were not given pre-test counseling and as such were not prepared psychologically. This affects the psychological well being of the people living with hiv/aids (plwha), thereby leading to depression. Counseling is important to people living with hiv/aids. With counseling, which is supposed to be on-going process, plwha gain and demonstrate courage. Lack of counseling services in our hospitals is greatly affecting plwha. Even hospitals that have trained counselors do not offer appropriate counseling services and are not committed to work.
  3. Lack of family support: experience has shown that some family members abandon and sometimes isolate plwha on the grounds that they have tested positive to hiv. This is largely due to lack of awareness in our families such attitudes lead to suspicious among plwha. This eventually leads to untimely death in most plwha. Hence plwha to believe that it is better to die than to live. There is also little or no family support to give hope to plwha in most homes.
  4. Stigma: this is one of the most subtle and debilitating challenges faced by plwha. It inhibits open, honest communication between them and others. Stigma makes the disclosure of the disease by plwha within the family difficult. Without disclosure, prevention and care are almost impossible, families and communities are deeply intertwined in the african context and should therefore be supported in preventing stigmatization. This will also promote better self esteem among plwha with respect to their careers. It will also eliminate the vicious cycle of self-stigmatization. People living with hiv/aids face stigma in the home, in the health care setting, in the religious sector, while the mass media can as well unintentionally promote stigma, though they have potential to shape the attitude, values and perception of a large member of people.
  5. Human rights violation: existing human rights instruments confirm that discrimination against plwha or those thought to be infected is a violation of their human rights. This is a great challenge facing plwha.
  6. Discrimination: the acts of stigma constitute discrimination based on presumed or actual hiv positive status constitute discrimination based on presumed or actual hiv positive status and violates human rights due to the stigma associated with the rights of plwha. This situation intensifies the negative impact of the epidemic. At the individual level, for example, it causes undue anxiety and distress which by themselves contribute to ill-health. At the level of family and community, it causes people to feel ashamed and to conceal their link with the epidemic, as well as withdraw from participation in more positive social functions. At the level of society, discrimination against plwha reinforces the mistaken belief that such action is acceptable and that those infected with hiv/aids should be ostracized and blamed. This is a great challenge to plwha.

Around the world too there have been numerous instances of hiv/aids related cases of discrimination. People with hiv or those believed to have hiv/aids have been:

  • Segregated in schools and hospitals, and placed under cruel and degrading conductions. Cases of degrading treatment have often been reported in prisons where inmates are often without basic needs, including access to medical care.
  • Refused employment
  • Denied the right to marry
  • Reflected by community
  • Killed because of their sero positive status.
  • Required when returning to their home country to present themselves for an hiv test. Individuals have being denied the right to return to their country on suspicion of being hiv positive. Others have been denied visa and entry permissions.

In conclusion therefore, continuous advocacy campaigns are needed in response to the challenges faced by plwha and to bring about social change. All hand must be on desk to tackle the challenges facing plwha. To win the war against hiv/aids, plwha must be used as agents of change in the society.

 

 

  • Objectives of the study

The main purpose of this study is to depict a comprehensive picture of information need and resource utilization by people living with hiv/aids in esut teaching hospital park lane, enugu. The specific purposes of the study are as follows:

  1. To determine the areas in which people living with hiv/aids needs information esut teaching hospital.
  2. To find out the information resource used by people living with hiv/aids in esut teaching hospital park lane, enugu.
  3. To determine the extent to which information resources encourage and support the people living with hiv/aids to take positive actions to deal with hiv/aids in esut teaching hospital park lane, enugu.
  4. To determine the benefits derived from the use of information resources by the plwha in esut teaching hospital park lane, enugu.
  5. To find out the barriers to access and utilization of information resources by plwha in esut teaching hospital park lane, enugu.

 

  • Scope of the study

This study is limited to esut teaching hospital park lane, enugu, it investigates the information needs and resources utilization by people living with hiv/aids. The research wants to measure the following variables: the areas in which people living with hiv/aids need information, the extent to which information resources encourage and support the people living with hiv/aids, to take positive actions to deal with the hiv/aids, the information resources used by plwha, the benefits derived from the use of information resources by the plwha, and the barriers to access and utilization of information resources by plwha.

 

  • Significance of the study

The significance of this study will be appreciated for the following reasons:

It will accentuate public education and dissemination of information to reduce the stigmatization of persons assumed to be at risk of hiv/aids.

This study will also be important because it will provide psychological and social support to people living with hiv/aids. They should never be abandoned or treated as social outcasts.

The study is important because it will explore the necessary of the political action, that is social workers, individuals, community to participate with other groups to lobby at the state and federal level on behalf of plwha in order to improve their quality of life, protect their civil rights or liberty and to advocates for increased funding for appropriate education, prevention, intervention, treatment services and research.

The study will also serve as database for policy makers in the area of hiv/aids.

The findings of the study will help the government improve the scope and efficiency of its information systems and services where necessary to encourage maximum utilization by plwha.

It will serve as an information base for future scholars in the area.

Finally, it is hoped that the study will help policy makers, health care providers, health workers, information providers, library and information professionals, and other stakeholders in health sectors to respond positively to the information needs of plwha by identifying such needs and exploring avenues to improving will help the plwha to be aware of what is available for them, and perhaps make effective use of the available information resources for enhance health condition.

 

  • Research questions

The following research questions guided the study:

  1. To determine the areas in which people living with hiv/aids needs information esut teaching hospital?
  2. To find out the information resource used by people living with hiv/aids in esut teaching hospital park lane, enugu?
  3. To what extent do people living with hiv/aids seek and share information and what type of resources do they use in sharing and seeking information in esut teaching hospital park lane, enugu?
  4. What impact has hiv information had on the lives of plwha and on basic demography in esut teaching hospital park lane, enugu?
  5. What are the barriers to getting hiv information by plwha in esut teaching hospital park lane, enugu?

 

  • Operational definition of research concepts

The following research concepts are defined according to the way and manner the researcher used in this research work.

  1. Information need: it is defined as an individual or groups desire to locate and obtain information to satisfy a conscious or unconscious need.
  2. Resource utilization: this is the proper use of available information and library resources by people living with hiv/aids in respect to their health status.
  • Hiv: this means human immune deficiency virus.
  1. Aids: stands for acquired immune deficiency syndrome.
  2. Plwha: stand for people living with hiv/aids.

 

Historical background to the study

The university was established as a non residential multi-campus institution. On establishment, the university which was conceived on a presidential model after harvard university made impressive landmarks and stamped its name as the first university of technology and first state university of nigeria.

In 1991, following the creation of enugu state from old anambra state the new government change name from asutech to esut.

Until 2005 when it was relocated to parklane enugu and named esut college of medical/teaching hospital.

 

 

Information dissemination on agriculture in nigeria

Information dissemination on agriculture in nigeria

a case of study anambra state agricultural development Programme (adp) awka.

Abstract

This project aims at looking at information dissemination on agriculture in nigeria, this is a particular reference to adp awka agricultural development programme in anambra state. Its purpose were to find out what constituted the problem of information dissemination on agriculture. The study identified various information flow to farmers.

A properly organized and effective information network facilitates the adoption of new technology by the farmers, which in effect raise agricultural product.

To ensure the success of agricultural support service to farmers, immense attention must be paid to efficient organization of agricultural information services with well trained staff.

An important complement to effective information dissemination of timely needed information.

Table of contents

 

Chapter one

1.0   introduction-  –      –      –      –      –      –     -1

  • Definition of information – –      –      –      -1
  • Historical background of anambra state agricultural development programme – –      -17
  • Statement of the problem – –      –      –      -19
  • Aim of the study – –      –      –      –      –      -21
  • Significant of the study – –      –      –      -22
  • Scope of the study – –      –      –      –      -22
  • Research questions – –      –      –      –      -23
  • Definition of terms –     –      –      –      –      -23

Chapter two

2.0   literature review –   –      –      –      –      –      -27

2.1   the imperative of the term information –     -28

2.2   the role of information in agriculture – –      -30

2.3   information flow to the farmers –  –      –      -34

2.4   impact of information in development of agriculture –        –      –      –      –      –      –      -42

2.5   problems of information in development of agriculture –      –      –      –      –      –      –      -45

 

Chapter three

  • Research procedure and methodology

Survey-    –      –      –      –      –      –      –      -50

  • Population of the study – –      –      –      –      -51
  • Sampling method – – –      –      –      –      -51
  • Sampling size – –      –      –      –      –      -52
  • Data collection – –      –      –      –      –      -52
  • Method of data analysis – –      –      –      -55

Chapter four

  • Presentation of findings and data analysis discussion – –      –      –      –      –      –      -56

 

Chapter five

5.0   summary, conclusion and recommendation-73

  • Summary – –      –      –      –      –      –      -73
  • Conclusion – –      –      –      –      –      –      -74
  • Recommendations – –      –      –      –      -75
  • Limitation of the study – –      –      –      –      -79
  • Recommendations for further studies – –      -80

References –    –      –      –      –      –      –      -81

Appendix i-     –      –      –      –      –      –      -83

Questionnaire        –      –      –      –      –      –      -84


Chapter one

1.0  introduction

1.1 definition of information

Information is referred to anything that you are capable of perceiving, this can include written communication. Speaking communication, photographs, art, music nearly anything that is perceivable.  This includes enormous assortment of stimuli, but realizable, everything we come in contact, which is capable of providing and does provides us with some sort of information.

 

Information according to websites third new international dictionary defined:

        information as a process by which the form of an object of knowledge is impressed upon the apprehending mind so as to bring about the state of knowing it. This also includes some thing received or perceived or obtained- through information eg. Knowledge communicated by others or obtained from investigation, study or instruction.

 

Funk and wagnalls encyclopedia

        sees information as timely or specific knowledge acquired or derived signal element forming parts of massage or communication especially one assembled and made available for use by automatic machines, as in a digital computer usually machined in bits.

The encyclopedia biotical; also defined agriculture as the science of cultivating the soil, growing and harvesting crop and raising livestock.

  1. A. Iwena (2002) defied agriculture as the production of crops and animals for man’s use in other words, agriculture is defied as the deliberate effort made by man to till the soil, cultivate crops and rear animals for food and other purposes.

 

Types of agriculture

There are two major types of agriculture namely:

  1. Subsistence agriculture and
  2. Commercial agriculture.
  3. Subsistence agriculture:

It is the type of agriculture which is concerned with the production of finding a farmer to feed himself and his family. In order word subsistence agriculture is a system of farming where by a farmer cultivates crops and rear animals in order to provide food for use by himself and his family only.

  1. Commercial agriculture

This is the type of agriculture which is concerned with production of food. Animals and cash crops in large quantities for sale. It makes use of modern and complex tools and implement like tractors, plough, harrows, ridges, planters, which are required for successfulness of it’s practice.

Agricultural information

it is a process or methods used in disseminating new ideas, techniques to farmers. This methods is grouped into (3) three classes:

  1. A) individual method:

The individual method includes farmer home visits aimed at direct contact between farmers and the extension agents. The purpose is to give advice or assist on wide range of farm and its problem. In order to succeed, it may require the assistance of volunteer leader to arrange meetings as to develop public relations with organization and important individuals.

  1. B) group method:

The group method involves the works together with groups of farmer supervision of the extension worker. (eg)

  1. Symposia

Ii.     Lectures

Iii.    Debates

Iv.    Group demonstration

  1. Extrusion

Vi.   Field trips

Vii.  Agricultural show.

Agriculture show is usually organized by state or even federal government and it includes demonstration/ exhibition of farmer product from improved agricultural practices.

  1. C) mass media:

This method is used to awareness and interest in new ideas and technique among the majority of farmers. In order words, this method enables many people to know about the new innovation. Mass media includes cd rom, radio, television, newspaper, film show, computer show case, pamphlets, banners, hand bills and handouts.

Application of agricultural information

Over the years faculty members at university of nebraska have designed computer network system for direct use by farmer’s along with wished agricultural specialists. There are now more than a thousand users of the system. The system disseminates/delivers information to canada.

There are two board classes of the users:

  1. Agricultural specialist:- who advices other farmers
  2. Individual farmers, business and agencies making use of system directly.

In african, a deliberate effort/attempt have been by african governments to bring about agricultural development without much to show for these efforts. This can be attributed to the treatment of information delivery as matter of course by most african government. As often happens agricultural information is not integrated with other development programs to address the numerous related problem that face farmers.

Information is an essential ingredient in  agricultural development programmes but nigeria farmers seldomly feel the impact of agricultural innovation either because they have no access to such vital information or because it is poorly disseminated. The information provided is exclusively focused on policy maker’s researchers and those who manage policy decisions with scant attention paid to the information need of the largest beneficiaries of the policy decision. The non-provision of agricultural information is a key factor that has greatly limited agricultural development in development countries.

If the approaches to agricultural development programmes are to work, african governments needs to take new approaches to information dissemination and management that grow out from a clear understanding of what farmers information need are. For instance a researcher might use beef grower to estimate when a particular cattle will be ready for sale and what cost and gain of selling will be.

The cost of production for various crops can be calculated using crop budget and the economic value of land estimate with bay land. This programme also provided new items and message services.

 

Roles of information in agriculture

it is found that most of the role of information in agricultural development are perceived by many, but performed by few. Also moist of the role perceived are not performed by many of those who do perceived them. Industrial revolution taking new turn away from machines and instrument for taking over contain mental tasks example the handle of all forms of data thus we have seen the growth of computer from simple to the larger high speed flexible digital computer of today.

no one categorically claim to know all the information need of farmer especially in and an information depended sector like agriculture, where there are new and rather complex problems facing farmer every day. It is safe to assert that information need of nigerian farmers revolves around the resolution of problems such as pest hazards, weed control moisture insufficiency, soil fertility, farm credit, labour shortage, soil/erosion and so forth.

information needs by the local farmer may be in form of extension education, agriculture inputs, agriculture credit and marketing modern farm inputs are needed to raise small farm productivity. These inputs may include fertilizers, improved variety of seeds and seedings feeds, plant, protection chemicals, agricultural machinery and equipment and water. An examination of the factors influencing the adoption and continued use of these inputs will show that information dissemination is a very important factor. It is a factor that requires more attention than it now gets.

the farmer’s need of information is at moment being diffused by extension worker, other farmers, government parastatals and agricultural equipment dealers. The impact is yet to be felt.

farmers are among the potential beneficiaries of agricultural credit in nigeria but because of their low levels of literacy they are mostly unaware of credit, farmers need information relating to source of loan such as names of sources. They need information on the term of loan such as the interest rates, loan able amount and mode of repayment regarding agricultural credit debts to small farmers usually through channels such as relations, friends, neighbours, government officials, commercial and credit banks. Grass root organs such as village leads and local government officials are used to diffuse such information because of their personal touch with small-scale farmer. Extension agent needs to intensify their effort in educating farmers to increase their level of awareness.

in nigeria, ministry of agriculture through the field level extension worker and  broadcasting media provides agricultural marketing information farmers. A lot still have to be done in this area. Some of those in charge of marketing information are not trained for this job.

Agricultural information dissemination

with the past decades there has been burst of research activities and agriculture in nigeria universities and agricultural research centre located around all country far researching innovation that are capable of booting. The farmers agricultural production and nigeria’s economic development have been discovered. The yam minisett-techniques, protein rich soyabean production and use of animal vaccine and drugs and labour saving devices are some of the many improved agricultural innovations not properly diffused. Prominent among the agricultural centres are:-

international institute for tropical agriculture (iita)

the national root crops research institute. But unfortunately, most of these innovations do not reach the farmers field. This is because the medium for information disseminate in use is quite ineffective.

Present situation

institutional and governmental organ have been put in place to ensure that farmer get to know and adopt agricultural innovations relevant to their situation e.g. Agricultural extension and research license services (aerls) the extension service of the  agricultural development project (adp), ministries of agricultural both state and federal levels, media forum for agriculture, co-operation extension centers (cec) of universities and public enlightenment units of the 18 agricultural research centres. These bodies serve as facilitators of agricultural message by acting as communications departments. They use computer, leaflet, newsletters, posters, exhibits, visual aids and radio, programmes to communicate agricultural information. Radio and television programmes are popular although controlled by government with its attendant problems regarding the choice of programmes of all the existing channels of extension highest in terms of providing credible information and advice, especially on agricultural technology.

a major function of extension is to get the farmers into frame, is fairly widespread in the middle belt region of nigeria where information about fertilizer is well diffused. Even through the demand for fertilizer is buyout, the supply is mostly inadequate to meet the demands.

apart from use of extension for diffusion of agricultural innovation, other channels like rural development field staff, contact farmer, schoolteacher’s private sector, agric-business people staff of the ministry of agriculture and the electronic and print media are used. These channels have their strengths and weakness farmer to strengthen the effort of the print and broading media in ensuring proper agricultural information dissemination to farmers the media forum for agricultures was formed by media practitioners from all over nigeria, with the aim of providing better support for agriculture by improving the quality of agricultural coverage in the media.

again the targeted audience is not properly reached as the main beneficiaries of information carried by printed media and broad casting are urban elites not people at the grass root.

the purpose of agricultural development programmes (adp) was to evolve a new concept of reaching the farmer with research findings  and new discoveries in farming operations, this was not so, owing to the fact that most times farmers are left on their own while extension workers were quite busy trying to urbanize their work/accommodations. The problem of agricultural development cannot be discussed only in term of policies of the federal government the technique of production, which emanated from ignorance of the improved techniques of farming accounted for problems. Nigeria were more familiar with traditional technique which was in novelty and so not many nigeria farmer’s got used to.

 

  • Historical background of anambra state agricultural development programme

Historical background:- background study of agricultural development programme: anambra state agricultural development programme (asadep), was inaugurated 5th, 1985 as one of the multi-state agricultural development project (msadp-1) made up to the south east states.

A tripartite arrangement between the world bank, fgnansg ensures proper finding for asadep. No wonder in 1986, the federal government signed a loan agreement of usd 162 million for all msadp-i which at present includes the following states: anambra, abia, akwa-ibom, cross-river, ebonyi, enugu, imo, kogi, plateau and benue.

Old anambra state (anambra and enugu states) got usd 22.4 million. That loan was terminated at june 30th 1995. There was an ifaa (international food and agricultural development). Loan of about usd 1.5 million expired in june 1997. Following the creation of state in auguest 27, 1991 old anambra state bifurcated into anambra and enugu states. It thus became necessary to restructure the former anambra adp and to establish two adps from the new territories. The world bank provided fund for the creation of new headquarter builder in anambra state. In january 1992, the present asadp moved from enugu to temporary office at enugu –ukwu. It was later moved to its own multi-naira magnificent headquaters office complex. In october 1995, the edifice is located on kilometer 41, enugu-onitsha express awka.

The broad objective is to improve the standard of living and welfare of the rural smell-scales/holder farmer, throughout the state of raising by their productivity and farm income, via integrated rural development.

 

1.3  statement of problem

despite government effort to promote food production in nigeria-through the use of various policy and programme, it appears that the efforts are yet to yield enough result. Village farmers are still lacking information about the latest research findings even where available, many still have no access to it. Government is bombarding public eardrum with slogans and platitudes: operation feed the nation, green revolution, self reliance-lots of publication in different forms like journals, books and bulletin were produced and circulated among organization agricultural productivity at the village level is still at the low ebb. The impact of new research finding is yet to be filed at the village level. Farmers are yearning for new technology that will enhance their productivity. Information for development is not to be advantages of the rural farmers the problems militating against effective dissemination of information to farmers are:

lack of adequate and prompt fund for public awareness activities, lack of adequate and undated materials for research purposes, communication barrier, topography, wrong perception of researchers towards farmer illiteracy and superiority complex of research over farmers. In order to find out place of information in agricultural development, an analytical research of this nature is necessary and data gathered  will provide empirical evidence that will guide policy makers, students, researchers, extension workers and development bank officers for formulation new and better policy.

 

1.4  objective of the study

  1. To determine the role of information in agricultural development in nigeria.

Ii.     To test the justification for investing agricultural information.

Iii.    To determine various sources of information flows

Iv.    To determine whether the research finding disseminated accomplish the target goal among farmers.

  1. To identify the effect of information in agriculture productivity.

1.5  significance of the study

Any society with inhibiting human’s must be adequately informed in view of the relevance of information to every individual in all shares of life. Specially for agricultural extension staff, researchers and to entire people concerned in the society.

The finding of the study will be used to the farmers, extension workers, researchers, scientists, contract farmers, factories and plantation officers university staffs and development consultants.

 

1.6  scope of the study

this research work is limited to information dissemination on agriculture in nigeria in development of anambra sate agricultural development programme (adp) awka.

 

1.7  research questions

  1. What are the role of information in agricultural development in nigeria ?

Ii      to what extent is justification for investigating agricultural information?

Iii.    What are the various source of information flow?

Iv.    Do the research findings disseminated accomplish the target goal among farmers?

  1. What are the effect of information in agriculture productivity?

 

1.8  definition of terms

For the purpose of understanding this project work under study, the following terms are relevant to point out.

 

 

 

  1. Information

Information as a process by which the form of an object of knowledge is impressed upon the apprehending mind so as to bring about the state of knowing it. This also includes some thing received or perceived or obtained through informing eg. Knowledge communicated by other or obtained from investigation, study or instruction.

  1. Agriculture

Is the production of crops and animals from man’s use? In order words, agriculture is defined as the deliberate effort made by man to till the soil, cultivate crop and rear animals for food and other purposes.

  1. Agricultural information dissemination

The national root crops research institute. But unfortunately, most of these innovations do not reach the farmers field. This is because the medium for information disseminate in use are quite effective institution and government organ have been put in place to ensure that farmer get to know and adopt agricultural innovations relevant to their situation.

  1. Role of information in agriculture

No one categorically claim to know all the information needs of farmers especially in an information depended sector like agriculture, where there are new and rather complex problems facing farmers every day. It is safe to assert that information need of nigerian farmers revolves around the resolution of problems such as pest hazards weed control moisture insufficiency, soil fertility, farm credit, labour shortage, soil erosion and so forth.

  1. Application of agricultural information

Over the year’s faculty members at university of nebraska have design computer network system for direct use by farmers along with wished agricultural specialists. There are now more than a thousand users of the system. The system disseminates/delivers information to clients located in thirty states of us and canada.

 

 

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Evaluation of technical services

Evaluation of technical services

In abia state central library board, umuahia.

Abstract

This study is on the evaluation of technical services in abia state central library board, umuahia. The study is divided into five (5) chapters. Chapter 1: it deals with the introduction/background of study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, scope of the study, significance of the study, definition of terms. Chapter 2: literature review, in this chapter, the researcher presents the materials which he uses/consulted in enlightening some of the points and information in the study. Chapter 3: research methodology, design of the study, area of study, population, sample and sample techniques, instrumentation (instrument for data collection), validity of instrument, instrument for data collection, distribution and retrieval of the instrument, data analysis techniques. Chapter 4: presentation and data/findings, data analysis interpretation/discussion of findings. Chapter 5: summary, conclusion, recommendation.

CHAPTER ONE

1.1   Introduction/Background of the study –      1

1.2   Statement of the study  –      –      –      –      7

1.3   Objectives of the study  –      –      –      –      9

1.4   Scope of the study –      –      –      –      –      10

1.5   Significant of the study –      –      –      –      -11

1.6a. Research Questions –   –      –      –      –      12

1.6b. Statement of Hypothesis –   –      –      –      13

1.7   Definition of terms-       –      –      –      –      –      14

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.1   Literature Review – –      –      –      –      –      16

2.2   Selection  –    –      –      –      –      –      –      17

2.3   Acquisition  –  –      –      –      –      –      –      19

2.4   Acquisition Policy –        –      –      –      –      –      22

2.5   Cataloguing – –      –      –      –      –      –      24

2.6   Classification –       –      –      –      –      –      27

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0   Research Methodology – –      –      –      –      31

  • Design of the study – –      –      –      –      31
  • Area of study – –      –      –      –      –      –      32
  • Population –   –      –      –      –      –      –      33
  • Sample and sampling technique – – –      33

3.5.1 Instrumentation   –      –      –      –      –      34

3.5.2 Validity of instrument- –      –      –      –      34

5.5.3 Reliability of the instrument –     –      –      35

3.6   Instrument for data collection      –      –      35

3.7    Distribution and Retrieval of the instrument      36

3.8   Data analysis technique –     –      –      –      36

 

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Presentation and Data Findings – – –      37
  • Data analysis interpretation/Discussion of finding – – –      –      –      –      –      –      37

 

CHAPTER FIVE

Summary, conclusion and recommendation

  • Summary – –      –      –      –      –      –      48
  • Conclusion – –      –      –      –      –      –      50
  • Recommendations – –      –      –      –      50

References –    –      –      –      –      –      –      52

Appendix –      –      –      –      –      –      –      55

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.1  INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Evaluation according to BBC English Dictionary is decision about significant or valuable something is, based on a careful study of its good and bad features. Evaluation of technical services means to appraise or analyze the processes a library material should undergo right from acquisition until the material finally appear on the shelf for use.

This project evaluates the technical services of technical service division of Abia state library board. Before delving into the actual project, it is important to explain with library is. According to Okorie (1964:101)

 

Libraries are usually those, whether municipal, country, regional or national, which are supported by public funds and open to the general library board.

 

According to Uba (1973:163) the term “technical services” in library parlance appears to have tow connotations. Viewed from the stand point of reference services which industries and technical libraries offers to their users, on the other hand, it mans the other work of the technical processing department of libraries-that is, cataloguing and classification and allied processes. Technical services therefore, refer to all the activities and processes concern with selecting, obtaining, organizing and processing of acquired library materials in the library. It is to achieve this end in the economic way that technical processing which according to him, is a means to an end service because cataloguing and classification provide the tools without which information services is impossible. In libraries, the handling of technical services is always the sole responsibility of the technical department. According to Harrod [1971] technical services is a department of a library where the function of a book acquisition, cataloguing, classification and processing are carried out.

Technical services department in any library is usually referred to as “behind the screen” department because most of their activities are carried out of sight of regular users of the library. Usually, the department is made up of the cataloguing section, acquisition section, serial section and bindery section. The cataloguing section’s function is to organize the total library resources by it clientele.

The traditional means for accomplishing this goal are descriptive cataloguing, subject cataloguing and classification.

This assignment required effective records preparation with all reasonable economy.

The acquisition section’s function is to purchase expedition and from the most advantageous vendors the material chosen or selected, to process materials pre-cataloguing] otherwise procured, and to forward promptly and to the proper places all materials acquired. This large business operation must be forwarded economically. The economy involves the selection of agents, methods purchasing, treatment of return, and sale of discards. Although, foremost is budget expense control.    Technical services activities require the effort of a large potion of library staff and budget, and it is the “life wire” of any library.

The serial section’s function is subscribing various journals for the use of the clientele. The various journals subscribed to the library are selected, ordered, received and processed by the serial section.

The function of bindery section is to provide suitable protection for each item added to the collection and to take action, and also to per-serve it for the use of the future generation.

Harrod [1971:524] also defined it as “A library provided wholly or partly from public funds, and the user of which is not restricted to any class of person in the community but it freely available to all.

Libraries are usually established by either the local, state or federal government to serve the information needs of the community in which it located by providing materials both books and non-book materials. However, the library does not exist for formal education alone. It exist and must cater for the class of people who are general readers and those who go to the library for recreation. Unfortunately, in Africa, Nigeria to be3 precise, public libraries are not properly funded and are under used. In the wards of Oyedeji [1975:159]. The libraries that exist are for the moment, mostly glorified classrooms and reading shelters for exam-hungry school boys and girls who pay little attention, which some of the libraries offer. It is the basic of this laxity in the use of the library that the researcher decided to carry this research to find out the reasons why libraries are under used. The researcher however, chooses the technical services aspects of the problem with the Abia state library as her case study, while she leaves the other aspect of the problems for others to conduct future research on them. As earlier said in this topic, the library is establish to provide both book and non-book materials, and services that will in the present and in the future contribute to the aims and objectives of the library.

 

  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Abia as a state has some problems to consider economic bedrock, one of the most populated industrialized and civilized state in Nigeria. According to Smith (978: 2) the researcher trends some of its development, it thus become of interest to her especially of the technical services of the Abia State Library Board in the organization of its resources for effective dissemination of information to meet the varied need of its numerous clientele.

However, the researcher before going into the research envisaged some outstanding that may be glaring, ad these problems are:

  1. Inadequate acquisition of materials.
  2. Lack of adequate budgeting allocation
  • Lack of qualified cataloguers
  1. Lack of the correct number and types of staff to achieved its set objectives.
  2. Lack of library co-operation in technical processes.
  3. Poor/lack of binding services.
  • Lack of well written selection policy
  • Lack of effective user education/orientation on the use of the catalogue.
  1. Technical services department are policy equipped tools.

 

  • OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The objectives of this study have summarized under the following.

  1. To evaluate the technical services of Abia State Library Board
  2. To survey the organization of the technical department of the Abia State Library.
  3. To find out the problems that hinder the effective technical services of the Abia State Library Board and to offer suggestions on how best to arrest the situation.
  4. To highlight the roles expected of a technical services department of a standard library.
  5. To find out the general staffing position of the technical services of library.
  6. To evaluate specifically the importance of the catalogue, its adequacy as a finding tool to the patrons and its users.

 

  • SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This project is limited to the study of technical services of Abia State Library Board.

There are some aspect of the problem facing technical services in a public library, which the researcher would have cared to investigate and finding possible solution to them, but acting director was first appointed the acting director of Abia State Library services following the recommendation of the Board, members to the ministry of education. On assumption of office, he immediately recalled to the headquarters the only cataloguer of the library in the person of Mr. James E. Nwosu from one of our out station libraries where he served for effectiveness of the technical services department of the library.

 

  • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The researcher discovered that organization of resources in libraries is regrettably too inadequate. To this end, the significance of the study is to bring to awareness, some of these lapses in technical services using in Abia State Library Board as a case study since this is the most challenging aspect of librarianship and library services to the people, and suggesting ways to correcting these lapses and finally contribute to the frontiers of knowledge in this field.

Students of librarianship as well as professional libraries and library staff will definitely find this work valuable for both professional and organization efficiency even the general public.

 

  • A) RESEARCH QUESTIONS
  1. How adequate is the budgetary allocation of the technical services department?
  2. Does the technical services department process books and non-book materials acquired by the library?
  3. Do you have enough professional cataloguers in the technical services?
  4. Does the library keep a written selection policy?
  5. What are the effects of inadequate supply of library materials?
  6. What level cataloguing description does your library use?

 

1.6  B)    STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS

  1. The technical section of the library is not in good condition because of inadequate financial investment on the section.
  2. The technical section do not make use of classification scheme due to lack of fund.

 

 

  • DEFINITION OF TERMS                 

Let us therefore define the following operational terms so that they will mean the same thing to different people at different times.

Evaluation:    This is decision about how significant or valuable something is, based on a careful study of its good and bad.

Library Material: The term is used to refer to a collection of books and other materials keep reading, studying and consultation.

Technical Services: An umbrella term which takes care of all the process a library material should undergo right from acquisition until the material finally appear on the shelf for use.

Library:          It is a place where books, journals, microfilms, audio and visual materials and computer data and terminals are kept and organized to support the cultural, information, recreational and educational needs of the general public or specific groups of users.

 

 

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MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
 GTBANK
Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment :
Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
 Account Number:  0117780667. 
Swift Code: GTBINGLA 
Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANKER SECURITY GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>DELIVERY PERIOD FOR BANK PAYMENT IS  LESS THAN 2 HOURS

How to transfer from your bank account to All  Nigeriabanks

1. Access Bank:
—-*901#

2. EcoBank:
—-*326#

3. Fidelity Bank:
—-*770#

4. FCMB:
—-*389*214#

5. First Bank
—-*894#

6. GTB:
—-*737#

7. Heritage Bank:
—-*322*030#

8. Keystone Bank:
—-*322*082#

9. Sky Bank:
—-*389*076*1#

10. Stanbic IBTC:
—-*909#

11. Sterling Bank:
—-*822#

12. UBA:
—-*389*033*1#

13. Unity Bank:
—-*322*215#

14. Zenith Bank:
—-*966#

15. Diamond Bank
—-*710*555#

To know your BVN, dial
—-*565*0#.

E.g for First bank…   *894 *Amount *Acct. No. #

Please dail d code from d number u used to register d account from the bank

CALL OKEKE CHIDI C ON :  08074466939,08063386834.

AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO

08074466939 or 08063386834, YOUR PROJECT TITLE  YOU WANT US TO SEND TO YOU, AMOUNT PAID, DEPOSITOR NAME, UR EMAIL ADDRESS,PAYMENT DATE. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR MATERIAL IN LESS THAN 2 HOURS ONCE WILL CONFIRM YOUR PAYMENT.

WE HAVE SECURITY IN OUR BUSINESS.   

MONEY BACK GUARANTEE