Click here to download our android mobile app to your phone  for more materials and others




Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447

First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

We also accept :   ATM transfer , online money  transfer 


Enter Amount


Call Help Desk Line :  08074466939,08063386834.

After Payment Send Your Payment Details To

08074466939 Or 08063386834,   The Project Title  You  Selected On Our Website , Amount Paid, Depositor Name, Your Email Address, Payment Date. You Will Receive Your Material In Less Than 1 Hour Once We Confirm Your Payment.



You may also need:  web design company in Nigeria   

Bulk sms company in Nigeria





  1. Background to the Study        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           1

1.2       Statement of the Problem      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           3

1.3       Research Questions    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           4

1.4       Objectives of the Study          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           4

1.5       Statement of Hypotheses       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           4

1.6       Significance of the Study       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           5

1.7       Scope of the Study     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           5



2.1       Introduction    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           6

2.2       Conceptual Framework          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           6

2.3       Overview of the Conditions of Nigeria Refineries    –           –           –           –           18

2.4       The Actual Total Capacities of the Refineries and the Depots         –           –           23

2.5       Factors Militating against Petroleum Distribution in Nigeria          –           –           –            26

2.6       Theoretical Framework          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           35

2.7       Review of Empirical Literatures       –           –           –           –           –           –           43



3.1       Introduction    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           48

3.2       Research Design         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           48

3.3       Area of Study –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           48

3.4       Population and Sampling Technique             –           –           –           –           –           48

3.5       Methods of Data Collection   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           49

3.6       Methods of Data Analysis      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           49

3.7       Summary        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           50



4.1       Introduction    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           51

4.2      Respondent Characteristics    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           51

4.3       Data Presentation and Analysis         –           –           –           –           –           –           52

4.4       Test of Hypothesis     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           54

4.5       Summary of Findings –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           56



5.1       Summary        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           57

5.2       Conclusion      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           57

5.3       Recommendations      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           58

Bibliography   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           60

Appendix I      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           68

Appendix II     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           69




The study assessed the Problem of Petroleum Product Distribution in Nigeria. As such, the research questions that guided this study are: What are the constraints militating against Nigeria’s state owned refineries and petrochemical plants as well as affiliated regulatory agencies in Petroleum product distribution? What are the problems associated with the distribution of petroleum product in the downstream sector? 120 respondents were selected using the random sampling technique to select 50 independent petroleum product marketers, 50 staff from PPMC and 20 staff from NNPC and 20 staff from NNPC. The mean (X) was used to analyze the data while chi-square was used to test the hypotheses.


The analysis shows that the frequent pipeline vandalization, poor maintenance of petroleum infrastructure, as well as Inefficiency and Corruption of government officials and under-utilization of Refineries by NNPC are the main constraint militating against Nigeria’s state-owned refineries and petrochemicals plants as well as affiliated regulatory agencies in petroleum product distribution.


Diversion of petroleum products, hoarding of petroleum products, the use of old tankers that are in a poor state of operation and poor state of road in Nigeria, sabotage, crude oil and petroleum product bunkering, petroleum product adulterations are some of the challenges militating against petroleum product distribution from the side of major and independent marketers of petroleum product.


As such, it was recommended that the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) should diversify its export/output baskets through adequate downstream activities. This will enhance self-sufficient in petroleum products and economic growth. Nigeria’s fuel shortages can never be solved by importing more fuel. Importing fuel is a temporary (short term) solution. Building more refineries in Nigeria to meet our domestic consumption and possibly export to neighboring countries; undoubtedly is a sure solution to Nigeria’s perennial fuel shortages.





1.1       Background to the Study

The Nigerian petroleum industry has been described as the largest among all industries in the country. This is probably due to the belief that petroleum is one of the major sources of energy worldwide. The size, international characteristic, and role assumed by the petroleum industry were noted to have originated from the notion that petroleum is versatile as it currently satisfies a wide variety of energy and related needs. Petroleum is the most vital source of energy, providing over 50 percent of all commercial energy consumption in the world. The revenues obtained from crude oil in Nigeria are of absolute advantage to expenditure commitments on various projects at the local, state, and federal levels. The Nigerian economy relies heavily on the revenue derived from Petroleum products, as they provide 70 percent of government revenue and about 95 percent of foreign exchange earning. Apart from this, the contribution of petroleum to national development is many and varied; employment generation, foreign exchange earnings, income generation, industrialisation, and improvements in other economic variables.

The Nigerian economy is starkly dominated by the petroleum industry since the oil boom of the 1970s. Therefore, its economic growth and development also is dependents on the production and consumption of Petroleum product and hence, a close connection between the state and oil in Nigeria (Okunroumu, 2004; and Falegan & Okah, 1980). For instance, Wurthmann (2006) noted that oil accounts for about 40 per cent of Nigeria’s GDP, 70 per cent of federal government revenue and 92 per cent of its foreign exchange earnings. Also, daily domestic demand for Petroleum products stands at 530,000 barrels per day (bpd) which is 85,000 bpd more than the never-made 445,000 bpd installed refining capacity. As a result, Petroleum products supply remains an acid test for successive governments in Nigeria. With the inception of democracy in May 29th, 1999, the supply of Petroleum products has improved but not without a price – frequent increases in Petroleum products price yet demand of Petroleum product is still higher than supply  (Sabo and Igwo, 2007:105).

As a result people clamor for deregulation of Petroleum product. In Nigeria, the 2003 deregulation of the sector is expected to give room for competition and maximize supply sources which would transform to price reduction and deflate scarcity. Prior to this moment, attempts were made to invite private firms into the sector, most of whom, including NNPC itself, sought for the importation of Petroleum products instead.


Yet still fell out due to regulated domestic prices and a whooping amount as subsidy to the consumers (Nwafor, M. et al, 2006:11). The private investors were also not willing to take over the dilapidated, disrepair, and poorly performing state owned facilities (refineries, depots and pipeline system). Thus, the sector is so plagued by, not only, low capacity utilization of the midstream sector, inadequate distribution (pipeline, rail and road) networks and storage facilities, products diversion and adulteration, black-marketing, fire incidents, smuggling as well as inefficient monopolistic/state control on prices (Oriyoosu, 2007:113-115


Hence petroleum distribution is constraint by issues arising from poor maintenance of facilities and infrastructure by government; products adulteration and pipeline vandalization; low investment opportunities; sabotage by cartels, large-scale smuggling of crude and refined oil as well as the importation of Petroleum products.); rampant black markets, e.t.c. due to inefficient market structure caused by the monopolistic control of the state on price (Oriyoosu, 2007:113-115).

As a result widespread Petroleum products shortage and unending price hikes are the daily reports bringing untold hardship to the rapid growing Nigerian populace. Therefore, the low Petroleum products from local refineries, inadequacy of Petroleum products  importation at international prices, and particularly, inefficiency of domestic prices of Petroleum products set by the state and numerous constraint that have not yet being discovered by previous researches, stand out as the fore setbacks to petroleum distribution in Nigeria. It is against this background that this study is triggered.



1.2       Statement of the Problem

Many research efforts in the area of petroleum distribution in Nigeria have dealt with macro issues, as well as conduct and performance of marketing activities as they relate to performance indices such as market share, growth, efficiency and well being of consumers and clients. However there are few researches on the problems of petroleum distribution in Nigeria (Okoh,2012).

Hence the problem of this study is to analyze the problem of petroleum distribution in Nigeria by investigating factor militating against Petroleum product distribution from government refineries as well as from the side of major and independent marketers. In this regard the research is focused on issues of sabotage of petroleum infrastructures and illegal  bunkering as well as problem of ineffective regulation of Petroleum product in the downstream sector and inefficient utilization and maintenance of Nigeria’s state-owned refineries and




This article highlights various college of education, polytechnics, universities website in Nigeria.


Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo,

Alvan Ikoku College of Education, Owerri,

Alvan Ikoku College of Education, Owerri,

Federal College of Educ. Abeokuta,

Federal College of Education, Eha-Amufu,

Federal College of Education, Kano,

Federal College of Education, Katsina,

Federal college of Education, Kontagora,

Federal College of Education, Obudu,

Federal College of Education, Okene,

Federal College of Education, Okene,

Federal College of Education, Pankshin,

 Federal College of Education, Yola,

Federal College of Education, Zaria,

Federal College of Education (Technical), Akoka,

Federal College of Education (Technical), Asaba,

Federal College of Education (Technical), Bichi,

Federal College of Education (Technical), Gombe,

Federal College of Education (Technical), Gusau,

Federal College of Education (Technical), Omoku,

Federal College of Education (Special) Oyo,

State college of education

College of Education, Agbor,

Akwa-Ibom State College of Education, Afaha-Nsit,

College of Education, Akwanga, ., form and admissions list

College of Education, Akwanga,

Cross River State College of Education, Akamkpa,

Adamu Augie College of Education, Argungu,

College of Education, Azare,

Bayelsa State College of Education, Okpoama,

Emmanuel Alyande College of Education, Oyo,

Enugu State College of Education (Tech.) Enugu,

College of Education, Ekiadolor,

Umar Suleiman College of Education, Gashua,

College of Education, Gindiri,

Michael Otedola College of Primary Education, Moforiji,

College of Education, Port Harcourt,

Adeniran Ogunsanya College of Education, Otto,

Tai Solarin College of Education, Ijebu-Ode,

Tai Solarin College of Education, Ijebu-Ode,

Ebonyi State College of Education, Ikwo,

College of Education, Ikere,

College of Education, Ilesha, .

College of Education, Ilesha,

College of Education, Ilorin,

College of Education, Jalingo,

Kano State College of Education, Kumbotso,

College of Education, Benue,

Kebbi State College of Education, Argungu,

College of Education, Minna,

Nwafor Orizu College of Education, Nsugbe,

College of Education, Oju,

College of Education, Oro,

College of Education, Oro,

Oyo State College of Education, Oyo,


College of Education, Warri,

College of Education, Warri,

FCT College of Education, Zuba,

Private college of education in Nigeria

Angel Crown College of Education, Gidan-Daya, .

Elder Oyama Memorial College of Education, Ofat-Adun,

Assanusiyah College of Education, Odeomu,

African Thinkers Community of inquiry College of Education,

Best Legacy College of Education, Ikirun,

Bauchi Institute for Arabic and Islamic Studies, .

Calvin Foundation College of Education, Naka,

Harvard Wilson College of Education, Aba,

Hill College of Education, Akwanga,

Institute of Ecumenical Education, Enugu,

College of Education, Foreign Links Campus Moro,

College of Education, Foreign Links Campus Moro,

Diamond College of education aba

Muhyideen College of Education, Ilorin,  

ONIT College of Education, Abagana, .

The African Church College of Education, Lagos,

St. Augustine College of Education, Yaba,

Yewa Central College of Education, Ogun,

List of Federal Universities in Nigeria

Abubakar Tafawa Belewa University,

Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria,

Bayero University, Kano,

Federal University, Gashua,

Federal University of Tech, Akure,

Federal University of Petroleum Resources, Effurun,

Federal University of Technology, Minna,

Federal University of technology, Owerri,

Federal University Dutse,

Federal University Dutsin-Ma,

Federal University, Ndufu-Alike,

Federal University, Otuoke,

Federal University, Wukari,

Federal University, Birnin Kebbi,

Federal University, Gusau

Michael Okpara Univeristy of Agric, Umudike, .

Modibbo Adama University of Tech, Yola, .

National Open University of Nigeria,

Nigeria Police Academy Wudil, .

Nigeria defense Academy, Kaduna, .

Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka,

Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, .

University of Abuja, Gwagwalada, .

University of Agriculture Abeokuta,

University of Agriculture Markurdi,

University of Benin,

University of Calabar,

University of Lagos,

University of Maiduguri,

University of Nigeria Nsukka,

University of Port-Harcourt

University of Uyo, .

Usmanu Danfodiyo University,

List of State Universities in Nigeria admission list

Abia State University, Uturu,

Adamawa State University, Mubi,

Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba,

Amrose Alli University, Ikot Akpaden,

Anambra State University of Sc. & Tech, Uli,

Anambra State University of Sc. & Tech, Uli,

Bauchi State Unibversity, Gadau,

Benue State University Markurdi,

Bukar Abba Ibrahim University, Damaturu,

Cross River State University of Sc. & Tech, Calabar, .

Delta State University Abraka,

Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki,

Ekiti State University,

Enugu State University of Sc. & Tech. Enugu,

Gombe State University, Gombe

Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University,

Ignatius Ajuru University of Education,

Imo state University,Owerri,

Jigawa State University,

Kaduna State University, Kaduna

Kano University of Sc. & Tech, Wudil

Kebbi State University, Kebbi,

Kogi State University, Anyigba,.

Kwara State University, Ilorin, .

Ladoke Akintola university of Tech,

Lagos State University Ojo,

Nasarawa State University, Keffi,

Niger Delta University, Yenagoe,

Olabisi Onabanjo University Ago-Iwoye,

Ondo State University of Sc. & Tech, Okitipupa,

Osun State University, Oshogbo,

Plateau State University, Bokkos,

Rivers State University of Sc. & Tech,

Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijebu-ode,

Taraba State University, Jalingo,

Umaru Musa Yar’Adua University,

Private Universities

Achievers University, Owo,

Adeleke University, Ede,

Afe Babalola University, Ado- Ekiti,

African University of Sc. & Tech, Abuja,

Al-hikmah University, Ilorin,

Ajayi Crowther University, Ibadan,

Al-Qalam University, Katsina,

American University of Nigeria, Yola, .

Babcock University, Ilishan,

Baze University,

Bells University of Technology, Otta,

Benson Idahosa University, Benin,

Bingham University, New Karu,

Bowen University, Iwo,

Caleb University, Lagos, .

Caritas University, Enugu,

CETEP City University, Lagos,

Covenant University, Ota,

Crawford University, Igbesa,

Crescent University,

Elizade University, Ilara-mokin, .

Fountain University, Oshogbo,

Gregory University, Uturu,

Hallmark University,

Igbinedion University, Okada

Joseph Ayo Babalola University,Ikeji,

Kwararafa University, Wukari,

Lead City University, Ibadan,

Madonna University, Okija

Mcpherson University, Seriki

Nigerian-Turkish Nile University, Abuja,

Novena University, Ogume,

Obong University, Obong Ntak, .

Oduduwa University, Ipetumodu,

Pan-African University, Lagos,

Paul University, Awka,

Redeemer’s University, Mowe,

Renaissance University, Enugu,

Salem University, Lokoja,]

Tansian University, Umunya, .

University of Mkar

Veritas University, .

Wellspring University, Edo, .

Wesley University of Sc. & Tech, Ondo,

Western Delta University, Oghara

List of all the Federal Polytechnics in Nigeria

    Air Force Institute of Technology Nigerian Air Force,

    Air Force Institute of Technology Nigerian Air Force,

    Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Unwana,

Nigeria Army School of Military Engineering,

     Auchi Polytechnic .

     Auchi Polytechnic .

    Federal Polytechnic, Ado-Ekiti

Federal Polytechnic, Ado-Ekiti .

Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, .

    Federal Polytechnic, Bida,

 Federal Polytechnic, Bida,

   Federal Polytechnic, Damaturu,

     Federal Polytechnic, Ede, Osun State,

 Federal Polytechnic, Ede, Osun State,

 Federal Polytechnic, Ida,

   Federal Polytechnic, Ida, .

  Federal Polytechnic, Ilaro,

     Federal Polytechnic, Ile-Oluji, Ondo State,

    Federal Polytechnic, Mubi,

   Federal Polytechnic, Namoda,

   Federal Polytechnic, Nassarawa,

  Federal Polytechnic, Nekede,

    Federal Polytechnic, Nekede,

Federal Polytechnic, Offa,

 Federal Polytechnic, Offa,

 Federal Polytechnic, Oko,

Federal School of Dental Technology and Therapy,

Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna,

Hussaini Adamu Federal Polytechnic,

Nigeria Army School of Military Engineering,

Federal College of Animal Health and Production Technology

Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic Birnin Kebbi,

Yaba College of Tech,

List of State Polytechnics in Nigeria

 Abraham Adesanya Polytechnic, Ijebu-Igbo,

Abia State Polytechnic, .

Adamawa State Polytechnic,

Akwa-Ibom State Polytechnic, Ikot-Osurua,

Benue State Poly, Ugbokolo,

Gateway Polytechnic, Igbesa,

Rufus Giwa Polytechnic,

Rufus Giwa Polytechnic,

The Polytechnic, Ibadan, .

Institute of Mgt. and Tech,

Imo State Polytechnic, Umuagwo

Kano State Polytechnic,

Kogi State Polytechnic, Lokoja,

Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin,

Lagos State Poly, Ikorodu,

Moshood Abiola Poly,

Nasarawa State Polytechnic

Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic,

Delta State Polytechnic, Ogwashi-Uku,

Osun State Poly, Iree,

Osun State Poly, Iree,

Osun State College of Tech, Esa-Oke,

Delta State Polytechnic, Ozoro,

Plateau State Polytechnic, Barkin-Ladi,

Adamawa State Poly,

Rivers State College of Arts and Science,

Rivers State College of Arts and Science

Rivers State Polytechnic,

Gateway Polytechnic Saapade

Edo State Inst. of Tech and Mgt, Usen,

Niger State Poly, Zungeru, Niger State,

List of Private Polytechnics in Nigeria

Allover Central Polytechnic,

Crown Polytechnics,

Covenant Polytechnic,

Dorben Polytechnic, Bwari-Garam Road,

Fidei Polytechnic, Gboko,

Grace Polytechnic,

Grace Polytechnic,

Igbajo Polytechnic,

The Polytechnic, Ile-Ife, NITEL Road

Lagos City Poly, Ikeja, Lagos State,

Light House Polytechnic, Eubuobanosa,

Interlink Polytechnic,

Kings Polytechnic, Ubiaja,

RONIK Polytechnic,

Shaka Polytechnic, Polytechnic, Benin city,

Temple-Gate Polytechnic,

Wolex Polytechnic

Prime Polytechnic

The Polytechnic Imesi-Ile, Osun

Heritage Polytechnic, Ikot Udota

Ibadan City Polytechnic