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This research work is on causes of business failure and possible solutions with a case study of Uju printing press, Kaduna. business failure is when  a firm is suffering from either technical insolvency or bankruptcy or when it happens that a firms total revenue do not cover its total cost , this can be avoided by finding  solutions to business failure by way of managing recourses in a proper way. It is in view of this that a research work as this was undertaken.


The research work contains five chapters, the introduction examines the historical background of the case study and so on and  also limitations of the projects were outlined. chapter two was centered on the literature reviews with a view of bringing out what business entails, its operations and impact on the society ,its mode of operations and why and how failure occurs in business enter prices. Population sample and sources of data collocation were the various methods of data collection adopted .such as desk research ,personal interview as well as questionnaires


In chapter four presentation and analysis of data was shown in the write up. The data collected were analyzed and presented based on the research questions, which form the views and opinions of the respondents drawn.

In the final chapter, summaries and recommendations were made on the subject matter.



CHAPTER ONE – Introduction

1.0    Background Of The Study-    –       –       –       –       –       –       1

1.1    Historical Background Of Uju Printing Press-     –       –       –       9

1.2     Statement of The Problem-    –                –       –       –       –       11

1.3    Statements of Hypothesis-     –       –       –       –       –       –       12

1.4    Objectives of The Study-       –       –       –       –       –       –       12

1.5    Significance of The Study-     –       –       –       –       –       –       13

1.6    Scope and Limitations of The Study-       –       –       –       –       13

1.7    Definitions of Terms-    –       –       –       –       –       –       –       15

CHAPTER TWO – Literature Review

2.0    Introduction-      –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       18

2.1    Definition of Business-  –       –       –       –       –       –       –       20

2.2    Types of Businesses-    –       –       –       –       –       –       –       21

2.3    Basic Management Functions needed for business operations      25

2.4    Importance of Business to the Society-    –       –       –       –       29

2.5    Modes of Operation In Uju Printing Press-        –       –       –       32

2.6    Sources of Funds for Uju Printing Press – –       –       –       34

2.7.   Reasons for Business Failure –        –       –       –       –       –       35

References –        –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       44

CHAPTER THREE –  Research Methodology

3.0 Introduction- –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       45

3.1    Research Design- –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       46

3.2    Population Sample Size of the Study-      –       –       –       –       47

3.3    Sampling Techniques Used-   –       –       –                –       –       47

3.4    Instrument Used in Data Collection-        –       –       –       –       48

3.5    Procedures for the Administration of the Instrument- –       48

3.6    Statistical Techniques Used-  –       –       –       –       –       –       49

CHAPTER FOUR Presentation and Analysis of Data

4.0    Introduction-      –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       50

4.1    Test of Hypothesis-      –       –       –       –       –       –       –       62

  1. Test of hypothesis observed and expected frequency table

based on table sixteen –        –       –       –       –       –       –       63

4.3    Conclusion –        –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       65



5.0    Introduction–     –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       66

5.1    Summary Of Major Findings     –     –       –       –       –       –       66

5.2    Conclusions-       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       67

5.3    Recommendations     – –       –       –       –                —      –       67

         Bibliography-       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       69

         Appendix –  –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       70






Business is absolutely a complex activity. This is because it involves a lot of technicalities ranging from the task of planning to control of such plans in order to achieve the desire objectives of profit maximization. It is in view of this, that this study is mainly centered on the floating of a business to a stage where it finds it difficult to keep it’s head above water.


In the late 70s business was in its period of boom, the economy was doing well at that point in time and the exchange rate was appreciable within this period. International trade was easy as a result of lesser trade restrictions and foreign exchange control.


During this period, Uju printing press was a beneficiary of the prevailing policies such as the importation of papers and other printing materials. These goods were usually tax free by the agencies concerned, as a result of the significance the government attaches to the publishing sector and the clearance procedures at the port were effective and efficient then.

In the late 80’s as a result of the military take-over, various decrees and policies came into place. The economy became unbearable for the citizens and their purchasing power became very low, thereby forcing business not to live up to their required billing. What followed was that industries started operating on short run, and later businesses started folding up.

The various trade restrictions, VAT policies on goods imported did not help matters. The result effect of all these, was folding up of businesses. Against the business affected was then within our locality the -Uju printing press. The concerns shown people in the locality spearheaded an agenda to resuscitate the company and prevent it from total collapse.

The process of doing this proved difficult due to the extent of funds require to source for foreign exchange needed for the importation of raw materials there were other problems that seem intractable. But the people and company unite make persistence efforts to resuscitate the company but the more difficult problems that resulted, Motivated an interest to study the problems of business failure and the possible solutions.



Uju printing press is a sole proprietorship business. It is own by Chief Gabriel O. Uju. It was established on 20th August 1969 and was situated at V.V.I Lagos/Keffi Street, Kaduna.

Uju printing press was set-up with the objective of providing the best quality printing jobs to customers at affordable prices and at the due appointed time. At the early life of the press, it started with letterpress and binding machine. Namely:  Adana, Letterpress Heidelberg and Cutting Machines.

In the course of expansion, the press relocated to N.C-.3 Oshogbo Road, Kaduna in 1979. The press increased its machineries by purchasing Rota prints, plate maker, camera, and kond. During this period the press has increased its area of specialization from letter press to offset printing.

In 1985, the press moved to J.11 main street Badarawa Kaduna and finally relocated to its permanent site V.V. 15 Nassarawa Road, Kaduna in June 1993. in its present site, it has acquired additional machines such as multilith 1850,   Stitching machine, computers and Ruling machines.




This article highlights various college of education, polytechnics, universities website in Nigeria.


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State college of education

College of Education, Agbor,

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College of Education, Akwanga, ., form and admissions list

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Private college of education in Nigeria

Angel Crown College of Education, Gidan-Daya, .

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African Thinkers Community of inquiry College of Education,

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Bauchi Institute for Arabic and Islamic Studies, .

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The African Church College of Education, Lagos,

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List of Federal Universities in Nigeria

Abubakar Tafawa Belewa University,

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Bayero University, Kano,

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Federal University, Gusau

Michael Okpara Univeristy of Agric, Umudike, .

Modibbo Adama University of Tech, Yola, .

National Open University of Nigeria,

Nigeria Police Academy Wudil, .

Nigeria defense Academy, Kaduna, .

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University of Calabar,

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University of Nigeria Nsukka,

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University of Uyo, .

Usmanu Danfodiyo University,

List of State Universities in Nigeria admission list

Abia State University, Uturu,

Adamawa State University, Mubi,

Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba,

Amrose Alli University, Ikot Akpaden,

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Ekiti State University,

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Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University,

Ignatius Ajuru University of Education,

Imo state University,Owerri,

Jigawa State University,

Kaduna State University, Kaduna

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Umaru Musa Yar’Adua University,

Private Universities

Achievers University, Owo,

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Salem University, Lokoja,]

Tansian University, Umunya, .

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Western Delta University, Oghara

List of all the Federal Polytechnics in Nigeria

    Air Force Institute of Technology Nigerian Air Force,

    Air Force Institute of Technology Nigerian Air Force,

    Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Unwana,

Nigeria Army School of Military Engineering,

     Auchi Polytechnic .

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    Federal Polytechnic, Ado-Ekiti

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Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, .

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  Federal Polytechnic, Nekede,

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Federal School of Dental Technology and Therapy,

Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna,

Hussaini Adamu Federal Polytechnic,

Nigeria Army School of Military Engineering,

Federal College of Animal Health and Production Technology

Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic Birnin Kebbi,

Yaba College of Tech,

List of State Polytechnics in Nigeria

 Abraham Adesanya Polytechnic, Ijebu-Igbo,

Abia State Polytechnic, .

Adamawa State Polytechnic,

Akwa-Ibom State Polytechnic, Ikot-Osurua,

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Gateway Polytechnic, Igbesa,

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The Polytechnic, Ibadan, .

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Imo State Polytechnic, Umuagwo

Kano State Polytechnic,

Kogi State Polytechnic, Lokoja,

Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin,

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Moshood Abiola Poly,

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Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic,

Delta State Polytechnic, Ogwashi-Uku,

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Osun State College of Tech, Esa-Oke,

Delta State Polytechnic, Ozoro,

Plateau State Polytechnic, Barkin-Ladi,

Adamawa State Poly,

Rivers State College of Arts and Science,

Rivers State College of Arts and Science

Rivers State Polytechnic,

Gateway Polytechnic Saapade

Edo State Inst. of Tech and Mgt, Usen,

Niger State Poly, Zungeru, Niger State,

List of Private Polytechnics in Nigeria

Allover Central Polytechnic,

Crown Polytechnics,

Covenant Polytechnic,

Dorben Polytechnic, Bwari-Garam Road,

Fidei Polytechnic, Gboko,

Grace Polytechnic,

Grace Polytechnic,

Igbajo Polytechnic,

The Polytechnic, Ile-Ife, NITEL Road

Lagos City Poly, Ikeja, Lagos State,

Light House Polytechnic, Eubuobanosa,

Interlink Polytechnic,

Kings Polytechnic, Ubiaja,

RONIK Polytechnic,

Shaka Polytechnic, Polytechnic, Benin city,

Temple-Gate Polytechnic,

Wolex Polytechnic

Prime Polytechnic

The Polytechnic Imesi-Ile, Osun

Heritage Polytechnic, Ikot Udota

Ibadan City Polytechnic