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The study examines risk management and Credit Administration in Union Bank Plc, Kaduna. The research questions that guided this study were: How is risk managed in Union Bank? What are the constraints militating against risk management and credit administration? What are the solutions to the identified problems. The survey method was used as the sample size. A questionnaire designed in five likert scale was used as the instrument of data collection. The mean (x) was used to analyze data. The result of findings indicates that risk is mainly managed in Union Bank through embarking on insurance of customers deposit as well proper evaluation and monitoring of loan proposal.





1.1     Background of the Study      –         –         –         –         –         –         1

1.2     Statement of the Problem    –         –         –         –         –         –         3

1.4     Significance of the Study      –         –         –         –         –         –         4

1.3     Objectives of the Study         –         –         –         –         –         –         4

1.6     Scope of the Study       –         –         –         –         –         –         –         5

1.5     Research Questions     –         –         –         –         –         –         –         5

1.7     Definition of Terms     –         –         –         –         –         –         –         6





2.1     Introduction        –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         7

2.2     Concept of Risk Management in Commercial Banks        –         7

2.3     Credit Administration in Commercial Bank   –         –         –         10

2.4     Techniques of Risk Management in Commercial Banks  –         19

2.5     Credit Administrative Techniques in Commercial Banks          23

2.6     The Problems Militating against Risk Management and Credit Administration in Commercial Banks    –         –         –         –         25

2.7     Summary of the Literature  –         –         –         –         –         –         26



3.1     Introduction        –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         27

3.2     Research Design          –         –         –         –         –         –         –         27

3.3     Area of the Study         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         27

3.4     Population of the Study        –         –         –         –         –         –         27

3.5     Sample Size        –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         28

3.6     Instrument of Data Collection       –         –         –         –         –         28

3.7     Validity of the Instrument   –         –         –         –         –         –         28

3.8     Reliability of the Instrument         –         –         –         –         –         29

3.9     Method of Data Collection   –         –         –         –         –         –         29

3.10   Method of Data Analysis      –         –         –         –         –         –         29



4.1     Introduction        –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         31

4.2     Respondent Characteristics –         –         –         –         –         –         31

4.3     Data Presentation and Analysis   –         –         –         –         –         32

4.4     Summary of Findings  –         –         –         –         –         –         –         38

4.5     Discussion of Findings          –         –         –         –         –         –         39



5.1     Summary of Findings  –         –         –         –         –         –         –         41

5.2     Conclusion –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         42

5.3     Recommendations       –         –         –         –         –         –         –         43

Bibliography       –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         49

Appendix   –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         51






1.1     Background of the Study

Risk Management is the identification assessment and prioritization of risks. It is the effect of uncertainty on objectives, whether positive or negative followed by coordinated and economic of application of resources to monitor and control the probability and/or impact of unfortunate events or to maximize the realization of opportunities (Okeh, 2006).

The survival of every commercial bank depends on its ability to manage its risks and loans or advance portfolio effectively. However in the recent past, commercial banks in Nigeria witnessed rising non-performing credit portfolios and these significantly contributed to the financial distress in the banking sector.

Financial organization need to manage the credit risk inherent in the entire portfolio as well as the risk in individual credit or transaction. This is so because the survival and ability of financial institution to compete depend on their ability to profitability and manage credit risk. This is the reasons why lending is based on the two fundamental products of banking: money and information. Banks obtain these products from customers themselves by offering customer valuable services. They package money and information about their borrowers together with valuable banking services to create loan agreements and sell the loan agreements back to their customers (Hempel and Simonson, 2007).


As such, risk rating system in financial institution contains both objective and subjective elements. Objective aspect are based on financial statements and application of certain financial ratio that reflect liquidity, leverage and earnings. Despite the requirement that risk be quantified, risk rating systems always have a subjective dimension that attempts to capture intangibles such as the quality of management, the borrower’s status within the industry, and the quality of financial reporting. These subjective items may result in inconsistencies.


It is in this regard that many financial institutions have faced difficulties over the years arising from their inability to effectively manage credit risk. As such the major cause of serious banking problems continues to be directly related to tax credit standard for borrowers and counterparties, poor portfolio risk management, or lack of attention lead to a deterioration in the credit standard of a bank’s counterparties. Hence, the need to investigate the subject matter of this research becomes imperative.



1.2     Statement of the Problem

Commercial banks in the recent past witness rising non-performing credit portfolios sequel to the inability of their management to effectively manage risk and credit administration. That problem resulted to high bad debts in commercial bank and a number of other commercial banks were classified as distressed banks by the monetary authorities.

Consequently, the need to examine the subject matter: An Assessment of risk management and credit administration in Union Bank Plc, Kaduna Main branch becomes worthy of




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List of Federal Universities in Nigeria

Abubakar Tafawa Belewa University,

Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria,

Bayero University, Kano,

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Federal University of Petroleum Resources, Effurun,

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Federal University, Otuoke,

Federal University, Wukari,

Federal University, Birnin Kebbi,

Federal University, Gusau

Michael Okpara Univeristy of Agric, Umudike, .

Modibbo Adama University of Tech, Yola, .

National Open University of Nigeria,

Nigeria Police Academy Wudil, .

Nigeria defense Academy, Kaduna, .

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University of Nigeria Nsukka,

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Ignatius Ajuru University of Education,

Imo state University,Owerri,

Jigawa State University,

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    Air Force Institute of Technology Nigerian Air Force,

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    Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Unwana,

Nigeria Army School of Military Engineering,

     Auchi Polytechnic .

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Nigeria Army School of Military Engineering,

Federal College of Animal Health and Production Technology

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Yaba College of Tech,

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Rivers State College of Arts and Science,

Rivers State College of Arts and Science

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Gateway Polytechnic Saapade

Edo State Inst. of Tech and Mgt, Usen,

Niger State Poly, Zungeru, Niger State,

List of Private Polytechnics in Nigeria

Allover Central Polytechnic,

Crown Polytechnics,

Covenant Polytechnic,

Dorben Polytechnic, Bwari-Garam Road,

Fidei Polytechnic, Gboko,

Grace Polytechnic,

Grace Polytechnic,

Igbajo Polytechnic,

The Polytechnic, Ile-Ife, NITEL Road

Lagos City Poly, Ikeja, Lagos State,

Light House Polytechnic, Eubuobanosa,

Interlink Polytechnic,

Kings Polytechnic, Ubiaja,

RONIK Polytechnic,

Shaka Polytechnic, Polytechnic, Benin city,

Temple-Gate Polytechnic,

Wolex Polytechnic

Prime Polytechnic

The Polytechnic Imesi-Ile, Osun

Heritage Polytechnic, Ikot Udota

Ibadan City Polytechnic