LEASING AS A MAJOR FINANCING DEVICE FOR SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIES IN ENUGU URBAN
(A CASE STUDY OF HAPEL NIG. LTD)
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- Introduction 1
1.1 Background of the study 1
- Statement of the problem 4
- Objective of the study 4
- Scope of the study 5
- Research questions 6
- Significance of the study 7
- Review of literature 8
2.1 Definition of small scale enterprise 8
2.2 Financing enemies for small scale enterprise 10
2.3 Concept and evolution of leasing 18
2.4 Types of leasing 21
2.5 Central bank guidelines and leasing 26
2.6 Summary of related literature 28
- Methodology 30
3.1 Research design 30
- Area of study 30
- Population of the study 30
- Sample and sampling procedure 31
- Instrument for data collection 32
- Validation of the research instruments 32
- Reliability of the research instruments 33
- Method of data collection 33
- Method of data analysis 34
- Data presentation and results 35
- Discussion, implications, recommendations 44
5.1 Summary of findings 44
- Discussion of results 45
- Conclusion 50
- Implications of the study 50
- Recommendations 51
- Suggestions for further studies 53
- Limitation of the study 53
LISTS OF TABLES
Table 2.1: Bank loans to small-scale enterprises as at
31st December 2000
Table 2.2 Actual lease portfolio of merchant banks loans advance
and advances mattered against central bank prescribed ceiling.
Table 4.1 Responses from the respondents on the extent of small-scale industries obtaining adequate institutional credit.
Table 4.2 Responses from the respondents on if they are aware of
the lease financing technique whereby companies can procure required plant and machinery without making an outright payment for them.
Table 4.3: Responses from the respondents on if their company
made any effort in order to finance their company through leasing.
Table 4.4: Responses from the respondents on if the use of leasing
resulted to any advantage.
Table 4.5: Response from the respondents on if their company will
be in the positive to advise other companies to resort to leasing as means of finance to their companies.
Table 4.6: Responses from respondents on whether merchant banks
help small scale enterprise in getting lease facilities.
Table 4.7: Responses from respondents on whether merchant banks
helps small scale enterprise in getting lease facilities in accordance to with the central bank prescribed ceiling on lease portfolio.
Small-scale enterprises like Hapel Nigeria limited generally suffer from lack of adequate finance. The introduction of the structural adjustment programme compounded the problem such that the enterprise could hardly finance the fixed capital requirements.
In this circumstance, small-scale enterprise like Hapel Nigeria Limited would seek for a financing device that would enable them to obtain the use of required equipment without making outright payment. Leasing seems to be the answer. This study therefore, attempts to establish a case for leasing as a major financing device for small-scale enterprise by assessing the effectiveness of the source of finance available to them.
In terms of review of related literature, financing means for small-scale enterprise like Hapel Nigeria Limited was discussed and the Nigerian bank for commerce and industry was seen as the greatest supplier of credit to small-scale enterprise. The concept and evolution of leasing was looked into and thus leasing was seen as a contract between a leasor and lessee giving lessee possession and use of a specific asset on payment of rentals over a period.
In terms of methodology, the descriptive and historical research method is used. Data generated from the questionnaire administered and interviews were analyzed.
Based on the analysis of data, some interesting findings were made. In the first place, it was found that many small-scale enterprises engage in manufacturing business and most of the small-scale enterprises about 99.9% of them were aware of leasing financing technique. Most of the small-scale enterprises acquire the use of their required equipments through lease transactions. It was also found that the levels of awareness among small-scale enterprise acquire the use of their required equipments through lease transitions.
It was also found that the level of awareness among small scale enterprise like Hapel Nigeria Limited make effort to use lease financing techniques in their business transactions and this leasing has brought a lot of increase in their level of productivity.
The conclusion based on the findings was that leasing should be increasingly used by small-scale enterprise to activate the problem of financing burden in small-scale enterprises.
The researcher made some recommendations viz:
The Central Bank should effect changes in its credit guidelines with respect to leasing. Secondly, adequate publicity should be mounted to maintain and increase the level of awareness of leasing among small-scale enterprises.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
It is unquestionably true that the development of a nations industrial sector hinder greatly on the development of small-scale enterprises operating in that economy. This is because small-scale enterprises are significantly yielding the fruits of developing particularly employment, indigenous technological development, utilization of local resources and lower cost provision of inputs and services for large enterprises.
Small scale industries are important not only because they account directly for significant proportion of investment, output and employment in a nation but also even more significantly because they provide vital links in the chain in the economy as a whole, motivating, energizing, and connecting various sectors and sub sectors for greater overall output of employment and productivity.
Small-scale industries have an even grater potential for stimulating and sustaining technological progress and self reliance through production based adaptation innovation and through programmed link ages with the advance industrial and market sectors. The indispensability of small-scale enterprises in a country’s industrial growth.
Plan is a theme that runs through most writings and discussions on small-scale enterprises.
Yet, in Nigeria, small-scale enterprises suffer from a large potential. These constraints include inadequate finance, shortage of raw materials, marketing problems, inadequate infrastructural facilities, inappropriate technology and production, labour and inadequate management experiences etc.
This researcher, however believe that their greater problem is inadequate capital to establish on a proper basis and modernize or maintain their enterprises through periods of temporary adversity. Virtually, all the other problems emanate from inadequate finance. Almost 8 out of energy 10 small businesses, are believed to have shortage of capital as their major problems.
With the introduction of the structural adjustment programme in 1986, the problems of inadequate capital was escalated such that small scale enterprise could hardly finance their fixed capital needs like plant and machineries which are mostly imported. This was because of the fluctuating exchange rate system under SAP, which devalued Naira by more than 60% later in 1987, a market determined interest rate structure was introduced and this raised the cost of credit. Besides, banks consider small scale enterprise as highly risky and hence shy away from providing their financing needs, in spite of the Central Banks required annual credit minimum that must be allocated to them. Other financing, avenues such as owners capital retained earnings and direct government assistance are virtually ineffective. In the light of the above circumstances the question that naturally comes up is:
How can Hapel Nigeria limited adequately finance their fixed capital needs under the structural adjustment programme?
Leasing appears to be a viable financing alternative. Thus, this study will attempt to provide the rationale for leasing as a major financing device for small- scale enterprise.
- STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
A glance at the existing literature on financing avenues for small scale enterprises shows that small scale enterprise experience a chromic shortage of institutional, credit some of the problems emanated in Hapel Nigeria Limited are:
Hapel Nigeria Limited has not been executing jobs on scheduled because of lack of necessary