Category Archives: MEDICINE SCIENCE PROJECT TOPICSS

GENETIC AND MORPHOLOGICAL DIVERSITY IN Monodora myristica(GAERTN.) DUNAL IN EASTERN NIGERIA

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION                                                                                                     

1.1 BACKGROUND INFORMATION

Monodoramyristica (Gaertn.)Dunal.,also known as African nutmeg or calabash nutmeg, is a tropical tree of the family Annonaceae (Custard-apple family).  Its seeds are widely used as an inexpensive nutmeg substitute becauseof the similarity between the two in odour and taste. Nowadays, however, it is less common outside its region of production(Celtnet recipes, 2011)

The genus Monodora contains approximately 15 to 20 species includingMonodora borealis, Monodoraclaessensii andMonodoragrandiflora.Monodoramyristica is easily recognizable by its very long and pendulous pedicels, an undulate upper bract, a large globose fruit with a black and smooth but finely ribbed surface (Burkill, 1985).

The Calabash nutmeg tree is native to tropical West Africa, where it grows naturally in evergreen forests from Liberia to Nigeria and Cameroon. It is also native to Angola,Uganda and West Kenya (Weiss, 2002). Due to the slave trade in the 18th century, the tree was introduced to the Caribbean islands where it was established and became known as Jamaican nutmeg (Barwick 2004). In 1897, it was introduced to Bogor Botanical Garden, Indonesia, where the trees flowered on a regular basis but no fruit could yet be collected (Weiss, 2002).

1.2 GENETIC DIVERSITY IN PLANTS

Genetic diversity refers to any variation in the nucleotides, genes, chromosomes, or whole genomes of organisms. At its most elementary level, it is represented by differences in the sequences of nucleotides (adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine) that form the DNA within the cells of the organism. Nucleotide variation is measured for discrete sections of the chromosomes, called genes. Thus, each gene comprises a hereditary section of DNA that occupies a specific place of the chromosome, and controls a particular characteristic of an organism (Harrison et al, 2004).

Diversity enhances the chances of populations’ adaptation to changing environments. With more variation, it is more likely that some individuals in a population will possess variations of alleles that are suited for the environment. Such individuals are more likely to survive to produce offspring bearing that allele. The population can thus continue for more generations because of the success of these individuals (NBII, 2011).

Most organisms are diploid, having two sets of chromosomes, and therefore two copies (called alleles) of each gene. However, some organisms can be haploid, triploid, tetraploid or more (having one, three, four or more sets of chromosomes respectively) (Harrison, et al, 2004). Within any single organism, there may be variation between the two (or more) alleles for each gene. This variation or polymorphism is introduced either through mutation of one of the alleles, or as a result of reproduction processes,especially if there has been migration or hybridization of organisms, so that the parents may come from different populations and gene pools. Harmless mutations and sexual recombination may allow the evolution of new characteristics which increases diversity(Andayani,et al.,2001).

Each allele codes for the production of amino acids that string together to form proteins. Thus differences in the nucleotide sequences of alleles result in the production of slightly different strings of amino acids or variant forms of the proteins.These proteins code for the development of the anatomical and physiological characteristics of the organism, which are also responsible for determining aspects of the behavior of the organism (Harrison, et al, 2004).

Plant diversity is part of the biological diversity and contributes towards achieving food security, poverty alleviation, environmental protection and sustainable development(Frankel 1984). It is being eroded rapidly in important spice plants and other crops mainly because of replacement of traditional landraces by modern, high yielding cultivars, natural catastrophes (droughts, floods, fire hazards, etc.), as well as large scale destruction and modification of natural habitats harboring wild species(Frankel 1984, Bramel-cox and Chritnick, 1998).M. myristica population is threatened by urbanization which damages its natural habitat, and leads to the cutting of most of the trees without replanting. Additionally, the plant is listed under Kew’s difficult seeds due to its inability to easily grow outside its natural habitat(Burkill, 1985). Genetic variation in traditional landraces and wild species is essential to combat pests and diseases and to produce cultivars better adapted to constantly changing environments(FAO, 1994).

Molecular tools such as have been found to be more useful and accurate in the study of inter-species and intra-species genetic diversity in several plants. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers have been successfully employed for determination of intraspecies genetic diversity in several plants. These include Phaseolus vulgaris (Razviet al., 2013),Ocimumspp (Sairkaret al., 2012), Chrysanthemum (Martin et al., 2002), Annonacrassiflora( Cotaet al.,2011), Prosopis ( Goswami and Ranade, 1999), date palm (Corniquel and Mercier, 1994), papaya (Stiles et al., 1993), poplars (Bradshaw, et al., 1994) and amaranths (Ranade, et al. 1997). No such attempt has so far been reported for Monodoramyristica

1.3RATIONALE

M. myristica is largely harvested from the wild and greatly affected by wild fires, urbanization, reckless and uncontrolled felling of trees for timber and firewood without replanting. There is need, therefore, to initiate breeding programs for this orphan crop by first documenting available genetic and phenotypic variations in this crop. The present report was done with this in mind, and should provide the much needed baseline for further studies.

1.4 OBJECTIVES

The general aim of the project was to characterize accessions of African nutmeg inSouth eastern Nigeria and estimate the range and distribution of genetic diversity.

The major objectives of this work were:

v  To determine the level of genetic diversity among 21 accessions of Monodoramyristica using RAPD technique

v  To compare morphological and yield related traits among the accessions using analysis of variance tests

v  To confirm the efficiency of RAPD technique in genetic diversity studies of this important plant.

v  To identify traits contributing significantly to variation in this species.

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Determinants of maternal mortality in General hospital Calabar, Cross River State

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study

The growing concern on improving reproductive health at the global level  has created a demand for  research  especially in the area of maternal health. Maternal health, which is the physical well being of a woman during pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum period (WHO, 2011; Fadeyi, 2007), has been a major concern of several international summits and conferences since the late 1980s, which culminated to the Millennium Summit in 2000 (WHO, 2007).

It is obvious that maternal mortality is a key constituent of maternal health. The World Health Organization in the international statistical classification of diseases and related health problems (ICD), has defined maternal mortality as the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of a termination of a pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental and incidental causes (WHO 2007; Ogunjuyigbe and Liasu, 2007; Khama, 2006).  It is within this conceptual framework that the Millennium Development Goal Target 5A, calls for a reduction in maternal mortality ratio by three-quarters by 2015. At its present rate, however, the world will fall short of the target for maternal mortality reduction because the data so far collated suggest that to reach the target, the global Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) would have had to be reduced by an average of 5.5% a year between 1990 and 2015.

Nigerian constitutes only two percent of the world‟s population, but Nigeria accounts for over 10% of the world maternal deaths, and ranks second globally only to India (Okonofua, 2007; Abdul‟Aziz, 2008). The status of maternal health is poor in Nigeria, defined by maternal mortality of 59,000 per annum due to pregnancy-related causes. This has been identified as the leading cause or determinant of death among women of reproductive age in Nigeria (Idris, 2010).

Although opinion differ on the determinants of maternal mortality, Herfon, (2006), noted  that the cause of maternal mortality is an outcome of nexus interaction of a variety of factors namely: the distant factors (socio-economic, cultural) which include; occupation, income level and illiteracy act through the proximate or intermediate factors (health and reproductive behavior, access to health services) and in turn influence outcome (pregnancy complication mortality).Idris, (2010) further identified other factors responsible for maternal  mortality as socio-cultural factors which include; traditional practices, norms, believes, education and religion.

Several attempts have been made in the past aimed at reducing maternal mortality in Nigeria, such attempts, especially by the Federal and state governments, have generally not proved very successful in achieving the desired results. Some promising results however have recently begun to be recorded through some  policy initiatives by a few state governments. In Cross River state, the state house of assembly approved a bill in 2007, guaranteeing free maternal health services to pregnant women (Shiffman and Okonofua, 2007). The state commissioner of health, who is an obstetrician and gynaecologist, played a central role in its development and adoption.

The introduction of the safe motherhood programme in 1995,midwife service scheme (MSS) in (2011) and subsidy reinvestment program (SURE-P) IN 2012 introduced a range of interventions which included antenatal care, labour and delivery care, postnatal care, family planning, prevention and management of unsafe abortions, and health education but still MMR has not been encouraging over the years and improvements are so slow.

The former state commissioner of health together with some senior obstetrician and gynaecologist, played central roles in creating this positive environment for maternal health. Hence , today  pregnant women in Cross River now assess free medical services in General hospital, Calabar as part of measures put in place by the state government to reduce maternal mortality rate in the state (Media Global,2010).  However, other states like Jigawa, as part of measure in checking maternal mortality,  have provided funds for the upgrading of obstetric care facilities in hospitals, the recruitment of obstetricians and gynaecologists and the provision of ambulances at the local level to transport pregnant women experiencing delivery complications to health facilities. The former executive secretary for primary health care, who subsequently became state commissioner for health, stood behind these initiatives.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Maternal mortality is the most important indicator of maternal health and well being in any country (Herfon, 2006). Maternal mortality is a tragedy, many children are rendered  motherless, such children are deprived of maternal care which goes a long way to affect adversely both their physiological and psychological development. The majority of these pitiable situations are due to maternal mortality.

From recent estimates, the number of deaths each year from  maternal causes worldwide decreased from 536,000 in 2005 to an estimated 358,000 in 2008 and 273,500 in 2011. For every woman that dies, approximately 20 more suffer injuries, infection and disabilities in pregnancy or childbirth (IHME, 2012; UNICEF 2008; WHO, 2007). The situation is even more alarming in Nigeria. For example, in the year 2000, the maternal mortality ratio per 100,000 live births was 800 compared to 540 for Ghana and 240 for South Africa.

Consequently, the chance of a Nigerian woman dying from reproductive health disorders and complications was put at 1 in 10 in 2002 (Population Reference Bureau, 2002), 1 in 18 in 2005, and 1 in 23 in 2008, placing the Nigerian woman  at far greater risk than her counterpart in the developed world, where the risk is estimated to be 1 in 17,800 and 1 in 10000 in countries such as the Republic of Ireland and Singapore respectively (World Bank, 2011; UNICEF, 2010; Media Global, 2010; UNICEF, 2008; UNFPA, 2005). Some of the implications of  these estimates are the depletion of the country‟s workforce and the overall stifling of rapid development.

This study focuses on determinants of maternal mortality in General hospital Calabar, Cross River State. The researcher was motivated to carry out  this study based observation and experience while on clinical posting towards the rate at which pregnant women die during childbirth as a result of post partum hemorrhage or eclampsia. The poser is what are the causes of women death?: thus this question can only be answered when this study is concluded.

1.3 Purpose of the study

The purpose of the study is to understand the determinants of maternal mortality in General Hospital Calabar, Cross River.

1.4 Objectives of the study                  

(i)   To assess the influence of poor maternal health care on maternal mortality

(ii)      To identify the influence of education on maternal mortality

(iii)         To determine the influence of occupation on maternal  mortality

 

1.5 Research Questions

In order for the researcher to achieve the objectives of the study, the following research questions were developed to guide the study;

(i)                            To what extent does poor maternal health influence maternal mortality?

(ii)                         How does education factors influence maternal mortality?

(iii)                       Can occupation influence maternal mortality?

1.6 Research hypothesis

There is no significant relationship between maternal level of education and causes of maternal mortality in General Hospital, Calabar

1.7     Scope of the study

The study is narrowed to all pregnant women with pregnancy related issues resulting to maternal mortality in General Hospital Calabar.

1.8       Significance of the study

The findings of this study will help health workers to identify factors responsible for maternal mortality, this will guide them on adopting more effective measures to ensure that women experience uneventful pregnancy, labour and peuperium. It will help women of child bearing age in the prevention of maternal mortality even in future pregnancies by obtaining adequate prenatal care.

Similarly, the study will also be of value to government both state and federal, policy makers as well as researchers for further research.

1.9     Limitations

The major limitation encountered during this study was the attitude of health record official in providing relevant information for the researcher. Also some retrieval of information was very cumbersome due to the manual nature of keeping information.

1.10 Operational definition of terms

Hospital:  Is a place or building where people who are ill/sick or injured are giving medical treatment and care.

Primary Health Care:  Is the medical treatment one received first when sick.

Pregnacy:  Is a period where a woman is having a baby developing inside her.

Maternal Mortality:  Is the death of a woman during or after delivery.

Maternal health: Is the physical well being of a woman during pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum period

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THE EFFECT OF CRUDE OF ALOE BARBADENSIS ON SOME HEMOSTATIC PARAMETERS OF FED ON THERM-OXIDIZED PALM OIL DIETS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW

1.1            Introduction

1.2           Aims and objectives of the study

1.3           Justification of study

1.4           Scope of study

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0           Literature review

2.1           Photochemistry of aloe Vera

2.2.1                General uses of aloe Vera

2.2.2        Theraperetic  (medicinal) uses of aloe Vera

2.2.3        Anti-inflammatory effects of aloe Vera

2.2.4        Laxative effects of aloe Vera

2.2.5        Anti-cancer properties of aloe Vera

2.2.6         Gastroprotective properties of aloe Vera

2.2.7        Anti viral effects of aloe Vera

2.2.8         Wound healing properties of aloe Vera

2.2.9        Aloe Vera gels effects on the immune system

2.2.10      Effects of aloe Vera on burns

2.2.11       Hypoglycemic effects of aloe Vera

2.2.12       Aloe Vera in veterinary medicine

2. 3         Other effects of aloe Vera

2. 3.1        Mechanism of action of aloe Vera

2.3.2        Mechanism of anti inflammatory action of aloe Vera.

2.3.3        Mechanism of laxative/ cathartic action of aloe Vera.

2.3.4        Mechanism of wound healing action of aloe Vera

2..3.5        Side effects, contrain dication and toxicity of aloe Vera.

2.4           Homeostasis

2. 4.1       Steps of mechanism

2.4.2                Blood clotting factors

2.4.3                Sequence of clotting mechanism

2.4.4                Bleeding  time

2.4.5                Clotting time

2.4.6                Prothrombin time

2.4.7                Homeostasis disorders / treatment

2.5           The oil palm tree

2.5.1        Thermoxidized  palm oil

2.5.2        Effects of thermoxidized  palm oil on health

 

 

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0           Materials and methods

3.1            Materials

3.1.1        Experimental animals

3.1.2        Experimental gel

3.1.3         Thermoxidized palm oil

3.2            Methods

3.2.1        Experimental procedure

3.2.2        Preparation of Experimental animal for the determination of homeostatic parameters

3.2.3        Determination of bleeding time by Duke’s Method

3.3.3        Determination of Clotting time

3.3.4        Determine of Prothrombin time

3.3.5        Determine of Platelet count

3.4           Precautions

3.5           Statistical Analysis

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0      Result

4.1    Comparison of mean food intake in control, thermoxidized palm oil (T.P.O) and T.P.O + aloe vera fed groups

4.2   Comparison of mean water intake in control, thermoxidized palm oil (T.P.O) and T.P.O + aloe vera fed groups.

4.3   Comparison of mean body weights of control, thermoxidized palm oil (T. P. O) and T.P.O aloe vera fed groups.

4.4   Comparison of bleeding time in control, thermoxidized palm oil (T.P.O) and T.P.O + aloe vera extract fed groups.

4.5       Comparison  of clotting time in control, thermoxidized palm oil (T.P.O) and T.P.O + aloe vera extract fed groups.

4.6       Comparison of prothrombin time in control, thermoxidized palm oil (T.P.O) and T.P.O + aloe vera extract fed groups.

4.7       Comparison of platelet count in control, thermoxidized palm oil (T.P.O) and T.P.O + aloe vera extract fed groups.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER FIVE

4.0           Discussion and conclusion

4.1           Discussion

4.2           Conclusion

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW

 1.0    Introduction

Aloe barbadensis or aloe Vera is a succulent plant from the family “Liliaceae”, it originated in the African content. The genus has many common names and is often referred to as aloe vera, lily of the desert, burn plant, the plant of immortality, first aim plant, wand of heaven and medicinal plant. The name is derived from the Arabic word “Alloeh” meaning “shining bitter substance”. The Genus contains at least 324 species of herbs, shrubs and ;s (cross white and cross white, 1984). Aloe vera is a perennial with 15-30 fleshy leave up to 0.5m long and 8-Pcrn across the base. Saw like teeth mark the margins- of leaves (Grindlay and Reynolds, 1986). Aloe vera plants withstand high  temperatures   and   long  periods drought, due to their ability to store water in their succulent leaves. However, freezing temperatures can damage or kill the plant. Medically and non- medically, aloe vera has been used for several thousands of years in different cultures from ancient Egypt to Greece, Rome to China, India and Africa (crosswhite and crosswhite, 1984; Grindlay and Reynolds, 1986).

In the first century, C.E, the Greek physician, Dioscorides used aloe Vera for mouth infections, sores, wounds and as purgatives. Egyptians, Assyrians and Mediterranean peoples used the latex primarily and the gel as a purgative. The plant was used by the Arabs, Spaniards, ancient Greeks and persians and is still in use by hunters in Africa to reduce perspiration and body scent.

In 500 B.C, Egyptians recorded the use of aloe vera in treating burns, parasites and infections. The plant was called. the plant of immortality” by the Egyptians because it can live and even bloom without soil and was given as an offering at the funerals of pharaohs. It was also used in the baths of the Egyptian queens Nefertiti and Cleopatra to keep their skin soft and young (Pamplona Roger, 2001). Today, Egyptians still hang an aloe vera plant over the door of a house   to   provide   a   long   and   fruitful   life   for   its occupants.  In    India,   the   plant  is   used   as   cathartic, anthelminthic,   emmenagogue   and   stomachic.   Aloe  vera latex was used before 1930s in the united states as laxatives ton, 1961; crosswhite and crosswhite, 1984; Grindlay and Reynolds, 1986; Evens 1996).

1.2Aims and objective s of the study

The aim of this study is to ascertain the effect of crude of aloe barbadensis (aloe vera ) on some hemostatic parameters of fed on thermoxidized palm oil diets. The objective is to ascertain   if   aloe   vera  has any  effect  on  hemostatic derangements that may result from thermoxidized palm oil diet.

1.3     Justification of study

It has been known that aloe vera has anti-inflammatory, laxalive,   anti-hypertensive, anticancer, hypoglycaemic fects etc but not much work has been done on its effects on Hemostasis, especially in rats placed on a diet mixedwith thermoxidized palm oil. This research work is therefore aimed at elucidating its effect on Hemostatic parameters ofrats fed on thermoxidized palm oil diets.

1.4   SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The scope of the study involves measuring bleeding time, clotting time, prothrombin time and platelet count in 5 albino wistar rats fed with pellet mixed with thermoxidised palm oil and also 5 albino wistar rat fed with the same mixed pellet and in addition 0.1ml/100g body weight  of refined aloe vera gel orally administered for four weeks (28 days)and comparing the results with control group (5 albino wistar rats) fed only on normal pellet for same period.

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1. Access Bank:
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5. First Bank
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6. GTB:
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9. Sky Bank:
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11. Sterling Bank:
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13. Unity Bank:
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14. Zenith Bank:
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Evaluation of the efficacy of the Carestart Malaria HRP2 and pLDH/HRP2 Combo compared to microscopy in the diagnosis of malaria

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

Malaria is a life-threatening illness, that has continued to pose public health challenges. It affects millions of people all around the globe especially, in Africa, Asia and South America. Malaria is currently endemic in over 100 countries with 3 billion people at risk of infection and around 225 million cases in 2009, leading to approximately 781,000 deaths (WHO, 2010). Malaria has remained a major public health problem in Nigeria, and is responsible for 30% childhood and 11% maternal mortality (FMoH, 2005). It accounts for 300,000 deaths each year and about 60% of outpatient visits (President’s Malaria Iniative, 2011).  Together Nigeria, and the Democratic Republic of Congo account for over 40% the estimated total malaria burden and deaths globally (WHO, 2012). It is caused by the asexual form of the parasitic protozoan know as Plasmodium. The species incriminated arePlasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, and Plasmodium ovale which is found humans and Plasmodium knowlesi which found in non-humans. Among these parasites, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are the most widespread and common causes of mixed-species malaria, which is defined as co-infection with more than one species or genotype of Plasmodium (Mayxay et al., 2004).

Most cases of malaria are uncomplicated, commonly presenting with fever and sometimes with other non-specific symptoms including headache, and aches and pains elsewhere in the body (Gilles, 1991; WHO, 2003). Mtoni and Senosi (2007) noted that early diagnosis and treatment are key to addressing morbidity and mortality due to malaria. Proper management of malaria cases within the first 24 hours of onset is considered to be the best way to reduce its morbidity and mortality (Singh et al., 2013). This would be adequately achieved if most of the patients have access to laboratory facilities (Kamugisha et al., 2008). Most victims of malaria still die, because the disease is not diagnosedin time by health workers (Uzochukwu et al., 2009). Microscopy is the gold standard for laboratory diagnosis of malaria in many developing countries, though expertise may be lacking in both endemic and non-endemic settings (Moody, 2002), especially in Nigeria. However, in situations lacking reliable microscopic diagnosis, rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) may offer a useful alternative to microscopy (Nour et al., 2009).

In general, RDTs are fast, easy to perform and relatively cheap (Lubell et al., 2007). A lot of research and development has been going on to develop alternative methods for laboratory diagnosis of malaria. Rapid diagnostic tests have been developed, validated and field tested. It was introduced in the nineties, but has now undergone many improvements (Martha et al., 2010). Malaria rapid diagnostic test plays a key role in malaria control and elimination programmes in order to avoid unnecessary anti-malarial therapy, to prevent drug resistance and to enhance case finding (Eibach et al., 2013). The RDTs are based on the principle of immunochromatography, which require finger prick blood and detect malaria specific antigen. There are three different RDTs that are available commercially; one of them is specific for detecting P. falcipraum antigens, while the other two detects one or more of the three human malaria species. The RDTs provide quick results, are reliable, and require less skilled persons as compared to microscopic diagnosis. They do not require electricity or any equipment. It promotes patient’s confidence as well as health services.

More than 60 RDT brands and over 200 different products have been developed. Of these, the WHO and Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics (FIND) evaluated 70 from 26 manufacturers (WHO, 2008; 2009). Of these products, 39 are three-band tests that detect and differentiate P. falciparum from non falciparum species (Martha et al., 2010). The CareStart™ Malaria HRP-2/ pLDH (Pf/pan) Combo Test and the SD Bioline Ag pf/pan, HRP-2 and pan-pLDH are both a three-band RDT detecting HRP-2 and pan-pLDH. This present study is focused on evaluating the efficacy of two of the many RDTs; SD Bioline and CareStart™ Malaria kits using it microscopy test as the gold standard for the diagnosis of malaria.

SD Bioline (Ag pf/pan, Cassette, RDT, kit) is a one step differential diagnosis by detecting HRP-II antigen from Plasmodium falciparum and pLDH antigen from other species (P. vivax, P. malariae, P. ovale) in human whole blood. The CareStart (Combo, dev., RDT) is a test designed for the differential diagnosis between Plasmodium falciparum and other Plasmodium species such as Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae. Though, the gold standard for malaria testing remains microscopy, but the limitations associated with this technique could affect the speed of delivery of quality services to the patients (Ameh et al., 2012).

 

 

1.1     Statement of the Problem

Microscopy has been in use for over 100 years and is inexpensive, rapid and relatively sensitive when used appropriately (Laveran, 1891). Microscopy is regarded as the ‘gold standard’ for malaria diagnosis (WHO, 1999). However, the lack of skilled scientists in medical facilities in affected areas often leads to poor interpretation of data. In addition, microscopy is time consuming, labour intensive, and cannot detect sequestered P. falciparum parasites (Leke et al., 1999). It is less reliable at low-density parasitaemia that is, 50 parasites (ml blood) (Kilian et al., 2000; Bell et al., 2005).  Even though microscopy is cheap, reliable and available on an instant base, it has limitations. For instance, in resource-limited centres, there are problems of equipment, training manpower, and workload, whereas in non-endemic countries, laboratory staff may lack sufficient exposure to malaria positive samples resulting in low expertise (Moody, 2002; Hanscheid, 2003).

In Nigeria, RDTs are still new to the people, and they are unsure of the efficacy, accuracy and authenticity. It has been 7 years since the launching of malaria RDTs in Nigeria but the populace know little or nothing about Malaria RDTs due to poor promoting from the part of manufacturers. In addition, the implementation of RDTs also faces many difficulties such as logistics; transport and continuous supply, limited shelf life and the need of proper storage rooms. RDTs are quickly affected by humidity and extreme temperatures (Wongsrichanalai et al., 2007). They are not able to quantify parasitaemia and may give false positive results owing to the persistence of antigens that can remain in the circulation of a patient after treatment (Wongsrichanalai et al., 2007).

1.2     Significance of the Study

The essence of continuous research and development is to find a way to improve the lives of people around the globe.  Thus, finding an alternatively cheap, fast, convenient and effective way to diagnosis malaria is a key to control malaria.  This study is therefore significant in many ways:

1.     The finding of this study will be useful and helpful to the Federal and State Government with regard to malaria eradication in making decisions on implementation of RDTs for routine diagnosis in the Nigeria, especially in rural areas.

2.     The findings of this study will provide an alternative, effective and reliable diagnosis of malaria patients in both those that are asymptomatic and symptomatic.

3.     RDTs are fast, easy to perform and relatively cheap and can easily be used by both the trained and untrained.

1.3     Research Questions

1.                     What is the efficacy of SD Bioline and Carestart when compared to microscopy?

2.                     Can RDTs such as SD Bioline and Carestart be alternative for the gold standard (microscopy) in the diagnosis of malaria.

1.4     Research Hypothesis    

HA:  RDTs are more efficient in the detecting of malaria cases than microscopy

HO:    Microscopy is more efficient in defecting malaria than RDTs

 

 

1.                 Aims and Objectives of the Study

The aims and objectives of this study were to:

1.                 Evaluate the efficacy of the Carestart Malaria HRP2 and pLDH/HRP2 Combo compared to microscopy in the diagnosis of malaria.

2.                 Determine the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the malaria RDTs to microscopy.

3.                 Determine the relationship between malaria parasite density and results of malaria RDTs.

4.                 Correlate results of negative malaria detection rate by microscopy to results of malaria RDTs.

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Please dail d code from d number u used to register d account from the bank

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form>DELIVERY PERIOD FOR BANK PAYMENT IS  LESS THAN 24 HOURS

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AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO

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