LOAN SYSNDICATION IN BANKS
(A CASE STUDY OF INTERNATIONAL MERCHANT BANK PORT – HARCOURT)
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The study was undertaken to find out how IMB manages its loan syndication, a proper loan syndication management would have a significant impact on the profitability of the bank, with this view in mind a detailed analysis of IMB loan syndication management was carried out.
IMB was selected as a result of preliminary survey which indicates that it is the only bank that was willing to assist in the study, and from adequate information gathered through the use of structured questionnaires and personal interview administered to the loan syndication offers of the bank.
It found out that IMB has a specialized department that was specifically established to take care of its syndication functions. It was also found that IMB is risk conscious and so estimate the risk of a loss in any syndicated investment. It was also discovered that IMB insist on the provision of collateral as a securits before any proposal is made.
Based on these findings and others it was recommended that IMB should enlarge its syndication activity and seek for new avenues in order to increase its profitability base and generate growth in the economy. Also it should take greater risk in lending, since this will help to increase total investment in the economy because more loan syndication may be granted even if prospective client are unable to provide collateral securities. And IMB should help client prepare realistic feasibility studies. It is also recommended that the time lag between when loan syndication is granted to client should be reduced.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
- Statement of problem
- Purpose / objective of study
- Research question
- Significant of the research
- Scope of the research
2.2 What is loan syndication
2.3 Loan syndication in IMB
2.4 Evolution and development of merchant bank
2.5 Syndication theory and management
2.6 Risk as the foundation and concept of loan syndication
2.7 Diversification theory
2.8 Capital Assets pricing model (CPM)
2.9 Asset portfolio in merchant bank
2.10 Risk in merchant bank
2.11 Principles and practice
2.12 Management of lending
2.13 Lending policies
2.14 Factors in loan syndication formulation
2.15 The principle of good loan syndication policy
2.16 Loan syndication Administration.
2.17 Credit Analysis
2.18 Credit Investigation
2.19 Project analysis or evaluation
2.20 Maturity pattern of merchant banks loan syndication and advances in Nigeria.
3.2 Research Design
3.3 Sample size and population
3.4 Data collection
3.5 Data analysis
4.1 Establishment of loan syndication department
4.2 Main function of loan syndication department
4.3 Estimation of risk of loss
4.4 Appraisal of loan syndication proposal
4.5 Securities Favoured by bank
4.6 Documentation of loan syndication terms
4.7 Role of central bank in loan syndication administration
5.0 Summary and findings and recommendation
- Summary of findings
1.1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION
Loan syndication is an inter-bank relationship and facilities in carrying on a common interest in financing a project. Where client borrowing requirement are extremely large and the risk also very light that it exceed the capacity of one banks, as it is often the case with major industrial, commercial, or agricultural undertakings. One bank arranges in close association with the customer syndicate facilities by grouping a consortium of banks to meet such financing request. The organizing bank is called the lead or managing bank, the loan is called consortium loan while the participating banks are referred to as loan syndication and the process of providing the loan is known as loan syndication.
Corporate loan syndication group (CLSG) purchases and sells interest in loan, in the corporate and commercial real estate sector corporate sector loan syndication includes;
- Leverage financing
- Middle market manufacturing
- Commercial financing companied
- Cable and communication companies. Syndication in the real estate sector includes;
- Pooled property funds
- Construction and development
A common feature of the International Merchant Bank management of loan syndication is a classical management of its asset. Loan syndication management is the act of handling a pool of inter bank relationship and their fund so that if not only preserved its original worth but also over time appreciate in value and yields and adequate return, consistent with the level of risk involved.
It is therefore our aim in this researcher to investigate syndication management strategy in international merchant bank and to see whether it is any way influenced by the nature of loans and advances of the bank whether its influenced of a positive or negative nature. According to Ansoff (1965).
Traditionally, the measure of success in a business firm has been profit, it is this measure that distinguished a business organization or from all other forms of social organization.
The factors that are likely to influence a bank’s desire to invest in a particular investment outlet include the nature of the project, the profitability, the cash flow situation and the maturity pattern of the banks. The importance of these various factors in the determination syndication varies from one bank to the other depending on the nature of the management and the overall business environment.
International merchant bank operates in the setting described with the cope of the direction of the bank Act. In this Act, banking business is defined as: the business of receiving money from outsider as deposit, irrespective of the payment of interest and the granting of loans. Advances and acceptances of credit or purchase and sale of securities and in incurring of obligation to acquire claims in respect of loans prior to their maturity or assumption of guarantee and other warrantees for others or the effecting transfers and clearing such other transaction as the minister may, on the recommendation of the central bank order published in the federal government gazette designated as banking business. It is easily seen that loan syndication management appropriately falls within the area of banking business as defined.
The function, objective, operation and setting of the merchant banks differs from those of commercial banks. In this Act of 1968, it is provided that merchant banks could engage in all forms of banking activities those undertaken by commercial bank except the operation of current account for small saves. The merchant banks are licensed to assist in the channeling of liquidity into the economy through granting of medium and long term investment, and also to perform specialized services in the area of equipment leasing, corporate financing project preparation debt factoring and rendering of advisory services among others. The provision on universal banking. For international merchant bank, it was considered that since they normally deal with large customers, which operate expectedly higher level of efficiency. They also need to mange their syndication more professionally to maximize the returns.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Contributing to the literature on the problem of loan syndication management, the study was designed to analyze how international merchant bank select securities in its loan syndication and how these loan are managed until their various dates