MANAGEMENT CRISIS OF THE BANKING INDUSTRY : (A CASE STUDY OF SOME DISTRESS BANKS)
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In the banking industry, effective implementation of banking rules and regulations, organizational policies and procedures is very important in other to achieve the goal of the organization. In other to achieve this, managers, operators of the banking industry will sit up for their responsibility in bringing about the much desired goal where this fails, distress crept in aid this is followed with loss of public confidence in the industry because they cannot meet the needs of depositors. This work is designed to bring about the causes and possible solutions to this dreaded diseases. This work will equip the managers to face the challenges ahead in other to build a more write banking industry that will stood for the test of time.
1.1 Background to the study
- Statement of problem
- Purpose of study
- Scope of the study
- Operational definition of terms
- Significance of the study
- Review of literature
2.1 History of distress in Nigeria
- The development of regulatory / supervisory authorities
- General causes of distress
- Other causes of distress
- Characteristics of distress banks
- Holding action – success, failures and measures
- Summary of related literature review.
3.1 Research design
- Areas of study
- Population of the study
- Sample and sampling procedure
- Instrument for data collection
- Validity of the instrument
- Reliability of the instrument
- Method of administration of the instrument
- Method of data analysis
- Data presentation and analysis
4.1 Data analysis
- Test of hypothesis
- Data interpretation
- SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
- COMPLICATION OF THE RESULT
- SUGGESTION FOR FURTHER STUDY
The first banking activity in Nigeria was carried out by African Banking corporation in 1892. this was followed by the first bank in 1884 incorporated as Bank of British west African (BBWA). According to porter (1980). After the establishment of first Bank, Union Bank came on stream in 1917 as Barclays Bank.
The first indigenous Bank, according to Ndukwe (1994) was established in 1929 and that was the emergence of DISTESS in the Nigerian Banking sector. This period also stressed rapid growth in number of Banks in Nigeria.
Between 1951 and 1952, Ndukwe (1994) asserted that a total of 16 banks were established.
Onyima (1994) also observed that the increases was effectively matched by high rate of failure such that by 1954, 21 out of 25 banks had failed.
The salient causes for this failure are;
- The Dominimcation of the market by foreign firms.
- Lack of experienced personal and prudent managers.
- Under capitalization and poor loan profile.
The 1952 Banking ordinance was the only cause attributed to the government and it was this ordinance that brought about this failures in banks. The reason being that most indigenous banks could not meet the demand of this ordinance and they had no other option than to close down.
However, since 17th of March, 1959, when central Bank ordinance and independence in 1959, government had through direct support mechanism, ensured that the banking public was no longer exposed to th hazards of bank failures.
The introduction of structural adjustment programme (SAP) in 1986 and the friancial system in 1987 Ebhodaghe (1903) noted that since that time, there has been a phenomenal increase in the number and type of financial institutions leading to staff competition in the industry. This growth of Banks gave this impression that banking is an all was business as all types of investors with fund to throw about established and inconpetant and inenperienced hands assumed serior positions, people without very clean ordential joined as one.
According to the Banker (1994), these entrants prepared the ground for this virus infections known as ‘DISTRESS” which the monetary authorities are correctly battling to ensure it does not spread to other Banks.
Onyima (1994) admitted that the now beed financial after the deregulation took advantage of the premises rules incept regulators, firstling depositors and in utter disregard of the elementary test of solvency and going concern concert.
He further said that government economic policy shifled emphasis from direct support of banks to perent failure to one of protecting the deposits of customers, especially the small scale depositors. It is in support of this that the “National Deposit Insurance Corporation” (NDIC) was established under decree no 22 of 1988. one can reasonably assure that government knew that most banks or some Banks will collapse as a result of (SAP) and the deregulation of the financial system and that is why it creasted (NDIC) National Deposit Insurance Corporation.
In addition to the development noticed since 1986, the Banker (1994) adds that the general macro economic instability resulting in apredicatable monetary policy environment has equally played a magnificent role in bringing about distress in Banks also that the incessant mopping up of excess liquidity through the assurance of stabilization securities has creased liquidity crisis in the system and has adversary affected some banks.
- BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The laminating effect of the events aforementioned is the birth of distress in the banking sector which according to Ebhodagher (1993) surfaced in 1980 after the withdrawal of beasury fund from banks. From then, one can deduce that the causes of distress or the factors that gave rise to distress in the banking sector is sponsored partly by the regulation / supervisory authorities and the operators of these banks, sometimes the depositors or the debtors of such banks, are blamed. It could be as a result of this observation that Ebhodaghe (1993) said that the incident of banks distress is not peenliar to Nigeria. It occurs in various Economics of the world. In support of this Onyima (1994) observed that there has been.
- The American / European experience during the 1990’s.
- The late 1980’s American experience in the saving and loans scaudal which was described as the biggest financial mess in the history of united state of America.
- the Nigeria experience of the 1950’s, if the American and Europeans should be at one or the other, victims of banking distress them Nigeria’s case should not be seen as a stronger or exceptional case.
However, the Banker 1994 admitted that historically, we can ensure that phase as another in the enduring growth of the banking sub-sector that will definitely come to pass. Thus the uproar and various scape-goatism being