CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR
A CASE STUDY OF ENUGU NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT ENUGU
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From independence (1960) till date the Nigeria society has been under-going rapid transition with the unavailable and the unusual step by step transformation process that affect all social systems of the Nigerian society. The public sector organization being deliberately and hurriedly reformed to avoid the pit falls of the past. Instantly, erratic decisions are being made, new programme established and the old ones re-established with new strategies in an effort to achieve a new social order.
In achieving this social order a number of reforms are introduced into the public sector organizations and these (reforms) tends to be prone to a form of organizational crisis or another. With regards to the Nigerian public sector these crisis arise out of situational uncertainties and inadequacies of an organization. These could be as a result of power tussles, inadequate funds, psychological disorientation of employees in an organization and its employers rejection of managements / authorities reforms. Any such crisis is capable of distorting the realization of organizations objectives.
An important step is ensuring success in the realization of these public sector organizations and to understand the dynamics of a particular crisis and implement appropriate remedies on conditions that the change motivators are genius and determined. We all know that the understanding of the dynamics of crisis is lacked in the public sector of Nigerian Economy. It is also true that our administrators in the public sector are always involved in the crisis management. In conclusion, we can see that there is no effective tool for crisis management in the Nigerian public sector.
For this singular reason the Enugu North Local Government (ENLG) was chosen to give a clear picture of public sector organization whose administrators have not been able to note that local government were created to act as an autonomous part of the central government in Nigeria.
In this study we have been able to identify few of the numerous crisis that could hit the ENLG and ranked them in order of probability of occurrence using that crisis with the highest probability in developing a crisis management more for use by organizations in the public sector of the Nigeria economy.
TABLE OF CONTENT
- Background of the study
- Statement of problem
- Research questions objective of study
- Objective of study
- Significance of study
- Scope and limitation
- Operational definition of terms
Review of related literature
2.1 A review of crisis management
2.2 Meaning of crisis
2.3 An overview of crisis management
2.4 Crisis forecast
2.5 Objective of crisis management
Research methodology and design
3.1 Sources of data
3.2 Data collection
3.3 Statistical tools
3.4 Sample procedure and size
3.5 The population and size
Date presentation and analysis
4.1 Presentation of data
4.2 Analysis of data
Summary, Recommendation and Conclusion
5.1 Summary of major findings
The Nigerian society is under-going a rapid transition in addition to the inevitable and unusually gradual transformation processes that affect all social systems, the institutions economic, political, legal etc. of the Nigerian society, are being deliberately and hurriedly reformed to avoid the pitfalls of the past new decision programes are established and new strategic adopted all in an effort to achieve a social order.
One of the on-going strategies to do this is the reform introduced into the public sector by the office of the chief of General Staff (CGS) making the local government an effective third tier of the government. Usually, such reforms tend to point to one form of organizational crisis or another crisis were refers to an usual situation the outcome of which is uncertain or capable of generating conflict. With regards to the Nigerian public sector, it arises out of the inherent disposition of the system to distort the political and administrative processes by its decisions or operations. It also arises from situational uncertainties and inadequacies of an organization.
There could be power tussle, inadequate funds or time to execute all envisaged projects. Psychological disorientation of the populace / employee and its rejection of the reform. There could be also either a lack of understanding of the full implication of established programmes or a deliberate clinging to politics established primarily to protect institutionalized class relations. Any such crisis is capable of distorting the achievement of the desired objectives of the public sector. Part of the process of ensuring success in the achievement of goals of these public sector organization is to understand the dynamics of such crisis and apply appropriate remedies, provided that thee change motivators are genuine and determined.
It is a known fact that the understanding of the dynamics of crisis is lacking in the public sector of the Nigerian economy it is equally true that the Chief Executive and administrators in the public sector are involved in the management of crisis rather than in crisis management. From the foregoing, it is seen that there is no effective tool for crisis management in the Nigerian public sector because of its large size. It is pertinent that an organization within this sector is used as a reference point in order to limit the wideness of this study. The Enugu North Local Government (ENLG) has been chosen for proper representation of the public sector organization in the economy.
In this thesis, we intend to identify a few crisis situation that could hit ENLG and through the research, rank them in the order of their probability of occurring. I will then use the crisis with the highest probability, to develop a crisis management tool for organizations within the public sector of the Nigerian economy.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
The local’s government has been characterized by instability and discontinuity emanating from one crisis situation or the other. These crisis are often prompted by the activity of the federal government and other environmental factors which usually lead to complete dissolution and or take over of functions of the management group by government appointed administrators. In order words, the LG. of this country have always been subjected to the whims and caprices of the federal government. They were not allowed to make their own decisions as to contributing to the Nigerian economy or either way they give enough financial assistance (authority) to be accountable to the devise inherent is such local government.
The various government reforms are aimed at stabilizing and rationalizing local government organization or corporations. It is quite unfortunate however that the chosen implementation strategies seen to have resulted in unanticipated policy outcomes. As a matter of fact it is clear to all that the aims of establishing the local government in Nigeria which is to be an effective third tier of the government has not been realized. It is believed that this is mainly due to the inability of the local government to effectively manage the forms of crisis that afflicted it since their inception. It is against this background that crisis management in local government is being investigated.
Every crisis has four (4) main stages and allowing each crisis to pass through the four states has been the bare of effective local government in Nigeria.
The four stages of crisis include:
- Prodromal stage (early warning stage )
- Acute stage
- Chronic stages
- Resolution stages
Crisis management aim at avoiding the acute and chronic stages of crisis. A crisis is said to be effectively managed if it moves from prodromal to resolution stage we are aware that this has not been the case in the local government their crisis have been known to have gone through the four stages with inevitable consequences.
If we take a look at the second republic and early part of the aborted their republic (1988-1989) there were various crisis among which were:
- Financial crisis
- Power crisis
- Manpower crisis
- Political crisis
The entire above crisis, we unfortunately allowed to go through the four stages and this had their unpleasant effects on the local government in the country. For example, the Enugu North Local Government administration was engulfed by crisis during the year 1988 and 1989. this crisis went through the full cycle which cumulated in the intervention of both the state and federal government leading to the suspension of its popularly elected chairman.
Another example can be cited from the demonstration carried out by members of the National union of local government (NULGE) Enugu North local government branch on March 9th ’94 protesting for the non-payment of salaries for 6 months.
Furthermore, the strike action carried out by the National Union of Teacher (NUT) calling for the collection of their annual subventions directly from the federal government and not from the local government because they believe that this cannot be effectively carried out by them. It can be seen that after about two (2) decades of its establishment the local government cannot manage available resources and avoid conflict or crisis from happening.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
It is quite unfortunate that going through literature very little work has been done on how best to handle crisis by scholars and practitioners. In view of these identified lapses, an inquiry into crisis management in the local
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