Category Archives: MICROBIOLOGY Project samples

THE EFFECT OF INORGANIC FERTILIZER TREATMENT ON THE MINERAL AND VITAMIN CONTENT OF THE LEAVES OF O. GMUNS GRATISSIMUM

THE EFFECT OF INORGANIC FERTILIZER TREATMENT ON THE MINERAL AND VITAMIN CONTENT OF THE LEAVES OF O. GMUNS GRATISSIMUM

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ABSTRACT

The effect of inorganic fertilizer treatment on the mineral and vitamin contents of the leaves of O. gratissmimum (1) was investigated cultivatd O. gratissimum in plastic planting buckets were applied with NPK (15:15:15) fertilizer and 500kg/ha treatment levels determined using the furrow slice methods two months after seed germination, only one application was carried out. The levels of the plants were harvested for analysis one month after treatment. Fertilizer treatment caused significant increase P. (0.05) in the potassium, sodium, magnesium, phosphorous and nitrogen contents of the leaves of O gratissimum.

However, fertilizer treatment led to significant reduction (P 0.05) in the calcium content of the leaves of O. gratissimum. Although fertilizer treatment generally caused increased concentration of ascorbic acid, such increases were not significant. Generally the concentration of minerals and vitamins tended to increase as the level of treatment increased.

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CHEMICAL, FUNCTIONAL PASTING PROPERTIES OF STARCHES FORM BROWN AND YELLOW TIGERNUTS (CYPETUS, ESCULENTUS)

 

Abstract

Starch was extracted form brown and yellow varieties of tigernuts, starch samples from both varieties were defatted and analysed for their functional, chemical and pasting properties using standard analytical methods. The conventional cassava starch served as the control. There were significant differences in chemical (moisture) ash, fat, protein, amycose and starch yield) and functional properties oil absorption capacity, bulk density and starch gel charity) between starch samples. Most pasting properties, oil absorption such as trough, peak viscosity breakdown, final viscosity, set back viscosity of tigernut starch samples were higher than those of cassava starch.

 

EVALUATION OF NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF SOYBEAN – ACHA COMPOSITE  BISCUITS

 

ABSTRACT

Biscuits were prepared from – soy bean composite flour based on preliminary works, the nutritional qualities of the products (biscuits) were evaluated using wistar-strain albino rat feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency Ratio (FEB) Protein efficiency Ration (PER) and proximate composition of the faces.

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IMPACT OF BREAKFAST ON DAILY ENERGY INTAKE-ANALYSIS OF ABSOLUTE VERSIS RELATIVE REAKFAST CALORIES

 

ABSTRACT

The role of breakfast energy in total daily energy intake is a matter of debate. Acute feeding experiments demonstrated that high breakfast energy leads to greater overall intake supported by cross sectional data of a free-living population. On the other hand, a large intra individual analysis has indicated that a high proportion of breakfast to overall intake is associated with lower daily energy intake. To evaluate these apparently contradictory results in greater detail both ways of analysis were applied to the same data set of dietary records.

 

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IMPORTANCE OF UTAZI (GONGRONEMA LATIFOLIUM) AND NCHUANWU (OCIMUM GRATISSIUM)

IMPORTANCE OF UTAZI (GONGRONEMA LATIFOLIUM) AND NCHUANWU (OCIMUM GRATISSIUMIN HUMAN BODY

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ABSTRACT

The research work was focused on the possible vitamin composition of Utazi (Gongronema  latifolium) and Nchuanwu (Ocimum gratissimum) leaf juice. Here, it was only the vitamin A and C that were scientifically tested for. Where upon, it was discovered that Utazi had 1.14mglml of vitamin A and 34:61mg1 100m1 of vitamin C, while Nchuanwu had 2.14mglm1 of vitamin A and 30.76mg1 100m1 of vitamin C. From the result gotten, it shows that Utazi and Nchanwu are good sources of vitamin A and C, with high industrial and medicinal prospects.

 

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

Aim and objective

CHAPTER TWO

Literature Reviews

Origin of Utazi and Nchuanwu

Uses of gongronema latifoliumandocimum gratissmum.

Production and international trade (Utazi and Nchuanwu)

Description of utazi and Nchuanwu

Growth and development of Utazi and Nchuanwu

Propagation and planting (utazi and Nchuanwu).

Harvesting (utazi and Nchuanwu).

Handling after harvest (utazi and Nchuanwu)

Genetic resources and breeding (utazi and Nchuanwu)

Proximate and minerqal omposition of Utazi

Amino Acid composition of utazi

fatty acid composition of Utazi

Anti bacterial activity of utazi

Prospect of Utazi

Prospect of Nchuanwu

CHAPTER TWO

Materials and methods

Sample collection and preparation.

Determination of vitamin A (Utazi and Nchuanwu).

Materials

Preparation of reagent

Isopropanol in the both sample (Utazi and Nchuanwu)

Determination of vitamin C (Utazi and Nchuanwu)

MATERIALS

Preparation of Reagent

Indophenols solution titration in the both sample.

CHAPTER FOUR

Results

Discussion

CHAPTER FIVE

Conclusion

Recommendation

Appendix

Reference

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

1.0.1  Utazi (Gongronema  latifolium/ Bush buck), leaf vegetable and belong to the group of plants known as spices. It is of the family of ASCLEPIADACEA genus GONGRONEMA and species of LATIFOLIUM, and the vernacular name is BUSH BUCK while the botanical name GONGRONEMA lATIFOLIUM. Utazi is a climber with woody hollow glaborous stems below and characterized by greenish yellow flowers (Okolo 1987).

Gongronema  latifolium, commonly called ‘utazi’ by the Igbo’s, the efik / ibibo people in South-eastern Nigeria call the leave ‘utasi’ and the Yoruba people ‘arokeke’ or ‘madumaro’ (Ugochukwu and Babady, 2002). In Ghana, the akan-asantes knows it as ‘kurutu nsurogya’. The serer in Senegal call it ‘gasub’ while the kissis, mende and temnes in sierra leone call it ‘ndondo-polole, ‘tawabembe’ and ‘ra-bilong’ respectively (Dalziel et at, 1961). They are sharp bitter and sweet and widely used as a leafy vegetable and as a spice for sauce, soups and salad (Okolo 1987, Anaso and Onochie 1999). Utazi is used in small quantity in preparing soups like Nsala soup, ugba sauce, and yam and also in garnishing dish like Abacha, Ncha, Isiewu, Nkwobi etc. The leaves are used to spice locally brewed beer. In Sierra Leone the pliable stems are used as chew sticks. The bark contains much latex and has been tasted for exploitation (Morebise et  al., 2002).

Reports by various authors showed that it essential oils, saponins and pregnanes among others (Schneider et al; 1993, Morebise and Fafunso 1998, morebise et al; 202). The plant has been widely used in folk medicine for maintaining healthy blood glucose level (Okafor 1987, 1989). The plant leaves have been found very efficacious as an anti-diarrhea, and anti-tussive (Sofoware 1982, Iwu, 1993).

1.0.2  Nchuanwu (ocimum gratissimum / clove Basil), leafy vegetable and belong to the group of plant known as spices. It is of family of LAMIACEAC genus OCIMUM and species O.GRATISSIMUM and the vernacular name is CLOVE BASIL while the botanical name OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM. Nchuanwu is widely distributed in the tropics of Africa and Asia. It is a perennial plant that is woody at the base. It has average height of 1-3m high. The leaves are broad and narrowly ovate, usually 5-13cm long and 3-9cm wide. It is a scented shrub with lime-green fuzzy leaves (Wagner et al; 1999).

In Southern part of Nigeria, the plant is called “effinrin-nia” by the Yoruba,”Nchuanwu” in Igbo, while in the Southern part of Nigeria, the Hausa call it “Daidoya”. (Effraim et al; 2002).

Nutritional importance of this plant centers on it’s usefulness as a seasoning because of its aromatic flavor (C.N. Ezekwesili et at; 2004).

Nchuanwu in folk medicine, ocimum gratissimum is extensively used throughout West Africa as a febrifuge, anti-malaria and anti-convulsant. The leaf juice is used in the treatment of stomach pain and catarrh. Oil from leaves have been found to posses antiseptics, anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activities (Ezekwesile et al; 2004).

In the coastal area of Nigeria, the plant is used in the treatment of epilepsy (Osifo, 1992) high fever (Oliver 1980) and diarrhea (Oliver 1980 and Sofoware 1993). While in the savannah areas decoctions of the leaves are used to treat mental illness (Abdulrahman, 1992).

Nchuanwu is used by the Ibos of Southern Nigeria in the management of the baby cord. It is believed to keep the baby’s cord and wound surface sterile. It is used in the treatment of fungal infections, fever, cold and catarrh (Iwu, 1986).

They play quite significant role in our diets of the population because they are major sources of essential macro nutrients, micro nutrients and vitamins.

Due to their seasonal nature and high moisture content, there is need therefore to develop an appropriate technology for their preservation so as to guarantee their availability all year round (Eze and Chibuzor 2008).

 

1.1     AIM AND OBJECTIVE

The aim of this project work is to determine the vitamin composition of Utazi and Nchuanwu leaf juice (vitamin A and C).

 

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EXAMINE THE PRESENCE AND CONCENTRATION OF SOME PHYTOCHEMICALS IN AVOCADO PEAR

EXAMINE  THE PRESENCE AND CONCENTRATION OF SOME PHYTOCHEMICALS IN AVOCADO PEAR (PERSEA AMERICANA MILL) SEED

 

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ABSTRACT

Phytochemical screening to determine the presence of tannins, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids,sterols and cardiac glycosides in PerseaAmericana will be carried out. The sample will be prepared by cutting the seed into small pieces, drying and grinding with Thomas Willey milling machine. The ground sample will be stored in an airtight container for analysis. The presence of alkaloid will be determined by Wagner’s test, flavonoid and tannin by ferric chloride test, saponin by emulsion test and cardiac glycoside by glacial acetic acid test. The quantitative determination of alkaloid was carried out by the method of Harborne,(1993)and Obadoni and Ochuko,(2001). Flavonoid will be determined by the method of Boham and Kocipai,(1994). Tannin will be determined by the method of Pearson, while cordial glycoside will be determined by wang and filled method.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Phytochemicals are a large group of plant derived compound hypothesized to be responsible for much of the disease protection conferred from diets high in fruits, vegetables, beans, cereals and plant-based beverages such as tea and wine (Hollman, 2005). They are biologically naturally occurring chemical compounds found in plants . They protect plants from disease and damage and contribute to the plants colour, aroma and flavor. They also protect plants from environmental hazards such as pollution, stress, drought, uv exposure and pathogenic attack. These Phytochemicals are known as secondary metabolities .

Recently it is clearly known that phytochemicals have roles in the protection of human health when their dietary intake is significant.

A wide range of dietary Phytochemicals are found in fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grains, nuts, seeds, fungi, herbs and spices (Mathai, 2000). it is well known that plants produce these chemicals to protect                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            themselves, but recent research demonstrate that many phytochemicals can also protect humans against diseases (Narasinga, 2003). The most important of these bioactive constituents of plants are alkaloids, tannins, steroids, terpenoids and phenolic compounds. In recent years secondary plant metabolites previously with unknown pharmacological activities have been extensively investigated as a source of medicinal agents. Thus it is anticipated that phyto-antimicrobial efficacy will be used for the treatment of bacterial infection (Balandrin et al., 2005).

 

Perseaamericana is one of the 150 varieties of avocado pear. The seeds of Perseaamericana has a diverse application in ethnomedicine, ranging from treatment for diarrhea, dysentery, toothache, intestinal parasites to the area of skin treatment and beautification (Pamplona and Roger, 1999). P. americana leaves have been reported to posses anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities (Adeyemi et al., 2002). The seeds are rich in tannins and carotenoids and tocopherols from the fruit were shown to inhibit the in-vitro growth of prostate cancer cell lines (lu et al, 2005) and “persin” from avocado leaves was shown to have antifungal properties and to be toxic to silkworms (oelrichs et al., 1995). The effect of P.americana extract was evaluated on in-vitro rat lymphocyte proliferation (Gomezflores et al., 2008). Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of seeds of avocado pear was found to be greater than 70% (Soong and Barlow 2004).

Objective of the study

  • To screenPerseaamericana seeds for the presence of some phytochemicals such as flavonoids, alkaloids, sterols, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides etc.
  • To carry out quantitative determination of some of these phytochemicals

Scope of the study

The study will cover the general description ofPerseaamericana, phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables and nutritional physiology of phytochemicals. The study will also cover the nutritional contents of P.americana fruit and its medicinal uses. Effects ofP.americana on the body and the phytochemicalsto be determined will be discussed. Qualitative and quantitative determination of some phytochemicals will also be carried out.

Significance of the study

The significance of this study is thatP.americana plays a vital role in contributing to a healthy and balanced diet, reduced mental depression prevents coronary heart diseases, diabetes and prostate cancer in the body tissue and heal the scalp.

P.americana if consumed by individual can fight beriberi, cause a reduction in body weight and are used as antihypertensive drug for individuals with hypertension.

 

CHAPTERTWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

General description of Perseaamericana

EFFECTIVE WAYS OF CONTROLLING EROSION IN A BUILDING SITE IN SELECTED SITES

EFFECTIVE WAYS OF CONTROLLING EROSION IN A BUILDING SITE IN SELECTED SITES IN EKWULOBIA ANAMBRA STATE

 

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CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The development of soil erosion began when man settled down and started turning pasture land into farmland. The intensive exploitation of the land disturbed the natural soil vegetative cover and exposed its, surface to the effect of erosive agents and to introduce such forms of agriculture that did not destroy the land the devastation of land by erosion often led to the down fall of civilization e.g in Mesopotamia Syria, China and else where.

According to Robert. M. (1984), Erosion is manifested by the determination of soil surface effected by exogenous forces, especially water. Ice wind and, man as the significant anthropogenic factor. The disturbance of soil surface is accompanied by the removal of the detached soil particles by the force of kinetic energy of some of the erosion agents, namely water and wind and the deposition of this matter with a decrease in this energy. Erosion is caused by surface num off and result complex natural process. Water erosion is caused by precipitation. Areas with a low precipitation usually have a small surface num off because precipitation water infiltrates into the soil is consumed by vegetation erosion which may also be broadly cause by a natural factor organ.

It can also be carried by improper channeling neglect of natural sewage systems and obstruction of naturally sewage by buildings. Form land and other unplanned structure causes a great deal of damage.

Although the nature of soil within the area under consideration is mostly sandy with a very low water storage capabilities. Practical observation orchestrated form visit to those site prone to erosion have shown that their may be possibility of erosion if the nun off water is not properly channel e.g the nature of the soil. In sandy soil they can form a very good soil material but danger exist if the water table is near or surface nun off is not adequately channeled. The sandy easily eroded a way from it position their by causing or may lead to fully erosion.

Furthermore, erosion is seen as one of the most serious defects in contemporary residential buildings, it is observed here that apart form it causing rapid destruction of structure / buildings, it also result to severe damage to the soil and in severe case it adversely affect the health of the occupants.

1.2     STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

A certain condition or factor can make a soil or structure / building to loose their Sharpe effectively or ineffectively attain their maximum structural physical and economic life span. It has been seen that a number of fact observed to be responsible for the in-adequate or in-appropriate functioning channeling of sewage surface nun off water at the due time. These in turn expose the building site to the danger of erosion which accelerate their dilapidation. Among the factors or improper channeling / neglect of natural sewage system and obstruction of natural sewage by building without following the local authorities rules dropping of refuse in the drainage ways. Erosion plays a critical role in dilapidation of building and visible in construction industry as one of the most serious defect in contemporary residential buildings. All soils can suffer erosion but some are more vulnerable than others. Soils with dispersible subsoils, for example, are subject to serious erosion by funneling and gully formation.

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1.3     RESEARCH AIMS AND OBJECTIVE

The major purpose of this study is to determine. The effective way of controlling erosion in a construction site prone to erosion problem.

1)      Identity the various causes of erosion in building sites.

2)      Examine the appropriate materials and (new and old) used in controlling the erosion.

3)      Determine the most appropriate materials and techniques required for the controlling it.

4)      To recommend measure if implemented will lead to effective control of erosion in a construction

 

1.4     RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The study sought to answer the following research questions

1)      What are nature and various causes of erosion in building sites

2)      What are the process to be applied in erosion control.

3)     What are the  various types of materials to be used in controlling erosion

4)      If implemented will lead to effective control of erosion in an erosion prone site

1.5    SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY

The significance of this study shall include the follow:

1)      Contractors and engineers shall know how to control erosion in an erosion prone site.

2)      The engineers and the general public will because more aware on the importance of erosion control in a site.

3)      Lecturers, students consultants and other stakeholders in the construction industry will be theoretically & technically equipped on how to control erosion in an erosion prone construction site.

 

1.6     STUDY OF AREA

This study was delimited to the problem of erosion in a site prone to erosion. It focused on the type and magnitude of erosion at site in Anambra state and also looked at the specific remedial techniques to that building site will function effectively and efficiently. Attempt should be made to look into laboratory experimentation of the material used for effective control of erosion in building site prone to erosion. Ekwulobia erosion is gully erosion-gully erosion is of concern due to periodically intense rainfall and a large average of erodible soils. Effective design of gully control system must consider the gully network as a whole and be based on geomorphologic indicators such as type of network, order and stage of development.

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1.7     DEFINITION OF TERMS

According to Grolie (1990). Erosion is the wearing away of the earth surface by the action of water.

 

According to Milos Holy (1987). Building is permanent or temporary structure enclosed within exterior walls and a roof and including all attached apparatus. Equipment and fixtures that cannot be removed without cutting into ceiling floors or walls. In the year 1960 Bernard Huss define soil as the top layer of the earths surface in which plants an grow consisting of rock and mineral particles mixed with decayed organic matter and having the capability of retaining water.

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     LITERATURE  REVIEW

2.1     DEFINITIONS OF EROSION

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DETERMINATION OF THE PRESENCE AND CONCENTRATION OF SOME PHYTOCHEMICALS IN AVOCADO PEAR

DETERMINATION OF THE PRESENCE AND CONCENTRATION OF SOME PHYTOCHEMICALS IN AVOCADO PEAR (PERSEA AMERICANA MILL) SEED

 

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ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
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ABSTRACT

Phytochemical screening to determine the presence and concentration of tannins, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, sterols and cardiac glycosides in Persea americana was carried out. The sample was prepared by cutting the seed into small pieces, drying and grinding with Thomas Willey milling machine. The ground sample was stored in an airtight container for analysis. The presence of alkaloid was determined by Wagner’s test, flavonoid by ferric chloride test, tannin by acid test, saponin by emulsion test and cardiac glycoside by glacial acetic acid test. Quantitative determination of some of the phytochemicals was also carried out using standard methods. Result for qualitative analysis shows that alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins and cardiac  glycosides were present in P.american and sterols were absent . The quantitative result  shows that alkaloid has the highest percentage of concentration (21.54%), followed by saponin (8.10%),  flavonoid (6.97%), cardiac glycoside (6.94%)  and tannin has the least percentage concentration (1.45%) .

 

CHAPTER  ONE

Introduction ………………………………………………………..…..……1

Background of the study…………………………………..……………………1

Objective of the …………………………………..…………………….……4

Scope of the study…………………………………..………………………..4

Significance of the study …………………………………..…………………5

CHAPTER TWO

Literature Review…………………………………………..…..……………6

General description of Persea americana…………………..…..……………6

Phytochemicals in fruit and vegetables……………………..…..……………8

Nutritional physiology of phytochemicals ……………………..…..…..….10

Medicinal uses of P.americana fruit……………………..……………….11

Constituents of P.americana fruit……………………..………………….13

Effect of P.americana on the body……………………..…………….….14

Wight……………………..………………………………………………….14

Hypertension / high blood pressure ……………………..………………….14

Wound healing activity ……………………..…………………………..….15

Natural products from plants that promote health………………….……….16

Alkaloid………………………………………………………………….….16

Sterols……………………..……………………………………………..….16

Flavonoids……………………..……………………………………………..….17

Tannins……………………..………………………………………………….….19

Saponins……………………..…………………………………………..….19

Cardiac glycoside……………………..……………………………………….20

CHAPTER THREE

Materials and method……………………..……………………………….….21

Materials ……………………..………………………………………………..….21

Preparation of sample……………………..………………………………….21

Qualitative analysis of phytochemicals ……………………….……………22

Test for alkaloids ……………………..……………………………………….22

Test for flavonoids……………………..………………………………….….23

Test for tannins ……………………..………………………………………….24

Test for saponins……………………..…………………………………….….25

 

 

 

vii

Test for cardiac glycosides……………………..…………………………..….25

Test for steroids……………………..………………………………………….….26

Qualitative determination of the

Chemical constituent in P.americana………………………………………….….26

Allialoids determination……………………..………………………………….26

Flavonoids determination……………………..…………………………….….27

Saponin determination……………………..…………………………..……….28

Tannin determination by titration……………………..…………………….29

Cardiac glycosides determination ……………………..……………….….30

 

CHAPTER FOUR

Result…….……………………..……………………………………….….32

CHAPTER FIVE

Discussion……………………..……………….…………………………..35

Conclusion……………………..……………….…………………………..37

Recommendation……………………..……………….……………………37

References……………………..……………….…………………………..39

Appendix……………………..……………….……………………………43

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the study

Phytochemicals are a large group of plant derived compound hypothesized to be responsible for much of the disease protection conferred from diets high in fruits, vegetables, beans, cereals and plant-based beverages such as tea and wine (Hollman, 2005). They are biologically naturally occurring chemical compounds found in plants . They protect plants from disease and damage and contribute to the plants colour, aroma and flavor. They also protect plants from environmental hazards such as pollution, stress, drought, uv exposure and pathogenic attack. These Phytochemicals are known as secondary metabolities .

Recently it is clearly known that phytochemicals have roles in the protection of human health when their dietary intake is significant.

A wide range of dietary Phytochemicals are found in fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grains, nuts, seeds, fungi, herbs and spices (Mathai, 2000). It is well known that plants produce these chemicals to protect themselves, but recent research demonstrate that many phytochemicals can also protect humans against diseases (Narasinga, 2003). The most important of these bioactive constituents of plants are alkaloids, tannins, steroids, terpenoids and phenolic compounds. In recent years secondary plant metabolites previously with unknown pharmacological activities have been extensively investigated as a source of medicinal agents. Thus it is anticipated that phyto-antimicrobial efficacy will be used for the treatment of bacterial infection (Balandrin et al., 2005).

Perseaamericana is one of the 150 varieties of avocado pear. The seeds of Perseaamericana has a diverse application in ethnomedicine, ranging from treatment for diarrhea, dysentery, toothache, intestinal parasites to the area of skin treatment and beautification (Pamplona and Roger, 1999). P. americana leaves have been reported to posses anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities (Adeyemi et al., 2002). The seeds are rich in tannins and carotenoids and tocopherols from the fruit were shown to inhibit the in-vitro growth of prostate cancer cell lines (lu et al, 2005) and “persin” from avocado leaves was shown to have antifungal properties and to be toxic to silkworms (oelrichs et al., 1995). The effect of P.americana extract was evaluated on in-vitro rat lymphocyte proliferation (Gomezflores et al., 2008). Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of seeds of avocado pear was found to be greater than 70% (Soong and Barlow 2004).

 

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Objective of the study

  • To screenPerseaamericana seeds for the presence of some phytochemicals such as flavonoids, alkaloids, sterols, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides etc.
  • To carry out quantitative determination of some of these phytochemicals

Scope of the study

The study will cover the general description ofPerseaamericana, phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables and nutritional physiology of phytochemicals. The study will also cover the nutritional contents of P.americana fruit and its medicinal uses. Effects ofP.americana on the body and the phytochemicalsto be determined will be discussed. Qualitative and quantitative determination of some phytochemicals will also be carried out.

Significance of the study

The significance of this study is thatP.americana plays a vital role in contributing to a healthy and balanced diet, reduced mental depression prevents coronary heart diseases, diabetes and prostate cancer in the body tissue and heal the scalp.

P.americana if consumed by individual can fight beriberi, cause a reduction in body weight and are used as antihypertensive drug for individuals with hypertension.

 

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CHAPTERTWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

General description of Perseaamericana

The avocado (Perseaamericana) is a tree native to Mexico and central America (Chen et al., 2008) classified in the flowering plant family lauraceae along with cinnamon, camphor and bay laurel.Avocado or alligator pear also refers, to the fruit, botanically a large berry that contains a single seed (Storey 1973).

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