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GENDER INEQUALITY AND WOMEN PARTICIPATION IN POLITICS

GENDER INEQUALITY AND WOMEN PARTICIPATION IN POLITICS

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1            Background of the Study

Gender inequality has been an issue for several centuries, the world over. Though history has it that fewer women have been in power even before colonialism. Instances are the Queen of Daura, the Sarauniya of Zazzau in pre-jihad, the Angwu Tsi who was almost the counterpart of the King, with her own Palace, in the middle belt, Iyayun the Queen who ruled in fifteenth century in Oyo, after the death of her husband (Modupe, 2001). Though from the foregoing, it will be seen that very, very few women have had the opportunity in a leadership position, yet in every one or single case of women, there are several hundreds of the male counterparts.

Sexism has become a major problem in Nigerian politics. Women have been politically considered endangered species and their low participation in Nigerian government and politics is often associated with culture, religious, economic constraint and male chauvinism. The African society in general and Nigerian society in particular has placed most of the leadership roles on the men folk, thereby championing the course of gender inequality.

Economically, some feminist perceive women’s marginality in the conduct and management of the public affairs as arising from their entrenchment of the globalized capitalists relations of production. The traditional society did not recognize the contributions of women in any decision making process. The women are carefully ignored in any important meeting of the family, community and even in government establishments. Till today, community development meetings are always held at night thereby making it impossible for most women to attend.

A relationship, which ensures that majority of Nigerian women are peasants and home makers. Nonetheless, feminists have failed to fundamentally unravel in their explanatory analysis to the feminine gender self-emulating attitudes. Feminine gender-self-destructive factors is the decline of women participation in government and it is often lay in exist analysis, for instance, the 1991 population census put the number of Nigerian women at about 44 million which is almost 50%, and by implication, half of the Nigerian electorates (National Population Census Commission). This electoral power has not been converted to assertive feminine electoral and political advantages over the years (NNCC Report, 1991).

In recent past, however, especially in the wake of the millennium and also in the 2011 general elections, many women have risen up to the challenges of the time. Many women have come to assume leadership positions in both politics and religion. This is a giant step in the right direction as it will go a long way in breaking the jinx of gender inequality and male chauvinism in Nigeria society.

The 2011 general elections presented women with good opportunities to navigate the way to power, those in attendance were female legislators, representative of various women’s groups, women and male gender activists, the market women’s association, professional associations and media practitioners. All these groups of women are after the actualizing the 35% Affirmative Action Committee by President Goodluck Ebele Jonathan.

The 2011 general election was seen as a good platform to authenticate the voting pattern of Nigerian women. It is truly evident the active participation and the support of women to the 2011 campaigns and elections, hence the need for reflection and focused advocacy for the conscious and quality inclusion of women in the structures of the newly elected government and parliament through clear pronouncements and action (AIT’s Focus Nigeria, 2012).

 

 

1.2               Statement of Research Problem

Gender inequality especially in the political arena is a serious challenge being faced by women in Kaduna State.

The statement of the problem therefore, is the issue of economic disadvantage which might have impacted negatively on the women’s participation in the 2011 general election in Kaduna State.

IMPACT OF ORPHANAGE HOME ON THE CHILD PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT

IMPACT OF ORPHANAGE HOME ON THE CHILD PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT

 

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Introduction

1.1   Background of the Study

The orphanage home is one of the numerous social institution that have emerged over the year to carter for some of the social needs  of orphanage associated with such problems.

 

Motherless  babies  have nowadays  become common because of the moral decadence of the society young people who cannot cater  for themselves find themselves  put in the   family  way they end  up find abandoning those innocent helpless babies.  The increasing hardship because of the present economic recession  has  increased the incidence of burden  family relationship and  the consequent loss  of firm control of  family members.

This has tended as evidence  by the  increasing number of abandoned babies such babies have become the central focus of the orphanage home the impact of orphanage home on child personality development that is the behaviour pattern of social behariour on child personality  development.

 

The research try to compare children between the age of one (1) month to three (3) years that grows up in orphanage home  to those that grow-up with their parent children  from the orphanage behave  in a unique pattern thereby displaying some certain social behaviour attitude that could be associated with the up bringing in the orphanage home. I want to find out the positive and negative aspect of orphanage home on children personality development generally.  Any baby that  lost his or her  parent  especially the mother by what every means  become mentally ill once it is discovered the illness is taken from the mother by the  orphanage   children abandon  in hospital  or on the street are taken to the orphanage home.

Social welfare services and training of professional social workers of all categories social workers can  succeed out making their contribution towards realizing their objective of government  in improving people welfare only after they have keenly understood the problem.

 

The causes and the effect of those people on he community the desertation is an attempt toward such changes taking place and their documentation the study will focus on the impact of the orphanage home on  child personality  development in the  later parts of his life.

 

The Kaduna orphanage home is the birth child of Jammiyyar Matan Arewa.

 

The Jamiyar Matan Arewa itself is a social organization of northern women  established on the 27th May 1963 it  was aimed at unifying the women folk and  providing hem with a  forum of welfare activities.

 

The organization was to  be non-political  and it membership was to be opened   to all  tribes religions or social status at the very first meeting of the Jammiyar Matan Arewa which took place in the house of General Hassan Usman Katsina a steering committee was set up to carry on the task of mobilizing women for the association and also to plan and organize fund raising  activities to meet up the financial obligation of  the association.

 

1.2   Statement of the Problem

Children brought up in the orphanage home cannot cope effectively with the outside world this display in their dispositions because most of them tend to be introverts and always want to keep to themselves in few causes they turn out to be backward in speed and verbal  intelligence.

According to Segmund Fraud (1945) children who grown  up in the orphanage home may likely to affected in their  culture tradition, and religion are  their interests  belief ambitions ideas and soon thus affecting the personality  development as their behaviors is not only more indiscriminate but more immature than those children who are with their natural parent. Hence the increase in various research as to find out the effectiveness and influence of these home (orphanage home) on the child personality development.

 

1.3   Purpose of the Study

 

 

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GENDER INEQUALITY AND WOMEN PARTICIPATION IN POLITICS

GENDER INEQUALITY AND WOMEN PARTICIPATION IN POLITICS

 

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Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

We also accept :   ATM transfer , online money  transfer 

OR
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Call Help Desk Line :  08074466939,08063386834.

After Payment Send Your Payment Details To

08074466939 Or 08063386834,   The Project Title  You  Selected On Our Website , Amount Paid, Depositor Name, Your Email Address, Payment Date. You Will Receive Your Material In Less Than 1 Hour Once We Confirm Your Payment.

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INTRODUCTION

1.1            Background of the Study

Gender inequality has been an issue for several centuries, the world over. Though history has it that fewer women have been in power even before colonialism. Instances are the Queen of Daura, the Sarauniya of Zazzau in pre-jihad, the Angwu Tsi who was almost the counterpart of the King, with her own Palace, in the middle belt, Iyayun the Queen who ruled in fifteenth century in Oyo, after the death of her husband (Modupe, 2001). Though from the foregoing, it will be seen that very, very few women have had the opportunity in a leadership position, yet in every one or single case of women, there are several hundreds of the male counterparts.

Sexism has become a major problem in Nigerian politics. Women have been politically considered endangered species and their low participation in Nigerian government and politics is often associated with culture, religious, economic constraint and male chauvinism. The African society in general and Nigerian society in particular has placed most of the leadership roles on the men folk, thereby championing the course of gender inequality.

Economically, some feminist perceive women’s marginality in the conduct and management of the public affairs as arising from their entrenchment of the globalized capitalists relations of production. The traditional society did not recognize the contributions of women in any decision making process. The women are carefully ignored in any important meeting of the family, community and even in government establishments. Till today, community development meetings are always held at night thereby making it impossible for most women to attend.

A relationship, which ensures that majority of Nigerian women are peasants and home makers. Nonetheless, feminists have failed to fundamentally unravel in their explanatory analysis to the feminine gender self-emulating attitudes. Feminine gender-self-destructive factors is the decline of women participation in government and it is often lay in exist analysis, for instance, the 1991 population census put the number of Nigerian women at about 44 million which is almost 50%, and by implication, half of the Nigerian electorates (National Population Census Commission). This electoral power has not been converted to assertive feminine electoral and political advantages over the years (NNCC Report, 1991).

In recent past, however, especially in the wake of the millennium and also in the 2011 general elections, many women have risen up to the challenges of the time. Many women have come to assume leadership positions in both politics and religion. This is a giant step in the right direction as it will go a long way in breaking the jinx of gender inequality and male chauvinism in Nigeria society.

The 2011 general elections presented women with good opportunities to navigate the way to power, those in attendance were female legislators, representative of various women’s groups, women and male gender activists, the market women’s association, professional associations and media practitioners. All these groups of women are after the actualizing the 35% Affirmative Action Committee by President Goodluck Ebele Jonathan.

The 2011 general election was seen as a good platform to authenticate the voting pattern of Nigerian women. It is truly evident the active participation and the support of women to the 2011 campaigns and elections, hence the need for reflection and focused advocacy for the conscious and quality inclusion of women in the structures of the newly elected government and parliament through clear pronouncements and action (AIT’s Focus Nigeria, 2012).

 

 

1.2               Statement of Research Problem

Gender inequality especially in the political arena is a serious challenge being faced by women in Kaduna State.

The statement of the problem therefore, is the issue of economic disadvantage which might have impacted negatively on the women’s participation in the 2011 general election in Kaduna State.

 

 

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FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT

FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT

(A CASE STUDY OF KADUNA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KADUNA STATE).

 

 

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ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

We also accept :   ATM transfer , online money  transfer 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

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08074466939 Or 08063386834,   The Project Title  You  Selected On Our Website , Amount Paid, Depositor Name, Your Email Address, Payment Date. You Will Receive Your Material In Less Than 1 Hour Once We Confirm Your Payment.

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ABSTRACT

The child abuse menace is as old as the birth of the first child, until very recently child maltreatment has never been seen as a social problem. It was falsely assumed that such physical punishments are supposed to correct had behavior and ensure conformity. But the consequential distorted personality of the child disproves the assumption. This study aims at showing that it is only through the care of children will one gain experience and develops interest in finding out more about the affliction of the Nigerian child. In addition, the researcher hopes that who are able to read this will get to know and pray that the past experiences of these silent suffers will serve to prevent tomorrow’s children from similar fate.

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     Introduction                                                                            1

1.1     background of the study                                                          1

1.2     historical background                                                    3

1.3     statement of the problem                                                         6

1.4     objective of the study                                                     7

1.5     research Questions                                                                  7

1.6     scope of the study                                                                   8

1.7     significance of the study                                                          9

1.8     definition of terms                                                                   10

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     Literature review                                                            12

2.1     Definition of child abuse                                                         12

2.2     Causes of child abuse and neglect                                  12

2.3     Sociological implication of child abuse and neglect       20

2.4     Children view on child abuse and neglect                      22

2.5     How to prevent child abuse and neglect                        24

2.6     conclusion/ summary                                                     27

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0            Introduction                                                                            28

3.1                                    Population                                                                     28

3.2            Sample size                                                                             28

3.3            Sampling techniques/ procedures                                  29

3.4            Sources of data                                                              29

3.5            Primary data                                                                           30

3.6            Secondary data                                                              30

3.7            Procedure for data collection                                         30

3.8            Data analysis                                                                           31

 

CHAPTER FOUR

Presentation and Data Analysis Result

4.1     Introduction                                                                            32

4.2     Data analysis                                                                           35

 

CHAPTER FIVE

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1     Introduction                                                                            38

5.2     Summary                                                                                 39

5.3     Conclusion                                                                     40

5.4     Recommendations                                                                   41

References                                                                      44

Appendix                                                                                45

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

It has been the general assumption that children with reasonable physical care would grow into normal happy adulthood. But scientific investigations of psychologists, sociologist and psychiatrists regarding personality development has uncovered the greater importance of the growing up and its lasting effects on the total personality of a person. Adult personality has its root in childhood. What we can do as adult is largely determined by ways in which we were allowed into experience inevitable events of childhood.

 

Thus the aim of this research work is to shed more light on the issue of child abuse and neglect in Kaduna South Local Government of Kaduna State. A child is neglected when he lacks continues physical and emotional contact with his mother. Children under this category are those may be due to lose of mother or both parents or the separation of both parents, thus child may be sent to nursery school or orphanages with many children which makes it difficult for special individual attention to be rendered to each child. Those children are therefore brought up by stranger which could be changed at different times due to the shift of their study. Child abuse on the other hand can be defined as the portion of harm to children that result from human action or in action that is prescribed, proximate and preventable. The definition recognizes that such harm is no accident but something perpetrated on children by others, usually intestinally and that the actors inflicting this harm do not enjoy society approval. It is also point out that abuse generally come from the child immediate environment and that it is preventable child neglect is a passive form of maltreatment or abuse UNICEF (1986).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.2     HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

Kaduna South Local Government Area was created on 23rd September 1991 by the Babangida’s regime. Hitherto it was part and parcel of Kaduna Local Government. The Local Government Council has its headquarter located at Makera, comprising of two districts namely: Tudun Wada and Makera, each district headed by a district head and supported by village and wards councilors, Kaduna South shares common boundary with Kaduna North to the North West. The two districts share common boundary with the other districts located in the three local government area. Kaduna South has a population of 373,576 as per 2006 census.

 

Education

However, in the education, the area is having about (29) public schools in which (8) primary schools and in Tudun Wada and (13) in Makera and five (5) secondary schools in Tudunwada and three (3) in Makeri.

 

Furthermore, the area is having private nursery/primary and secondary schools approximately one hundred and twenty four (124) i.e. 80 in Tudun Wada and (44) in Makera district.

 

Adult education programmes and constructed apart from the various vocational training centres, run by various organizations like (YMCA). Apart from Kaduna Polytechnic as a higher institution of learning. There is a prison school at Barnawa, Health Institution like the school of Nursing and Midwifery and school of psychiatric Barnawa.

 

There are over fifty (50) large and small scale industries that abound in the local government and some include, textile, defence corporation, Nigeria Breweries, Peugeot Automobile, KFCC, fertilizer superphosphate, pharmaceutical company, blanket industry just to mention a few.

 

To boost commercial activities in the local government area and the markets and up to R. Tourist attractions and hotels, the council has six (6) tourist areas and about twelve (12) hotels. Kaduna South Local Government areas well connected by road, bridges and railway line system.

 

Thus, the above mentioned geographical, emotional, educational and administrative features taken together given Kaduna South its unique characteristics. It was discover that the habitants have little or no knowledge of what child abuse is.

 

Some with dishes roaming the street and begging for food and aims for certain belief. They were also denied educational pursuit and a child right to decide for themselves what they want to become in future. Without being told, you will see for yourself how little children hawk around from morning till evening for financial support, this researcher strongly, belief is one of the causes of child abuse and neglect because this kind of occupation endangers the child’s life and expose him to hard situation.

 

1.3     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The researcher’s concern to delve into the affairs of CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT in Kaduna South Local Government Area of Kaduna State becomes necessary because the record available to this researcher shows that since the creation of Kaduna South from the former Kaduna local government there was not been any necessary attempt for research work into the activities of child abuse and neglect.

 

However, it is widely believed that the good image of any social or community depend largely on the social background of its children. Therefore, the problem of child abuse in the local government has been a total neglect in large extent. A situation brought about probably by the undesirable element in our society mostly associated with women folk and partly perhaps the government who have not given enough attention to the ugly situation in the area but rather sitting on chairs in offices. Based on this, the researcher will seriousness wishes to know the activities to the authority concerned with the affairs of child abuse, towards educating the people of the area and of course suggest ways on how to improve and implements their programme towards making the entire area a conducive place of living.

 

 

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CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF MARITAL PROBLEMS

CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF MARITAL PROBLEMS

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ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
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Account Name: 3059320631

We also accept :   ATM transfer , online money  transfer 

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PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

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Call Help Desk Line :  08074466939,08063386834.

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08074466939 Or 08063386834,   The Project Title  You  Selected On Our Website , Amount Paid, Depositor Name, Your Email Address, Payment Date. You Will Receive Your Material In Less Than 1 Hour Once We Confirm Your Payment.

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0   INTRODUCTION

As the marriage in Islam is contract between two parties it is clear that it shall continue only so long as the parties carryout the terms and conditions of the contract. But if both or either of them should fail to carryout the term or fulfill their duties towards each other, then the contract may be broken. This is what we called divorce or Talaq.

 

Talaq is an Arabic word which really means dissolution of marriage. Although Islam has given the right of divorce to both men and women, it has been made necessary that this right should be exercised only  in exceptional cases when no other way is left and all methods of making peace between husband and wires have proved a failure.

 

The history of marriage and divorce in the ancient nations have formulated that the cause of divorce has been erratic. The Jewish law allows dissolution of marriage as a matter of no great concern. If husband finds any uncleanliness in wife, then let him write her a bill of divorcement, and give it on her hand and send her out of his house. When she has departed out of his she may go and be another man’s wife.

 

In Christianity, on the other hand, a saying attributed to Jesus has been reported: “what therefore God has joined together let no Man put asunder; whosoever shall put away his wife and marry commitment adultery against her”.

 

The catholic says, “when the sacrament of matrimony has been received by a man and ratified by their cohabitation as husband and wife, their union cannot be dissolved except by death.”

 

Islam has steered it’s middle course and has avoided the extremes of either making divorce to rigid or banning it altogether, or making it too loose and frivolous. Islam has permitted divorce but has imposed certain conditions and limitations upon the right of the husband to divorce the  matrimonial bond so that the husband may not act in haste or anger. Divorce is of two kinds in Islam.

 

  1. Talaq Rajai: The divorce which permits husband resuming conjugal relationships. This is revocable divorce which is pronounced twice. If the relationship improves during the period of probation (Iddah), the divorce is revocable.
  2. Talaq Ba’in; Talaq Ba’in means the irrevocable divorce that separates the couple finally. The revocable divoerce becomes absolutely or irrevocable if the period of probation is allowed to elapse without the huband having revoked either by expression of words or by conduct.

A Muslim is given every opportunity by the Qur’anic injunction to reconcile if possible before making final decision before he carry out the irrevocable divorce. After the two period of temporary separation, one has to make a final choice. He may take back in love and amity, or let her go finally. The ghost of marriage in Islam is to unite two lives and to bring happiness to the couple. Even then, the husband is enjoined by the Qur’an not to dismiss the wife in disgrace, or with view to humiliating her, but to let her go kindly with due regard to her, tenderness and with a view to secure  peace of mind for both the wife and himself.

 

On the Christian perspective, the divorce must be pronounced in the presence of the court judge or pastor of the church, just as in the case of marriage were the husband or wife is guilty of adultery. It is a public act to be known by all. It’s the duty of the head of the church (pastor) to divorce the marriage. It is the irrevocable divorce that separates finally. No re-marriage in Christianity.

 

1.1   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Today, the Nigeria society seems to be passing through a very cohensive force of divorce problems, which disturbs the peaceful living that exists between the said two parties. It has become a problem of concern to almost every Nigerian. Hence this research is undertaken to investigate courses of divorce problem in our well pronounced society today.

Unfaithfulness of husband/wife could cause divorce in marriage, others may be lack of children, lack of money, late of love and misunderstanding, difference in religions and interference from outsiders could also contributes to divorce problem.

 

 

 

 

 

1.2   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 

 

 

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