Category Archives: Sociology and Anthropology project samples

GENDER INEQUALITY AND WOMEN PARTICIPATION IN POLITICS

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COMPLETE PROJECT  MATERIAL COST 5000 NAIRA OR $10 , 

. A FRESH TOPIC NOT LISTED ON OUR WEBSITE COST 50,000 NAIRA ( UNDERGRADUATE) OR 100,000 FOR SECOND DEGREE STUDENTS. $500. PLUS  FREE SUPPORT UNTIL YOU FINISH YOUR PROJECT WORK. CONTACT US TODAY, WE MAKE A DIFFERENT. DESIGN AND WRITING IS OUR SKILLED.  DESIGN AND WRITING IS OUR SKILLED.

Note: our case study can be change to suit your desire location . we are here for your success.

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MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
 GTBANK
Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment :
Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
 Account Number:  0117780667. 
Swift Code: GTBINGLA 
Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANKER SECURITY GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>DELIVERY PERIOD FOR BANK PAYMENT IS  LESS THAN 2 HOURS

How to transfer from your bank account to All  Nigeriabanks

1. Access Bank:
—-*901#

2. EcoBank:
—-*326#

3. Fidelity Bank:
—-*770#

4. FCMB:
—-*389*214#

5. First Bank
—-*894#

6. GTB:
—-*737#

7. Heritage Bank:
—-*322*030#

8. Keystone Bank:
—-*322*082#

9. Sky Bank:
—-*389*076*1#

10. Stanbic IBTC:
—-*909#

11. Sterling Bank:
—-*822#

12. UBA:
—-*389*033*1#

13. Unity Bank:
—-*322*215#

14. Zenith Bank:
—-*966#

15. Diamond Bank
—-*710*555#

To know your BVN, dial
—-*565*0#.

E.g for First bank…   *894 *Amount *Acct. No. #

Please dail d code from d number u used to register d account from the bank

CALL OKEKE CHIDI C ON :  08074466939,08063386834.

AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO

08074466939 or 08063386834, YOUR PROJECT TITLE  YOU WANT US TO SEND TO YOU, AMOUNT PAID, DEPOSITOR NAME, UR EMAIL ADDRESS,PAYMENT DATE. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR MATERIAL IN LESS THAN 2 HOURS ONCE WILL CONFIRM YOUR PAYMENT.

WE HAVE SECURITY IN OUR BUSINESS.   

MONEY BACK GUARANTEE

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1            Background of the Study

Gender inequality has been an issue for several centuries, the world over. Though history has it that fewer women have been in power even before colonialism. Instances are the Queen of Daura, the Sarauniya of Zazzau in pre-jihad, the Angwu Tsi who was almost the counterpart of the King, with her own Palace, in the middle belt, Iyayun the Queen who ruled in fifteenth century in Oyo, after the death of her husband (Modupe, 2001). Though from the foregoing, it will be seen that very, very few women have had the opportunity in a leadership position, yet in every one or single case of women, there are several hundreds of the male counterparts.

Sexism has become a major problem in Nigerian politics. Women have been politically considered endangered species and their low participation in Nigerian government and politics is often associated with culture, religious, economic constraint and male chauvinism. The African society in general and Nigerian society in particular has placed most of the leadership roles on the men folk, thereby championing the course of gender inequality.

Economically, some feminist perceive women’s marginality in the conduct and management of the public affairs as arising from their entrenchment of the globalized capitalists relations of production. The traditional society did not recognize the contributions of women in any decision making process. The women are carefully ignored in any important meeting of the family, community and even in government establishments. Till today, community development meetings are always held at night thereby making it impossible for most women to attend.

A relationship, which ensures that majority of Nigerian women are peasants and home makers. Nonetheless, feminists have failed to fundamentally unravel in their explanatory analysis to the feminine gender self-emulating attitudes. Feminine gender-self-destructive factors is the decline of women participation in government and it is often lay in exist analysis, for instance, the 1991 population census put the number of Nigerian women at about 44 million which is almost 50%, and by implication, half of the Nigerian electorates (National Population Census Commission). This electoral power has not been converted to assertive feminine electoral and political advantages over the years (NNCC Report, 1991).

In recent past, however, especially in the wake of the millennium and also in the 2011 general elections, many women have risen up to the challenges of the time. Many women have come to assume leadership positions in both politics and religion. This is a giant step in the right direction as it will go a long way in breaking the jinx of gender inequality and male chauvinism in Nigeria society.

The 2011 general elections presented women with good opportunities to navigate the way to power, those in attendance were female legislators, representative of various women’s groups, women and male gender activists, the market women’s association, professional associations and media practitioners. All these groups of women are after the actualizing the 35% Affirmative Action Committee by President Goodluck Ebele Jonathan.

The 2011 general election was seen as a good platform to authenticate the voting pattern of Nigerian women. It is truly evident the active participation and the support of women to the 2011 campaigns and elections, hence the need for reflection and focused advocacy for the conscious and quality inclusion of women in the structures of the newly elected government and parliament through clear pronouncements and action (AIT’s Focus Nigeria, 2012).

 

 

1.2               Statement of Research Problem

Gender inequality especially in the political arena is a serious challenge being faced by women in Kaduna State.

The statement of the problem therefore, is the issue of economic disadvantage which might have impacted negatively on the women’s participation in the 2011 general election in Kaduna State.

EFFECT OF GENDER AND LOCALITY ON ALTRUISTIC BEHAVIOR AMONG ADULTS.

EFFECT OF GENDER AND LOCALITY ON ALTRUISTIC BEHAVIOR AMONG ADULTS.

 

Click here to download our android mobile app to your phone  for more materials and others

COMPLETE PROJECT  MATERIAL COST 3000 NAIRA

ORDER NOW

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
 GTBANK
Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>DELIVERY PERIOD FOR BANK PAYMENT IS  LESS THAN 1 HOUR

Call customer care on: 08063386834,

 

These are some of the higher institutions in Nigeria website we partner with in research. You can get information on the schools through their websites below.

COLLEGE OF EDUCATION

Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo, .

Alvan Ikoku College of Education, Owerri, .

Alvan Ikoku College of Education, Owerri, .

Federal College of Educ. Abeokuta, .

Federal College of Education, Eha-Amufu, .

Federal College of Education, Kano, .

Federal College of Education, Katsina, .

Federal college of Education, Kontagora, .

Federal College of Education, Obudu, .

Federal College of Education, Okene, .

Federal College of Education, Okene, .

Federal College of Education, Pankshin, .

 Federal College of Education, Yola, .

Federal College of Education, Zaria, .

Federal College of Education (Technical), Akoka, .

Federal College of Education (Technical), Asaba, .

Federal College of Education (Technical), Bichi, .

Federal College of Education (Technical), Gombe, .

Federal College of Education (Technical), Gusau, .

Federal College of Education (Technical), Omoku, .

Federal College of Education (Special) Oyo, .

State college of education Past Questions, jamb exam, jamb registration Form And Admissions List

College of Education, Agbor, .

Akwa-Ibom State College of Education, Afaha-Nsit, .

College of Education, Akwanga, .

College of Education, Akwanga, .

Cross River State College of Education, Akamkpa, .

Adamu Augie College of Education, Argungu, .

College of Education, Azare, .

Bayelsa State College of Education, Okpoama, .

Emmanuel Alyande College of Education, Oyo, .

Enugu State College of Education (Tech.) Enugu, .

College of Education, Ekiadolor, .

Umar Suleiman College of Education, Gashua, .

College of Education, Gindiri, .

Michael Otedola College of Primary Education, Moforiji, .

College of Education, Port Harcourt, .

Adeniran Ogunsanya College of Education, Otto, .

Tai Solarin College of Education, Ijebu-Ode, .

Tai Solarin College of Education, Ijebu-Ode, .

Ebonyi State College of Education, Ikwo, .

College of Education, Ikere, .

College of Education, Ilesha, .

College of Education, Ilesha, .

College of Education, Ilorin, .

College of Education, Jalingo, .

Kano State College of Education, Kumbotso, .

College of Education, Benue, .

Kebbi State College of Education, Argungu, .

College of Education, Minna, .

Nwafor Orizu College of Education, Nsugbe, .

College of Education, Oju, .

College of Education, Oro, .

College of Education, Oro, .

Oyo State College of Education, Oyo, .

www.eacoedoyo.com

College of Education, Warri, .

College of Education, Warri, .

FCT College of Education, Zuba, .

 

Private college of education in Nigeria Past Questions, jamb exam, jamb registration Form And Admissions List

Angel Crown College of Education, Gidan-Daya, .

Elder Oyama Memorial College of Education, Ofat-Adun, .

Assanusiyah College of Education, Odeomu, .

African Thinkers Community of inquiry College of Education, .

Best Legacy College of Education, Ikirun, .

 

Bauchi Institute for Arabic and Islamic Studies, .

Calvin Foundation College of Education, Naka, .

Harvard Wilson College of Education, Aba, .

Hill College of Education, Akwanga, .

Institute of Ecumenical Education, Enugu, .

College of Education, Foreign Links Campus Moro, .

College of Education, Foreign Links Campus Moro, .

Diamond College of education aba . past questions,jamb news, admission form and list

Muhyideen College of Education, Ilorin, .

ONIT College of Education, Abagana, .

The African Church College of Education, Lagos, .

St. Augustine College of Education, Yaba, .

Yewa Central College of Education, Ogun, .

 

List of all the Federal Polytechnics in Nigeria

Air Force Institute of Technology Nigerian Air Force,

Air Force Institute of Technology Nigerian Air Force,  Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Unwana, .

 

Nigeria Army School of Military Engineering, 

Federal Polytechnic, Ado-Ekiti

 

Federal Polytechnic, Ado-Ekiti

 

Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi,

 

Federal Polytechnic, Bida,

 

Federal Polytechnic, Bida,

 

Federal Polytechnic, Damaturu,

 

Federal Polytechnic, Ede, Osun State,

 

 Federal Polytechnic, Ida,

 

 Federal Polytechnic, Ilaro,

 

Federal Polytechnic, Ile-Oluji, Ondo State,

 

Federal Polytechnic, Mubi,

 

Federal Polytechnic, Namoda,

 

Federal Polytechnic, Nassarawa,

 

Federal Polytechnic, Nekede,

 

Federal Polytechnic, Nekede,

 

Federal Polytechnic, Offa,

 

 Federal Polytechnic, Offa

 

 Federal Polytechnic, Oko,

 

Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna,

 

Hussaini Adamu Federal Polytechnic,

 

Nigeria Army School of Military Engineering,

 

Federal College of Animal Health and Production Technology,

 

Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic Birnin Kebbit

 

Yaba College of Tech, past questions,

 

List of State Polytechnics in Nigeria

 Abraham Adesanya Polytechnic,

 

 Adamawa State Polytechnic,

 

Akwa-Ibom State Polytechnic, Ikot-Osurua,

 

Benue State Poly, Ugbokolo,

 

Gateway Polytechnic, Igbesa,

 

Rufus Giwa Polytechnic,

 

Rufus Giwa Polytechnic,

 

The Polytechnic, Ibadan, .

 

Institute of Mgt. and Tech, .

 

Imo State Polytechnic, Umuagwo, .

 

Kano State Polytechnic, .

 

Kogi State Polytechnic, Lokoja, .

 

Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin, .

 

Lagos State Poly, Ikorodu, .

 

Moshood Abiola Poly, .

 

Nasarawa State Polytechnic, .

 

Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic, .

 

Delta State Polytechnic, Ogwashi-Uku, .

 

Osun State Poly, Iree, .

 

Osun State Poly, Iree, .

 

Osun State College of Tech, Esa-Oke, .

 

Delta State Polytechnic, Ozoro, .

 

Plateau State Polytechnic, Barkin-Ladi, .

 

Adamawa State Poly, .

 

Rivers State College of Arts and Science, .

 

Rivers State College of Arts and Science, .

 

Rivers State Polytechnic, .

 

Gateway Polytechnic Saapade, .

 

Edo State Inst. of Tech and Mgt, Usen, .

 

Niger State Poly, Zungeru, Niger State, .

 

 

List of Private Polytechnics in Nigeria

 

Allover Central Polytechnic, .

 

Crown Polytechnics, .

 

Covenant Polytechnic, .

 

Dorben Polytechnic, Bwari-Garam Road, .

 

Fidei Polytechnic, Gboko, .

 

Grace Polytechnic, .

 

Grace Polytechnic, .

 

Igbajo Polytechnic, .

 

The Polytechnic, Ile-Ife, NITEL Road, .

 

Lagos City Poly, Ikeja, Lagos State, .

 

Light House Polytechnic, Eubuobanosa, .

 

Interlink Polytechnic, .

 

Kings Polytechnic, Ubiaja, .

 

RONIK Polytechnic, .

 

Shaka Polytechnic, Polytechnic, Benin city, .

 

Temple-Gate Polytechnic, .

 

Wolex Polytechnic, .

 

Prime Polytechnic, .

 

The Polytechnic Imesi-Ile, Osun, .

 

Heritage Polytechnic, Ikot Udota, .

 

Ibadan City Polytechnic, .

 

 

 

List of State Polytechnics in Nigeria

 

 Abraham Adesanya Polytechnic, Ijebu-Igbo, .

 

Abia State Polytechnic, .

 

Adamawa State Polytechnic, .

 

Akwa-Ibom State Polytechnic, Ikot-Osurua, .

 

Benue State Poly, Ugbokolo, .

 

Gateway Polytechnic, Igbesa, .

 

Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, .

 

Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, .

 

 

The Polytechnic, Ibadan, .

 

Institute of Mgt. and Tech, .

 

Imo State Polytechnic, Umuagwo, .

 

Kano State Polytechnic, .

 

Kogi State Polytechnic, Lokoja, .

 

Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin, .

 

Lagos State Poly, Ikorodu, .

 

Moshood Abiola Poly, .

Nasarawa State Polytechnic, .

 

Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic, .

 

Delta State Polytechnic, Ogwashi-Uku, .

 

Osun State Poly, Iree, .

 

Osun State Poly, Iree, .

 

 

Osun State College of Tech, Esa-Oke, .

 

Delta State Polytechnic, Ozoro, .

 

Plateau State Polytechnic, Barkin-Ladi, .

 

Adamawa State Poly, .

 

Rivers State College of Arts and Science, .

 

Rivers State College of Arts and Science, .

 

 

Rivers State Polytechnic, .

 

Gateway Polytechnic Saapade, .

 

Edo State Inst. of Tech and Mgt, Usen, .

 

Niger State Poly, Zungeru, Niger State, .

 

 

List of Private Polytechnics in Nigeria

 

Allover Central Polytechnic, .

 

Crown Polytechnics, .

Covenant Polytechnic, .

 

Dorben Polytechnic, Bwari-Garam Road, .

 

Fidei Polytechnic, Gboko, .

 

Grace Polytechnic, .

 

Grace Polytechnic, .

 

 

Igbajo Polytechnic, .

 

The Polytechnic, Ile-Ife, NITEL Road, .

 

Lagos City Poly, Ikeja, Lagos State, .

 

Light House Polytechnic, Eubuobanosa, .

 

Interlink Polytechnic, .

 

Kings Polytechnic, Ubiaja, .

 

RONIK Polytechnic, .

 

Shaka Polytechnic, Polytechnic, Benin city, .

 

Temple-Gate Polytechnic, .

 

Wolex Polytechnic, .

 

Prime Polytechnic, .

 

The Polytechnic Imesi-Ile, Osun, .

 

Heritage Polytechnic, Ikot Udota, .

 

Ibadan City Polytechnic, .

List of Federal Universities in Nigeria

 

Abubakar Tafawa Belewa University, .

 

Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, .

 

Bayero University, Kano, .

 

Federal University, Gashua, .

 

Federal University of Tech, Akure, .

 

Federal University of Petroleum Resources, Effurun, .

 

Federal University of Technology, Minna, .

 

Federal University of technology, Owerri, .

 

Federal University Dutse, .

 

Federal University Dutsin-Ma, .

 

Federal University, Ndufu-Alike, .

 

Federal University, Otuoke, .

 

Federal University, Wukari, .

 

Federal University, Birnin Kebbi, .

 

Federal University, Gusau

 

Michael Okpara Univeristy of Agric, Umudike, .

 

Modibbo Adama University of Tech, Yola, .

 

National Open University of Nigeria, .

 

Nigeria Police Academy Wudil, .

 

Nigeria defense Academy, Kaduna, .

 

Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, .

 

Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, .

 

University of Abuja, Gwagwalada, .

 

University of Agriculture Abeokuta, .

 

University of Agriculture Markurdi, .

 

University of Benin, .

 

University of Calabar, .

 

University of Lagos, .

 

University of Maiduguri, .

 

University of Nigeria Nsukka, .

 

University of Port-Harcourt, .

 

University of Uyo, .

 

Usmanu Danfodiyo University, .

 

 

 

List of State Universities in Nigeria admission list

 

Abia State University, Uturu, .

 

Adamawa State University, Mubi, .

 

Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba, .

 

Amrose Alli University, Ikot Akpaden, .

 

Anambra State University of Sc. & Tech, Uli, .

 

Anambra State University of Sc. & Tech, Uli, .

 

Bauchi State Unibversity, Gadau, .

 

Benue State University Markurdi, .

 

Bukar Abba Ibrahim University, Damaturu, .

 

Cross River State University of Sc. & Tech, Calabar, .

 

Delta State University Abraka, .

 

Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, .

 

Ekiti State University, .

 

Enugu State University of Sc. & Tech. Enugu, .

 

Gombe State University, Gombe

 

Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, .

 

Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, .

 

Imo state University,Owerri, .

 

Jigawa State University, .

 

Kaduna State University, Kaduna .

 

Kano University of Sc. & Tech, Wudil

 

Kebbi State University, Kebbi, .

 

Kogi State University, Anyigba, .

 

Kwara State University, Ilorin, .

 

Ladoke Akintola university of Tech, .

 

Lagos State University Ojo, .

 

Nasarawa State University, Keffi, .

 

Niger Delta University, Yenagoe, .

 

Olabisi Onabanjo University Ago-Iwoye, .

 

Ondo State University of Sc. & Tech, Okitipupa, .

 

Osun State University, Oshogbo, .

 

Plateau State University, Bokkos, .

 

Rivers State University of Sc. & Tech, .

 

Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijebu-ode, .

 

Taraba State University, Jalingo, .

 

Umaru Musa Yar’Adua University, .

 

Private Universities

Achievers University, Owo, .

 

Adeleke University, Ede, .

 

Afe Babalola University, Ado- Ekiti, .

 

African University of Sc. & Tech, Abuja, .

 

Al-hikmah University, Ilorin, .

 

Ajayi Crowther University, Ibadan, .

 

Al-Qalam University, Katsina, .

 

American University of Nigeria, Yola, .

 

Babcock University, Ilishan, .

 

Baze University, .

 

Bells University of Technology, Otta, .

 

Benson Idahosa University, Benin, .

 

Bingham University, New Karu, .

 

Bowen University, Iwo, .

 

Caleb University, Lagos, .

 

Caritas University, Enugu, .

 

CETEP City University, Lagos, .

 

Covenant University, Ota, .

 

Crawford University, Igbesa, .

 

Crescent University, .

 

Elizade University, Ilara-mokin, .

 

Fountain University, Oshogbo, .

 

Gregory University, Uturu, .

 

Hallmark University, .

 

Igbinedion University, Okada

 

Joseph Ayo Babalola University,Ikeji, .

 

Kwararafa University, Wukari, .

 

Lead City University, Ibadan, .

 

Madonna University, Okija

 

Mcpherson University, Seriki

 

Nigerian-Turkish Nile University, Abuja, .

 

Novena University, Ogume, .

 

Obong University, Obong Ntak, .

 

Oduduwa University, Ipetumodu, .

 

Pan-African University, Lagos, .

Paul University, Awka, .

Redeemer’s University, Mowe, .

Renaissance University, Enugu, .

Salem University, Lokoja, .

Tansian University, Umunya, .

University of Mkar

Veritas University, .

Wellspring University, Edo, .

Wesley University of Sc. & Tech, Ondo, .

Western Delta University, Oghara

THE NATURE AND CONSEQUENCES OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY IN NIGERIA

THE NATURE AND CONSEQUENCES OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY IN NIGERIA: A STUDY OF ENUGU NORTH LGA, ENUGU STATE

 

Click here to download our android mobile app to your phone  for more materials and others

COMPLETE PROJECT  MATERIAL COST 5000 NAIRA OR $10 , 

. A FRESH TOPIC NOT LISTED ON OUR WEBSITE COST 50,000 NAIRA ( UNDERGRADUATE) OR 100,000 FOR SECOND DEGREE STUDENTS. $500. PLUS  FREE SUPPORT UNTIL YOU FINISH YOUR PROJECT WORK. CONTACT US TODAY, WE MAKE A DIFFERENT. DESIGN AND WRITING IS OUR SKILLED.  DESIGN AND WRITING IS OUR SKILLED.

Note: our case study can be change to suit your desire location . we are here for your success.

                                   ORDER NOW

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
 GTBANK
Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment :
Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
 Account Number:  0117780667. 
Swift Code: GTBINGLA 
Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANKER SECURITY GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

 

form>DELIVERY PERIOD FOR BANK PAYMENT IS  LESS THAN 2 HOURS

How to transfer from your bank account to All  Nigeriabanks

1. Access Bank:
—-*901#

2. EcoBank:
—-*326#

3. Fidelity Bank:
—-*770#

4. FCMB:
—-*389*214#

5. First Bank
—-*894#

6. GTB:
—-*737#

7. Heritage Bank:
—-*322*030#

8. Keystone Bank:
—-*322*082#

9. Sky Bank:
—-*389*076*1#

10. Stanbic IBTC:
—-*909#

11. Sterling Bank:
—-*822#

12. UBA:
—-*389*033*1#

13. Unity Bank:
—-*322*215#

14. Zenith Bank:
—-*966#

15. Diamond Bank
—-*710*555#

To know your BVN, dial
—-*565*0#.

E.g for First bank…   *894 *Amount *Acct. No. #

Please dail d code from d number u used to register d account from the bank

CALL OKEKE CHIDI C ON :  08074466939,08063386834.

AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO

08074466939 or 08063386834, YOUR PROJECT TITLE  YOU WANT US TO SEND TO YOU, AMOUNT PAID, DEPOSITOR NAME, UR EMAIL ADDRESS,PAYMENT DATE. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR MATERIAL IN LESS THAN 2 HOURS ONCE WILL CONFIRM YOUR PAYMENT.

WE HAVE SECURITY IN OUR BUSINESS.   

MONEY BACK GUARANTEE!!!

 

 

ABSTRACT

 

Juvenile delinquency is seen as one of the menace that destroys life and property in our society today. Because of the nature of crime committed by juvenile parents, guidance, sponsors and well wishers are worried and disturbed about our future leaders. Crime associated with juvenile include: rape, stealing, kleptomanism, burglary, disobedience, homicide, truancy, vandalization and robbery etc. therefore, this study seeks to look at the nature and consequences of juvenile delinquency. The objective of this study aims at finding out why juvenile engage in delinquent act, why juvenile offenders continue in crime after being punished or sanctioned, what Nigeria government needs to do inorder to improve or educate juvenile about crime and the negative impact of crime on individual and society at large. However, the expected outcome of this study is that to reduce or eradicate juvenile delinquency in our society government and voluntary organization should be involved in the following ways: Government should provide employment opportunities for youths, greater thought should be given to setting up more amenities in the rural areas, stoppage of pornographic films and some American films, where our youths learns techniques in stealing and destroying properties, parents should adopt method of positive and negative reinforcement and government should educate or enlightening parent on the effects of unmet needs like starvation (food), parental care and affection etc. on their children to enable them (parents) make adjustment. Method of data collection used in this study was only questionnaire.

 

vii

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Title Page i
Approval Page ii
Dedication iii
Acknowledgement – iv
Abstract vi
Table of Contents vii
CHAPTER ONE:  INTRODUCTION – 1
1.1 Background to the Study – 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem – 3
1.3 Research Questions 5
1.4 Objectives of the Study 5
1.5 Significance of the Study – 6
1.6 Definition of Terms 7
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 9
2.1 An Overview of Juvenile Delinquency 9
2.2 Causes of Juvenile Delinquency in Nigeria 10
2.2.1 Biological Cause 10
2.2.2 Parental Cause 11
2.2.3 Societal Cause 12
2.3 Consequences of Juvenile Delinquency in Nigeria 14
2.4 Review of Related Theories 15
2.4.1 Social Learning Theory 15
2.4.2 Social Strain Theory 16
2.4.3 Behavioural Theory 17
2.5 Theoretical Framework 18

 

viii

 

 

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY 19
3.1 Research Design 19
3.2 Study Area  – 20
3.3 Population of the Study 20
3.4 Sample Size – 21
3.5 Sampling Technique 21
3.6 Instruments for Data Collection – 21
3.7 Method of Data Collection 22
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND
ANALYSIS – 23

 

  • Presentation of Personal Characteristic of
Respondents – 24
4.2 Analysis of Research Questions – 26
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND
RECOMMENDATION 37
5.1 Summary 37
5.2 Conclusion 38
5.3 Recommendation 38
REFERENCES 40
APPENDIX 42

 

1

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

 

  • Background to the Study

 

Juvenile delinquency is that behaviour on the part of children

 

which may, under the law, subject those children to juvenile court. Tappan (1972:12) assertjuveniledelinquencythatsprang“the n up from different abnormal behaviour such as stealing, drunkenness,

 

burglary, robbery, rape, homicide, idleness, truancy, prostitution, disobedience, running away from home, kleptomanism and sexual promiscuity. Furthermore, it is nothing but a fact to say that juvenile offenders who after serving a good or complete numbers of his or her punishment in prison and still continue in deviance is because they are associated with adult prisoners. In this regard Mr. Sanusi, project Director of Lawyers continued Education Project (LAWCEP) maintained that “in our society, unduly, the young offender spends more time with hardened criminals

 

 

 

than elsewhere.

 

2

 

 

Different forms of delinquency have been with man as far back as we can think but modern trends have made them take a very sharp rise. Glucks (1959) found out that juvenile delinquency is not a new occurrence during adolescent years but rather a continuation of anti-social behaviours from childhood due to environmental subjections or family problems affecting his mental development. That is to say that there exit a close link between delinquency and the home environment of the juvenile. The earliest known code of laws (the Code of Hammurabi) took specific note of the duties of children to parents and prescribed punishments for violations. As legal systems were elaborated, the age of offenders continued to be important in defining responsibility for criminal behaviour.

 

The Nigerian constitution of 1979 defines juvenile delinquency as

 

“a crime committed r thebyage aof 18youngyearsasa pers result of trying to comply with the wishes of his peers or to escape from

 

parental pressure or certain emotional stimulation’Beforeyouth. in Nigeria is classified a delinquent, he must have been arraigned before a juvenile court and proved to be guilty of some offences. Examples of

 

3

 

 

such offences are habitual truancy, drug addiction, prostitution, stealing, cultism, armed robbery etc. The consequences that juvenile delinquency has caused to Nigerian society are not only devastating but numerous. They destroy both lives and property and they also retard the growth of this country.

 

Juvenile delinquency has also contributed to the bad image of our country (Nigeria). For the fact that most of the delinquent want to get rich quick, corruption and ritual killings has become the order of the day in coming to our political sphere, they have turn politics into a do or die affair where thuggery and fighting is the norm. This has made politics in our country (Nigeria) a dangerous venture.

 

 

 

  • Statement of the Problem

 

If  an  investigation  or  a  study  is  carried  out  about  juvenile

 

 

delinquency in Nigeria, the result will definitely show that cases like rampant stealing, armed robbery, prostitution, manslaughter, drug addiction, vandalization, truancy, murder, rape, cultism, burglary and

 

4

 

 

kleptomanism and many other crimes and delinquent behaviour are common among the youth.

 

Because of the alarming rate of juvenile delinquency in our country today, governments, parents, guidance, sponsors, teachers, moralists and well meaning Nigerians have all picked interest on its adverse effects in our society. Also the increasing waves of juvenile delinquency in

IMPACT OF ORPHANAGE HOME ON THE CHILD PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT

IMPACT OF ORPHANAGE HOME ON THE CHILD PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT

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11. Sterling Bank:
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12. UBA:
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13. Unity Bank:
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14. Zenith Bank:
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15. Diamond Bank
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CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

1.1   Background of the Study

The orphanage home is one of the numerous social institution that have emerged over the year to carter for some of the social needs  of orphanage associated with such problems.

 

Motherless  babies  have nowadays  become common because of the moral decadence of the society young people who cannot cater  for themselves find themselves  put in the   family  way they end  up find abandoning those innocent helpless babies.  The increasing hardship because of the present economic recession  has  increased the incidence of burden  family relationship and  the consequent loss  of firm control of  family members.

This has tended as evidence  by the  increasing number of abandoned babies such babies have become the central focus of the orphanage home the impact of orphanage home on child personality development that is the behaviour pattern of social behariour on child personality  development.

 

The research try to compare children between the age of one (1) month to three (3) years that grows up in orphanage home  to those that grow-up with their parent children  from the orphanage behave  in a unique pattern thereby displaying some certain social behaviour attitude that could be associated with the up bringing in the orphanage home. I want to find out the positive and negative aspect of orphanage home on children personality development generally.  Any baby that  lost his or her  parent  especially the mother by what every means  become mentally ill once it is discovered the illness is taken from the mother by the  orphanage   children abandon  in hospital  or on the street are taken to the orphanage home.

Social welfare services and training of professional social workers of all categories social workers can  succeed out making their contribution towards realizing their objective of government  in improving people welfare only after they have keenly understood the problem.

 

The causes and the effect of those people on he community the desertation is an attempt toward such changes taking place and their documentation the study will focus on the impact of the orphanage home on  child personality  development in the  later parts of his life.

 

The Kaduna orphanage home is the birth child of Jammiyyar Matan Arewa.

 

The Jamiyar Matan Arewa itself is a social organization of northern women  established on the 27th May 1963 it  was aimed at unifying the women folk and  providing hem with a  forum of welfare activities.

 

The organization was to  be non-political  and it membership was to be opened   to all  tribes religions or social status at the very first meeting of the Jammiyar Matan Arewa which took place in the house of General Hassan Usman Katsina a steering committee was set up to carry on the task of mobilizing women for the association and also to plan and organize fund raising  activities to meet up the financial obligation of  the association.

 

1.2   Statement of the Problem

Children brought up in the orphanage home cannot cope effectively with the outside world this display in their dispositions because most of them tend to be introverts and always want to keep to themselves in few causes they turn out to be backward in speed and verbal  intelligence.

According to Segmund Fraud (1945) children who grown  up in the orphanage home may likely to affected in their  culture tradition, and religion are  their interests  belief ambitions ideas and soon thus affecting the personality  development as their behaviors is not only more indiscriminate but more immature than those children who are with their natural parent. Hence the increase in various research as to find out the effectiveness and influence of these home (orphanage home) on the child personality development.

 

1.3   Purpose of the Study

PROBLEM OF UNEMPLOYMENT AMONG GRADUATES

PROBLEM OF UNEMPLOYMENT AMONG GRADUATES .

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How to transfer from your bank account to All  Nigeriabanks

1. Access Bank:
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2. EcoBank:
—-*326#

3. Fidelity Bank:
—-*770#

4. FCMB:
—-*389*214#

5. First Bank
—-*894#

6. GTB:
—-*737#

7. Heritage Bank:
—-*322*030#

8. Keystone Bank:
—-*322*082#

9. Sky Bank:
—-*389*076*1#

10. Stanbic IBTC:
—-*909#

11. Sterling Bank:
—-*822#

12. UBA:
—-*389*033*1#

13. Unity Bank:
—-*322*215#

14. Zenith Bank:
—-*966#

15. Diamond Bank
—-*710*555#

To know your BVN, dial
—-*565*0#.

E.g for First bank…   *894 *Amount *Acct. No. #

Please dail d code from d number u used to register d account from the bank

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AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO

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ABSTRACT

In this research, it is assumed that unemployment is a factor inherent in the nations economics system first because intentionally or unintentionally the policy makers do not deliberately result to measures capable of reducing unemployment to acceptable level. This research is concerned with ways and means of identifying the cause and measures of curbing the problems created by unemployment.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

1.1      Background of the Study                                         1

1.2      Statement of the Problem                                 4

1.3      Significance of the Study                                         6

1.4      Scope of the Study                                          7

1.5      Research Question                                           9

1.6      Definition of Terms                                          10

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.1  Literature Review                                             11

2.2  Social Consequences of Unemployment               12

2.3  Solution to Unemployment                                14

2.4  Types of Unemployment                                   15

2.5  Causes of Unemployment                                        17

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.1  Research Method                                             25

3.2  Research Limitation                                          26

3.3  Distribution and Collection of Questionnaire         27

3.4  Questionnaire Distribution and Collection            28

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.1  Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data 30

4.2  Testing of Research Questions/Hypothesis           32

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1  Summary of Findings                                       41

5.2  Conclusion                                                      42

5.3  Restatement of the Problems                            44

5.4  Recommendation                                             45

 

Bibliography                                                    48

Appendix                                                        5

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Nigeria is a country through multiple transition, form the period of colonialism to independence, from literacy, subsistence, agriculture to monetary economy, rural life to urban cosmopolitan life, from the day of employment to the days of mass unemployment, the time and time again throughout the human history, year after year in Nigeria, the increasing number of graduates joining the labour market keeping rising geometrically and any hope for them to secure jobs looks pessimistic the tempo of economic development does not keep pace with the rate of educational advancement, that a developing country should suffer from surplus labour in hardly surprising, but generally, unemployment is one thing and graduate unemployment is another, employment has in all its ramification come to stay with us since the ear of oil boom which has unfortunately turned to our doom.

According to daily star, June 30, (1986), unemployment is described as a situation where there are few jobs to go around the great number of people willing to work. Here, it cold be both educated and uneducated people in the country, youth employment has become some of the basic economic social and political problems facing so many states in Nigeria recently, the graduates in this context are generally the school leavers from over post primary and higher school of learning. This pitiable “labour forces” who are left redundant are eve ready to put in their best services in any kind of jobs, but would not be called upon to do so because of the situation in the country.

In Enugu metropolis, there has been a persistent increase of unemployed graduates of institution of higher learning.

On this note, there fore, it becomes imperative to give a brief definition of unemployment. According to Nigeria statement may 28, 1986, “unemployment connotes the scarcity of job both in public and private sectors. Also according to weekly star, August, 17 1986, unemployment is the state of being employed, it further describes a person as unemployed when despite his ability and willingness to work in jobless.

In the light of this problem, the former head of state and commander-in-chief of the armed forces General Sani Abacha in his 1st October, 1995 broadcast lifted the ban on employment. There is no doubt that the country has witnessed an upsurge in crime such as drug addiction and sophisticated armed robberies while broken home, malnutrition and many other social vices are on the increase too. Other factors that contributed to this situation also remain an integral part of this research, such factors include the expansion of the existing schools and establishment of new schools without a collateral increase in industries to absorb produced graduates, the behaviour of youth and graduated themselves towards jobs like farming, construction of roads, bridges, school taxi cars and also the over-dependence of a mono-export-oriented economy, etc.

 

1.2  STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The unabated increase in the rate of unemployment among the youth, with particular emphasis on higher institution has been a source of concern to the entire nation. Moreso, being aware of the social vices that this situation could result it makes it more disabusing, the situation is a delima when we consider many policies and legislation so far put in place by the government to cub this mind and how ineffective they have been as an instrument to reduce unemployment. The researcher having considered the above and decided the study the under listed problems with the view to x-raying then and possibly proffering lasting solutions to them.

  1. The increase in the rate of unemployment among the youth not withstanding that the federal government of Nigeria have lifted embargo on employment.
  2. The youth we have today includes those who have studied in very essential field which before now was not so. Nevertheless the suffer unemployment.
  3. The increase in scope of private sector participation which should result the increase in employment of university graduate has not been true in our situation.
  4. The federal government recently increased the capital base of the bank of industry so as to allow more graduate to participate in the federal government loan scheme, with the aim of being employed, but this has not yielded any meaningful results or reduced the unemployment toll.

 

1.3  SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUES ON HIV/AIDS AWARENESS

IMPACT OF COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUES ON HIV/AIDS AWARENESS IN OWERRI NORTH L.G.A. OF IMO STATE IN NIGERIA. 

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MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
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Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment :
Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
 Account Number:  0117780667. 
Swift Code: GTBINGLA 
Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANKER SECURITY GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>DELIVERY PERIOD FOR BANK PAYMENT IS  LESS THAN 2 HOURS

How to transfer from your bank account to All  Nigeriabanks

1. Access Bank:
—-*901#

2. EcoBank:
—-*326#

3. Fidelity Bank:
—-*770#

4. FCMB:
—-*389*214#

5. First Bank
—-*894#

6. GTB:
—-*737#

7. Heritage Bank:
—-*322*030#

8. Keystone Bank:
—-*322*082#

9. Sky Bank:
—-*389*076*1#

10. Stanbic IBTC:
—-*909#

11. Sterling Bank:
—-*822#

12. UBA:
—-*389*033*1#

13. Unity Bank:
—-*322*215#

14. Zenith Bank:
—-*966#

15. Diamond Bank
—-*710*555#

To know your BVN, dial
—-*565*0#.

E.g for First bank…   *894 *Amount *Acct. No. #

Please dail d code from d number u used to register d account from the bank

CALL OKEKE CHIDI C ON :  08074466939,08063386834.

AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO

08074466939 or 08063386834, YOUR PROJECT TITLE  YOU WANT US TO SEND TO YOU, AMOUNT PAID, DEPOSITOR NAME, UR EMAIL ADDRESS,PAYMENT DATE. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR MATERIAL IN LESS THAN 2 HOURS ONCE WILL CONFIRM YOUR PAYMENT.

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ABSTRACT

An increase in the number of reported cases of HIV/AIDS infection in Nigeria despite intensive anti-AIDS awareness campaign give rise for this study. From chapter one the researcher critically analyze the high increase of HIV/AIDS. It also consists of the objectives and research questions that were to be assessed in the research. Literatures on the study were viewed and use theoretically to analyze the study in chapter tow. Utilizing all the necessary scientific tools for data collection and analysis which helped in giving human face to the research work chapter three. In chapter four the researcher analyzed and interpreted the data collection and some findings were made. Based on the findings, the researcher made some recommendations, which could help to increase the impact of communication techniques on HIV/AIDS awareness in Owerri North L.G.A. of Imo state in Nigeria at large.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.1      Background of the Study                                         1

1.2      Statement of the Problem                                 4

1.3      Research Questions

1.4      Objective of the Study

1.5      Significance of the Study                                         6

1.6      Definition of Terms                                          10

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.1  Literature Review                                             11

2.2  Theoretical Framework

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.1  Design of the Study

3.2  Area of the Study

3.3  Scope of the Study

3.4  Population of the Study

3.5  Sample Size

3.6  Sampling Techniques

3.7  Instrument for Data Collection

3.8  Method of Data Collection

3.9  Method of Data Analysis

 

 

 

CHAPTER FOUR

PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

4.1  Personal Data of the Respondents

4.2  Analysis of the Research Questions

 

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY OF FINDING, CONCLUSION

AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1  Summary of Findings                                       41

5.2  Conclusion                                                      42

5.3  Recommendations                                           45

5.4  Limitation of the Study

5.5  Suggestion for Further Study

 

References

Appendix                                                        50

Questionnaire

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1  BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

HIV is basically a health and social problem menacing the entire world and Nigeria at large. The first case of HIV was reported in Nigeria in 1985 and since then reported cases of this disease has become continous. This disease is said to be caused by Human Deficiency Virus (HIV).AIDS disease is terminal. The virus has the potential of hiding in places like the brain cells, the cells of the bone marrow, the cells in different places, and it develops resistance to drugs.

The HIV virus is such that can be transmitted by various means namely by sex, infected needles, blood transfusion, child-birth and other means. However  the most prominent means is by SEX and hence more importantly by exchange of blood can lead to transmission of HIV.

According to the ministry of health in Nigeria, Nigerians infected with HIV, now number 3.47million and BENUE, AKWA IBOM, BAYELSA, ANAMBRA, and ABUJA are said to have the highest prevalence rate. The HIV scourage is actually threatening Nigeria, Africa, and the whole world at large.HIV disaproportionately affects future leaders. In Nigeria, ages 15 and 47 accounts for more than 70percent of HIV infections. Nearly 85percent of all HIV transmission occurs through unprotected sexual intercourse.

The effect of this dreaded disease has increased efforts to make people become aware of the destructive effects of this disease. In this regards NGOS, international bodies and the government have through public lectures, seminars, handbills, newspapers and magazines and electronic  media and other means created awareness to people on the nature and effects of HIV.

HIV/AIDS became a disease that has thrown the entire globe into confusion and an all night and day research to put a stop to its spread and killing. One of the major tools among others used by the IMO STATE government and other concerned agencies within the country and state is communication technique.

Communication is believed to be the most appropriate channel through which the far-flung hetergenous people within the country and state could be reached as quickly as possible and subsequently informed and/or educated about the disease and what is used to prevent, curb, and hopefully totally overcome it. The importance of communication technique is obvious. When you are working to combat a disastrous and growing emergency you should use every tool at your disposal. Communication technique has tremendous reach and influence, particularly with young people, who represent the future and who are the key to any successful fight against HIV/AIDS.

It was also noted that many people in IMO STATE(OWERRI NORTH L.G.A) especially women, do not have correct information on HIV/AIDS issue, some of the women are still engaging in risky sexual behavior and commercial sex work to generate income due to poverty. The state has HIV/AIDS support group, which still consist of PLWHAS, who barely understand the implications of the state of their health, this could be attributed to lack of proper education. The high level of stigmatization is still very high, making it difficult for people to declare their HIV/AIDS status and when death occurs it is usually attributed to witchcraft or other diabolical powers.

Few factors impact our ability to protect ourselves from HIV more than our level of self esteem. Recently, young people in Nigeria have been moderately affected by the global HIV epidemic. Today, however the HIV epidemic in Africa is one of the most rapidly increasing epidemic in the world. It is mainly concentrated to vulnerable groups such as intravenous drug users, sex workers, the purchase of sexual services and the financially marginalized. Young sexually active people may however be the gateway for the epidemic to the general population and knowledge about their attitudes and behavior is therefore important in planning preventive measures.

The IMOSACA (IMO STATE AGENCY FOR THE CONTROL OF HIV/AIDS) director general  DR ETELBERT ANYANWU noted that the forum towards eradication of HIV became necessary towards ensuring that IMO STATE continues on its downward trends in the preventive rate from 4.6% in 2008 to 3.0% in 2012 stressing that the agency is posed to strengthen networking of partners and collaborative efforts at the rural level especially, while emphasizing that the forum will be a quarterly event to ensure improvement of services at the communities where he said knowledge and awareness of the scourage was still low. IMOSACA DG, however appealed to its stakeholders to sustain the fight against HIV/AIDS as the funds from donor agencies according to him, is dwindling and will stop someday.

A recent study by PETERS AND OLUGBEMIRO (2005) shows that the introduction of HIV/AIDS program at NOUN (national open university of Nigeria) would contribute to raising the level of awareness in the different segments of Nigeria society, stimulate research and create research networks on HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. It also noted that the programme would facilitate human resources capacity building and support positive behavioural changes. An earlier study by ADERIONYE and OJEKHETA (2004) investigated the links between DE and HIV/AIDS. This study shows that DE in Nigeria and throughout the contient of Africa is helping to democratize and spread knowledge, even to those living in remote, marginalized and isolated communities. In another study, PRIDMORE AND YATES (2006) examined the strength of open, distance and flexible education in HIV/AIDS prevention and mitigation. These scholars argued that to confront AIDS and meet millennium developments goals (MDGS) in countries where HIV/AIDS is prevalent, government must go beyond current efforts and accelerate conventional response. This can be achieved by increasing access and quality of education and schooling, raising public consciousness and encouraging people to practice healthy behavior.

 

1.2  STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

In view of the fact that there has, been an increase in reported number of HIV cases in the world but Nigeria in particular, which has a high rate of it despite intensive public awareness and campaigns. Available records show that there has been rapid and constant rise in the number of cases of HIV reports in Nigeria. AIDS moitor (1993) report , that since the discovery of the first cases of HIV in Nigeria in 1985 there has been a steady growth of more than one percent each year.

In September 1989, twenty-nine cases were reported in the country and over a three year period, five hundred and thirty cases were reported in 1992 alone. The PUNCH (1977)credited the residence advisor of the united nations AIDS programme in Nigeria saying that approximately 2.3million Nigerians aare carries of the HIV virus.

The problem, which was unheard of in this part of the world until 1980, is now a major issue for the public debate messages, warnings about the danger of contact. The dreaded virus has been circulated through handbills, posters, billboards, postcards, t shirts, prints and electronic media have also been actively involved in the campaign.HIV prevention and control information are found in schools, churches, offices, hotels, public joints, hospital, bus stops and in social gathering.

The federal and state ministries of health, which are the pivotal institutions of public health in Nigeria, are at the forefront of the campaign. Apart  from the health ministries in Nigeria, several non-government organizations(NGO)have embarked on these preventive and control education campaign. These NGO include AIDS CONTROL PREVENTON PROGRAMME(AIDSCAP) and its affiliated agencies MOVEMENT AGAINST AIDS/STD(MAID),NIGERIAN YOUTHS AIDS PROGRAMME(NYAP), and SOCIETY AGAINST SPREAD OF AIDS(SASA)and others are YOUTH COMMITTED TO AIDS RELATED EDUCATION(YCARE).SOCIETY FOR WOMEN AND AIDS IN AFRICA(SWAA).Some voluntary and social services organization like GIRLS POWER INITIATIVE(GPA),WOMEN IN NIGERIA(WIN)SOCIETY FOR FAMILY HEALTH(SFH),PLANNED PARENTHOOD FEDERATION OF NIGERIA(PPFN)and WOMEN HEALTH EDUCATION ADVANCEMENT PROGRAMME(WHEAP).

Hence this research work is entailed to determine the level of impact of communication techniques on HIV awareness creation.

 

1.3  RESEARCH QUESTIONS

CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF MARITAL PROBLEMS

 

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0   INTRODUCTION

As the marriage in Islam is contract between two parties it is clear that it shall continue only so long as the parties carryout the terms and conditions of the contract. But if both or either of them should fail to carryout the term or fulfill their duties towards each other, then the contract may be broken. This is what we called divorce or Talaq.

 

Talaq is an Arabic word which really means dissolution of marriage. Although Islam has given the right of divorce to both men and women, it has been made necessary that this right should be exercised only  in exceptional cases when no other way is left and all methods of making peace between husband and wires have proved a failure.

 

The history of marriage and divorce in the ancient nations have formulated that the cause of divorce has been erratic. The Jewish law allows dissolution of marriage as a matter of no great concern. If husband finds any uncleanliness in wife, then let him write her a bill of divorcement, and give it on her hand and send her out of his house. When she has departed out of his she may go and be another man’s wife.

 

In Christianity, on the other hand, a saying attributed to Jesus has been reported: “what therefore God has joined together let no Man put asunder; whosoever shall put away his wife and marry commitment adultery against her”.

 

The catholic says, “when the sacrament of matrimony has been received by a man and ratified by their cohabitation as husband and wife, their union cannot be dissolved except by death.”

 

Islam has steered it’s middle course and has avoided the extremes of either making divorce to rigid or banning it altogether, or making it too loose and frivolous. Islam has permitted divorce but has imposed certain conditions and limitations upon the right of the husband to divorce the  matrimonial bond so that the husband may not act in haste or anger. Divorce is of two kinds in Islam.

 

  1. Talaq Rajai: The divorce which permits husband resuming conjugal relationships. This is revocable divorce which is pronounced twice. If the relationship improves during the period of probation (Iddah), the divorce is revocable.
  2. Talaq Ba’in; Talaq Ba’in means the irrevocable divorce that separates the couple finally. The revocable divoerce becomes absolutely or irrevocable if the period of probation is allowed to elapse without the huband having revoked either by expression of words or by conduct.

A Muslim is given every opportunity by the Qur’anic injunction to reconcile if possible before making final decision before he carry out the irrevocable divorce. After the two period of temporary separation, one has to make a final choice. He may take back in love and amity, or let her go finally. The ghost of marriage in Islam is to unite two lives and to bring happiness to the couple. Even then, the husband is enjoined by the Qur’an not to dismiss the wife in disgrace, or with view to humiliating her, but to let her go kindly with due regard to her, tenderness and with a view to secure  peace of mind for both the wife and himself.

 

On the Christian perspective, the divorce must be pronounced in the presence of the court judge or pastor of the church, just as in the case of marriage were the husband or wife is guilty of adultery. It is a public act to be known by all. It’s the duty of the head of the church (pastor) to divorce the marriage. It is the irrevocable divorce that separates finally. No re-marriage in Christianity.

 

1.1   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Today, the Nigeria society seems to be passing through a very cohensive force of divorce problems, which disturbs the peaceful living that exists between the said two parties. It has become a problem of concern to almost every Nigerian. Hence this research is undertaken to investigate courses of divorce problem in our well pronounced society today.

Unfaithfulness of husband/wife could cause divorce in marriage, others may be lack of children, lack of money, late of love and misunderstanding, difference in religions and interference from outsiders could also contributes to divorce problem.

 

 

 

 

 

1.2   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY