INTERNAL CONTROL IN AN EXAMINING BODY-
A CASE STUDY OF THE NATIONAL EXAMINATION COUNCIL, ENUGU ZONAL OFFICE
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1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Purpose of the study
1.4 Significance of the study
1.5 Scope and limitations
1.6 Statement of Hypothesis
1.7 Definition of term
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 A checklist of internal control
2.2 Qualities of a good internal control
2.3 Internal control and Accounting profession in Nigeria
2.4 Internal control of real-time installation
2.5 Consideration of an effective control system
2.6 Articles that enhance internal control system
(magazines and journals)
RESEARCH DESIHN AND METHODOLOGY
3.1 Source of Date
3.2 Survey instruments
DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.1 Presentation and Analysis of data
4.2 Interpretation of data
FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Background of the study:
Internal control was defined by the Auditing standards and guideline as a whole system of control both financial and otherwise, established by management in order to carry on the business of on enterprise in an orderly and efficient manner, ensure adherence to management polices, safeguard the asset and secure as far as possible the completeness and accuracy of records.’’(1)
In reality, internal control form the bedrock of auditing both from the point of view of management and the auditor, its objectives being the prevention or early detection of fraud and errors. It may include internal auditing which qualifies as part of the system of internal control and it is designed for the following reasons:
(a) To enforce financial and other control:
(b) Ensure adherence to management policy
(c) Help to safeguard the assets (cash)
(d) To ensure the accuracy and reliability of the records
(e) Help to ensure orderliness in the business and
- Help in the prevention and early detection of fraud and errors.
An artificial review of the change in the Accounting practice will depict the essence of internal control system in an organization especially in an examining body.
The earliest known form of accounting, which is stewardship, Accounting started as far back as 450 B.C. This form of accounting involves the orderly recorded of business transaction by person appointed by the landlord to serve as a stewards for them. This was later changed as the recording remained primitive stewardship accounting pave may to financial accounting during the nineteenth century which marketed the era of industrial revolution”. This indeed led to the advent of joint stock companies- a situation where by group of individuals contributed capital in exchange for shares in the asset and profits of the company sea bubble of 1720, had earlier on instilled fear and suspicion in the mind the public that they doubt the ability of the directors to carry out this type of trade honestly.
Management accounting however, is not left but for it is another aspect of accounting that got it authority and ground from the historical recording and analysing role of accounting to emphasizing detailed information for internal planning, control and decision making.
Currently most business are operated by limited liability companies which are owned by their share holders, but managed by the directors appointed by them.
In the same vein, the public corporation and establishment, and even examining bodies are owned by the public but under the management of appointees.
The appraisal of the work of these appointees are carried out by an independent person referred to as an auditor, who is charge with the responsibility of evaluating and examining the accounts of the management and report on his finding to the owners (share holder) of the company or corporations. It is pertinent to note that one of the tools or mechanism adopted by an auditor in appraising the work of the management is the internal control system with this system of control, the share holder are convinced or self assured on efficient and effective management of their assets and resources.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM:
In an attempt to overcome envisaged problem in the presentation of accounting information and the system internal control, the government made a leading statement and regulations which serve as a yardsticks by which an accounting system could be measured. Also accounting and Auditing professional bodies laid town some guidelines, which will guide their member, and all practicing Accountants and Auditor in the performance of their professional duties.