Category Archives: Nursing Science Research Sample In Nigeria

FACTORS INFLUENCING UTILIZATION OF PREVENTION OF MOTHER TO CHILD TRANSMISSION (PMTCT) SERVICES AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN ATTENDING ANTE-NATAL CLINIC

ABSTRACT

This study sought to assess the factors influence the utilization of PMTCT services among pregnant women in antenatal clinic in University of Calabar Teaching Healthcare (UCTH), Calabar. The specific Objectives of the Study were: to assess the level of knowledge about PMTCT services, determine the socio-economic factors influencing utilization of PMTCT services and to identify the cultural/religion factors influencing utilization of PMTCT services among pregnant women in UCTH. Three research questions were raised and a hypothesis formulated to guide the study as follows: There is no significant relationship between level of knowledge and utilization of PMTCT services among women. The study was a descriptive research where 85 pregnant women who attended antenatal clinic in UCTH were selected through the purposive sampling technique. Data were collected by administering questionnaire. Data were analyzed using frequency tables and percentages, the findings of the study revealed that: Majority of the respondents have good knowledge about PMTCT services. The socio-economic factors influencing utilization of PMTCT services among pregnant women were: stigmatization and discrimination by healthcare personnel; dependence of women on their husbands to make healthcare decisions; distance to PMTCT facilities; unavailability of PMTCT services and attitude of health personnel (nurses) towards people living with HIV. Cultural/religious beliefs do not hinder utilization of PMTCT services. The hypothesis was tested for significance at 0.05 level and 1 degree of freedom, using the Chi-Square (X2) analysis. The result showed that the calculated value 55.45 is higher than the critical value (3.84). Thus, the null hypothesis was rejected, indicating that there is significant relationship between level of knowledge and utilization of PMTCT services among women. Based on the findings, conclusion was drawn. It was recommended amongst others that: there is need for involvement of the stakeholders in the healthcare system in bridging the gap between knowledge and utilization of PMTCT services among women.

Table of Contents

Title page    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        i

Certification-        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        ii

Dedication- –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iii

Acknowledgement-        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iv

Abstract      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        v

Table of contents- –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        vi

List of tables-       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        ix

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1            Background of the study-        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        -1

1.2     Statement of problems   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        -2

1.3     Purpose of the study-    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        -3

1.4     Objectives of the study- –        –        –        –        –        –        –        -3

1.5     Research questions-       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        -4

1.6     Hypothesis-          –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        -4

1.7     Scope of the study –       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        -4

1.8       Significance of the study-      –        –        –        –        –        –        -4

1.9     Limitations-          –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        -5

1.10   Operational definition of terms-        –        –        –        –        –        –        -5

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW    

2.1Theoretically-       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        -6

2.1.2 Knowledge about prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT)   among pregnant women- –        –        –        –        –        –        –        -10

2.1.3  Factors influencing utilization of PMTCT-          –        –        –        –         12 2.2         Conceptual framework- –        –        –        –        –        –        –        -19

CHAPTER THREE

METHODOLOGY

3.1Research design-          –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        -22

3.2      Research setting- –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        -22

3.3     Research population-    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        -23

3.3.1  Target population-        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        -23

3.3.2   Accessible population- –        –        –        –        –        –        –        -23

3.4.1   Sample Size-       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        -23

3.4.2    Sampling technique-    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        -23

3.5     Instruments for data collection-        –        –        –        –        –        –        -24

3.6.1 Validity of the instrument-      –        –        –        –        –        –        -24

3.6.2  Reliability of the instrument-  –        –        –        –        –        –        -24

3.7   Method of Data Collection-     –        –        –        –        –        –        -25

3.8   Method of data analysis- –        –        –        –        –        –        –        -25

3.9   Ethical considerations-    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        -25

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

4.1     Socio-Demographic Variables-         –        –        –        –        –        –        -26

4.2 Results for Research Questions- –        –        –        –        –        –        -28

4.3 Result of Research Hypothesis-  –        –        –        –        –        –        -34

CHAPTER FIVE

DISCUSSION OF FINDING

5.1     Discussion of Findings-          –        –        –        –        –        –        –        -36

5.1.1 The knowledge of pregnant women in UCTH about prevention and control of HIV/AIDS.-          –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        -36

5.1.2  Socio-economic factors influencing utilization of PMTCT services among pregnant women.-      –        —       –        –        –        –        –        –        -37

5.1.3  Cultural/religion factors influencing utilization of PMTCT services among

pregnant women in UCTH.-    –        –        –        –        –        –        -38

5.1.4  Relationship between level of knowledge and utilization of PMTCT services among women-       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        -39

5.2                      Summary-   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        -39

5.3 Conclusion-    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        -41

5.4 Recommendations-  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        -41

REFERENCES

APPENDIX i (QUESTIONNAIRE)

APPENDIX ii (LETTER OF INTRODUCTION)

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Socio-Demographic Data

Table 2: Level of knowledge about PMTCT services among pregnant women in          UCTH

Table 3: Socio-economic factors influencing utilization of PMTCT service in     UCTH

Table 4: Cultural/ religious factors influencing utilization of PMTCT service in UCTH

Table 5: chi-square (X2 ) Analysis of the relationship between level of      knowledge and utilization of  PMTCT service

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.2            Background of the study

The greatest challenge to human kind in the 21st century is the epidemic of Acquired immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS).Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV) is the causative organism of AIDS which was first discovered in the year 1981. Despite years of campaigns, advocacy, control programmes and awareness exercises taken to curb HIV/AIDS spread, there is still a worrisome rate of increase of the infection. According to UNAIDS (2006), about 33.3 million people are estimated to live with Human immune Deficiency virus globally; 22.5 million of this population are from the sub-Saharan Africa.

Over 55% of these people living with HIV are women of reproductive age who become pregnant. HIV infection in women of reproductive age increase the epidemic of peri-natal HIV (UNAIDS, 2006). About 2.5million children live with HIV globally and 1.8million are from sub-Saharan Africa. Worldwide, over 1700 children become infected with HIV daily (UNAIDS 2006).

In Nigeria, about 69,400 children became infected with HIV through mother-to-child transmission in 2011. This has led to a rise in the total number of children living with HIV in the country to an unprecedented 440,000 (UNAIDS, 2012).

Majumali, (2011), opined that, Virtually all HIV infection in children occurs following mother to child transmission during the antenatal period (pregnancy), intranatal period (labour/delivery) and the post-natal period. Mother-to-child transmission of HIV is about 5-10% during pregnancy, 10-20% during labour and 10-15% during breastfeeding.

There is an estimation of about 20-45% chances of a baby born to an HIV positive mother to become infected without effective interventions to prevention of mother-to-child transmission. With effective interventions, such as use of antiretroviral drugs both for mother formula feeding etc., the risk of mother to child transmission has been shown to reduce by 5%. Primary preventive measures (prevention of new infections in parents, avoiding new pregnancies in HIV infected women) and secondary preventive measures (preventing transmission of HIV from an infected mother to her infant) are the three approaches in reducing mother to child transmission (MTCT) promoted by the World Health  Organisation (WHO), (McIntyres $ Gray 2004).New approaches in preventing MTCT to <2% includes use of combined anti-retroviral prophylaxis, elective caesarean section and by avoiding prolonged breastfeeding or  mixed feeding.

In Nigeria, despite these preventives measures of mother to child transmission, research has shown poor utilization of these services. Thus, the need for this study.

1.2     Statement of problems

Mother to child transmission of HIV has a lot of impact on the health of the mother and infant including the economy of the country. MTCT increases the prevalence of HIV in infants thereby resulting in increased infant and maternal morbidity and mortality.

Despite the introduction of improved preventive services of MTCT of HIV over the years, HIV infections via MTCT (vertically/ perinatal transmission) is still on the increase in Nigeria. In 2011, about 440,000 infants were infected with HIV (UNAIDS, 2012).

During the researcher’s clinical experience in the antenatal clinic UCTH, it was observed that despite availability of this prevention of MTCT services, very few women utilized the services. For this reason, this pertinent question formed the birth rock of this study: What then are the factors that influence the utilization of prevention of mother to child transmission services?

1.3     Purpose of the study

The purpose of the study is to ascertain the factors influencing the utilization of PMTCT services among pregnant women in antenatal clinic in UCTH.

1.4     Objectives of the study

The specific objectives of the study are:

1.     To assess the level of knowledge about PMTCT services among pregnant women in UCTH.

2.     To determine the socio-economic factors influencing utilization of PMTCT services among pregnant women in UCTH.

3.     To ascertain the cultural/religion factors influencing utilization of PMTCT services among pregnant women in UCTH.

1.5     Research questions

1.     What is the level of knowledge about PMTCT services among pregnant women in UCTH?

2.     To what extent do socio-economic factors influencing utilization of PMTCT services among pregnant women in UCTH?

3.     What are the cultural/religion factors influencing utilization of PMTCT services among pregnant women in UCTH?

1.6     Hypothesis

There is no significant relationship between level of knowledge and utilization of PMTCT services among women.

1.7     Scope of the study

The study is delimited to pregnant women that attended antenatal clinic in University of Calabar Teaching Hospital.

1.8       Significance of the study

It is very important that factors influencing the utilization of PMTCT services in a resource poor setting should be studied. It is important in the context of cross river state where health resources are unevenly distributed between rural and urban areas including distribution of health care providers.

Practically: The findings of this study will be handy for cancelling purposes in ensuring increased utilization of PMTCT services.

Research: The result of this study will increase the existing knowledge on utilization of PMTCT services and will also serve as research as a resource material for further research work.

Nurse/midwife: The findings of this study will help to improve the attitude of Nurses in delivery of PMTCT services to ensure its utilization by pregnant women thereby decreasing the rate of MTCT.

Government: The findings of this study will help improve policies on findings and distribution of PMTCT services in both rural and urban areas to ensure its utilization.

1.9     Limitations

Major limitation was encountered during this study because the Teaching Hospital was on strike and many patients were not (accessed) reached. Also some respondents refused to divulge their information for confidential purposes.

1.10   Operational definition of terms

Factors: are variables that influence utilization of PMTCT services

Utilization: refers to the process of using PMTCT services

PMTCT services: are  services that aims at offering preventive measures towards mother to child transmission.

Ante natal: refers a period from conception to the onset of labour

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ATTITUDE OF NURSES TOWARDS RELAPSE PREVENTION AMONG PSYCHIATRIC PATIENTS

ATTITUDE OF NURSES TOWARDS RELAPSE PREVENTION AMONG PSYCHIATRIC PATIENTS IN FEDERAL NEUROPSYCHIATRIC HOSPITAL BARNAWA, KADUNA  .

 

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ABSTRACT
The problem of every hospital when the targeted objective is not achieved is that there is something wring either with health care givers, the patients or the general public. In order to improve the standard of health of the patients and keep them progressively fit. The reason why such lapse are present here to be sought and the remedy met in order to achieve the set objective of the hospital.
This study is based on the Attitude of nurses towards Relapse prevention among psychiatric patients in Federal neuropsychiatric hospital Barnawa Kaduna. The aim and objective of this study are all directed towards bringing out lasting solutions to curtail this menace. It also intends to actively involve the management of the hospital especially on employing new and scientific approach to holistic patient care. The instruments used for data collection were from interview and Questionnaire which were represented in tabular form, bar chart, pie chart and percentages. Nurses were used for the study .the data collected were analyzed. The result showed that many factor contribute to the effect of relapse.
All these can be prevented through adequate Education, Family oriented therapies, good social support, compliance and keep the follow-up appointment.
CHAPTER ONE
1.1 Background of Study
Psychiatric illness has fascinated and confounded healers, scientist and philosopher for centuries, it symptoms have been attributed to possession by demons considered to be punishment by the gods for the evil done or accepted as evidence of the inhumanity of its sufferers victims. Thus explanation resulted in enduring stigma for those whose were diagnosed with such disorders. Even today, much of the sigma persist although it has less to do with demonic possession than with society’s unwillingness to shoulder the tremendous cost associated with mental illness.
Relapse is one of the most severe problem of mental health care givers. It is common in about 1.3% of the already treated cases of mental illness or more than two million people (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [USDHHS] 1999). Its economic cost is envious. Direct cost of relapse treatment expenses of most psychiatric illness were estimated 2.5% of the total treatment of first hand mental illness care budget in 1998 (American Psychiatric Association [APA] 2000).
The last year for which these data were available (USDHHS, 1999). In 1997, this accountant for $23.6 billion of mental health care dollar spent. The indirect cost such as lost of wages, premature death and incarceration were estimated to be $46 billion in the first half of 1998 (APA, 2000).
Further unemployment among permanent disability is 10% (APA 1998). The cost relapse in terms of individuals and family suffering are probably inestimable.
Despite the current trend in modern treatment, there is still an alarming rate of relapse and the reoccurrence of psychiatric illness globally. Individual who ought to be productive and responsible in life are wasting away on daily basis.
Today patients are required to stay for a short period of time in the hospital admission and discharge to home environment to help reduce dependency on the hospital care and reducing relapse. Also this helps to reduce stigmatization and prevent complications (Feyinsayo, A. 2009). This study will attempt an overview of Nurse and also to show how proper utilization of psychiatric Nursing service will go a long way in reducing and eradicating the ever growing cases of relapse among psychiatric patients in Federal Neuropsychiatric Hospital Barnawa, Kaduna.

PERCEPTION OF POST-NATAL MOTHER ABOUT MIDWIVES ATTITUDE DURING LABOUR AT CENTRAL HOSPITAL SAPELE, DELTA STATE

PERCEPTION OF POST-NATAL MOTHER ABOUT MIDWIVES ATTITUDE DURING LABOUR AT CENTRAL HOSPITAL SAPELE, DELTA STATE

 

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Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
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Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANKER SECURITY GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

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form>DELIVERY PERIOD FOR BANK PAYMENT IS  LESS THAN 2 HOURS

How to transfer from your bank account to All  Nigeriabanks

1. Access Bank:
—-*901#

2. EcoBank:
—-*326#

3. Fidelity Bank:
—-*770#

4. FCMB:
—-*389*214#

5. First Bank
—-*894#

6. GTB:
—-*737#

7. Heritage Bank:
—-*322*030#

8. Keystone Bank:
—-*322*082#

9. Sky Bank:
—-*389*076*1#

10. Stanbic IBTC:
—-*909#

11. Sterling Bank:
—-*822#

12. UBA:
—-*389*033*1#

13. Unity Bank:
—-*322*215#

14. Zenith Bank:
—-*966#

15. Diamond Bank
—-*710*555#

To know your BVN, dial
—-*565*0#.

E.g for First bank…   *894 *Amount *Acct. No. #

Please dail d code from d number u used to register d account from the bank

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CHAPTER ONE

Introduction…………………………………………………………………………..1

Purpose/Aim of the study…………………………………………………………………………………3

Statement of Problem………………………………………………………………….3

Research questions…………………………………………………………..…………3

Broad objectives of the Study……………………………………………..………….3

Scope of the study ………………………………………………………………………………………….4

Significance of the Study…………………………………..………………………….4

Operational definition of Terms…………………………..……………………………………5

 

CHAPTER TWO

Literature Review…………………………………………………………………….7

CHAPTER THREE

Methodology………………………………………………………………….……..32

Research design……………………………………………………………………..32

Research setting……………………………………………………………………..32

Research population…………………………………..………………………………32

Sampling techniques …………………………………..……………………………..33

Instrument of data collection…………………………..……………………………..33

Validity of the instrument……………………………………………………………………………….33

Method of data collection…………………………………..………………………..33

Method of Data analysis……………………………………..………………………34

Ethical consideration………………………………………….……………………..34

Limitation of study……………………………………………………………………………………….34

 

CHAPTER FOUR

Data Analysis…………………………………………………………………………36

 

CHAPTER FIVE

Discussion of findings……………………………………………….………………55

Implication of study to nursing…………………………………….…………………60

Summary…………………………………………………………………………….60

Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………..61

Recommendation…………………………………………………………………….61

Suggestion for further studies……………………………….………….………..….62

References…………………………………………………………………………   63

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Demographic data

Table 2:      Percentage distribution showing the Relationship

between the Midwives and Respondents            –           –                       36

Table 3:      Percentage distribution showing how women were receiveduring Labour         –                   –                            –           –           –           —–                                          39

Table 4:      Percentage distribution according to the response on whether the midwives were with them throughout labour                                                                     40

Table 5:      Percentage distribution according to those that were given any information during labour to re-enforce what    they already knew about labour       –         41

Table 6: Percentage distribution showing how the midwives attended to the Respondents needs in labour –                                                                                        42

Table 7: Percentage distribution showing the respondents Respowhat the midwives did when they needed their husband                                                  43

Table 8: Percentage distribution showing the attitude of midwives to
them when they were in pains – – – – –                          44
Table 9: Percentage distribution showing respondents view
if midwives were friendly and empathetic
while discharging their duties – – – – –                         45
Table 9: Percentage distribution showing how the friendly
attitude of midwives helped women to cope with labour.46-
Table 10: Percentage distribution according to whether
midwives answered them when they called for help – –     47
Table 11: Percentage distribution showing the respondents
impression of midwives attitude during labour – – –         48
Table 12: Percentage distribution showing the respondents description
of midwives attitude towards them – – – –                        49
Table 13: Percentage distribution showing how best the respondents
think midwives can improve their services – –                 50

 

ABSTRACT

The main purpose of this research work is to ascertain perception of postnatal mothers about midwives attitude during labour at Central Hospital Sapele, Delta State. This study is of great importance because the attitude of midwives to women during labour will affect them either positively or negatively invariably affecting the outcome of labour and also influence their decision to patronize the health facility or not during their subsequent pregnancies. The objectives of this study include the following; to find out the level of relationship that exists between the client and midwife during labour, to find out if midwives are kind and empathetic while discharging their duties and to know how mothers perceived the attitude of midwives during labour. The significance of this study is to provide information to improve the attitude of midwives towards women in labour. It will also make midwives to rise up to their responsibilities of caring for the woman in labour. The non-experimental survey research was used and a convenient method of non-probability sampling technique was used to select samples for study, questionnaire was used for data collection. (120) questionnaires were distributed, same retrieved. The data collected were analyzed using frequency table and all information obtained were recorded. The findings revealed that postnatal mothers have good perception about midwives attitude during labour. In conclusion, the researcher suggested that similar studies should be conducted in remote villages where there is high rate of maternal mortality so as to discover the reason why women do not patronize the hospital for delivery.

 CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the study

World Health Organization (2007) estimated that over half a million women in developing countries die each year from causes related to pregnancy and childbirth, leaving at least one million children motherless and so one feasible way of reducing this mortality rate is to improve the quality of maternal services.In Nigeria with a population of 140 million people with women of child bearing age constituting about 31 million, only about 40% of the deliveries are attended to by trained midwives (Midwives Serves Scheme, 2009).

 

Every pregnant woman looks forward to the day she will deliver. Women throughout the ages have depended upon a skilled person usually woman to be with them during labour.In the practice of safe delivery therefore, the midwife is expected to be courteous, patient and attend to client’s/patient’s need immediately when taking delivery. McCrea, Wright and Murphy-Black (2008) examined the influence of midwives’ approaches on the care given to women for pain relief during labour and their findings revealed that the midwives approach had a positive influence on the women’s experience of labour pain.

Myles (2009), defined labour as the expulsion of the foetus, placenta and membranes through the birth canal. Labour is a very stressful life experience of women and so the attitude of midwives during labour will either affect them positively or negatively. The emotions of the woman in labour greatly influence her reaction to discomfort and pains and are the contributing factor in determining the amount of physical and mental exhaustion she will experience, hence the whole process of childbearing should be handled with sensitivity and compassion. The midwife needs to appreciate what the woman is thinking and suffering from so as to give adequate care to her therefore communication between the client in labour and the midwife is of utmost importance because explanation of what is happening during labour will go a long way in relieving client’s stress during labour.

Statistics worldwide show that about 130 million women gives birth in the hospital attended to by trained midwives each year (Valarie, 2007), also (Lucia, 2010) states that midwives negative attitude to women in labour influence their decision about where to give birth. Women are most likely to labour best where they feel, safe and private, with midwives who they feel safe with and not a midwife whose attitude will affect them negatively.

A midwife according to (ICM) international definition is a person who having been admitted to a midwifery education programme duly recognized in the country where it is located and have successfully completed the prescribed course of study in midwifery and has acquired the requisite qualification to be registered and legally licensed to practice.Nigerian is spending the stipulated number of years in training recommended by the NMCN’. The midwife must be able to give the necessary supervision, care and advice to women during pregnancy, labour and the post-partum period, to competently conduct deliveries independently and to care for the newborn infant.

Purpose/aim of the study

The study was carried out to explore the perception of postnatal mothers about midwives attitude during labour at Central Hospital, Sapele Delta State.

Statement of the problem

Childbirth is said to be a universally celebrated event, an occasion for dancing, gifts, yet for many women in labour each day in Sub-Sahara Africa particularly in Nigeria, it is not so because of midwives attitude

ALTITUDE OF MEN TOWARDS FAMILY PLANNING AND IMPLICATION FOR THEIR INVOLVEMENT IN OGHARA-EFE COMMUNITY

ALTITUDE OF MEN TOWARDS FAMILY PLANNING AND IMPLICATION FOR THEIR INVOLVEMENT IN OGHARA-EFE COMMUNITY

 

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                                                  ABSTRACT

Family planning is a very important matter because it has a role to play the in family and the development of the country at large. Failure to target men in health intervention has weakened the impact of the reproduction health programme. This prompted the research to undertake a study on the attitude of men towards family planning and the implication for their involvement. The rationale for this study is based on the fact that men hardly face to plan their family, putting the health of their wives at risk. In carrying out the research 10% of the target population of 208.4 was used, using stratified random sampling technique. Questionnaire was distributed and findings were analyzed using simple percentage, tables, pie chat. It was found out that the attitude of men in Oghara – efe community towards family planning is fair, also the result of the data implies that family planning would be more effective if men are actively involved.

Conclusively it is recommended that adequate health education as regards to issue bordering on family planning should be provided by nurse, especially to men and ensures that they are also actively involved.

Also extension research should be carried out to provide varieties of contraceptives for males.

Word count:        200  

CHAPTER ONE

Background of the Study         –         –         –         –         –         –         –    1

Statement of the Problem        –         –         –         –         –         –         –    4

Objective of the Study    –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –    5

Significance of the Study          –         –         –         –         –         –         –    5

Research Questions        –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –    6

Research Hypothesis      –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –      7

Delimitation / Scope of the Study     –         –         –         –         –         7

Limitation of the Study  –         –         –         –         –         –         –         7

Operational Definition of terms         –         –         –         –         –         8

CHAPTER TWO

Literature Review –         –        –         –         –         –         –         –         10

Definition    –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         12

Aims and Objectives of Family Planning      –         –         –         –         12

Principles of family Planning    –         –         –         –         –         –         13

Classification and Types of Family Planning Methods     –         –         13

Highlight of some of the most commonly used methods           –         17

Family Planning Method –         –         –         –         –         –         –         19

Advantages –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         19

Some Side Effects Contraceptives have on Human Body-        –         20

Some of the Misconceptions of Family Planning    –         –         –         21

Reasons for not Accepting Family Planning –         –         –         –         22

Reasons for utilizing Contraceptives –         –         –         –         –         22

Economic Reason  –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         23

Pleasure Reason   –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         23

Mankind Dominion Reason      –         –         –         –         –         –         23

Eugenic Reasons  –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         23

Health Reasons     –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         24

Demographic Motives (Reasons)         –         –         –         –         –         25

Method of Family Planning For Males          –         –         –         –         26

Factors Responsible for the Negative Attitude of Males

towards Family Planning          –         –         –         –         –         29

Ways of Improving Fathers Altitudes Towards Family Planning         32

Conceptual/ Theoretical Framework –         –         –         –         –         36

Implications for the Involvement of Men in Family Planning    –         38

Empirical Researches     –         –         –         –         –         –         –         40

 

CHAPTER THREE

Research Design   –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         43

Study Setting        –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         43

Target Population –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         44

Study Population –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         44

Samples and Sampling Techniques   –         –         –         –         –         45

Instruments for Date Collection        –         –         –         –         –         46

Validity/ Reliability of Instrument     –         –         –         –         –         47

Method of Data Collection        –         –         –         –         –         –         47

Method of Date Analysis –         –         –         –         –         –         –         48

Ethical Considerations   –         –         –         –         –         –         –         48

CHAPTER FOUR

Results        –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         49

Presentation of results   –         –         –         –         –         –         –         49

Testing of Hypothesis     –         –         –         –         –         –         –         67

CHAPTER FIVE

Discussion of Findings    –         –         –         –         –         –         –         72

Discussion of findings and demographic data       –         –         –         72

Relationship to other research study –         –         –         –         –         74

Implication of Nursing    –         –         –         –         –         –         –         75

Summary and conclusion        –         –         –         –         –         –         77

Recommendation/ suggestion for further study   –         –         –         78

References –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         80

Appendix     –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         83

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The issue of family planning all over the world has attracted attention due to it important in decision making about population growth and development issues. Uncontrolled birth is a major contributing factor of an increase in the world’s population, particularly in Nigeria. Statistics shows that the population of the world was about one billion in 1859 in 1930, the population had doubled (two billion) in 1976, the total population was said to be four billion. Today, it is more than six billion, with Nigeria having a population of over 162 million, thus being the largest country in Africa and the 7th in the world map (United States Census Buxau, 2010). Life is a precious gift that every individual hunger for and in an attempt to grab this gift, our health must be maintained.

There are so many problems that have been found to result from poor family planning method. Some of these problems include: Over population, criminal abortion, child dumping, increased child morbidity and mortality, as well as increases material morbidity and mortality rates. Over population as one of the consequences of poor family planning has succeeded in causing a lot of harm to individuals, families, society and the nation at large.

Maternal mortality and child mortality have been found to occur due to poor family planning practice, according to the statement of the WHO (World Health Organization) and United Nation Education, Scientific Children’s Organization (UNESCO) in 1991) that over three million children and two hundred thousand women die each year and also women’s health and action research (2004) had showed rates of child and maternal mortality and morbidity  rate in the world due to poor altitude towards Ante-natal care in which family planning is one of the objectives. The President of Nigeria, his Excellency, Goodluck Ebele Jonathan was quoted in Vanguard newspaper on June 28, 2012saying “Nigeria families should have only the children they can afford. To ensure this order was followed , a new planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria (PPFN) was created. He said it may be time for birth control legislation.

Family planning, until recently, a very sensitive subject in Africa, is now very increasingly accepted as a necessary ingredient of socio-economic development. It is now thought to be an important health measure that contributes to the health of parents, children and the entire nation. Because of the great effect over population has on socio-economic status, education and health in general, a full understanding of this phenomenon and the  major factors governing it are essential, thus the need to adopt family as a means of checking the escalating  birthrate cannot be over emphasized. Unfortunately, this idea is not adequately emphasized on, especially in the rural areas, where it was observed that they g=have a high regard for large families and children are seen as a blessing from God. They believed that the more children a man has, the more hands to help with work especially on the farm. It is also believed that children give status to a women and security in old age. In Oghara-efe Community in Delta State, it was observed that husband often make sexual demands with little or no consideration for material health and the children’s survival. They compound their wives potential mortality rate by either not allowing her to seek family planning, advice or will not seek it as a collection responsibility. This present mentality in Oghara-efe community and its consequent socio-economic, educational and health effect on the villagers makes it important for this study to be carried out.

Statement of the Problem

Most fathers shy away from sharing the responsibility of family planning with their wives therefore, leaving the burden on her alone to bear. Although in Urban town, most father have started having good perception of family planning, but in rural areas like Oghara-efe community, the fathers still have a wrong perception towards family planning.

A STUDY ON THE KNOWLEDGE AND ACCEPTANCE ON MEN TOWARDS VASECTOMY AS A METHOD OF CONTRACEPTIVE AMONG MALE STAFF AT CENTRAL HOSPITAL, AGBOR

A STUDY ON THE KNOWLEDGE AND ACCEPTANCE ON MEN TOWARDS VASECTOMY AS A METHOD OF CONTRACEPTIVE AMONG MALE STAFF AT CENTRAL HOSPITAL, AGBOR

 

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CHAPTER ONE—————————————————————————1

INTRODUCTION————————————————————————–1

Background of study———————————————————————-1

Aim/purpose of study———————————————————————2

Statement of problem———————————————————————2

Research question————————————————————————–3

Broad objective of the study————————————————————–3

Specific objective————————————————————————–3

Scope of study / delimitation ————————————————————-3

Significance of study———————————————————————-4

Operational definition of terms———————————————————4

CHAPTER TWO

Literature review—————————————————————————5

Conceptual framework——————————————————————-11

Hypothesis ——————————————————————————–16

CHAPTER THREE

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Research design————————————————————————-17

Research site and setting—————————————————————-17

Target population ———————————————————————–18

Sample and sampling techniques——————————————————18

Instrument for data collection———————————————————-18

Validity/reliability of instrument——————————————————18

Method of data collection————————————————————–19

Procedure for data analysis————————————————————-19

Ethical consideration——————————————————————–19

Limitation of study———————————————————————-19

 

CHAPTER FOUR

RESULT———————————————————————————–21

Data analysis and interpretation———————————————————21

Testing of hypothesis———————————————————————-31

CHAPTER FIVE

DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS———————————————————-34

Discussion of findings———————————————————————34

Nursing implication————————————————————————35

Summary————————————————————————————35

Conclusion ———————————————————————————36

Recommendation—————————————————————————36

References ———————————————————————————37

Appendix ———————————————————————————-42

 

                                                      ABSTRACT

This study was on the knowledge and acceptance on men towards vasectomy as a method of contraceptive among male staff at central hospital, Agbor150 questionnaires were administered and 120 were retrieved successfully and analysed. Closed ended structured questionnaires were used to collect information from the researcher to knowledge and acceptance on men towards vasectomy as a method of contraceptive. The data analysed were incorporated in frequency tables with their percentages after which the tables were elucidated on. 70 (58.33%) said they have heard of vasectomy while 50 (41.67%) has never heard of vasectomy before, 15 (12.5%) said they have thought of choosing vasectomy as a method of contraceptive while 105 (87.5%) did not accept it, 105 (87.5%) said their religious believe was not in support of it while 15 (12.50%) did not see anything wrong with vasectomy. The hypothetical statements was tested using chi-square and a level of significance of 0.05 with a theoretical value of 55.07 which was  higher than the computed value which made the null hypothesis to be accepted . The data analyzed were compared with the empirical works for similarities and dissimilarities and reasons for dissimilarities were discussed. It was recommended that the hospital administration should organize seminar and workshop on vasectomy to enhance the knowledge of men on the acceptance of vasectomy as a method of contraceptive also the government should create more awareness on vasectomy via Mass media (Radio, Television, Newspaper).

 

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

Background of study


Vasectomy is unique among the array of modern methods of contraception as it enables the male partner to take primary responsibility for fertility control, (Kincaid, 2006). Its availability broadens the choice of methods for family planning users and contributes to promoting male involvement in family planning, (NCPD, 2004). Furthermore, vasectomy is highly effective in preventing pregnancy independent of subsequent behavior modification by the vasectomized man and the non scalpel vasectomy procedure is convenient and safe for the client and simple to perform, (FHI, 2002). While sterilization is the most widely used family planning method worldwide, in most settings the number of women sterilized for contraceptive purposes far exceeds the number of men, (NCPD, 2004).The lowest rates of sterilization in the world are found in Africa where fewer than three percent of married women of reproductive age rely on sterilization to avoid pregnancy and male sterilization is negligible, (Ross and Frankenberg, 2003). Male attitudes are often blamed for the underutilization of vasectomy method, (Wilkinson , 2006).Frequently cited examples of attitudes which discourage the use of vasectomy include men’s lack of interest in or responsibility for avoiding pregnancy, the association of vasectomy with castration, and fear of the procedure, (FHI,2012). However, some advocates of vasectomy believe more than negative attitudes among potential male adopters underlie the low levels of use, (Liskin, Benoit, and Blackburn, 2012).

The use of vasectomy in the world varies significantly by region and country. Almost three-fourths of the 37 million couples who use vasectomy† live in Asia, with China and India alone accounting for more than two-thirds of this total, (NCPD, 2004). Four and one-half million men in the developing world outside of these two countries use vasectomy. Vasectomy use in Latin America has increased four-fold in the past 10 years.

Prevalence remains less than 1% in most of the region, with the exception of Brazil, 14 Colombia, 19 Guatemala, 7 and Mexico, 12 where programs benefited from donor support in the 1980s and early 1990s, (FHI, 2012). Vasectomy rates in almost all of Africa are 0.1% or less, although vasectomy services have been introduced within a number of Sub-Saharan African countries, such as Kenya, Ghana, Malawi, and Tanzania, (NCPD, 2004). Still, vasectomy has been adopted by at least some men in every country where it has been introduced. Vasectomy, which can be provided in a variety of primary care settings, has a potentially important role to play in helping individuals and programs meet the ever-growing family planning and reproductive health needs outlined above, especially as donor support declines and national family planning programs increasingly need to focus on cost-effective services and methods, (Ross and Frankenberg, 2003).Vasectomies, or male sterilization, are a highly underutilized method of family planning, although they are safer, simpler, less expensive and equally as effective as female sterilization. Throughout the world, vasectomies are one of the least used and least known methods of contraception.  In Asia, it is 8 times more common, while in Latin America and the Caribbean it is 15 times more common. The rates of male sterilization in sub-Saharan Africa are too low for an accurate comparison. Worldwide, approximately 43 million couples rely on vasectomy, while approximately 210 million couples rely on female sterilization as their method of family planning.

ASSESSMENT OF UMBILICAL CORD CARE GIVEN BY TRADITIONAL BIRTH ATTENDANTS IN OGHARA ETHIOPE WEST LGA NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

ASSESSMENT OF UMBILICAL CORD CARE GIVEN BY TRADITIONAL BIRTH ATTENDANTS IN OGHARA ETHIOPE WEST LGA NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

 

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CHAPTER ONE—————————————————————————1

INTRODUCTION—————————————————————————–1

Background of study———————————————————————-1

Aim/Purpose of study——————————————————————–2

Statement of problem———————————————————————3

Broad objective of the study————————————————————-3

Specific objective————————————————————————3

Significance of study——————————————————————–3

Scope of study / delimitation ———————————————————-3

Operational definition of terms——————————————————–4

CHAPTER TWO

Literature review—————————————————————————5

Conceptual framework——————————————————————-22

Hypothesis ———————————————————————————24

CHAPTER THREE

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Research design————————————————————————–26

Research site and setting—————————————————————-26

Research population ——————————————————————–26

Sample and sampling techniques——————————————————27

Instrument for data collection———————————————————-27

Validity/reliability ———————————————————————–27

Method of data collection—————————————————————28

Procedure for data analysis————————————————————-28

Ethical consideration——————————————————————–28

CHAPTER FOUR

RESULT———————————————————————————–29

Data analysis and interpretation———————————————————30

Testing of hypothesis———————————————————————-41

CHAPTER FIVE

DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS————————————————————44

Discussion of findings———————————————————————44

Nursing implication————————————————————————46

Summary ———————————————————————————–47

Conclusion———————————————————————————-47

Recommendation—————————————————————————47

References ———————————————————————————49

Appendix ———————————————————————————-52

                                                      ABSTRACT

Proper care of the umbilical cord is very important to avoid sepsis in the life of the neonates. This study was on Assessment of Umbilical Cord Care given by Traditional Birth Attendants in OgharaEthiope West LGA. 92 open and closed ended structured questionnaires were administered and 82 were retrieved successfully which wereanalyzed to all the TBAs in Oghara community. The findings revealed that 57 (69.51%) of the respondents do not know about cord care while 25 (30.49%) knows of cord care. This Shows that majority of the TBA are not informed on appropriate care of the umbilical area of a new born.. The hypothetical statements was tested using chi-square.  A theoretical value of 3.3which was found higher than the computed value which showed that there is significant relationship between the knowledge of TBAs on cord and their practice on cord care. The data analyzed were compared with the empirical works for similarities and dissimilarities; Reasons for Identified dissimilarities were discussed. Based on the findings,  itwas recommended that the government should empower the TBAs by providing funds to support them to organize seminars and workshops on relevant  issues that concern their  maternal and child health care.

 

 CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

Background of the Study

Umbilical cord is the lifeline of the fetus and of the neonate in the first few minutes immediately after birth. Care of the cord and stump during neonatal period varies according to the social, cultural, economic and geographical factors. Measures take to ensure sterility in cutting and tying the umbilical cord may prevent cord infection (Mullay, 2005). Clean umbilical cord care is accomplished by the maintenance of aseptic technique so that the umbilical cord is uncontaminated by pathogens.At birth, hands should be washed with clean water and soap before tying and cutting the cord. The newborn should be laid on a clean surface and the cord should be cut with a sterile instrument. In the postnatal period, routine cord care includes washing hands with clean water and soap before and after care and keeping the cord dry and exposed to air or loosely covered with clean clothes. The napkin should be folded below the umbilicus. Touching the cord, applying unclean substances to it and covering it with bandages should be avoided. Every year globally, an estimated 4 million infants die and approximately two-third of all these deaths occur in the neonatal period (NNHS, 2004). A substantial proportion of neonatal deaths from infection are due to cord infections (WHO, 2004). Nepal has one of the highest neonatal mortality ratesin the world which is 34 per 1,000 live births. Neonatal Mortality Rates currently accounts two thirds of all infant mortality (MoHP, New ERA and Measure DHS, 2006).

Since the adoption of the primary health care approach in Nigeria in 1979, the three tiers of government (federal, state and local government levels) have accepted the idea of the need to integrate Traditional Birth Attendants into PHC. TBAs presently deliver majority of women in Nigeria as in other developing countries. It is estimated that between 60 and 80% of all deliveries in the developing countries occur outside modern health care facilities, with a significant proportion of this attended to by TBAs (WHO, 2004). Traditionally African births, including prenatal and postnatal care, take place at home, supervised by at least one older, trusted female member of the family or community.. The influence and acceptability of these females, known as Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) continue to exist amongst people in remote rural areas and even when formal health services are available. Thus the evaluation of the care of cord stump by TBA is essential in primary health care (Davies, Yin Nu, Oum and Waisi, 2012)

TBAs cannot, however, be automatically incorporated with western health care. Some authors have observed flaws in the practice of TBAs such as poor hygienic practices and infection control, for example, lack of hand washing, unsafe cutting of the cord threatening the safety of the baby, interference with labour, and harmful traditional practices such as taking oxytocic agents (http://www.mariestopes.org.uk/ case studvl.html; Sahachowdhury, 2009).

Immediately after the baby is born, the cord is cut with an instrument by a Traditional birth attendant using the following; bark of a bamboo or a hard and sharp stalk of a plant, razor blade, two sharp stones between the cord is crushed, scissor, etc. hygienic precautionary measures are not always observed. Traditionally, one of the following materials may be applied to the stump of the umbilical cord, also scraping from a coconut shell, cow dung, ashes from the heart of the stones.etc

Poor care and assessment of umbilical cord by traditional birth attendant have been the major factors causing child mortality after birth, thus the researcher was prompted to carry out a research to determine the assessment of umbilical cord care among traditional birth attendants in OgharaEthiope West L.G.A Delta State

THE EFFECTS OF SOCIO ECONOMIC FACTORS ON THE NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF PREGNANT WOMEN ATTENDING ANTE NATAL CLINIC IN AMUKPE COMMUNITY, SAPELE,L.G.A

THE EFFECTS OF SOCIO ECONOMIC FACTORS ON THE NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF PREGNANT WOMEN ATTENDING ANTE NATAL CLINIC IN AMUKPE COMMUNITY, SAPELE,L.G.A

 

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CHAPTER ONE

Background of the Study

Nigeria still has an extremely high maternal mortality ratio 704 per 1000000 live births implying that with about 2.4 million live births annually, some 170000 Nigerian women die as a result of complication associated with pregnancy and child birth (Adelakan, Alimi, Anyawale and Afonja, 2005).Women are more likely to suffer from nutritional deficiency than men for several reasons, including their reproductive biology, low social status, poverty and lack of education. In addition, socio-cultural traditions and disparities in household work patterns can also increase women’s chance of being malnourished (Ransom IE, Elder KL, 2003).

During pregnancy a woman  needs good nutritional status for a healthy outcome. Women who have a poor nutritional status at conception are at higher risk of disease and death; their health depends greatly on the availability of food, and they may be unable to cope with their increased nutrient needs during pregnancy in situations of food insecurity. Women’s nutrient needs increase during pregnancy and lactation. Some of the increased nutrient requirements protect maternal health while others affect birth outcome and infant health. If their requirements are not met, the consequences can be serious for women and their infants (Freedom from Hunger, 2003). Under nutrition and poor health from preventable causes disproportionately affect the well-being of millions of people in the developing world. Factors at individual, household and community level, or a combination of these factors, may contribute to poor nutrition and health status (Ronsmans C, Collin S, Filippi V, 2008).  In particular, malnutrition among women is likely to have a major impact on their own health as well as their children’s health. More than 3.5 million women and children under age five in developing countries die each year due to the underlying cause of under nutrition (Ronsmans et al, 2008).

Poverty influences to a great extent the nutritional status of women especially pregnant women. According to Adelakaan e tal (2005), data on mother’s energy intake indicated poverty levels higher than presented in the world bank poverty assessment (world Bank, 2003).

A study in Ibadan by Maclean (2002) on pregnancy and food taboos, it was discovered that pregnant women were warned not to eat large plantains with cleft so as not to have babies with rigid skulls. In Ile-Ife, many traditional healers discourage pregnant women from eating snails or okra soup, as these would harm the babies. Chiwuzie and Okolocha, (2007) discovered that many pregnant women were advised not take milk and egg during their pregnancy that it lead to their babies growing up to be a thief.

Thus the researcher is keen to determine the effects of socio economic factors on the nutritional status of pregnant women attending Ante natal clinic in Amukpe community, Sapele,L.G.A

 

Statement of problem

Maternal complications during pregnancy has been of the major challenge faced by most pregnant women as a result of poor nutrition, thus most pregnant women are posed with various risks and complications during pregnancy. The condition may be caused by a variety of reasons. The affluent society that we are a part of is very concerned with the thinness of women; thus, many women starve themselves or undergo feed diets to maintain this image. Some women suffer from psychological eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa or bulimia. Age will influence the woman’s dietary practices; if the pregnant woman is an adolescent, she will probably consume many “Fast foods” which will not provide adequate nutrients and the eating of native chalk and drink of alcohol. Thus the researcher is keen on determining the socio economic factors and effect on the nutritional status of pregnant women attending Ante natal clinic in Amukpe community, Sapele,L.G.A.