MANAGEMENT CRISIS OF THE BANKING INDUSTRY

MANAGEMENT CRISIS OF THE BANKING INDUSTRY : (A CASE STUDY OF SOME DISTRESS BANKS)

 

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ABSTRACT

In the banking industry, effective implementation of banking rules and regulations, organizational policies and procedures is very important in other to achieve the goal of the organization.  In other to achieve this, managers, operators of the banking industry will sit up for their responsibility in bringing about the much desired goal where this fails, distress crept in aid this is followed with loss of public confidence in the industry because they cannot meet the needs of depositors.  This work is designed to bring about the causes and possible solutions to this dreaded diseases.  This work will equip the managers to face the challenges ahead in other to build a more write banking industry that will stood for the test of time.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

  • Introduction

1.1     Background to the study

  • Statement of problem
  • Purpose of study
  • Scope of the study
  • Operational definition of terms
  • Hypothesis
  • Significance of the study

 

CHAPTER TWO

  • Review of literature

2.1     History of distress in Nigeria

  • The development of regulatory / supervisory authorities
  • General causes of distress
  • Other causes of distress
  • Characteristics of distress banks
  • Holding action – success, failures and measures
  • Summary of related literature review.

 

CHAPTER THREE

  • Methodology

3.1     Research design

  • Areas of study
  • Population of the study
  • Sample and sampling procedure
  • Instrument for data collection
  • Validity of the instrument
  • Reliability of the instrument
  • Method of administration of the instrument
  • Method of data analysis

 

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Data presentation and analysis

4.1     Data analysis

  • Test of hypothesis
  • Data interpretation

 

CHAPTER FIVE

  • SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

5.1     CONCLUSION

  • COMPLICATION OF THE RESULT
  • RECOMMENDATIONS
  • SUGGESTION FOR FURTHER STUDY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

REFERENCE

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

The first banking activity in Nigeria was carried out by African Banking corporation in 1892.  this was followed by the first bank in 1884 incorporated as Bank of British west African (BBWA).  According to porter (1980).  After the establishment of first Bank, Union Bank came on stream in 1917 as Barclays Bank.

 

The first indigenous Bank, according to Ndukwe (1994) was established in 1929 and that was the emergence of DISTESS in the Nigerian Banking sector.  This period also stressed rapid growth in number of Banks in Nigeria. Between 1951 and 1952, Ndukwe (1994) asserted that a total of 16 banks were established.

Onyima (1994) also observed that the increases was effectively matched by high rate of failure such that by 1954, 21 out of 25 banks had failed.

 

The salient causes for this failure are;

  1. The Dominimcation of the market by foreign firms.
  2. Lack of experienced personal and prudent managers.
  3. Under capitalization and poor loan profile.

The 1952 Banking ordinance was the only cause attributed to the government and it was this ordinance that brought about this failures in banks.  The reason being that most indigenous banks could not meet the demand of this ordinance and they had no other option than to close down.

 

However, since 17th of March, 1959, when central Bank ordinance and independence in 1959, government had through direct support mechanism, ensured that the banking public was no longer exposed to th hazards of bank failures.

 

The introduction of structural adjustment programme (SAP) in 1986 and the friancial system in 1987 Ebhodaghe (1903) noted that since that time, there has been a phenomenal increase in the number and type of financial institutions leading to staff competition in the industry.  This growth of Banks gave this impression that banking is an all was business as all types of investors with fund to throw about established and inconpetant and inenperienced hands assumed serior positions, people without very clean ordential joined as one.

 

According to the Banker (1994), these entrants prepared the ground for this virus infections known as ‘DISTRESS” which the monetary authorities are correctly battling to ensure it does not spread to other Banks.

 

Onyima (1994) admitted that the now beed financial after the deregulation took advantage of the premises rules incept regulators, firstling depositors and in utter disregard of the elementary test of solvency and going concern concert.

 

He further said that government economic policy shifled emphasis from direct support of banks to perent failure to one of protecting the deposits of customers, especially the small scale depositors.  It is in support of this that the “National Deposit Insurance Corporation” (NDIC) was established under decree no 22 of 1988.  one can reasonably assure that government knew that most banks or some Banks will collapse as a result of (SAP) and the deregulation of the financial system and that is why it creasted (NDIC) National Deposit Insurance Corporation.

 

In addition to the development noticed since 1986, the Banker (1994) adds that the general macro economic instability resulting in apredicatable monetary policy environment has equally played a magnificent role in bringing about distress in Banks also that the incessant mopping up of excess liquidity through the assurance of stabilization securities has creased liquidity crisis in the system and has adversary affected some banks.

 

  • BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

The laminating effect of the events aforementioned is the birth of distress in the banking sector which according to Ebhodagher (1993) surfaced in 1980 after the withdrawal of beasury fund from banks.  From then, one can deduce that the causes of distress or the factors that gave rise to distress in the banking sector is sponsored partly by the regulation / supervisory authorities and the operators of these banks, sometimes the depositors or the debtors of such banks, are blamed.  It could be as a result of this observation that Ebhodaghe (1993) said that the incident of banks distress is not peenliar to Nigeria.  It occurs in various Economics of the world.

 

In support of this Onyima (1994) observed that there has been.

  1. The American / European experience during the 1990’s.
  2. The late 1980’s American experience in the saving and loans scaudal which was described as the biggest financial mess in the history of united state of America.
  3. the Nigeria experience of the 1950’s, if the American and Europeans should be at one or the other, victims of banking distress them Nigeria’s case should not be seen as a stronger or exceptional case.

However, the Banker 1994 admitted that historically, we can ensure that phase as another in the enduring growth of the banking sub-sector that will definitely come to pass.  Thus the uproar and various scape-goatism being

 

 

 

Below is the website of our various clients from various higher institutions of learning. These are universities, polytechnic and college of education website in Nigeria.

Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo,

Alvan Ikoku College of Education, Owerri,

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Federal College of Educ. Abeokuta, .

Federal College of Education, Eha-Amufu, .

Federal College of Education, Kano, .

Federal College of Education, Katsina, .

Federal college of Education, Kontagora, .

Federal College of Education, Obudu, .

Federal College of Education, Okene, .

Federal College of Education, Okene, .

Federal College of Education, Pankshin, .

 Federal College of Education, Yola, .

Federal College of Education, Zaria, .

Federal College of Education (Technical), Akoka, .

Federal College of Education (Technical), Asaba, .

Federal College of Education (Technical), Bichi, .

Federal College of Education (Technical), Gombe, .

Federal College of Education (Technical), Gusau, .

Federal College of Education (Technical), Omoku, .

Federal College of Education (Special) Oyo, .

 

 

State college of education

College of Education, Agbor, .

Akwa-Ibom State College of Education, Afaha-Nsit, .

College of Education, Akwanga, .

College of Education, Akwanga, .

Cross River State College of Education, Akamkpa, .

Adamu Augie College of Education, Argungu, .

College of Education, Azare, .

Bayelsa State College of Education, Okpoama, .

Emmanuel Alyande College of Education, Oyo, .

Enugu State College of Education (Tech.) Enugu, .

College of Education, Ekiadolor, .

Umar Suleiman College of Education, Gashua, .

College of Education, Gindiri, .

Michael Otedola College of Primary Education, Moforiji, .

College of Education, Port Harcourt, .

Adeniran Ogunsanya College of Education, Otto, .

Tai Solarin College of Education, Ijebu-Ode, .

Tai Solarin College of Education, Ijebu-Ode, .

Ebonyi State College of Education, Ikwo, .

College of Education, Ikere, .

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College of Education, Ilorin, .

College of Education, Jalingo, .

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College of Education, Benue, .

Kebbi State College of Education, Argungu, .

College of Education, Minna, .

Nwafor Orizu College of Education, Nsugbe, .

College of Education, Oju, .

College of Education, Oro, .

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Oyo State College of Education, Oyo, .

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College of Education, Warri, .

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FCT College of Education, Zuba, .

 

Private college of education

Angel Crown College of Education, Gidan-Daya, .

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Assanusiyah College of Education, Odeomu, .

African Thinkers Community of inquiry College of Education, .

Best Legacy College of Education, Ikirun, .

Bauchi Institute for Arabic and Islamic Studies, .

Calvin Foundation College of Education, Naka, .

Harvard Wilson College of Education, Aba, .

Hill College of Education, Akwanga, .

Institute of Ecumenical Education, Enugu, .

College of Education, Foreign Links Campus Moro, .

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Muhyideen College of Education, Ilorin, .

ONIT College of Education, Abagana, .

The African Church College of Education, Lagos, .

St. Augustine College of Education, Yaba, .

Yewa Central College of Education, Ogun, .

 

 

List of Federal Universities in Nigeria

Abubakar Tafawa Belewa University, .

Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, .

Bayero University, Kano, .

Federal University, Gashua, .

Federal University of Tech, Akure, .

Federal University of Petroleum Resources, Effurun, .

Federal University of Technology, Minna, .

Federal University of technology, Owerri, .

Federal University Dutse, .

Federal University Dutsin-Ma, .

Federal University, Ndufu-Alike, .

Federal University, Otuoke, .

Federal University, Wukari, .

Federal University, Birnin Kebbi, .

Federal University, Gusau

Michael Okpara Univeristy of Agric, Umudike, .

Modibbo Adama University of Tech, Yola, .

National Open University of Nigeria, .

Nigeria Police Academy Wudil, .

Nigeria defense Academy, Kaduna, .

Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, .

Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, .

University of Abuja, Gwagwalada, .

University of Agriculture Abeokuta, .

University of Agriculture Markurdi, .

University of Benin, .

University of Calabar, .

University of Lagos, .

University of Maiduguri, .

University of Nigeria Nsukka, .

University of Port-Harcourt, .

University of Uyo, .

Usmanu Danfodiyo University, .

List of State Universities

Abia State University, Uturu, .

Adamawa State University, Mubi, .

Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba, .

Amrose Alli University, Ikot Akpaden, .

Anambra State University of Sc. & Tech, Uli, .

Anambra State University of Sc. & Tech, Uli, .

Bauchi State Unibversity, Gadau, .

Benue State University Markurdi, .

Bukar Abba Ibrahim University, Damaturu, .

Cross River State University of Sc. & Tech, Calabar, .

Delta State University Abraka, .

Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, .

Ekiti State University, .

Enugu State University of Sc. & Tech. Enugu, .

Gombe State University, Gombe

Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, .

Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, .

Imo state University,Owerri, .

Jigawa State University, .

Kaduna State University, Kaduna .

Kano University of Sc. & Tech, Wudil

Kebbi State University, Kebbi, .

Kogi State University, Anyigba, .

Kwara State University, Ilorin, .

Ladoke Akintola university of Tech, .

Lagos State University Ojo, .

Nasarawa State University, Keffi, .

Niger Delta University, Yenagoe, .

Olabisi Onabanjo University Ago-Iwoye, .

Ondo State University of Sc. & Tech, Okitipupa, .

Osun State University, Oshogbo, .

Plateau State University, Bokkos, .

Rivers State University of Sc. & Tech, .

Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijebu-ode, .

Taraba State University, Jalingo, .

Umaru Musa Yar’Adua University, .

Private Universities

Achievers University, Owo, .

Adeleke University, Ede, .

Afe Babalola University, Ado- Ekiti, .

African University of Sc. & Tech, Abuja, .

Al-hikmah University, Ilorin, .

Ajayi Crowther University, Ibadan, .

Al-Qalam University, Katsina, .

American University of Nigeria, Yola, .

Babcock University, Ilishan, .

Baze University, .

Bells University of Technology, Otta, .

Benson Idahosa University, Benin, .

Bingham University, New Karu, .

Bowen University, Iwo, .

Caleb University, Lagos, .

Caritas University, Enugu, .

CETEP City University, Lagos, .

Covenant University, Ota, .

Crawford University, Igbesa, .

Crescent University, .

Elizade University, Ilara-mokin, .

Fountain University, Oshogbo, .

Gregory University, Uturu, .

Hallmark University, .

Igbinedion University, Okada

Joseph Ayo Babalola University,Ikeji, .

Kwararafa University, Wukari, .

Lead City University, Ibadan, .

Madonna University, Okija

Mcpherson University, Seriki

Nigerian-Turkish Nile University, Abuja, .

Novena University, Ogume, .

Obong University, Obong Ntak, .

Oduduwa University, Ipetumodu, .

Pan-African University, Lagos, .

Paul University, Awka, .

Redeemer’s University, Mowe, .

Renaissance University, Enugu, .

Salem University, Lokoja, .

Tansian University, Umunya, .

University of Mkar

Veritas University, .

Wellspring University, Edo, .

Wesley University of Sc. & Tech, Ondo, .

Western Delta University, Oghara

List of all the Federal Polytechnics

    Air Force Institute of Technology Nigerian Air Force, .

    Air Force Institute of Technology Nigerian Air Force, .

    Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Unwana, .

Nigeria Army School of Military Engineering, .

     Auchi Polytechnic .

     Auchi Polytechnic .

    Federal Polytechnic, Ado-Ekiti .

Federal Polytechnic, Ado-Ekiti .

Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, .

    Federal Polytechnic, Bida, .

 Federal Polytechnic, Bida, .

   Federal Polytechnic, Damaturu, .

     Federal Polytechnic, Ede, Osun State, .

         Federal Polytechnic, Ede, Osun State, .

 Federal Polytechnic, Ida, .

   Federal Polytechnic, Ida, .

  Federal Polytechnic, Ilaro, .

     Federal Polytechnic, Ile-Oluji, Ondo State, .

    Federal Polytechnic, Mubi, .

   Federal Polytechnic, Namoda, .

   Federal Polytechnic, Nassarawa, .

  Federal Polytechnic, Nekede, .

    Federal Polytechnic, Nekede, .

Federal Polytechnic, Offa, .

 Federal Polytechnic, Offa, .

 Federal Polytechnic, Oko, .

Federal School of Dental Technology and Therapy, .

Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna, .

Hussaini Adamu Federal Polytechnic, .

Nigeria Army School of Military Engineering, .

Federal College of Animal Health and Production Technology, .

Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic Birnin Kebbi, .

Yaba College of Tech, .

List of State Polytechnics in Nigeria

 Abraham Adesanya Polytechnic, Ijebu-Igbo, .

Abia State Polytechnic, .

Adamawa State Polytechnic, .

Akwa-Ibom State Polytechnic, Ikot-Osurua, .

Benue State Poly, Ugbokolo, .

Gateway Polytechnic, Igbesa, .

Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, .

Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, .

The Polytechnic, Ibadan, .

Institute of Mgt. and Tech, .

Imo State Polytechnic, Umuagwo, .

Kano State Polytechnic, .

Kogi State Polytechnic, Lokoja, .

Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin, .

Lagos State Poly, Ikorodu, .

Moshood Abiola Poly, .

Nasarawa State Polytechnic, .

Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic, .

Delta State Polytechnic, Ogwashi-Uku, .

Osun State Poly, Iree, .

Osun State Poly, Iree, .

Osun State College of Tech, Esa-Oke, .

Delta State Polytechnic, Ozoro, .

Plateau State Polytechnic, Barkin-Ladi, .

Adamawa State Poly, .

Rivers State College of Arts and Science, .

Rivers State College of Arts and Science, .

Rivers State Polytechnic, .

Gateway Polytechnic Saapade, .

Edo State Inst. of Tech and Mgt, Usen, .

Niger State Poly, Zungeru, Niger State, .

List of Private Polytechnics in Nigeria

Allover Central Polytechnic, .

Crown Polytechnics, .

Covenant Polytechnic, .

Dorben Polytechnic, Bwari-Garam Road, .

Fidei Polytechnic, Gboko, .

Grace Polytechnic, .

Grace Polytechnic, .

Igbajo Polytechnic, .

The Polytechnic, Ile-Ife, NITEL Road, .

Lagos City Poly, Ikeja, Lagos State, .

Light House Polytechnic, Eubuobanosa, .

Interlink Polytechnic, .

Kings Polytechnic, Ubiaja, .

RONIK Polytechnic, .

Shaka Polytechnic, Polytechnic, Benin city, .

Temple-Gate Polytechnic, .

Wolex Polytechnic, .

Prime Polytechnic, .

The Polytechnic Imesi-Ile, Osun, .

Heritage Polytechnic, Ikot Udota, .

Ibadan City Polytechnic, .

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