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LOCAL GOVERNMENT AUTONOMY AND GRASS ROOT DEVELOPMENT

LOCAL GOVERNMENT AUTONOMY AND GRASS ROOT DEVELOPMENT

(A CASE  OF NSUKKA LOCAL GOVERNMENT OF ENUGU STATE)

COMPLETE PROJECT  MATERIAL COST #3000 NAIRA

 

                                   ORDER NOW

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
 GTBANK
Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

We also accept :   ATM transfer , online money  transfer 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

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Call Help Desk Line :  08074466939,08063386834.

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08074466939 Or 08063386834,   The Project Title  You  Selected On Our Website , Amount Paid, Depositor Name, Your Email Address, Payment Date. You Will Receive Your Material In Less Than 1 Hour Once We Confirm Your Payment.

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ABSTRACT

Local government Autonomy and grass root development ( A case of Nsukka Local government of Enugu state). The purpose of the study is to determine how local government autonomy has affected grass root development in Nsukka Local government Area of Enugu State. A total population of seven hundred and fifth staff working at Nsukka Local government was chosen for the study. The sample for the study was 213 staff using yaro yamani method. Three (3) research questions were formulated to guide the study. Data analysis was done using simple percentage. The major findings of the study were: Nsukka Local government lacks political autonomy as the State government interferes in their bye-law and policy making process, the Local government is not been financed properly and even when financed the State will hinder such by interfering through the State joint Local government Account, administratively, the state determine, discipline, recruit, promote etc the Local government staff and thereby denying administrative autonomy over their personnel. Despite these problems, it was recommended that: Nsukka Local government should have control over it’s finance, their personnel should be appointed, recruited, promoted, discipline by themselves. They should equally make their bye-law and other policy making themselves so as to boost it’s autonomy.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

CHAPTER ONE:

INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………..1

1.0     Background of the study ……………………………………….………1

  • Statement of problem……………………………………………………5
  • Purpose of the study…………………………………………….………7
  • Research Question ………………………………………………………8
  • Statement Hypothesis ……………………………..……………………9
  • Theoretical frame work………………………………………..………10
  • Significance of the study………………………………………………11
  • Scope of the study……………………………………..………………12
  • Limitation of the study…………………………………………………12
  • Definition of terms …………………………………………………..13

 

 

CHAPTER TWO:

Review Literature ……………………………………………………………16

  • Introduction …………………………………………………..………16
  • Indices for measuring Local Government autonomy………….…….19
  • The quest for Local Government autonomy and 1976 Local Government reform………………………………………………….20
  • Gras root development ………………………………………………22
  • Challenges to full Local Government autonomy…………..………..24
  • Summary of the literature Review ………………………………….25

 

CHAPTER  THREE:

RESEARCH DESING AND METHODOLOGY…………………….…….27

3.0     Design of the study………………………………………………….27

3.1     Area of the study……………………………………………….…….27

3.2     Population of the study………………………………………..…….28

3.3     Sample size / sampling techniques…………………………….…….28

3.4     Instrument  for data collection ………………………………..…….29

3.5     Reliability of  the instruments ………………………………….……….29

3.6     Validity of the instruments ……………………………………………….29

3.7     Distribution and Retrieval of the instrument  ……………………….29

3.8     Method of  data Analysis …………………………………………….30

CHAPTER FOUR:

4.0     DATA  PRESENTATION  AND ANALYSIS ……………………………31

4.1     Data  Presentation  and Analysis …………………………………….31

4.2     Analysis of research question …………………………….………….32

4.3     Testing of Hypothesis      ……………………………………….…….39

4.4     Interpretation of results ……………………………………………….48

CHAPTER  FIVE:

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS / CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

  • Summary of Findings ………………………………………………….49
  • Conclusion ……………………………………….……………………….51
  • Recommendation ……………………………………………………….52

References………………………………………………………………….54

Appendix A………………………………………………………….…….55

Questionnaires …………………………………………….……….…….56

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

  • BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

 

The struggle for Local Government Autonomy in Nigeria has been a recurring issue. It is as old as the history of Nigeria colonial state. Local government Administration practiced anywhere in the world is largely dependent on the historical, geographical, political and economic life of the citizens. Nigeria with a long history of slavery. Colonization, as well as military and civilian administration which have to a large extent determined the system of local government Administration up till date. This work intend accessing the various reforms or ordinance that the local government system in Nigeria has witnessed since 1914 during the amalgamation of the Northern and Southern protectorate by Fredrick Lord Laggard.

The Local Government during this period of 1914 is based on the Native Authority system whereby indirect rule and exploitation was the order of the day. According to Ogunna (1996), Native Authority is the traditional political authority at the Local Level which formed part of the machinery of British colonial government charged with the responsibilities of maintaining law and order. Based on the Native Authority ordinance of 1916, a unified Local Government System was established in the Northern part because of their Emirate system of Administration practice before the colonial Administration. This Native Authority was later extended to the East and South with varying degree of success. This native Authority did not satisfy the needs and aspiration of the local people and it arouse agitation from the rural citizens especially from the educated elites in the southern Nigeria craving or desiring for a greater participation in their own affair.

The Native Authority Ordinance failed because it has no autonomy to meet up with the demands of the citizen and as a result, the first Local Government reform was ushered in. Thus after the second World War in 1945, the colonial policies on Local Government changed coupled with the demands for greater participation and this led to the adoption of the representative or liberal democratic system of Local Government in the 1950s.

The 1950 Local Government reform serves as a foundation on which modern Local Government was built in Nigeria as it abolished the native Authority system. This reform paved way for the following features in Local Government system; it has a three tier system (country, district and local council), it was granted the power of taxation as a source of funding, it introduced popularly elected Local Government council but the franchise is based on tax payers and it equally recognize that the Local Government should be given adequate autonomy as the council were given financial and Administrative power. According to Ogunna (1996). This reform introduced representative democratic Local Government system on the negative side. It suffered from conflicts among the tiers, inadequate funding, poor staffing, bribery and mal administration. As a result of these problems coupled with intense politicking, no reform could be initiated until the military seized power in 1966 which rudely terminated the first republic. The 1966 Local Government reform was to correct the ills of the Local Government system they inherited.

However, all these reforms did not ensure a complete autonomy of Local Government system until the introduction of the 1976 Local Government reform under the military administration of General Olusegun Obasanjo. This reform marked a turning point in Local Government Administration in the country. This reform were the federal government response to the recommendation of Chief Jerome Udoji public service review commission of 1974. The reform aim to make the Local Government more effective in their primary role of bringing development to the grassroots. It established a multi-purpose single tier system throughout the country, with the same structure and function. Local Government were recognized as a third tier of government with the federal structure. It provided for the Local Government to receive their statutory allocation from Federal Government through the State

Government. They were democratized through popular or indirect election. The Local Government were given specific function to perform and enshrined in the fourth schedule of the 1979 constitution. Local Government were granted a relatively high level of autonomy.

From all indications, this reform is very important and distinct from other reforms and that is why Adamolekun (1979:3) has observed, what distinguished the 1976 Local Government reform from all the previous reform exercise in the country is the formal and clearly recognition of the Local Government as constituting a distinct level of government with definite boundaries, clearly stated functions and provision for ensuring adequate human and financial resources.

Despite all these constitutional provisions which granted the Local Government autonomy in all ramifications, there is still little or no development they have brought to the rural dwellers which ought to be their utmost share from the National cake.

At this juncture, the researcher is solely directed at accessing the impact, status, entity and autonomous existence of Nsukka Local Government in the development of their grass root.

1.1         STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The rate of interference and control which the State and Federal Government put on Nigerian Local Government cannot be over emphasized. This which has eaten up the Local Government, does not only affect the Local Government Chairmen and Councilors but as well as the local people who feel neglected in the National cake, resources, and revenue allocations, the high rate of over dependency by the Local Government on the federal and state Government in terms of finance administration. Some Authors, scholar and Administrator argue that this tier of government should be scraped away irrespective of it’s constitutional and legal frame work.

To the Chairman and Councilors, it posses a problem as regards to law making, policies and implementation functions allocated to them by the constitution.

Administratively, the personnel and human resources management of the Local Government in term of recruitment, promotion, security and disciplines staff within it’s area of jurisdiction is not free and fair. The State and Federal Government control them through the introduction of the integrated staff system.

Financially, Local Government do not enjoy autonomy. Their freedom to impose local taxes, generate and allocate revenue within it’s assigned source, allocates it’s financial and material resources, determine and authorize it’s budget is greatly influence by both the Federal and State Government. The statutory allocation which they receive through the State -joint Local Government Account is highly hampered by the State Governors.

Therefore, it is these view that the researcher deem it necessary to examine and access how autonomous Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu state is in relation to grass root development.

  • PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The main objectives of this research work is to determine how Local Government Autonomy has affected the grass root development in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu State.

However, in specific terms, the study is based at the following points:

I       To acertain whether the process of law making and policy implementation by the Councilors and Chairmen affects the grass root development of Nsukka Local Government Area.

ii       To determine how the personnel Administration of Nsukka Local Government Area hampers it’s grass root development

iii      To determine whether State interference in the financial allocation of Nsukka Local Government affects it’s grass root development.

1.3   RESEARCH QUESTION

The following research questions has been constructed as a guide to the success of this research work in order to obtain a useful result.

I       To  what extent has the process of law making and policy implementation by the Councilors and Chairmen affects the grass  root development of Nsukka Local Government Area.

ii       To what extent has the personnel Administration in Nsukka Local Government hampers it’s grass root development.

iii      To what extent has the State interference in the financial allocation of Nsukka Local Government affects it’s grass root development.

1.4   STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS

Ho:   Law making process and policy implementation by the Councilors and Chairmen does not affect the grass root development of Nsukka Local Government Area.

Hi:    Law making process and policy implementation by the councilors and chairman does not affect the grass root development of Nsukka Local Government Area.

Ho:   The personnel Administration of Nsukka local government does not hamper it’s grass root development.

Hi:    The personnel Administration of Nsukka local government does not hamper it’s grass root development.

Ho:   The State interference in the financial allocation of Nsukka Local Government does not affect it’s grass root development.

Hi:    The State interference in the financial allocation of Nsukka Local Government does not affect it’s grass root development.

  • THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

The researcher employ General system theory in the course of this work.

This theory has so many writers on it such as Almond (1960), Easton (1965), Adamolekun (1983) and Offiong (1996). This theory argue that every system, including political system has a sub-system, including political system has a sub-system which make up the entire system. They have assigned function and provided with enabling empowerment, including resources, appropriate authority that enable them discharge their responsibility optimally.

Applying this brief exposition of the political system analysis to the Nigerian local government system, the local government in the country constitute the sub-system. They must be handled well in terms of being fed with adequate inputs (that is resources and appropriate authorities) as provided in the constitution of the federal republic of Nigeria so that they can contribute appropriately to the goals of Nigerian political system as well as it’s stability. Form these, it is very useful to realize the importance of the general system theory in handling Local Government Autonomy in Nigeria.

They has been assigned with responsibilities to perform which benefit the people, not as part of Federal or State Government. So, if Local Government is not treated as a sub-system, it will bring frustration to the performance of their function and on the long run bring dissatisfaction among the rural people and their National cake will be neglected too.

  • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This research work would be of benefit to the rural people in Nsukka Local Government of Enugu State. At the end of this work, the rural people will be able to enjoy their constitutional right which is rural development and when such is granted to them, they will no longer feel neglected in the National cake which has been their utmost need from the Local Government.

For scholars, researchers and Authors, they could also use or gather information to review this work and also use it as a reference to any related work they are writing since this work is reliable and validated.

1.7   SCOPE OF THE STUDY

Local Government Autonomy and Grass root development. A of study of Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu State.

1.8   LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The researcher encountered so many constraint while carrying out this research work. The problems and the solutions are as follows: lack of power supply by the Enugu electricity Distribution Company (EEDC) Since power supply has been a serious problem in Oko community, the researcher re-schedule reading at night to day time so as to avoid the problem of power supply.

Lack of fund: This problem was solved as it propel the researcher to borrow money from friend and families to supplement the cash saved before this work.

Lack of time: The researcher adjusted most of it’s programmes that does not add any value to the success of this work.

Lack of material: Since there is no sufficient material for the research work, the researcher joined a study group were most of the problems confronting the work is discussed and settle. The researcher equally made out time to visit the cyber café for more information so as to supplement the information gotten from study group.

These are the problems encountered by the researcher and how the researcher equally over come it so as to make this work successful.

1.9   DEFINITIONS OF TERMS

The following terms are used in this study which have unique meaning that could be subjected to different meaning form different persons; are defined as follows:

GOVERNMENT: It is a machinery through which the will of a State (country) is formulated expressed and attained

AUTONOMY: It is the freedom for a country, a region or an organization to govern itself independently; the ability to act and make decision without being controlled by anyone.

REFORM: This means the improvement or amendment of what is wrong, corrupt and unsatisfactory.

ORDINANCE: It is a degree or law promulgated by a state or National Government without the consent of the legislature such as for raising revenue through new taxes or mobilization of resources during an emergency.

AUTHORITY: It is define as the process or right to give order and enforce obedience.

ALLOCATION: It means an authorization to incur expenses or obligation up to a specific amount, purpose and within a specified period.

ENTITY EXISTENCE:  A Government or organization is said to be an entity if it has the ability with essential corporate power, names to engage into contract, sue and be sued and acquire properties.

DEVELOPMENT: It means a process in whitish something passes by degree to a different stage (especially a more advanced or mature stage).

GOVERNEMENT AS A TIER: A government character and entity existence.

NATIVE: Characteristics of or existing by virtue of geographic origin.

ADMINISTRATION: Is all about getting things done with co-coordinated effort of man using effective use of other available resources to get things done.

PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT: It is that part of management process which is primarily concerned with human constituents in an organization.

CONSTITUTION: It is a whole body, fundamental laws, custom belief etc according to a particular state operation.

 

Complete Material Cost #3000

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LOCAL GOVERNMENT AUTONOMY AND GRASS ROOT DEVELOPMENT

LOCAL GOVERNMENT AUTONOMY AND GRASS ROOT DEVELOPMENT (A CASE  OF NSUKKA LOCAL GOVERNMENT OF ENUGU STATE)

 

 

COMPLETE PROJECT  MATERIAL COST 3000 NAIRA

 

                                   ORDER NOW

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
 GTBANK
Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

We also accept :   ATM transfer , online money  transfer 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>

Call Help Desk Line :  08074466939,08063386834.

After Payment Send Your Payment Details To

08074466939 Or 08063386834,   The Project Title  You  Selected On Our Website , Amount Paid, Depositor Name, Your Email Address, Payment Date. You Will Receive Your Material In Less Than 1 Hour Once We Confirm Your Payment.

WE HAVE SECURITY IN OUR BUSINESS.

MONEY BACK GUARANTEE

You may also need:  web design company in Nigeria   

Bulk sms company in Nigeria

 

 

ABSTRACT

Local government  Autonomy and grass root development ( A case of Nsukka Local government of Enugu state). The purpose of the study is to determine how local government autonomy has affected grass root development in Nsukka Local government Area of Enugu State. A total population of seven hundred and fifth staff working at Nsukka Local government was chosen for the study. The sample for the study was 213 staff using yaro yamani method. Three (3) research questions were formulated to guide the study. Data analysis was done using simple percentage.

 

The major findings of the study were: Nsukka Local government lacks political autonomy as the State government interferes in their bye-law and policy making process, the Local government is not been financed properly and even when financed the State will hinder such by interfering through the State joint Local government Account, administratively, the state determine, discipline, recruit, promote etc the Local government staff and thereby denying administrative autonomy over their personnel. Despite these problems, it was recommended that: Nsukka Local government should have control over it’s finance, their personnel should be appointed, recruited, promoted, discipline by themselves. They should equally make their bye-law and other policy making themselves so as to boost it’s autonomy.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE:

INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………..1

1.0     Background of the study ……………………………………….………1

  • Statement of problem……………………………………………………5
  • Purpose of the study…………………………………………….………7
  • Research Question ………………………………………………………8
  • Statement Hypothesis ……………………………..……………………9
  • Theoretical frame work………………………………………..………10
  • Significance of the study………………………………………………11
  • Scope of the study……………………………………..………………12
  • Limitation of the study…………………………………………………12
  • Definition of terms …………………………………………………..13

 

 

CHAPTER TWO:

Review Literature ……………………………………………………………16

  • Introduction …………………………………………………..………16
  • Indices for measuring Local Government autonomy………….…….19
  • The quest for Local Government autonomy and 1976 Local Government reform………………………………………………….20
  • Gras root development ………………………………………………22
  • Challenges to full Local Government autonomy…………..………..24
  • Summary of the literature Review ………………………………….25

 

CHAPTER  THREE:

RESEARCH DESING AND METHODOLOGY…………………….…….27

3.0     Design of the study………………………………………………….27

3.1     Area of the study……………………………………………….…….27

3.2     Population of the study………………………………………..…….28

3.3     Sample size / sampling techniques…………………………….…….28

3.4     Instrument  for data collection ………………………………..…….29

3.5     Reliability of  the instruments ………………………………….……….29

3.6     Validity of the instruments ……………………………………………….29

3.7     Distribution and Retrieval of the instrument  ……………………….29

3.8     Method of  data Analysis …………………………………………….30

CHAPTER FOUR:

4.0     DATA  PRESENTATION  AND ANALYSIS ……………………………31

4.1     Data  Presentation  and Analysis …………………………………….31

4.2     Analysis of research question …………………………….………….32

4.3     Testing of Hypothesis    ……………………………………….…….39

4.4     Interpretation of results ……………………………………………….48

CHAPTER  FIVE:

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS / CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

  • Summary of Findings ………………………………………………….49
  • Conclusion ……………………………………….……………………….51
  • Recommendation ……………………………………………………….52

References………………………………………………………………….54

Appendix A………………………………………………………….…….55

Questionnaires …………………………………………….……….…….56

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

  • BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

 

The struggle for Local Government Autonomy in Nigeria has been a recurring issue. It is as old as the history of Nigeria colonial state. Local government Administration practiced anywhere in the world is largely dependent on the historical, geographical, political and economic life of the citizens. Nigeria with a long history of slavery. Colonization, as well as military and civilian administration which have to a large extent determined the system of local government Administration up till date. This work intend accessing the various reforms or ordinance that the local government system in Nigeria has witnessed since 1914 during the amalgamation of the Northern and Southern protectorate by Fredrick Lord Laggard.

 

The Local Government during this period of 1914 is based on the Native Authority system whereby indirect rule and exploitation was the order of the day. According to Ogunna (1996), Native Authority is the traditional political authority at the Local Level which formed part of the machinery of British colonial government charged with the responsibilities of maintaining law and order. Based on the Native Authority ordinance of 1916, a unified Local Government System was established in the Northern part because of their Emirate system of Administration practice before the colonial Administration. This Native Authority was later extended to the East and South with varying degree of success. This native Authority did not satisfy the needs and aspiration of the local people and it arouse agitation from the rural citizens especially from the educated elites in the southern Nigeria craving or desiring for a greater participation in their own affair.

The Native Authority Ordinance failed because it has no autonomy to meet up with the demands of the citizen and as a result, the first Local Government reform was ushered in. Thus after the second World War in 1945, the colonial policies on Local Government changed coupled with the demands for greater participation and this led to the adoption of the representative or liberal democratic system of Local Government in the 1950s.

 

The 1950 Local Government reform serves as a foundation on which modern Local Government was built in Nigeria as it abolished the native Authority system. This reform paved way for the following features in Local Government system; it has a three tier system (country, district and local council), it was granted the power of taxation as a source of funding, it introduced popularly elected Local Government council but the franchise is based on tax payers and it equally recognize that the Local Government should be given adequate autonomy as the council were given financial and Administrative power. According to Ogunna (1996). This reform introduced representative democratic Local Government system on the negative side. It suffered from conflicts among the tiers, inadequate funding, poor staffing, bribery and mal administration. As a result of these problems coupled with intense politicking, no reform could be initiated until the military seized power in 1966 which rudely terminated the first republic. The 1966 Local Government reform was to correct the ills of the Local Government system they inherited.

 

However, all these reforms did not ensure a complete autonomy of Local Government system until the introduction of the 1976 Local Government reform under the military administration of General Olusegun Obasanjo. This reform marked a turning point in Local Government Administration in the country. This reform were the federal government response to the recommendation of Chief Jerome Udoji public service review commission of 1974. The reform aim to make the Local Government more effective in their primary role of bringing development to the grassroots. It established a multi-purpose single tier system throughout the country, with the same structure and function. Local Government were recognized as a third tier of government with the federal structure. It provided for the Local Government to receive their statutory allocation from Federal Government through the State

Government. They were democratized through popular or indirect election. The Local Government were given specific function to perform and enshrined in the fourth schedule of the 1979 constitution. Local Government were granted a relatively high level of autonomy.

From all indications, this reform is very important and distinct from other reforms and that is why Adamolekun (1979:3) has observed, what distinguished the 1976 Local Government reform from all the previous reform exercise in the country is the formal and clearly recognition of the Local Government as constituting a distinct level of government with definite boundaries, clearly stated functions and provision for ensuring adequate human and financial resources.

Despite all these constitutional provisions which granted the Local Government autonomy in all ramifications, there is still little or no development they have brought to the rural dwellers which ought to be their utmost share from the National cake.

At this juncture, the researcher is solely directed at accessing the impact, status, entity and autonomous existence of Nsukka Local Government in the development of their grass root.

1.1         STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The rate of interference and control which the State and Federal Government put on Nigerian Local Government cannot be over emphasized. This which has eaten up the Local Government, does not only affect the Local Government Chairmen and Councilors but as well as the local people who feel neglected in the National cake, resources, and revenue allocations, the high rate of over dependency by the Local Government on the federal and state Government in terms of finance administration. Some Authors, scholar and Administrator argue that this tier of government should be scraped away irrespective of it’s constitutional and legal frame work.

To the Chairman and Councilors, it posses a problem as regards to law making, policies and implementation functions allocated to them by the constitution.

Administratively, the personnel and human resources management of the Local Government in term of recruitment, promotion, security and disciplines staff within it’s area of jurisdiction is not free and fair. The State and Federal Government control them through the introduction of the integrated staff system.

Financially, Local Government do not enjoy autonomy. Their freedom to impose local taxes, generate and allocate revenue within it’s assigned source, allocates it’s financial and material resources, determine and authorize it’s budget is greatly influence by both the Federal and State Government. The statutory allocation which they receive through the State -joint Local Government Account is highly hampered by the State Governors.

Therefore, it is these view that the researcher deem it necessary to examine and access how autonomous Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu state is in relation to grass root development.

  • PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The main objectives of this research work is to determine how Local Government Autonomy has affected the grass root development in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu State.

However, in specific terms, the study is based at the following points:

I       To acertain whether the process of law making and policy implementation by the Councilors and Chairmen affects the grass root development of Nsukka Local Government Area.

ii      To determine how the personnel Administration of Nsukka Local Government Area hampers it’s grass root development

iii     To determine whether State interference in the financial allocation of Nsukka Local Government affects it’s grass root development.

1.3   RESEARCH QUESTION

The following research questions has been constructed as a guide to the success of this research work in order to obtain a useful result.

I       To  what extent has the process of law making and policy implementation by the Councilors and Chairmen affects the grass  root development of Nsukka Local Government Area.

ii      To what extent has the personnel Administration in Nsukka Local Government hampers it’s grass root development.

iii     To what extent has the State interference in the financial allocation of Nsukka Local Government affects it’s grass root development.

1.4   STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS

Ho:   Law making process and policy implementation by the Councilors and Chairmen does not affect the grass root development of Nsukka Local Government Area.

Hi:    Law making process and policy implementation by the councilors and chairman does not affect the grass root development of Nsukka Local Government Area.

Ho:   The personnel Administration of Nsukka local government does not hamper it’s grass root development.

Hi:    The personnel Administration of Nsukka local government does not hamper it’s grass root development.

Ho:   The State interference in the financial allocation of Nsukka Local Government does not affect it’s grass root development.

Hi:    The State interference in the financial allocation of Nsukka Local Government does not affect it’s grass root development.

  • THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

The researcher employ General system theory in the course of this work.

This theory has so many writers on it such as Almond (1960), Easton (1965), Adamolekun (1983) and Offiong (1996). This theory argue that every system, including political system has a sub-system, including political system has a sub-system which make up the entire system. They have assigned function and provided with enabling empowerment, including resources, appropriate authority that enable them discharge their responsibility optimally.

 

Applying this brief exposition of the political system analysis to the Nigerian local government system, the local government in the country constitute the sub-system. They must be handled well in terms of being fed with adequate inputs (that is resources and appropriate authorities) as provided in the constitution of the federal republic of Nigeria so that they can contribute appropriately to the goals of Nigerian political system as well as it’s stability. Form these, it is very useful to realize the importance of the general system theory in handling Local Government Autonomy in Nigeria.

They has been assigned with responsibilities to perform which benefit the people, not as part of Federal or State Government. So, if Local Government is not treated as a sub-system, it will bring frustration to the performance of their function and on the long run bring dissatisfaction among the rural people and their National cake will be neglected too.

  • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This research work would be of benefit to the rural people in Nsukka Local Government of Enugu State. At the end of this work, the rural people will be able to enjoy their constitutional right which is rural development and when such is granted to them, they will no longer feel neglected in the National cake which has been their utmost need from the Local Government.

For scholars, researchers and Authors, they could also use or gather information to review this work and also use it as a reference to any related work they are writing since this work is reliable and validated.

1.7   SCOPE OF THE STUDY

Local Government Autonomy and Grass root development. A of study of Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu State.

1.8   LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The researcher encountered so many constraint while carrying out this research work. The problems and the solutions are as follows: lack of power supply by the Enugu electricity Distribution Company (EEDC) Since power supply has been a serious problem in Oko community, the researcher re-schedule reading at night to day time so as to avoid the problem of power supply.

Lack of fund: This problem was solved as it propel the researcher to borrow money from friend and families to supplement the cash saved before this work.

Lack of time: The researcher adjusted most of it’s programmes that does not add any value to the success of this work.

Lack of material: Since there is no sufficient material for the research work, the researcher joined a study group were most of the problems confronting the work is discussed and settle. The researcher equally made out time to visit the cyber café for more information so as to supplement the information gotten from study group.

These are the problems encountered by the researcher and how the researcher equally over come it so as to make this work successful.

 

1.9   DEFINITIONS OF TERMS

The following terms are used in this study which have unique meaning that could be subjected to different meaning form different persons; are defined as follows:

GOVERNMENT: It is a machinery through which the will of a State (country) is formulated expressed and attained

AUTONOMY: It is the freedom for a country, a region or an organization to govern itself independently; the ability to act and make decision without being controlled by anyone.

REFORM: This means the improvement or amendment of what is wrong, corrupt and unsatisfactory.

ORDINANCE: It is a degree or law promulgated by a state or National Government without the consent of the legislature such as for raising revenue through new taxes or mobilization of resources during an emergency.

AUTHORITY: It is define as the process or right to give order and enforce obedience.

ALLOCATION: It means an authorization to incur expenses or obligation up to a specific amount, purpose and within a specified period.

ENTITY EXISTENCE:  A Government or organization is said to be an entity if it has the ability with essential corporate power, names to engage into contract, sue and be sued and acquire properties.

DEVELOPMENT: It means a process in whitish something passes by degree to a different stage (especially a more advanced or mature stage).

GOVERNMENT AS A TIER: A government character and entity existence.

NATIVE: Characteristics of or existing by virtue of geographic origin.

ADMINISTRATION: Is all about getting things done with co-coordinated effort of man using effective use of other available resources to get things done.

PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT: It is that part of management process which is primarily concerned with human constituents in an organization.

CONSTITUTION: It is a whole body, fundamental laws, custom belief etc according to a particular state operation.

 

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INDUSTRIALIZATION AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT

INDUSTRIALIZATION AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT  (A STUDY OF IDEATO NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT IMO STATE

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thus examines how the process of industrialization in rural areas, could foster the development in Nigeria hinterland. It pays particular attention to rural communities in Ideato North Local Government of Imo State. In gathering the data for the study, we relied on primary and secondary sources of information. And adopted descriptive method of research in our analysis. The study submits or observes the existence of insufficient emphasis on rural development policies by successive government. Coupled with laxity in implementing few of such policies. It thus, submits that enhanced / aided localization of cottage industries could engender economic growth and development in rural areas.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction                                                                            1

  • Background of the study 1
  • Statement of the problem 3
  • Research questions 4
  • Purpose of the study 4
  • Significance of the study 4
  • Scope of the study 5
  • Limitations of the study 5
  • Operationalization / Definition of terms 6
  • Organization of the study 8

 

CHAPTER TWO

Literature review and Theoretical framework                          9

  • Literature Review 9
  • Theoretical framework 17

CHAPTER THREE

Research Methodology                                                                     20

3.1     Research design                                                                       20

3.2     Area of the study                                                                     20

3.3     Population of the study                                                                    20

3.4     Sample and Sampling Techniques                                           21

3.5     Methods of data collection                                                      21

3.6     Instruments of Data collection                                                          22

3.7     Reliability of the instruments                                                  22

3.8     Validity of the instruments                                                      22

3.9     Distribution and Retrieval of instruments                               23

3.10   Method of Data Analysis                                                        23

 

 

CHAPTER FOUR

Data presentation and Analysis                                                        24

  • Data presentation 24
  • Analysis of Research Questions 30
  • Interpretation of Results 31

 

CHAPTER FIVE

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation                          32

5.1     Summary                                                                                 32

5.2     Conclusion                                                                              33

5.3     Recommendation                                                                     34

References                                                                               36

Appendix                                                                                37

Questionnaires                                                                        38

 

 

LIST OF TABLES

 

Table 1: Demographic question 1

Table 2: Demographic question 2

Table  3: Demographic question 3

Table 4: Demographic question 4

Table 5: Research  question 1

Table 6: Research question 2

Table 7: Research question 3

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTROUDCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Most developing nations define industrialization as central objectives of their economic policy they see, industrialization goes with agricultural process as an integral part of growth and structural changes. Some economist and analyst are of the view  that industrialization plays a major in the economic growth and development of any nation.

In this work, effort is made to assess the impact of industrialization in economic growth of Nigeria. Since 56 years of nation’s independence, there were numerous economic activities undertaken by Nigerians. Nigerian were among the most active and insurious group of people in African. The economic activities were based mostly on primary production especially on agriculture, fishing and rearing of livestock.

The rural sector of Nigeria is, very vital in the socio-economic development equation of the nation. It is, as observed by Nyagba (2009) that the most important sector of the Nigerian population is the rural areas. For instance, the rural sector is the major source of capital formation for the country and a principal market for domestic manufactures (Olatunbosun, 1975). As a matter of fact, the rural areas engage in primary economic activities that form the foundation for the country’s economic development. Given the contributions of the rural sector to the national economy, enhancing the development of the sector should be central to government.

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1.2       STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The problem associated with the subject matter is as stated in the following:

  1. Inadequate capital:

            It is very difficult to raise sufficient fund in the rural area when income is low. The propensity to consume it will be high the state and central government spend so much on urban development and industries in the rural area because it citizen needs all those things for a better line hood.

  1. Lack of Skilled Workers:

There ate few of businessmen, they are forced to empty men from the urban centers because hey well trained and better equipped as result skilled workers are not found in the rural areas.

  1. Some Market for Industrial Goods:

many people are drive in poverty and penury, therefore industries produce goods that can be bought nearly by everybody example, shoes, plastics, utensil, cloths etc through population is high but people lack the necessary purchasing power.

  1. Shortage of Certain Materials:

Some law materials are not produce in the rural area, this fact militates against the setting up of some industries.

 

 

 

 

3

 

 

countries should be done. The arm is to lay guidelines for future administrative reforms that will be meaningful for national development.

2.2       THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK:

The theory of scientific management as was propounded by Frederick Winslow Taylor in the 1880s was adopted because of his strong believe that Taylor ejected the notion, which was universal in his day and still held today, that the trades, including manufacturing, were resistant to analysis and could only be performed by craft production methods. In the course of his empirical studies, Taylor examined various kinds of manual labour. For example, most bulk materials handling was manual at the time; material handling equipment as we know it today was mostly not developed yet. He looked at shoveling in the unloading of railroad cars full of ore; lifting and carrying in the moving of iron pigs at steel mills; the manual inspection of bearing balls; and others. He discovered many concepts that were not widely accepted at the time. For example, by observing workers, he decided that labour should include rest break so that the worker has time to recover from fatigue, either physical (as in shoveling or lifting) or mental (as in the ball inspection case). Workers were allowed to take more rests during work, are productivity increased as a result

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The scientific management theory which was propounded by Fredrick Taylor (1911) it concern was to improve organizational efficiently and economy for the sake of increased production. The most outstanding characteristic of scientific management was its view of man. Man was perceived as being an adjunct of the machine the primary objectives of scientific management was to make men as efficient i.e more like as the machine they operated. The views of this theory through are identified with Fredrick Taylor, he concentrated on intensive analysis of work processes at the level of the shop and individual worker. He also emphasized the need for professional management, the scientific study and design of work procedures and the creation of an ethics promotion the mutuality of interests between workers and the organization.

Thus, he concentrated on research and experiments intended to discover the “one best way” to carry out specific tasks. The management point of a business organization form the scientific management point of view is based upon four main principles (Frilley/House, Kerr 1996) which lead to attainment of economic efficiency which is major goal of a business.

  1. a) The development of an idea or best method. This includes: The primary analysis means of each job to determine the “one best way” of doing it; the primary means of analysis was time, motion and study.
  2. b) The scientific selection and progressive development of the woman. This involved selecting the person from particular job and training that person for the proper method.
  3. c) Scientific education and development of the workers for selection enough productivity. The combination of the best method and selection and trained workers. Taylor believed that this would cause a mental revolution on the part of management. The key to over coming workers resistance to the new methods was utilization of an lucrative system, whereby each worker was paid according to the number of units produced. It was therefore possible for workers under scientific management system to substantially increase their earnings.
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  1. d) The division of work and responsibility between management workers as an intimate cooperation between orders for the organization to function effectively, the close cooperation of managers and workers. This principle involved primarily a division of labour with manager assigned responsibility for planning and preparation of work.

The above four principles of management by Taylor resulted from this scientific analysis of tasks performed by workers in order so allow efficiency. Taylor and his followers insisted that it was possible to scientifically analyzer tasks performed by individual works in order to discover those procedures and resources. Efforts were output with minimum input of energies and resources. Efforts were concentrated on analyzing individual tasks, but attempts to rationalize labour at the level of the work of the individual worker inevitable led to changes in the entire structure of work arrangements (Scitt, 1981) he also, believed that such principles would result in increases efficiency and increased harmony form which all would benefit “scientific management can be justly and would benefit “scientific management can be justly and truthfully characterized as management in which harmony is the rule rather than discort”. Taylor ideas have been criticized for being dehumanizing, naïve and crude. This is the consistent complaint of the “behavioural” or human relations school.

In effect, the scientific management movement was concerned pharized tasks performance and the responsibility of management to plan, organize, advocacy of standardization of tools for specific tasks. Certain are better from handling certain kinds of material more efficiently. Management would know that such differences exists, then see to it that workers use the right equipment for particular tasks. Research also led to the demand for the selection and training of workers. Management and that observation and work, then train the person in the manner that observation and analysis indicated was scenically the best way accomplishing the work.

According to Taylor, workers should be viewed as extension of machines and scientific management by providing training and in manipulation pay scales, to make individual work produce more. The goal of scientific management of Taylorism was to maximize efficiency. The central theme in Taylor’s work was an obsession the inefficiency and incompetence, which he blamed on worker and managers.

 

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THE EFECT OF UNCONTROLABLE IMPORTATION ON INDEGINEOUS INDUSTRIES

THE EFFECT OF UNCONTROLLABLE IMPORTATION ON INDIGENOUS INDUSTRIES  (A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA BREWERIES PLC)

 

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ABSTRACT

 

The purpose of this study is to the effect of uncontrollable importation of indigenous industries with particular reference to Nigeria Breweries Enugu.

Due to the unprecedented growth in manufacturing and  Merchandising industries over the fears, inventory has been accorded the save cost of those industries.  It therefore follows that in trying to hold the industries in those manufacturing organization, the level of these should be adequately and properly controlled with the view to minimizing costs.

Hence, in conducting research, the researcher made use of oral interview and questionnaire she also reviewed other  related literatures necessary to provide the required date for study. The data collected for the study were analysed in tables using chi-squares.

The findings were that through the management lives as much as the can, there are lapses in inventory control system also on the valuation of stock, the researcher found out that the company uses the first-in-first-out (FIFO)method of stock valuation in valuing her stock.

This is because of inherent benefits in its and commanded by the SAS, /AS and SSAP.

Based on findings, we have recommended among other things that the local source of raw materials should be made to suppl7y the firm when required.

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • General background to the subject matter
  • Problems associated with the subject matter
  • Problems that the study will be concerned
  • Importance of studying the area
  • Definition of important terms
  • References

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

  • The origin of subject are
  • School of thoughts within the subject area
  • The school of relevant to the problem of study
  • Different methods of studying the problem
  • Summary
  • References

 

CHAPTER THREE

CONCLUSION

3.1     Data presentation

  • Data analysis
  • Recommendation
  • Reference

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 INTRODUCTION   GENERAL BACKGROUND TO THE SUBJECT MATTER

The president of manufacturing association of Nigeria, Rufus Giwa (200.p16) define industry thus:

“Industry, particularly, miniaturization is  the motive force for development. In fact, industrialization is more than engine of growth. It is also the catalyst for technological, financial and socio-economical advancement.

Trade, and more specifically foreign trade have astronomically been instrumental in man’s bids towards betterment of his lifer on earth.

Today, we can enjoy and make use of automobile made in far away Japan as if they  grow in air gradens. Other articles which we can’t dream of producing even in the next millennium liters our markets as if they were going out of fashion.  All these are courtesy of foreign trade and broadly on one  of its two-pronged  division. “Importation”. A very important concept is but like a two-edge sword, it can destroy if not carefully handled.

  1. A study on how foreign products crowd our market, and how our local industries are nose-division into oblivion show that we are  already receiving a fair does of rough handing under the sharp claws of this excessive importation.“The Nigeria trade Journal” of March/April 1980, analyzing our  trade statistics put the total of Beer and stout importation at N7,562,135. people shouted and rose dust over it that it is excessive, but what have we to say today that people 200m off from the country Just to import tooth picks and toilet tissues?The millions of graduates that our academic institutions turn out annually have their fate hanging over the balance. With hands supporting their checks , and all hope on divine intervention they helplessly watch as our few industries fold up in their hundreds.

    Retrenchment and counter retrenchment of workers have become so common as the few cresting ones battle to   break even and remain in contention. Consequently, unemployment and poor standard of living can’t be more adventurous.

    An it idle man they said is the devils tool coupling with the fact that both ends must meet, arm-robbery, fraud, bribery, corruption and other social vices exert domination. Hence our country can’t help wining the inglorious “most corrupt country” award in the year 2000.

    Our surviving industries virtually are at the end of their letter judging from the lamentable figures they post in their annual report as profit after exuberant tax from a government that don’t spare their selves a through about their welfare instead of re-investment or expansion, the  little token that will succeed  in dropping into their counter went into unreasonable advisement which they see as their last resort to remain in contention in the ever growing competitive market.

    These and many more have been the plight of our indigenous  industries consequently upon excessive importation. This work try to look into the effect of this practice and how to curtail its excessive. It will make a steep further to put forward, measures towards remaining the vandalized state of our indigenous industry.

     

     

    1.2     PROBLEM ASSOCIATED WITH THE SUBJECT MATTER

    The subject matter is that which have a hamper of problems under it care: below  are some of the them.

    1. DPERSSION AND DUMPING: With more and more goods from           broad finding their ways undisturbed and unrestrained into the country,           compiling with the locally made ones, a situation where supply  will           exceed demand  will emerge. And not only will our wobbled economy           and ingenious industries suffer a great depression, but also the nation           will be turned into in dumping ground.
    2. EXCESSIVE COMPETITION: Our weak industries became so much of       the market share from day to day fell to these foreign goods. and to fight back in their own effeminate way in order to still remain in contention,   our indigenous industries resort to aggressive promotion which drain their meager income and adversely effect their level of operation.

     

    iii.        UNEMPLOYMENT: With a generous portion of the market under            the..

 

 

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FUNCTIONS AND ACHIEVEMENTS OF GOVERNMENT SUPPORT AGENCIES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF ENTERPRENUERSHIP IN ENUGU STATE.

FUNCTIONS AND ACHIEVEMENTS OF GOVERNMENT SUPPORT AGENCIES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ENUGU STATE.

(A CASE STUDY OF NATIONAL DIRECTORATE OF EMPLOYMENT (N.D.E)

 

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TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE:

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study
  • Statement of the problem
  • Purpsoe of the study
  • Scope of the study
  • Research hypothesis
  • Significance of the study
  • Definition of terms

References

 

 

 

CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE

  • Introduction
  • Entrepreneurship development
  • Need, scope, and characteristics of entrepreneurship
  • Various government support agencies and their functions

References

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

  • Research design
  • Area of the study
  • Population of the study
  • Sample and sampling procedure/technique
  • Instrument of data collection
  • Validation of the instrument
  • Reliability of the instrument
  • Method of data collection
  • Method of data analysis

References

 

CHAPTER FOUR:

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

  • Presentation and analysis
  • Testing of hypothesis
  • Summary of results

References

 

CHAPTER FIVE

DISCUSSIONS, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION

  • Discussion of results/findings
  • Conclusions
  • Implications of the research findings
  • Recommendation
  • Limitations of the study
  • Suggestions for further research

References

Bibliography

Appendages/appendices

Questionnaires.

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Entrepreneurship started when people began to produce more products than they required, as such they had to exchange these surplus with others who also wanted to dispose off their surplus. By this way, producers came to realize that they can concentrated in their areas of production to produce more and then exchange with what they needed. Therefore, through this exchange of products, entrepreneurship started.

According to Schumpeter (1961) Entrepreneurship means doing new things or doing  things that are already being done in a new way.

Nnenna B.Ani (1999) described entrepreneurship as a creative and innovative response to the environment such responses can take place in any field of social endavour, for instance, in business industry, agriculture, education, social work and the like.

An entrepreneur is different from a manager who only plans organizes and controls a business idea after it has been successfully initiated by the entrepreneur”Lawal A.A Et Al (1998), According to Ani Nnnenna B. (1999) a typically Nigeria entrepreneur is self made man who ,might be said to have strong will to succeed, he might engage the services of others like friends, mates, in laws etc to help him in his work or production through this way Nigerians in the olden days  were engaged in entrepreneurship”. Early entrepreneurship characterized with production or manufacturing in which case the producer most often started with a small capital, most of it from his own savings. Early entrepreneurship started with trade by barter even before the advent of any form of money.

In Nigerian modern entrepreneurship started with the coming of the Colonial masters, who brought in their wears and made Nigerians their  middlemen. Most of the modern entrepreneur were engaged in retail trade or sole proprietorship.

One of the major factors that has in many ways discouraged the flow of entrepreneurship development in this country is the value system brought about by formal education. For many decades formal education has been the preserve of the privilege. With formal education, people had the opportunity of being employed in civil service, because in those days the economy was large enough to absorb into the prestigious occupation all Nigerians with some form of formal education. The value system discouraged entrepreneurship  in Nigeria for the colonial masters to solve their goods, because if Nigerians continue to be enterprising, they would not have had market for their goods. as such, the system made Nigerians to be depends on the colonial masters to supply her with the needed products.

Again , the contract between Nigerian entrepreneurs and foreign entrepreneurs during the colonial era was very detrimental and the  competitive business strategy of the foreign entrepreneurs was ruinous and also against moral standards established by the society. For example, the united African company (UAO) that was responsible for a sustain percentage of the  import and export trade of Nigerian, has the policy of dealing directly with produced and refused to make use of the service of Nigeria entrepreneurs. The refusal of the expatriate to utilize the services of local business man inhibited the expansion and acquisition of necessary skills and attitude. For this reasons many eventually folded up. Hose that folded built up a resentment against business which become very demoralizing to other prospective entrepreneurs. As a result, the flow of entrepreneurship in the country was slowed down. But with more people being educated and the fact that government could no longer employ most school leavers, economy programs to encourage individuals to go into private business and self reliant were initiated (Theodore Gieger in Nwachukwu C.C (1990).

In view of the impact of entrepreneurship in improving the socio-economic conditions of the state, the government  have made initiatives to promote indigenous entrepreneurship in small scale business. According to Lawal A.A 91998:2) typically actions of the government take the form of policy initiatives and directives to organization such as ministry of commerce and industry, national directorate of employment, ministry of labour and productivity, center for management development, research institutes to act as executing agencies with responsibility for stimulating, supporting and sustaining entrepreneurship development.

The researcher believes that a study of the functions as well as the achievement of the national directorate of employment (NDE) in Enugu state would help to evaluate the role of government support agencies in entrepreneurship development within the state.

 

1.2     STATE,MENT OF THE PROBLEM.

In Enugu state, various government support agencies have been set up by the government to assist entrepreneurship development and encourage the rapid development of small and medium scale industries. These agencies were established because government owned organization can no longer cope with employment of graduates and school leavers. Further more, the graduates and school leavers have to establish their own small business, which will help in solving the problems of unemployment and economic development.

Therefore, in carrying out this research it is very important to study the problems listed below.

  1. Examine the mandates for establishing the NDE.

 

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