AFRICAN STANDBY FORCE: PROSPECTS FOR REGIONAL SECURITY

AFRICAN STANDBY FORCE: PROSPECTS FOR REGIONAL SECURITY 

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ABSTRACT

  1. This research was carried out to analyse the concept of the African Standby Force (ASF) and its prospects for regional security on the African continent. Series of conflicts in Africa and their attendant problems have killed millions, destroyed property and hindered Africa’s growth. If African countries are to achieve any meaningful development, they must be relatively crises free. However, responsibility for security in Africa is devolving to African states and sub-regional organizations.

 

  1. Several conflicts on the continent have shown that the UN and the developed countries are slow to react to conflicts in Africa, especially where their national interests are not affected. Thus Africa can no longer fold its arms and watch from the sidelines while conflicts continue to ravage the continent. Moreover, Africa is the major loser from such conflicts. The need to find an African solution to African problems thus gave birth to the ASF.

 

  1. The ASF is a system whereby troops are kept ready for rapid deployment to conflict areas. The establishment of the ASF reaffirmed the determination and commitment of African leaders to handle African problems themselves. The very existence of the ASF and the knowledge that it would be effectively used would serve as deterrence to would-be trouble makers across the continent. Furthermore, the ASF would greatly reduce the response time for international intervention in conflict situations. This is necessary to ‘nip conflicts in the bud’ and prevent further bloodshed and suffering.

 

  1. The descriptive research method was used for the study. The study examines the security challenges confronting the AU and how the ASF can help combat these challenges. The study also examines the progress so far made in establishing the ASF and strategies to fully operationalise the ASF.


 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0   INTRODUCTION

 

1.1   BACKGROUND

 

Security can be construed in terms of the ability of individual citizens to live in peace with access to basic necessities of life, at the same time participating fully in societal affairs in freedom and enjoying all fundamental human rights (The Kampala Document: Towards a Conference on Security, Stability, Development and Cooperation in Africa). Security is indisputably a first order value for all mankind. McNamara offered a broad definition of security when he stated that ‘security means development’           (McNamara, 1968:149). Security can therefore be conceptualised as a precursor to development and although not entirely dependent on military activity, it is tightly intertwined with it and cannot exist without it. According to Imobighe, ‘the amount of security a nation enjoys is a reflection of its defence system’ (Imobigbe, 2003:170). Similarly, Lippmann posits that ‘a nation has security when it does not have to sacrifice its legitimate national interests to avoid war and is able, if challenged to, to maintain them by war’ (Baylis, 2001:255). This implies that military security is important and indeed forms the bedrock on which all other forms of security rest.

 

Africa’s security problems can be traced to the era of slave cartelization when European slave merchants freely terrorized the continent. This was closely followed by colonization wherein the indigenous defence systems were removed to emplace imperialism. Since then, Africa has become an exporter of raw materials and cheap labour and an importer of finished goods. This exploitation continued until the outbreak of World War II (WWII) in 1939. The end of WWII in 1945 saw the emergence of two superpowers, the United States of America (USA) and the United Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR). The subsequent Cold War which ensued between these superpowers lasted                         from 1945-1990. Within this period, the superpowers fought by proxy, with many African countries as pawns in their power struggle. Dictatorships, overtly or covertly supported by one or the other superpower, usurped power through coups d’etat and maintained repressive regimes. This inevitably led to counter coups, usually supported by the opposing superpower.

 

The resultant vicious circle of dictatorships, sit-tight rulers, coups and counter coups, coupled with illiteracy, absence of…

 

 

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