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AN ASSESSMENT OF LOAN MANAGEMENT IN BANKING SECTOR

( A CASE STUDY OF UNION BANK OF NIGERIA PLC)

FACTORS THAT GENERATE CONFLICT BETWEEN PRINCIPALS AND TEACHERS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS WITHIN ENUGU EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ENUGU STATE

 

 

 

ABSTRACT

 

The study principally aimed at identifying the factors that generate conflicts between principal and teachers within Enugu East Local Government Area of Enugu State. Principals and teachers were the subjects. Questionnaires were the instrument used in obtaining data for the study. Related literatures were reviewed. Six research questions were formulated to guide this study and were answered using mean. The finding revealed factors that generate conflict between principals and teachers within Enugu East Local Government Area of Enugu State which include the leadership styles of principals, the leadership style of teacher, lack of dedication on to by teachers, lack of motivation of teacher, irregular payment of salaries and other benefits and poor information flow between teachers and principals. Suggestions were highlighted. Recommendation were also made.

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Title page                                                                               i

Approval page                                                                        ii

Dedication                                                                             iii

Acknowledgement                                                                 iv

Abstract                                                                                 v

Table of content                                                                     vi

 

CHAPTER ONE:       INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the Study 1
  • Statement of the Problem 3
  • Purpose of the Study 4
  • Significance of the Study 5
  • Scope of the Study 6
  • Research Questions 7

 

 

 

CHAPTER TWO:      REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

  • Duties of Secondary School Principals 8
  • Leadership Styles of Secondary School Principals 12
  • Duties of Secondary School Teachers 18
  • Factors that generate Conflict Between Principals

and Secondary School Teachers in Enugu East

Local Government Area                                                25

  • Summary of Review of Related Literature 35

 

CHAPTER THREE:  RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

  • Research Design 36
  • Area of the Study 36
  • Population of the Study 36
  • Sample and Sampling Techniques 37
  • Instrument for Data Collection 37
  • Validation of the Instrument 38
  • Administration of the Instruments 38
  • Method of Data Collection 39
  • Method of Data Analysis 39

 

 

CHAPTER FOUR:     DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

  • Research Question 1 41
  • Research Question 2 43
  • Research Question 3 45
  • Research Question 4 46
  • Research Question 5 47
  • Summary of the Findings          49

 

CHAPTER FIVE:      DISCUSSION OF THE FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND

RECOMMENDATIONS

  • Discussion of the Findings 51
  • Conclusions 53
  • Educational Implication of Findings 53
  • Recommendations 54
  • Limitations of the Study 55
  • Suggestions for Further Studies 56
  • Summary of the Study 57

 

References                                                                    58

Appendix                                                                       60

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of Study

The school as an organisation has its set goals and objectives which includes imparting knowledge (cognitive domain) character development (affective domain) and psychomotor domain of future leaders. For those objectives to be achieved, a good working relationship between the school heads and their subordinate staff is important. This situation is expected to enhance or help build up an excellent academic environment and with subsequently influence positively the general academic results.

The above situation could be attained when the principles discharge their duties or obligations to teachers under their care and teachers in turn learn also to reciprocate by discharging their own duties to the students and the school in general.

According to Musaazi (1985) a good working relationship created the number of time conflict occur between them. This can be achieved when the principals show concern, for the welfare of the staff as well as that of the students. These includes recommending them for promotions through ideal performance evaluation, giving information that concern the teachers to them, helping to get their staffers salaries and benefits and giving considerable attention to each and collective problems of the teachers.

Now be it the reduction or elimination of conflicts in school depends not only on the principals but on teachers equally. Teachers should put in their best at all times. These include attending school functions and meeting, showing concern to the progress of the school.

Inspite of the above desirable conditions that are expected to exit in schools the issue of conflict between teachers and principals is still quite prevalent in our schools today. These conflicts take various forms and consequently affect the smooth running and achievements of the objectives of the school system. This issue of conflict attracted the concern of this researcher hence the need to identify the factors that generate conflict between secondary school principals and teachers within Enugu East Local Government Area of Enugu State.

 

Statement of the Problem

The school is a social organisation. For any organisation to be in cordial relationship with one another the staff of the organization, when people work in a conductive atmosphere, the goals and objectives of the organisation are easily realizable. In schools, the principal are the administrators while the teachers work under them. Their relationship is expected to be cordial so that peace, process and harmony will prevail in the institution.

However, the above condition is just the ideal. In real life situation one finds that the progress of the schools often marked by series of conflicts. These conflicts which emanate from various sources are never good for proper social and academic excellence. In view of this the problem of this study is as follows:

What are those factors that generate conflict between principals and teachers in secondary schools in Enugu East Local Government Area of Enugu state.

 

Purpose of the Study

The major purpose of this study was to identify the factors that generate conflict between principal and teachers in secondary schools, especially the study sought to:

  1. Find out if the leadership style of principals create conflict between him/her and teachers
  2. Find out if lack of dedication by teachers generate conflict between them and the principals
  3. Find out if lack of motivation of teachers generate conflict between teachers and principals
  4. Find out if regular payment of salaries and other benefits create conflict between principals and teachers
  5. If poor information flow create conflict between principals and teachers in secondary school.

 

 

Significance of the Study

This work is of great significance to many including teachers, principals, parents and students in the following ways.

Teachers good relationships with principals of their schools enhance production and indirectly provide basis for their promotion as and when due. Teachers are appraised by their principals annually. This annual assignment by the head teachers, the principal is an opportunity for him/her to use power. Any teacher that is not in good book of the principal will not pass and as such will not be promoted.

Students achieve much in atmosphere of peace and tranquility. The student are cheated in this regard where there are conflict among teachers and principals common conflict among teaching staff and principal include lateness to school, absence in class and non compliance to other rules in the school. All these directly affect teaching and learning. But when a child is properly taught, he/she will also learn very well.

This study is beneficial to the parents whose objective is to make their children learn. In an atmosphere of peace the parents will be rest assured of the safety of their children. The performance of students will also be enhanced in atmosphere of peace.

The principal of any school that achieve peace must have worked hard. Such principal must have applied conflict resolution strategies reveal in this work and or designed an administrative structure devoid of conflicts such as division of labour, dialogue and persuasion in their daily activities.

 

Scope of Study

This study is limited to factors that generate conflicts between principal and teachers in secondary schools in Enugu East Local Government Area as related to leadership styles applied by principals, teachers dedication to their duties, the nature of payment of teachers and the information flow between principal and teachers etc.

 

 

Research Question

The study was guided by the following research questions:-

  1. To what extent does the leadership style of principals cause conflict between principals and teachers in secondary schools?
  2. To what extent does lack of dedication by teachers generate conflict between teachers and principals of secondary schools?
  3. To what extent does lack of motivations of teachers generate conflicts in between principals and teachers in secondary schools?
  4. To what extent does irregular payment of teachers and other benefits create conflict between principals and teachers in secondary schools?
  5. To what extend does poor information flow create conflict between principals and teachers in secondary schools?

 

 

 

CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This chapter is concerned with a review of literature that were related to the present study. The review of literature was organised under the following subheadings:

  1. Duties of secondary school principals
  2. Leadership styles of secondary school principals
  3. Duties of secondary school teachers
  4. Factors that generate conflict between principals and secondary school teachers in Enugu East Local Government Area in Enugu State
  5. Summary of related literature review.

 

  1. DUTIES OF SECONDARY SCHOOL PRINCIPALS

In general management terminology, the term principals passes for an individual who by virtue of his function, carries out duties which deal with managing both human and material resources within the school system, and how they can best be utilized. According to Koontz et al the functions of principals generally speaking include planning, organising, staffing leading, controlling and coordination. According to Aderounmu and Ehiametator (1985), the specific duties of a principals include some of the following.

  1. Planning

To ensure that the aims of principal are attained, planning principles have to be applied to the principal exercise from the very beginning, planning principles involve the articulation of objectives, selecting of the best strategies, mapping of policies and programmes. A useful strategy specifies what is to be achieved, provides direction, provides a future traits and opportunities. According to Musaazi (1985) principals performs the following duties, he interprets policy, executes curriculum programmes. The principal is responsible for the students’ welfare, equipment, physical facilities, finance, administration and creates maintains effective school-community relationship.

  1. Staffing

One of the duties of principal is the process of supervision, staff vacancies in the terms of grades and disciplines, can be identified in accordance with the organizational structure of the school. Subsequently as a follow up activity, steps should be taken to fill such identification vacancies. The secondary school principals should cultivate a good cordial relationship with the teachers. They (teacher) should be aware of his moral and disciplinary programmes for the school. The principal should also supervise students, teachers, examples Nigerian Youth Service Corp members and teaching practice students-teachers.

  1. Co-ordination

The principals is expected to co-ordinate all the activities, programmes, and efforts of all the teachers to be able to achieve the set objectives.

  1. Human Relation

In the area of human relation, the principal is in a key position to influence positively in relation to the human factors or moral. Knowledge of his teachers is the first step in this direction. A school principal should know the moral caliber of his teachers and their attitudes to discipline related mattes. He is expected to select individual teachers for certain roles, change the nature of the relationship with him and other members of staff. By so doing, he will generate interpersonal interest, confidence and trust.

  1. Decision Making

This refers to the process of choosing among alternatives. In most cases there exists two actions and the principal must decide which alternative to pursue. Decision making is also the process by which conclusions are drawn after careful considerations. Administrative decisions are action-oriented and related to the goals of an organisation.

Decision making behaviour is exhibited in selecting and implementing an alternative course of action and it involves the consideration of number of conflicting and competing factors and selecting one for action.

  1. Evaluation

The principal should from time to time evaluate his moral programme for his school just as he evaluates his academic programme. So important is the function as dressed.

There is no issue regarding the presence or absence or evaluation when one is faced with a choice, evaluation, whether conscious or not is present. Failure to engage systematically in evaluation in reaching many decision necessary in education means that decisions by prejudice, by tradition or by retionalization are paramount.

It is also ascertaining how well performance conformed to agreed plans, where gaps are and whether the whole programme is a failure or a success.

  1. Communicating

Finally, communication is the transmission of information. It must be effective in order to get the work of organization done.

It is important to maintain effective communication so that the people will get the right type of information they need and so they can perform the situation where they are expected to perform. Communication is necessary so as to pass on information, to give motivation and to influence and persuade the staff to work.

  1. LEADERSHIP STYLES OF SECONDARY SCHOOL PRINCIPALS

Several scholars and authorities in education and the social sciences have written about different leadership styles. The present era, characterized by a greater sensitivity to the social processes of interaction and exchange sees leadership in terms of interpersonal influence towards goals achievement. It is now felt that “leader is riot effective by merely bringing big or influential without regards to the processes at work and the end achieved” (Hollander, 1973). However, leadership styles have generally been categorized under five major headings: autocratic, democratic, laissez-faire, transactional and pseudo-democratic leadership styles.

  1. Autocratic Leadership Styles of Principals

The autocratic leader dominates in decision making about schools programmes and policies. He assigns tasks or duties to teachers without consultations. He entertains no questions from subordinates. Such school principals do not encourage group work or teacher meeting. He fears that the collective decisions or groups will affect his behavior. He is a dictator as too much power is centered to him. He rarely makes use of his assistant. He does not delegate authority. Many teachers must have come across some principals like this. He may not have all the qualities indicated but has most of them. Such school principals insist on work done even when the teacher is dying. He does not want to hear excuses about a sick child, husband or wife. His word is final. He may not necessarily be wicked but he insists that rules and regulations will be kept and indicated. He is not flexible in his decisions.

Advantages of Autocratic Leadership

  • Teacher work hard although without dedication
  • Students perform well in school
  • Hard work is encouraged
  • Idleness is not entertained

Disadvantages of Autocratic Leadership

  • This type of leadership kills initiative
  • Teachers morale is low
  • The climate is such schools are usually closed.
  1. Democratic Leadership Style of Principals

A democratic leader involves others in decision making. He seeks the opinion of his staff and at times the school prefects where it concerns the students. There is a good channel of communication. He often delegates authority. He has a report (understanding) with his teacher and students. Decisions are reached after teachers meeting or consultation with those concerned. However, he takes the final decision in the interest of the school. School activities go on well. Teachers are willing to work, as they understand the nature of administration being part of decision making. Everybody feels important.

Advantages of Democratic Leadership Style

  • There is job satisfaction
  • The teachers and students feel involved in the administration
  • There is harmony and report
  • People understand themselves
  • There is also togetherness and close communication between the principal and teachers.
  1. Lassies Faire Leadership Style of Principles

The word laissez faire means “As you like”. The leader is unconcerned about the activities within the organization. He is aloof. There is a big communication gap between the leaders and regulations. This type of school principal has no authority. He is very much interested in pleasing his teachers. He does not care about school activities. Teachers and students are allowed to do what they like. Individuals carry out class or school activities with out direction but the principal participates when he is ask to.

However, he sees that school materials are supplied but does not monitor nor supplied but does not monitor nor supervise the use of these materials. Truancy and lateness are usually high. Lazy teachers under this type of principal never bother to attend classes. What results is that individual teachers make and take their own decisions. The situations lead to anarchy.

Advantages of Laissez Faire Leadership Style

  • Self discipline among teachers and students comes into play
  • Those with initiative and leadership qualities emerge
  • Teachers develop their initiative and idea without hindrance
  • Students learn to be self-discipline and how to be independent
  • They learn how to study on their own
  • Personal problems of teachers and students are quickly solved.

Disadvantages of Laissez Fair Leadership Style

  • There is no job satisfaction
  • Organizational goals are not achieved
  • Students and teachers become truant, as they have no interest in the school activities
  • Too much leaders emerge bringing confusion
  • The atmosphere created here is not conducive for learning.
  1. Transactional Leadership Styles of Principals

The leadership aware of both the organizational needs and the needs and expectations of the group, tries to integrate the two. At one time the principal emphasizes production and at other times he shows extreme. Consideration for the members “Transactional leadership is thus a process through which the task and human dimensions of organization are reconciled and integrated (Newel 1978).

 

  1. Pseudo-Democratic Leadership Styles of Principals

This leadership clams to demonstrate democracy to the group, but is in reality intentionally autocratic. The principal asks for suggestions and opinions of members but never utilizes these. The participation of the group in decision making would be to support the principal pre-decision and points of view.

  1. DUTIES OF SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS

The role of teachers are those activities, duties and functions which teachers are responsible for and which are expected of them and which make up reason for their being called teachers. The central work of the teacher is to teach that students learn what have been planed for them to learn. In carrying out the above duties, the teacher has to carryout a number of roles which includes:

  • Sound subject matter mastery
  • Curriculum development
  • Instructional management
  • Curriculum management
  • Interpersonal collaboration
  • Professional self development.
  • Sound Subject Matter Mastery by the Teacher: It is a very important duty of the teacher to have sound mastery of the subject matter she teachers. The worth of the teacher depends very much on this because it contributes towards raising the worth of the teacher in many ways. In the first place, it enables the teacher to teach facts that are correct and relevant to the topic of the lesson and suitable to the course. In the second place, it enables the teachers to answer intelligently, objectively and confidently any questions that may arise from the topic. In the third place it enable the teacher to access correctly any tests, assignment and examinations. At the end, specific educational objectives would have been attained.
  • Curriculum Development by the Teacher: Most teachers in Nigeria today believe that they do not take part in curriculum development since the subject and the content of what is taught is decide form “above” and handed down to them. Before teaching take place, the curriculum is first translated into “schemes of work” and “Notes of lesson” by teachers in schools. The decisions that go into the preparation of these documents are perhaps the more important part of curriculum development. Even after the note of lesson have been prepared and checked by the principal, the final decision on what activities for teaching and learning the teacher actually carries out is entirely that of the teacher whose effectively participates as outline. In curriculum development is contributing effectively in the realization of educational objectives. In short, the teacher is also improving her capacity to manage instruction effectively.
  • Instructional Management by the Teachers: The management of instruction is another very important duty of the teacher. To manage instruction effectively, the teacher needs to have sound knowledge of the subject(s) she teaches and be able to communicate well. Effective instructional management enables the teacher to
  • Teach in ways that results in understanding by students of what is taught
  • Assess students abilities and capabilities correctly.

Ability to communicate means that the teacher speaks correctly and loud enough to be heared. It also means that the teacher writes clearly on paper and chalk board. These points help to maintain the interest and attention of students and to achieve and maintain orderliness in the learning environment.

  • Evaluation of Curriculum by the Teachers: Part of the responsibility of teachers towards the achievement of educational objectives lies in the evaluation of the learned materials. To be able to do this, the teacher needs to measure the quality and quality of the knowledge and skills the students have acquired individually, in each school work within a given period of time and find out whether or not the child has learnt well. In the process, the teacher will also be able to find out his own weaknesses, from results of evaluation of students work and adjust to eliminate his own weaknesses. Evaluation promotes both the teachers teaching and the student’s learning. Results of various evaluation give idea of the efficacy or otherwise of the educational system.
  • Interpersonal Collaboration by the Teacher: It is one of the duty of the teacher to ensure harmony within the school. To contribute towards achieving harmony requires the teacher to seek and maintain friendly and healthy relationship with all the other groups that have interest in the school. The teachers’ regard to seek and maintain friendly relations with other teachers, school administration, student, inspection and community leaders.

When this is the case the teacher is able to work co-operatively and achieve better result than if she kept to herself

The teacher who is approachable to parents of the students in a position to help resolve those home based conflict that hamper students learning. Such a teacher is approachable to students and can assists in solving student’s problems and in this way remove difficulties of learning. Students of such a teacher develop interest in the teachers and consequently in the lessons she teach.

  • Student’s Counseling by the Teachers: Students counseling is a role inbuilt into any teaching. In teaching any subject, the teacher communicate not only subject matter but also skills, attitudes and behaviours. This makes every teacher a behavior modifier, as well as instructor in content knowledge and skills. The teacher, at any level of the education system, is a representative of adult society positively, students learn to be in society in a positive light. It on the other hand, by the teacher’s attitude to his work, his dress and general appearance he represent a negative view of society, students tend to see the society negatively and may resist the educational objectives of the society.

The consoling role of the teacher is also personal. Good interpersonal relationship with students enables the teachers to win students confidence to act their guardian while they are under her, to watch and direct their moral development towards the right direction.

  • Professional Self Development and Career Advancement by the Teachers: Teaching is about learning and it is one of the duties of the teacher to continually seek and acquire relevant knowledge. The process of doing this is professional self development and career advancement. It is the duty of the individual teacher to have a long term view of what she wants to become within the education service, it is also the individual teacher to have a long term view of what she wants to become within the education service, it is also the individual teacher’s duty to make sacrifices to ward her career rather than simply leaving it to change. Progression in the education service involves several options which include whether to continue throughout as a secondary school teacher or to transfer to work in the school library etc. The necessary factor in achieving career progression rest with the individual teacher’s readiness to private resources.

 

  1. FACTOR THAT GENERATE CONFLICT BETWEEN PRINCIPALS AND SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN ENUGU EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA
    • Poor styles of supervision by secondary school principles
    • Improper training of principals
    • Lack of proper information flow
    • Attitudinal problems of the teachers
    • Lack of mutual understanding between the principals and teachers
    • Persistence of teachers to change and innovation
    • Ego conflicts among equals
    • Non-availability of facilities
    • Aiding and abetting examination malpractice
    • Inability of teachers to control students during school hours.
  1. Poor Styles of Supervision by Secondary School Principals: Some principals are autocratic or directorial in their approach to supervision of instruction, they issue directives to teachers and doing what they are supposed to be doing in term of planning and executing their lessons. Autocratic principals feel that they know the best and newest method of teaching.

The autocratic style supervision adopted by some principals does not encourage good human relationship, nor does it really enhance the teaching learning process. Such principals do take the vice-principal into confidents nor seek the interest of their welfare, he do care about their problems or show a lot of interest on their welfare. Also, lack of trust in his teachers, especially his vice-principal. He is secretive and make it impossible for his vice-principal to adequately act for him in his absence.

  1. Improper Training of Principals: Some of the principals are called upon at an early stage in their profession to take up responsibilities they have not had sufficient experience. They are therefore lacking in leadership and personality hence they fail to have authority over their teachers and students. Therefore, for a person to be appointed as a principal, that person must have taught for number of years. In addition academic competence, personality and integrity should also be taken into consideration in appointing as principal because they know some officers at the headquarters. Ogbonnaya, (1995) reported that favouritism guided the appointment of principals in the junior secondary school certificate examination in Abia and Imo state. The same factor of favouritism is also reported by Okezie (1995). A principal of instruction should be very knowledgeable. He shall be abreast of current trends and development in education, teaching and methodology, classroom management, techniques of continuous assessment and even current affairs. For instanced, there is now emphasis on team teaching, programmed instruction and use of computer, there is also emphasis on individualization of instruction and active participation of students in the teaching learning process. Unfortunately, must principals of our secondary school have inadequate exposure to those trends and development teaching methods and strategies. They therefore live with old and outdated idea’s Ogbonnaya, (1990) observed that teachers of all categories and levels of our education system enroll into sandwich programmes (in-service courses) of our universities party because of the feeling of inadequate exposure to new trends and techniques in education and also because they want keep abreast of new knowledge in their field. It is obvious that where principals have inadequate exposure to new trends and development in education, they will be unable to effectively carry out the programme of school supervision in that they will give old and outdated information to teacher. Of course, one cannot give what he does not have or she little or no knowledge of.
  2. Lack of Proper Information Flow: Communication is the key factor in organisation and without it there could be no organisation (Belasco et al) Akpala had noted that it is coordinal in organizing and directing because it relate to exchange facts, opinion or emotions by two or more persons through the use of words, letters symbols or messages in a way that one organization share meaning and understanding with another. Principals are in accessible to teachers, hence they do not confer with them thereby denying themselves’ useful information and feed back. It is expected that principal should encourage regular teacher’s conference which should lead to a free exchange of ideas and collective responsibility both in decision and policy making. If there is now understanding there, probably would be misunderstanding which brings about conflicts. Ajayi (1982) contributing to this had remarked that the success of any system of education is not only hinged on proper planning, efficient administration and adequate financing but effective communication system thereby every party to the system will not be in doubt about the system’s operation. In most schools today the structures and channels for proper and adequate information flow are lacking thus creating an enabling environment for conflict.
  3. Attitudinal Problems of the Teacher: Some of the teachers are not developed to their duties. For example they come late to classes, absenting themselves completely from the schools, failure to prepare lesson note and some do not give assignments to their students. Where these happen students becomes frustrated, resentful and resort to act of indiscipline. Some are disrespectful to their principal. They are neither ready to take order from him from their heads of department.

The way some teachers dress to school tend to reduce the image attached to their states. Some teachers indulge in sexual relationship with students which in most cases leads to favoritisms in the form of giving more marks than what they deserve. Some teachers do not show good example to their students by working hard, punctual to classes and fairness. On the contrary, they mislead the students by discussing personalities and things that are related to the lessons being taught. Such teacher will always be in conflict with their principals.

  1. Lack of Mutual Understanding between the Principals and the Teachers: In many instance, the relationships between the teachers and the principals are not cordial. Cordial relationship is essential if the school principal wants to properly utilize his/her teacher. Friendliness and equity should prevail in a school where the principal is aiming at proper utilization of the teachers. Equity signifies kindness and justice. Justice should not only be done, it should be seen to be done. If this should not used in school, the teachers will perceive inequity. Teachers under this situation will be difficult to utilize in the school system. Friendliness and equity in the school system promote team spirit. Promotion of team-spirit gives the organization a sense of unity and room for effective utilization of teachers in the school system. Some times principals are not objectives to their news and are not ready to listen to criticism.
  2. Resistance of Teachers to Change and Innovation: Old and experienced teachers tend to resist change and innovation. Innovation involves a new and improved way of doing something and most teachers will normally want to maintain the old methods they know (Ajayi, 1982) observed that this attitudes is not peculiar to Nigeria teachers alone. According to him, there is widespread resistance to charge and innovation among teachers the world over. (Njoku 1983:6) recorded that the situations have reached on alarming proportion. He stated: in an era of Nigeria’s highs student population explosion, apparent shortage of teaching personnel, nepotism and various form of “power” existing in our educational administrative structures the teaching profession has been submerged within our celebrated, unproductive civil service protocol. Most teachers thus strongly resist innovative ideas as they devote most of their time not to the educational well being of their students but to their personal economic survival.
  3. Ego conflict Among Equals: Sometimes, an administrator (principal) of a school may find out a member of his subordinating teacher is on the same grade level with him and even the teacher concerned may be away of this. When this is the case such a teacher usually trend to look down on the principal and this usually breads conflicts in our school. Ukeje (1992) suggests that no two equal allowed to stay in the same school as the school principal and a subordinating teaching respectively. The school principal must be higher in rank more than other teachers in his school. This will earn him some respect from his junior colleagues.
  4. Non-Availability of Facilities: Teachers are dependent on the availability of materials. In most schools in Nigeria the facilities are grossly inadequate. An effective teacher work with facilities. The school principal should be able to provide the following chalks, dusters, school syllabus, diary, lesson notes and other requisite teaching paraphernalia. In many schools, ordinary chalk are not readily available. No teacher will like to use his salary to buy their own chalks. The classroom may not be furnished with table. The classrooms are over crowed with many students under such situations conflict emanate and it becomes difficult to make effective utilization of the teachers. School facilities are essential in order to make effective use of teachers towards the achievement of the school goals.
  5. Aiding and Abetting Examination Malpractice: The orientation given to the Nigeria society is such that ability to pass examination and the subsequent obtaining of certificate so the only yardstick for measuring the legibility of an individual for promotion, employment, selection, nomination etc, this being the case, individuals see examinations as do or die affair during internal and external examinations, students use all sort of inducement and incentive in leaking the examinations. There had been cases of teachers when were dismissed charged to court, queried, demoted, transferred for inducing and abetting examination malpractice.
  6. Loitering of Students in the Classroom: Allowing children to wander around the classroom, is a thing to watch because it may create disorder in the class if too many of the students start wandering around the class, moving inform of seat to seat. The teacher should introduce order into it.

 

 

Summary

As the researcher tried to x-rays the ideas already expressed on conflicts between principals and their teachers in secondary schools which hinder smooth administration, she explored the sources, causes and the effect of such conflicts. Conflicts arising from discharge of duties as teacher or principals, the teacher-students relationship, the attitudinal problems, status/role conflicts, and the effects on the learners are touched.

Administrative styles by the principals and heads of various units in the schools which often result in conflict were also stated.

All these make or destroy relationship which may create confusion if not properly handled. It is observed that in any organization conflicts occur but the issue is how it is handled before it goes out of fund.

There is no way two person think alike as such individual indifference must manifest.

 

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHOD

This chapter is organized under the following subheading research design, area of the study, population for study, sample and sampling techniques, instrument for data collection, validation of the instrument, administration of the instruments, method of data analysis.

Research Design

The design employed in this study is the survey type. According to Osuala (1982) survey students both large and small population by selecting and studying sample chosen from the population to discover the relative incidence distribution and interaction of sociological and psychological variable.

Area of the Study

The study was carried out in Secondary schools within Enugu East Local Government Area of Enugu State.

Population of the Study

The population was made up of all the principals and all teachers of nine (9) public secondary school within Enugu East Local Government Area of Enugu State. The teachers and principals from these schools are 476 in number.

Source – PPSMB Enugu State.

Sample and Sampling Techniques

Through purposive sampling techniques nine principals were taken because they were few in number. However, ten teachers were randomly sampled form each of the nine public secondary schools within Enugu East Local Government Area.

Therefore, a total of nine (9) principals and four hundred and seventy six (476) secondary schools teachers within Enugu East Local Government Area were used for the study. Purposive sampling techniques was used because the number of secondary schools within Enugu East Local Government was small.

Instrument for Data Collection

The instrument for data collection was questionnaire developed by the researcher. The questionnaires were made up to two section (A and B) Section “A” elicited personal information from the respondent, section “B” elicited responses on the causes of conflict between secondary school teachers and then principals. The  response format was a four point modified Likert-scale response format with the following response options.

VGE –       Very Great Extent      = 4 points

GE    –       Great Extent              = 3 point

LE    –       Little Extent              = 2 points

VLE  –       Very Little Extent      = 1 point

Validation of the Instrument

The instrument was validated using face validation. The instrument was structured with the help of my supervisor Dr M.V.O.N Ezeamaenyi who is an expert in the field of the study. He went through the work and made necessary corrections in line with objective of the study and research questions.

Administration of the Instrument

The researcher visited the secondary schools and sought the permission and cooperation of the principals and their teachers to carryout the study. She personally administered copes of the questionnaire on the respondents and collected them immediately after completion to avoid loss.

 

Method of Data Collection

The researcher used direct approach which involves man to man in collection of relevant data using questionnaire.

Method of Data Analysis

Mean score were employed in the analysis of the data obtained, formular for mean

=   EX

N

EX    =       total scores

N      =       Number of respondents

From Likert format, VGE   =       4 points

GE    =       3 points

LE    =       2 points

VLE  =       1 point

Total         =       4 + 3 + 2 + 1

=       10

4

Therefore mean (A)  =  10      =    2.5

4

 

 

Decision: Any result of the test above 2.5 is positive (+) while any result less than 2.5 is negative (-)

Decision Rule

3.0 – 4      =       VGE

2.5 – 2.9   =       GE

2.0 – 2.4   =       LE

<2.0          =       VLE


 

CHAPTER FOUR

 

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

This chapter deals with the analysis of the data collected on the study of the factors that generate conflict between principals and teaches in secondary school within Enugu East Local Government Area of Enugu State.

Data collection were presented and analyzed with respect to the six research questions that guided this study.

 

Research Question 1

To what extent does the leadership styles of principal create conflict between principals and teachers within Enugu East Local Government Area? This research question was answered using means and the result was presented in table 1 (one).

 

 

 

Table 1: questionnaire on leadership style of principals generate conflict between principals and teachers of secondary schools.

S/N ITEMS VGE

4

GE

3

LE

2

VLE

1

TOTAL _

X

DECISION
1 Autocratic principals often get into trouble with their teachers 40

160

20

60

10

20

10

10

90

250

 

280

 

GE

2. Principals do no allow teachers contribution ideals during staff meeting 70

280

10

30

5

10

5

5

90

325

 

3.6

 

VGE

3 Some principals exhibit favoritism in treating his teachers 68

272

12

36

10

20

_ 90

328

 

3.64

 

VGE

 

In research question 1 which was presented in table 1, the researcher found out that many respondents agreed that the following principal leadership styles cause conflicts in secondary school in Enugu East Local Government Area, namely,

  • Autocratic principals often get into trouble with their teachers
  • Principals do not allow teachers to contribute ideas during staff meeting
  • Some principals exhibit favoritism in treating his staff.

Research Question 2

To what extent does lack of dedication by teachers generate conflict between teachers and principals of secondary school within Enugu East Local Government Area? This research question was answered using mean and the result was presented in table 2

Table 2: Questionnaire on extend to which lack of dedication by teachers generate conflicts between them and their principal

S/N ITEMS VGE

4

GE

3

LE

2

VLE

1

TOTAL _

X

DECISION
 

 

4

Some teachers do not attend schools regularly and on time and this causes conflict between them and the principals

 

 

 

 

 

6

24

 

2

6

 

1

2

 

_

_

 

9

32

 

 

3.6

 

 

VGE

 

5.

Some secondary school teachers absent themselves from duty without any excuse from the principal and this causes conflict between them.  

6

24

 

1

3

 

1

2

 

1

1

 

9

30

 

 

3.33

 

 

VGE

6. Some teachers do not give enough time to their class, exhibit favoritism to some students and this causes conflict between them and principals 7

28

2

6

_

_

 

_

_

9

34

 

3.77

 

VGE

 

In research question 2, which was presented in table 2, shows that many of the respondents agreed that lack of dedication by teachers generate conflicts between them and their principals, which some teacher do not attend schools regularly and on time. Some secondary school teachers absent themselves from duty without any excuse from the principals and among others.

 

Research Question 3

To what extent does lack of motivation of teachers generate conflicts between principals and teachers in secondary schools with Enugu East Local Government Area? This research question was answered using mean and the result was presented in table 3

Table 3: Questionnaire on lack of motivation of teachers generate conflict between principals and teachers in secondary schools

S/N ITEMS VGE

4

GE

3

LE

2

VLE

1

TOTAL _

X

DECISION
7 Principals do not care about the welfare of the teachers 60

240

10

30

10

20

10

10

90

300

 

3.33

 

VGE

8. Principals do not recognize hard work 61

244

8

24

12

24

9

9

90

301

 

3.34

 

VGE

9. Principals do not release teachers less fees on time 70

280

10

30

5

10

5

5

90

325

 

3.61

 

VGE

 

From the above responses, it can be observed that many of the respondent agreed that lack of motivation of teachers causes conflicts in secondary school, which principals do not care about the welfare of t3eachers, principals do not recognize hard work and among others.

Research Question 4

To what extent does irregular payment of salaries and other benefits create conflicts between principals and teachers within Enugu East Local Government Area? This research question was answered using mean and the result was presented in table 4.

Table 4: Questionnaire on extent to which irregular payment of salaries and other benefits create conflict between principals and teachers.

S/N ITEMS VGE

4

GE

3

LE

2

VLE

1

TOTAL _

X

DECISION
10 Some teachers neglect their morning duty like morning prayer in the assembly and this bring conflicts between them and the principals

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6

24

2

6

1

2

_

_

9

32

 

3.60

 

VGE

 

11.

Inability of some teachers to teach with the school time table causes conflict between them and the principals  

5

20

 

2

6

 

1

2

 

1

1

 

9

29

 

 

3.2

 

 

VGE

12 Some Teachers Combine Their Teaching Job With Petty Trading Clothes (Okirika), Soya milk among others 8

32

1

3

_

_

 

_

_

9

35

 

3.8

 

VGE

 

In research question 4, which was presented in table 4, shows that many of the respondents agreed that irregular payment of salaries and other benefits create conflict between principals and teachers.

Research Question 5

To what extent does poor information flow create conflict between principals and teachers in secondary schools within Enugu East Local Government Area? This research question was answered using mean and the result was presented in table 5.

Table 5: Questionnaires on poor information flow create conflicts between principals and teachers in secondary schools

S/N ITEMS VGE

4

GE

3

LE

2

VLE

1

TOTAL _

X

DECISION
13 Gap in communication between principals and secondary school teachers can cause conflict 12

48

30

90

28

56

20

20

90

214

 

2.37

 

LE

14 Delay in dissemination of vital information to teachers by some principals can cause conflict between them 10

40

50

180

10

20

10

10

 

250

 

2.80

 

GE

15 Misinformation causes conflict between the principals and their teachers 30

120

60

180

_

_

 

_

_

9

300

 

3.33

 

VGE

 

In research question 5 which was presented in table 5, the researcher found out that many respondents agreed that the following poor information flow create conflict between principals and teachers in secondary schools within Enugu East Local Government Area, namely

  • Gap in communication between principals and secondary schools teachers can cause conflict
  • Delay in dissemination of vital information to teachers by some principals can causes conflicts between them and among others.

Summary of Findings

  1. Autocratic principal get into conflict with teachers as principals do not allow their teachers to contribute ideas during staff meetings
  2. The research findings indicate that many teachers who are not dedicated to their duties always find trouble with their principals, many of such teachers do not come to school always, some absent themselves without permission
  3. The finding also reveal that many teachers hard work were not recognized by their principal and that result in poor attitude to work. It is also discovered that motivation of teachers by their principals help in no small measure in creating peaceful atmosphere in the schools
  4. Irregular payment of salaries and other benefits to teachers create conflict between teachers and principals. Many teachers use their teaching period to face their private business like petty trade to make both end meet. They often rush their teaching or neglect teaching while pursuing their private business
  5. It is also discovered that although gap in communication to less extent create conflict between teachers and principals, delay in disseminating information that are very vital to large extent create conflict especially when it affects the teachers negatively. It is also very dangerous and troublesome when teachers ever misinformed about sensitive issues.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER FIVE

DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

Discussion of Findings

In research question, the researcher found out those leadership styles that cause conflict between principals and their teachers in Enugu East Local Government Area. It was observed that many of the respondents agreed that autocratic leadership principals do not allow his teachers contribute their own ideas during staff meeting and some principals who do not run open door policy result to conflict. This is similar to what Nwankwo (1982) said autocratic leadership takes decisions without consulting others, their decision is final.

In research 2, the respondent found to that lack of dedication by teachers like not attending schools regularly and on time. Some secondary school teachers absent themselves from duty without prior excuses from the principals, generate conflict among themselves. However, it was also observed that some teaches do not give enough time in their duties and also exhibit unfavorable attitudes to some students.

In research question 3, the respondent observed that lack of motivation of teachers generate conflict between principals and teachers on secondary school in Enugu East Local Government Area, some of them are that, principals do not care for the welfare of teaches, they (principals) do not recognize hard work. Finally, principals do not releases teacher’s lesson fees on time (Musaazi 1985).

In research question 4, irregular payment of teachers salaries and other benefit result in teacher neglecting their morning duties like conducting morning assembly because most of them are not happy, they tend not to be teaching with specification. They (teachers) are unable to teach with the school time table and this usually cause conflict between them and their teaching job with petty trading for example, seeing of fairly used clothes, wrappers and soya milk.

In research question 5, it was observed that there is poor information flow between principals and teachers in secondary schools. There are gap in communication, delay in dissemination of vital information to teachers by some principals can generate conflict and lastly misinformation usually generate enormous conflict between principals and teachers.

Conclusion

In this research work, it has been found out that following factors that generate conflict between principals and teachers, principal leadership styles, teachers leadership style, lack of dedication by teachers, non motivation of teachers, irregularly payment of teachers salaries and other benefits and poor information flow by principals, it effect the students performance and teachers output way be reduced. The principal should involve democratic leadership style which brings togetherness, harmony, close communication and every body feels important. The teachers on their own part should have sound mastery of the subject matter, curriculum development, instructional management, curriculum/learning evolution, interpersonal at collaboration, student counseling and profession self-development.

Educational Implication of Findings

The findings in this research study has very clear implication for the educational system as a whole when conflicts occur in the educational system there would be no peace needed for the smooth teaching and learning process. When teaching and learning process are disrupted, the quality of education imparted to the students will be seriously affected and students perform poorly in examination in our secondary school.

Recommendation

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations were made:-

  1. Principals should adopt good leadership styles such as democratic leadership style which bring togetherness, harmony, close communication and everybody feel important
  2. School principals should from time to time undergo refresher courses thereby acquainted with sound administrative practices
  3. All efforts should be made to ensure that teachers are adequately motivated so that they should be in a position to give out their best
  4. Teachers should be heared and achievement confirmed to indicate that their performance of regular duty are being recognized to enhance their dedication in duty
  5. Principals and teachers should be oriented on the importance of sound information flow in any organizations
  6. Principals should schedule duties and responsibilities according to the teacher’s ability and responsibilities
  7. Principals should hold
  8. staff meetings and allow their teachers to contribute ideas and to participate in school policy making
  9. Principals and teachers should be given the teacher’s service manual of their state which enable them know their rights and obligations.

Limitations of the Study

The researcher found it difficult in carrying this research work do to:

  1. Transportation problem because of bad roads. The means of carrying out this research is through Okada
  2. Some principals feel reluctant in filling the questionnaire because they don’t want to reveal how they are relating with their teachers to outsider
  3. Lack of finance. The researcher would have carried this research work to all local government in Enugu state but due to lack of finance the research limited it to Enugu East Local Government Area.

Suggestions for Further Studies

  1. The researcher did her research work using all the principals and four hundred and seventy six teaches within Enugu East Local Government Area of Enugu State, and hereby suggest that another research should come in another local government area.
  2. Investigation should be carried out to find out whether factor that generated conflict between principal and teachers were rampart in urban areas of the rural area of Enugu East Local Government Area of Enugu state.
  3. The importance of control relationship between principals and teaches in secondary schools.

 

Summary of the Study

In the summary of the findings, it was discovered that conflict reality exist between principals and teachers in secondary school within Enugu East Local Government Area of Enugu State. The result of the findings indicates that the following constitute the principals and teachers in the secondary school. The leadership styles of principals do to a great extent create conflict between principals and teachers in secondary schools, the leadership style of teachers do a very great extent create conflict between teachers and principals in secondary school, lack of dedication to duty on the part of teachers does a great extent generate conflicts between principals and teachers, poor information flow between principals and teachers does to a great extent create conflicts between principals and teachers in secondary schools.

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCES

 

Ajayi, T. and Oni, J.C. (1992), A functional approach to school organization and management. Ibadan Triumph books publishers

 

Campbell R.F. and Gregg, R.T. (1987) Administrative behaviour in Education New York: Harper and Row.

 

Dreverf, J (1978) Pengium Dictionary of psychology. Pengium Books. Pental publication USA.

 

Gibb, J.R (1987) “Dynamic of leaderships” in search of leaders American Association of Higher Education, year books. Washington D.C. National Education Association.

 

Griffiths (1992) Human Relations in Schools Administration. New York: Appleton Century Crofts.

 

Mazaazi, J.C (1982), The theory and practice of education administration – London, Macmillan Press Ltd.

 

Nwankwo, J.I (1980) Educational Administration theory and practice, Ibadan, Department of Educational Management. University of Ibadan.

Osuala E.C. (1982) Introduction to research methodology. New York Exposition Press

 

Procter, P. (1979) Longman Dictionary of Conmtempory English. Longman, Longman Group.

 

Pistar (1936) in Ukeje, B.O. Educational administration, Enugu Fourth Dimension Publishing Company Ltd. Nigeria.

 

Tannenboum, R. and Scomidt, W.H (1956) Havard Business: Knopt Publisher

 

Ukeje, B.O. (1992) Educational Administration, Enugu Fourth Dimension Publishing Company Ltd. Nigeria.

 

 

 

 

 

 

APPENDIX   I

List of randomly chosen secondary school in Enugu East Local Government Area of Enugu State used for the study.

S/N   Number of Principals per Secondary School Number of Secondary School Teachers used for the Study
1. St. Patrick Secondary School Emene 1 10
2. Girls Secondary School Emene 1 10
3. Community Secondary School Emene 1 10
4. New Haven Boys Secondary School 1 10
5. Trans-Ekulu Girls Secondary School 1 10
6. Akpuoga Technical Secondary School Akpuoga Nike 1 10
7. Girls Secondary School Abakpa 1 10
8. National Grammer School Nike 1 10
9. Annunciation Secondary School Nike 1 10
Total 9 90

 

APPENDIX   II

 

Questionnaires on factors that generate conflict between principals and their teachers in secondary school within Enugu East Local Government Area.

 

Dear Sir/madam

I am a final year student of … of Educational. I am carrying out a research on the topic stated above.

I sincerely appeal to you to respond to this questionnaire it as honestly and as truthfully as possible. The information you give will be used only for this research purchase and will be treated as highly confidential.

Thanks for your anticipated cooperation.

Yours sincerely,

 

 

 

 

 

APPENDIX  III

 

Section A:        Questionnaire for secondary schools’ principals within Enugu East Local Government Area

Please tick [Ö ] where appropriate

Name and school

Sex:          Male [        ]        Female      [        ]

Working experience   [        ] years

The responses in the columns are as follows:

Very great extent (VGE)

Great extent (GE)

Little extent (LE)

Very little extent (VLE)

S/N VGE GE LE VLE
1. Some teachers do not attend school regularly and on time and this courses conflict between  them and the principals
2. Some teachers exhibit favoritism to some students and this causes conflict between them and principals
3 Some teachers combine their teaching job with petty trading for example selling of fairly used cloths (Okirika) soya milk among others
4. Some secondary school teachers absent themselves from duty without any excuse from the principal and this generate conflict between them
5 Liability of the teachers to go to classes and teach the students during their lesson period causes conflict between teachers and principals

 

6. Inability of some teachers to prepare lesson note bring conflict between principals and teachers
7. Some teachers neglect their morning duty like morning prayer in the assembly and this bring conflicts between them and the principals
8 Inability of some teachers to teach with the time table causes conflict between them and the principals
9. Some teachers laisser-fare attitude towards their work bring conflict between them and the principas
10. Lack of dedication on the par of some teachers, bring conflict between them and the principals.

 

 

APPENDIX  IV

Section B: Questionnaire for secondary school teaches of factors that generate conflict between principals and teachers within Enugu East Local Government Area.

S/N VGE GE LE VLE
1. Autocratic principals must often get into trouble with their teachers
2. Principals who do not allow teachers ideas during staff meetings usually have conflict with them
3. Principals who do not run an open door policy of administration have problems with their teachers
4. Principals who used to put all the money generated by the school into his personal affairs always have problem with them

 

5. Principals who do not praise or appreciate hardworking teachers use to have conflict with them
6. Misinformation causes conflict between the principals and their teachers
7. Bad attitude of the principal toward teachers bring conflict between them
8. Some principal’s lack adequate knowledge of sound administrative principals and processes and this causes conflict between them and teachers
9. Gas in communication between principals secondary school teachers can cause conflict
10. Delay in dissemination of vital information teachers by some principals can cause conflict between them.

 

 

 

ABSTRACT

 

This project work An Assessment of Loans management in banking sectors a study of Union Bank of Nigeria Plc. Kaduna Branch. The study has been done in an attempt to explore the extent the Union bank Kaduan Branch has been controlling its credit system to the Central Bank of Nigeria. Credit guidelines in the development of the National economy.

Banks have generally been credited with and enviable image of being an important sources for capital development. This recognition is derived largely from assumed roles of most banking Institution in mobilizing various depot and channeling their towards profitable investment outlets to the extent that the size, type and level of such investments along with other complementary factors contribute to the improvements of National economy.

Some of the highlights in his project statement of the background of Union Bank Plc, statement of the general problems, objectives of the study, hypothesis, limitation and delimitations, significance, organization and definition of term.

The study includes a review of related literature on how commercial banks determine their lending powers, the CBN credit control and monetary policy over the banks. In addition the study includes types of securities and analysis of sectoral distribution of loans and advances.

The chapter three of the study terms loans and advances. However, it is hope that that the banks will pay more attention in granting loans to the productive sectors of the economy so as to make industrialization policy of the country a reality.

The researcher also has given useful recommendation that will aid and assist the development of banking system and the economy in general.

 

Chapter one

  1. Introduction

1.1    Background of the study

1.2    Statement of the problems

1.3    Objectives of the study

1.4    Research question

1.5    Significance of the study

1.6    Scope of the study

1.7    Histroical background of the case study

1.8    defintioin of terms

 

CHAPTER TWO

  1. Lierature review

2.1    Hisotrical background

2.2    commerical banks services

2.3    commerical banks and Nigerian government

2.4    classes of client/customers of Commercial banks

2.5    lending service in commercial banks

2.6    origin of bank lending

2.7    crdit guidelines

2.8    determination of bank lending

2.9    lona policies or lending policies

2.10  appraising loan opporutnties

2.11  basic principels of bank lending

2.12  problems of effective lending services

2.13  prospect of bank lending

2.14  the Central Bank involvement lending

2.15  Reason for granting loan

2.16  Advantages of loan and overdraft

Chapter three

  1. Research methodology

3.1    Introduction

3.2    method of data collection

3.3    Population and sample size

3.4    Sampling technique

3.5    methods of data analysis

3.6    Justificaiton for the choice

 

CHAPTER FOUR

  1. Data presentation analysis and interpretation

4.1    Introduction

4.2    Data analysis and interpretation

4.3    Summary of findings

 

CHAPTER FIVE

  1. Summary, conclusion and recommendation

5.1    Summary

5.2    Conclusion

5.3    Limitation of the study

5.4    Recommendations

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

  1. INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Generally in Nigeria, banks are usually accused by customer’s of number of short comings, which are regarded as problems and failure in banking system. These include lack of awareness by customers of the services they offer subjecting the customers to long queues unsympathetic staff in terms of courtesy and efficiency, intricals and unprogressive lending policies and procedures irregular issue of statement etc, all these result in low level of customer satisfaction.

 

At moment, Nigeria is fast attempting to transform into a modern industrial society whether this attempt will be achieved or not is still questionable. The urban area having now high population densihes from rural, which are supposed to be the sources of raw materials for the industries. Hence the achievement of industrial objective rest squarely on the shoulders of the banks.

Banks could help Nigeria reframe herself and produce raw materials for her mills and not solely depend on imported ones.

This could be done by diversifying the source of income from the present mono (based solely on petroleum revenue) to that of (diversified one)

The banks role in attaining the above objective ultimately, specially and efficiently is very crucial.

Having experienced the strain, intricale and procedures of obtaining banks loanable fund that researcher mind was directed to the questions as to what participates such stumbling blocks in our banking system. It is the blame on the banks, the customer and the government for not appreciating the place of credit in our society for instance, the banks by the nature of their business exercise a high degree of economic power. To them belong to the naira power which is the lubricate/accelerator of our economy. They have the prerogative in the choice of assets (businesses) they place their disposable portion of funds deposited with them by customers. Tough they know and have experienced the positive results of attempt in the effective provision and use of credit, the banks have been rather very skeptical in exercise this their power not  withstanding the central bank of Nigeria issues annual directives to licensed banks allocating prescribing quantitative ceiling as well as sectorial allocation of their loans and advances to the economy through the monetary policy circulars conveying the central banks, credit guidelines.

However, it has come to be realized that these are certain problems associated with he present lending schemes which must be highlighted and solved by the customers, the banks and   government in providing loanable fund so that more benefit would be taped from this usage.

Hence, the motives behind the caring out of this research study.

  1. STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS

There is hardly any approach to obtaining bank loans/credits that is devoid of problems. This project thus sets out to identify the lending problem of bank and customer in Kaduna and its environments.

  • high rate of interest/charge
  • banks lend on short term basis cannot accommodate medium and long term borrowers.
  • High rate of defaut
  • Difficulty in banks policy/central bank policies
  • Lack of security to back-up the lending