Category Archives: Printing Technology Project Topics

PRINTING IMAGES AND THEIR METHODS OF PRODUCTION

 PRINTING IMAGES AND THEIR METHODS OF PRODUCTION

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PREFACE

The invention of printing in the middle of this century represents one of the great landmarks in human history. A product of the rebirth of culture and society known as the Renaissance, printing made possible the wide dissemination of knowledge, the rapid flow of ideas from one country to another, and the popularization of learning.

This discovery is credited to Johann Crutenbery a German printer, but actually his great contribution lay in assembling all the elements, that make up printing and that had been known, at least in the far east, for centuries.

Generally, printing is the art and technology of reproducing words and pictures on paper, cloth or other surfaces. Although, there is considerable variation in printing plate or similar image – bearing surface to the material being printed; most all printing is done by one of five major printing methods – letterpress, offset lithography, Gravure, screen printing or collotype process.

A series of inventions in the 19th century, spurred by the technological advances in all fields that marked the industrial revolution, brought about sweeping changes in the art of printing. Most of these involved radical improvements in presses, new method of paper manufacturers, plate making, phototypesetters, computers for automatic justification, electronic, scanning machines for use in colour printing and electrostatic screen printing.

The choice of using a particular process in printing may be summarized into two influential points.

  • Specialized printing process that prints more perfectly than other printing methods on a specific substrate.
  • Predetermined product and the taste of both customer’s and the publisher’s among other factors.

Lithography is the dominant printing processes but its growth is being challenged by Gravure.

Letterpress is also expected to continue to decrease in use, as flexography replaces letterpress and even lithography in the newspaper field, and will also be used in other publishing areas such as newspaper inserts and low budget machines.

Screen and other related processes are also expected to grow as inkjet and electronic printing increase in use, as well as reprography, which is the basic of quick and in-plant. Electronic and inkjet printing will continue to pose threats so traditional printing’s markets.

CHAPTER ONE:

LETTER PRESS PRINTING

  • The basic principle
  • Printing from type
  • Letter press plates
  • Letter press printing presses
  • Image identification

CHAPTER TWO:

OFFSET LITHOGRAPHY

  • Principle of lithography
  • Direct lithography
  • Offset lithography
  • Advances of offset lithography
  • Process photography and stripping
  • Type of offset lithography plates
  • Offset printing presses
  • Web offset presses
  • Satellite presses
  • Process identification

CHAPTER THREE:

GRAVURE

  • Introduction
  • The uses and advantages of rotogravure
  • Other methods of plate making process
  • Other methods of plate making
  • Rotogravure presses
  • Systematic ink application
  • Image identification

 

CHAPTER FOUR:

SCREEN PROCESS PRINTING

  • Introduction
  • Variety of inks
  • Colour
  • Identification of image
  • Advantages of screen printing

 

CHAPTER FIVE:

OTHER PRINTING PROCESSES

  • Classification of printing processes
  • Basic processes
  • Specialized printing processes
  • Minor processes
  • Reprographic processes
  • Screen printing
  • Screen less printing
  • Unconvention processes

Bibliography

 

 


CHAPTER ONE

LETTER PRESS PRINTING

  • THE BASIC PRINCIPLE:

Letterpress is a highly versatile printing process. It is adaptable to both short and long printing runs, from a few hundreds to several millions of printed impressions. In letterpress printing the image area of the printing surface stands in relief, raised above the surrounding non-image areas. Ink is applied to the image areas with a roller and is transferred to paper under pressure. Letterpress printing process is derived from pre-industrial art of woodcut.

 

  • PRINTING FROM TYPE:

Some letterpress printing is done directly from handset or machine – cast type. The type is positioned as it should appear on the printed sheet within a  steel frame called a chase. It is held in position by wood blocks called furniture & locked up tightly by means of wedge – shaped devices called quoins. The resulting assembly of type, called a type former or from is placed on the printing press and linked, and impressions are made.

Printing from type is used chiefly for stationery, business cards, circulars, and similar small jobs where only a small quantity is to be printed. It is not feasible for longer printing runs of many thousands of copy because type metal is relatively soft and wears down quickly, while it is on press. In addition, if the type is damaged the entire composition process has to be repeated.

  • LETTERPRESS PLATES:

The shortest printing runs the letterpress type form is replaced by a printing plate. The starting point of the plate making process is a negative of the image on film, line art, or continuous tone originals that have been made into halftone negatives.

The most widely used processes for making original letterpress plate involve three steps:-

  • Reproducing the image to be printed on the surface of a mental plate
  • Hardening the image on the plate
  • Etching away the non-image area of the mental surface. The last step leaves a positive image area raised above the background area and ready for printing.
  • PLASTIC PLATES

Photopolymer plastics are also used for letterpress plates. These light sensitive plastics harden on exposure to light. The plastic plate is exposed by shining aultraviolet light through a negative in contact with the plate. Where the light strikes the plastics, the surface becomes hard and insoluble. The portion of the surface not exposed to light remains soluble and can be washed away, leaving the printing image raised the non-image background.

  • DUPLICATE LETTERPRESS PLATES:

They are made from type and from original engravings of illustrations. Duplicate plates can be made quickly and inexpensively from original often several sets of duplicate plates are made to permit printing on several presses at the same time. The curved plated needed for rotary presses are made as duplicate plates from flat originals.

Duplicate plates are usually stereotypes.

Electrotypes or rubber plates.

1.4     LETTERPRESS PRINTING PRESSES

There are three major types of letterpress printing presses namely:-

  • Platen press
  • Flat bed cylinder press
  • Rotary press

All are based on the principle of inking the raised image on the former or plate and printing a sheet of paper against the inked image. The processes differ in the way in which the former or plate is carried in the press, and in the way in which paper is brought the paper is brought into contact.

 

 

 

THE PLATEN PRESS PRINCIPLE

 

 

 

 

 

 

The platen press consists essentially of two flat surfaces linged together. One surface, the bed is vertical and carries the former or prinking plate. The other surface, the platen, carries the paper and opens and closes on the bed by swinging on its linge. When the platen swings open from the bed, rollers ink the plate or form, and a sheet of paper is placed on platen. The bed and platen then close, pressing the sheet against the inked plate. As the press opens again, the printed sheet is removed and a new sheet is inserted as the plate is re – inked.

Many small platens, presses are hand-fed, but larger ones are fed by machine. Platen presses are relatively small and slow. They are used mainly for printing letterhead and circulars and for other small jobs.

PRINCIPLE OF FLAT BED CYLINDER SYSTEM

 

 

 

 

 

 

On flat-bed cylinder press, the form or plate is carried on a moving horizontal bed, and the paper sheet is carried on an impression cylinder sheets of paper are fed automatically to the impression cylinder, which holds them by clamps called grippers. During printing the bed moves under the rotary cylinder, which prints the sheets by pressing it against the inked plate. The cylinder is than raised as it continues to rotate, delivering the printed sheet and picking up a blank sheet to be printed. At the same time the be moves back and is re-inked for the next impression,

PRINCIPLE OF ROTARY PRESS

 

 

 

 

 

On rotary presses, both the plates and the papers are carried on the curved surface of cylinders. The most commonly used plates are carved stereotype or electrotype. The plates are inked by a series or rollers as the plate cylinder rotates, and the paper is printed as it passes between the inked plate cylinder and the impression cylinder. The paper may be fed either in sheet, on a sheet fed press, or in continuous rolls, on a web fed or web press.

 

 

 

  • IMAGE IDENTIFICATIONS

Image printed by letterpress printing process could be identified by the ink squash seen around the hard edges of the characters. Also, some slight identifications from the sheet is

 

 

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THE ROLE OF PRINTING TECHNOLOGY IN SUSTAINING ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA (CASE STUDY OF PERFECT PRINTERS LAGOS)

THE ROLE OF PRINTING TECHNOLOGY IN SUSTAINING ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

(CASE STUDY OF PERFECT PRINTERS LAGOS)

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ABSTRACT

 

The work was undertake with a view to ascertain the efforts made so far by the Printing Technology to sustain economic development in Nigerian.

The historical background of printing and evaluating its performance in bringing the western education and economic development in Nigeria.

I identifying some of the major problems effecting the role of printing Technology in sustaining economic development .

Possible steps to remedy the situation confronting printing institutions and its economic development.

The method of the research work for the study was through primary and secondary data. It was base on the use of reviewed literature related to the study.

Paper, interviews, questionnaire and direct observations were used . The  questionair is designed, in structured form to elect direct Answers from the respondents.  Findings made include the following.

  1. Lack of adequate finance
  2. negative attitude of the government towards printing institutions.
  3. attitude of the stake holders. Findings made above a number of recommendations which of followed strictly and honesty would remedy the situation of the role of Printing Technology in sustaining economic development in Nigeria they include.
  4. Adequate funding of the printing institutions by the government .
  5. stake holders should be more committed to oversee that the printing institutions are improving to its optimum efficiency.
  6. both the stake holders, private interprises and government should be involved in the mobilization of term to regulate the printing institution in other to increase its efficiency.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study
  • Statement of the problem
  • Objective of the study
  • Research Question
  • Significance of the study
  • Scope and Limitation of the study
  • Definition of terms
  • Hypothesis

Reference

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     LITERATURE REVIEW

  • The Technicial Advancement of printing in the world.
  • Print Identification
  • Selecting the printing process.
  • The need to stimulate on the different types of paper & ink.
  • Major role of printing institution in the economic development.
  • Constraints of Printing Technology in economic development
  • Historical development of printing in Nigeria.
  • Meaning of Economic development
  • The measure of economic development
  • Core values and major objectives of development
  • Important measures for economic development
  • Population Growth and economic development

Reference

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     Research Methodology and Design

3.1     Research Method

  • Descpition of Respondents.
  • Sources of Data
  • Primary Data
  • Secondary Data
  • Research Population
  • Population of the Study
  • Population and Sample Table
  • Instrumentation
  • Validity of instrument
  • Reliability of Instrument
  • Collection of Data
  • Population, Distribution and Collection Table
  • Instrument return rate
  • Method of Data Analysis

Reference

CHAPTER FIVE

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

 

CHAPTER FIVE

RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION

  • Finding
  • Recommendation
  • Conclusion

BIBLIOGRAPHY

APPENDIX

 


CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0     INTRODUCTION

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The origin of printing can be traced as far back as second century according to the illustrated encyclopedia of Science and Technology page 1858 by the Chinese who discovered empirically a means of printing text on a carved relief blocks.  In 1440 Johann Guttenberg a mains gold smith began experimenting with printing, when he was political refugee in Strasbourg.  He later returned to means and by 1450 he had developed his invention to the point where it could exploited commercially.  In partnership with lawyer called Johannes first, they advanced means of getting money and commenced casting metal type which was to be used in printing his famous 42 line bible.

The advancement in Technological development of the nineteenth century and the industrial revolution which reflected on the demand increase for production of books and magazines.

As day goes by, advance change in machine designs and capacity were created as the result of the invention of the paper making and typesetting machines fast, big and efficient press / industries were needed to meet up with the expectations of required output.

Improvement on the high-speed electronically controlled firm are now in existence and much number of peoples are gainfully employed.

 

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

On what stimulated the researcher into this study is that the researcher wants to know what printing Technology can contribute on sustaining economic development and the end result.

Efficient printing is indispensable on the economic development, this study therefore aimed at evaluating printing firms with special emphasis on how it effect the economic development of Nigeria

 

1.3     OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The general objective of this study is to ascertain the role of printing in sustaining economic development of Nigeria.

It is hoped that this project exercise will help provide quite value, relevant and patent information which will ensure effective economic development through printing.

Specific objective of the study are as follow

  • To fin out the extent to which efficient Printing Technology enhances economic development
  • To find out the effect of printing education and skill in improving economic development.
  • To find out effect of finance in the development of Printing Technology.
  • To determine the various areas in which printing plays dominant role in sustaining economic development.

 

1.4     RESEARCH QUESTION

Ro     Does efficient Printing Technology enhance economic development?

Ri      Does printing education and skill improve economic development?

Ru     Do finance affects the establishment of printing press

Rm    In what other areas do printing Technology sustain economic development?

1.5     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

To who is this study most beneficial to?  The researcher will benefit from this study because this study is expected to aimed the researcher with field research work and experience to enable him / her reconcile the theoretical and practical aspect of printing in sustaining economic development.

Another beneficiaries include policy makers, government, individuals and public organization.  Besides the study would also to plan and make decisions with higher degree learning.

 

  • SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

This study is aimed and designed at given the researcher an introduction to aspect of science, which is applicable to printing.

The study covers the extent of the role of Printing Technology in sustaining economic development in Nigeria.

This study is limited to the three (3) states which includes Enugu, Ebony and Lagos State.

The other limiting factors is the constraints of time and finance which made it difficult for the researcher to study all the state of the federation including FCT Capital Abuja.

The unprepared of some stake holder to release informations was another limiting factors.

 

  • DEFINITION OF TERMS

TECHNOLOGY: This is the systematic application of knowledge to practical task in industry.

PRINTING:          Printing is define as a technique for applying under pressure a certain quantity of colouring agent onto a specified surface to form a body of text or an illustration.

Also printing is defined in modern language as several technique for producing texts and illustrate either in black or colour on a durable surface and a designed identical areas.

PRINTING TECHNOLOGY:  This is unit of revolutionary change in science and Technology required as an important study of social change, image generation and reproduction.

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT:      This is defined as the progress and nations having traditionally been at the center of economic writing and enquiring.

 

1.8     THE HYPOTHESIS

Ho     Yes stake holders create much avenue for the economic development.

H1     No. Printing Technology cannot exist without the global village.

H2     Yes stake holders helps to ascertain the extent mode miza icon of Printing Technology had gone in the global village.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCE

 

AS HORN BY AP COWIE (1989) Oxford Advance leaner’s Dictionary “4th

Edition (AC Gimson University College London)

MERSHAL (1977) Illustrated Encyclopedia of science and Technology.

Volume 14, London (Cavendish Ltd)

Prof E.S MERSHAL (1986) The new standard Encyclopedia volume 15,

(standard Education Incoperated)

ihejiamaizu, Emmanuel (1996) Administrative and organizational Theory.

(Calabar (Executive Publishers)

Taylor, Fredrick (1911) the Principles of

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PRINCIPLES OF PRINTING

PRINCIPLES OF PRINTING

 

COMPLETE MATERIAL COST 5000.

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
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Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment :
Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
 Account Number:  0117780667. 
Swift Code: GTBINGLA 
Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANKER SECURITY GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

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PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

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08074466939 or 08063386834, YOUR PROJECT TITLE  YOU WANT US TO SEND TO YOU, AMOUNT PAID, DEPOSITOR NAME, UR EMAIL ADDRESS,PAYMENT DATE. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR MATERIAL IN LESS THAN 2 HOURS ONCE WILL CONFIRM YOUR PAYMENT.

CHAPTER ONE

Elements of Printing

Method of Identification

Difficulties in Letter Press Printing

The monotype

Linotype

Hot metal

CHAPTER TWO

Letter Press Machine

Camera Work

CHAPTER THREE

Computer operation

Components of a Computer System

CHAPTER FOUR

The Printing Ink

Fountain Solution

Printing Paper

Off set Machine Printing

Principle of Offset Litho

Conclusion

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION TO HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

Between 15th century from the invention of muturable types in the 15th century to the years 1800 the techniques of cover posing printing and book binding am ong the only existing processes of the period noticed a — improvement revision of techniques and equipment were few and of modest conception what printing look like before 1683 started in African, Egypt to be precise with writing on heaves found on the back of the Rive Nile on these leaves called papers were written massages and attached to dogs and pigeons to derived destinations we said above then what printing was like is not known and thin back. In 16 83 Joseph Moxon’s monomental work was God fired and for the first time printing procedure was codified.

 

Early methods and their investors

We have —- where we and erpert opinion suggestions that gutenburg modelled him — press on proelum or wine press. As time elapsed so refinements were made to big and clumsy presses of 15th century, the TUMPAN AND FRISKET were added in about 1545 and the metal series was introduced in 1550, poribly by DANNER a printer in MUREMBURG at that time but the associated history is some what confused.

A printing press of Dutch origin, the work of WILLEM JANSZOON. BLAEU, was available in 1620 and embochied several development although some authorities have accredited certain improvement to BLAEU which are not device for effecting the automatic return of the platen often impression. Subsequently attempts pressers wee frustrated by take of stability in the wooden france which tended to stretch under the slightest strain —– step toward was in 1790 when on American, ADAM RAMAGE brict a press which incorporated both an iron platen and bed and also included a spring device for inducing the automatic ascent of the platen offer impression.

In 1796 firming DIDOT cominoned a press with a large iron platen capable of printing a full form is stage by taking two elistinct impression. The DIDOT press was soon to be supplented by the first all iron press.

Thus, on the eve of the 19th century printed impression. The chniques of the compositor in the year 1800 had advanced very liuttle, if at all from moxons day. Printing can be traced as far back as AD 594 to the Chinese whom used block from which print were produced. However relief printing, as we know it was developed in Europe during the fifteenth century as a result of Gutenbery. Invention of movable type.

The early presses were adaptation of the winepresses in use of that time.

Few improvement or charges were made to this system. Public desire for reading which placed increasing demands of the painter technological development of the nineteenth century, the so called industrial Revolution were vast and reflected on the demand for increase for production especially of book and newspapers. Also running of the paralled with changes machine designs were the invention to the paper making and the invention of mechanical typesetting machine, faster, bigger, efficient presses were need to cope with the out put of from mechanical typesetting machines.

The most remarkable development was the introduction of iron Stan hope presses within in the period of 18 30 18 40. The rotary presses were developed for newspaper work.

Today the baie principles remained the same but the machines themselves have been developed to sophictaktion high speed electronically controlled pressed now in use.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

ELEMENTS OF PRINTING

Printing may be simply defined as the transference of ink from an image on to STOCK.

This may be carried out in many ways but every method has each of these elements ink, image and stock.

 

Ink :         Enables the shape of the —— to be seen on the paper. The kind of ink depend on the process and stock, bot must be capable of:

(i)     Being deposited in a thin layer on to the image.

  • Being transferred to stock without losing the colour or strength.
  • Maintaining the shape of the image on transference.

(iv)   After being transferred, it shall adhere to the stock permanently inks are available in a wide range of colours  and  for wide range of purposes.

Image:     A prepared surface which will accept inks are for eventual transfer to the stock.

The surfaces very considerably in the form the hake depending up on the printing process being used.

The surfaces also very within any given process e.g.

Letter  press, image, type, zinc plate plastic plate, nylon plates  brass steel.

Image are produced form a variety of original copy. Sketches, artists, drawing layouts, water and oil paintings, script, photographs type images etc. type images.

Stock:      any material upon which an image can be printed. Also called substrate usually paper but may be plastic linen, tin, film.

Stock must have the following properties.

  • Dimensionally stable
  • Capable of withstanding pressure
  • Capable of withstanding normal weave and tear in use.
  • Capable of reproduce image faith fully.
  • Able of accept ink without undue absorption or rajection
  • Capable of being fed through awide range of printing pressure.

 

 

PRINTING PROCESSES

There are many printing processes that cover many requirements, only four processes colour one generally in operation in Nigeria.

They are letter press, lithography, gravune and screen printing.

 

LETTER PRESS AS PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES

Letter press principle can easily be defined as more of mechanical (physical, method of transferring ink to he stock a thin layer of ink is deposited on the relief image areas.)

This ink film is offset directly on to stock under pressure form the impression cylinder or platen.

The printing surface or image is raised in relief with the non printing areas are recessed or / on a lover plans.

 

METHOD OF IDENTIFICATION

The image is impresured into the paper, the indentation is sometimes visible if the back of the printed sheet is examined

Advantages

  1. Allows last minutes changes and changes at run
  2. Ideal process for continuous stationery
  3. Ideal process for continuous stationery
  4. Ideal for text book printing where legibility and ease of ready are essential
  5. It process natural sparkle and clarity of detail
  6. Method for perforating and numbering can be applied during printing
  7. Large variety of job can be produced at relatively low cost.

 

 

DIFFICULTIES IN LETTER PRESS PRINTING

  1. Heavy type metal and storage is rather expensive which is high lighted by problems created due to remetting and replenishing metal in terms of air pollution.
  2. Limitations of size of image areas provided for flat bed and platen work.

 

HAND CORRECTION:     Hand correction is usually required  to fill up required areas often casting by the mechanical comping machine as the proof reader may indicate.

Hand correction is carried on by picking types from the case. A pair of tweezers is normally used by the composition for easy access into the type form.

 

 

COMPOSING STICK

Composing stick is usually held in the left hand while setting a line of type from type case with the right hand. The type is assembles in the composing stick with the ink at the type is the space is placed between words as the setting proceeds. Sometimes setting rules is used to facilitate the setting when a line is set to the required measure another is started until the seetingstic  is full and litted to the qalley.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig shows the diagram of California job case

Show the diagram of California job case.  This is the termed a double case, it contains caps, lower case, figures spaces of different thickness and punctuation points. This case is universally used in preference to pair of case. The cantals letters are kept in separate area which is about one third of the case as shown above.

 

Types Alloys:  The requirements of type alloys are as  follows. Able to be case easily give a solid, sharp casting sufficiently strong to with stand distortion under reasonable pressure and long runs impervious to oxidation head Antimony and tin are good material for these requirement.

Head:       Forms the basis of printing matals, it metal

Antimony:       Is a bright crystalline and very brittle metal which tarrishes by air, it confers hardness and solidity of the types allows.

Tin:  Is a bright metal which is not tarnished by air, it possesses the property of hardening the alloys but not to the extent of antimony.

 

THE MONOTYPE

The monotype consists of two units – a keyboard and a casting machine. Each of the units makes use of 15 pound of compressed air that passes through a cooking tank per square inch.

Its fundamental principle is to cast single   type.

The monotype key board is made to produce a kind of paper ribbon / spool paper, which control is the functions of the monotype composition caster. Two key button. There are of course three special key:-

  1. The ketter space key for letter spacing of charactes.
  2. The quadder key when depressed will produce quadds on the castor.
  3. The repeater key which repeats casting of quadils character to feul a measure. Also used for centering of text matter monotype sizes are in points and sizes of set. That  e. a type may be 10pt 9 ½ set which is broad face.

Characters and letters of the type point together which the spacings required for adjustment are represented in the perforations in the tape. Normal spaces between words is put as the compositor composes and a signal is given at the completion of each line.

The compositor then records the required symbols to device the remaining space evenly. An automatic scale is used in carrying out this. The machine calculates exactly in advance how much space to put between each word.  While the tape moves through the casten, it controls plasts of compressed air that movers levers to pull a movement deposits required matrix on  to the  mouth of the mould where the hot mottern metals is —- against it to form the letter, character or space. It has a very fast casting capacity of about one hundred and fifty casts per minutes. Cast unit is pushed forwards until the whole line is completed and pushed into galley than another line starts.

 

LINOTYPE

There linotype land intertype machine incorporates both key board and caster. It doesn’t compose types in acceptable sence but produces lines of metal called slugs which have on their upper edges the required character. Linotype of intertype was almost conclusively used for the production of news paper and magazines bot today, the introduction of photo seterters are fastly dominating the newspaper composition.

The compositor sits before muti alphabet key board and punches the key in much the same manner as a type wrote is operated.  Brass muld called matrices are released from their position of storage in magazine. They drop through the delivery channels and one then carried to the assembly elevator, at this point space bands a re dropped between words henes of martrices and lands is  then carried to the casting mechanism where moltern metal is flushed against than coasting type slug. Immediately after casting the matrices and space bonds are revised by the first elevator to a point where they  are transferred to the distributing elevator that lift at a certain position form where they are returned to the their storage box ready for use again.

 

HOT METAL

Casting of type from the monotype and linotype machines is known as hot metal,  this is because the production of much of the materials in use in this system. Type slugs, goods, roles  and leads are the products of hot metal system as they are molten metal based.

 

BOOK BINDING:      After the mechanization of printing there are a high demand of book and these binding operation cash making and case in remind in the hand of craptment with how out put needed mechanization too.

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Printing Technology Project Topics And Materials for Students in Nigeria

We provide recent Project Topics in Printing Technology in Nigeria, Project Topics and Materials in Printing Technology, Free Printing Technology Project Topics and Materials in Nigeria, Free Printing Technology Project Topics and Materials, Research Project Topics and Materials in Printing Technology in Nigeria to help students in achieving grade a result in project writing. Best and reliability is our standard. Below is list of project research topic on Project Topics in Printing Technology in Nigeria

 

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  1. Printing Images And Their Methods Of Production
    2. The Role Of Printing Technology In Sustaining Economic Development In Nigeria (Case Study Of Perfect Printers Lagos)
    3. The Role Of Printing Technology In Sustaining Economic Development In Nigeria (Case Study Of Perfect Printers Lagos)

 

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