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Hoslundia opposita leaf is used folklorically in the management of diabetes and a preliminary anti-hyperglycaemic activity has been reported for its methanol extract. Therefore, in this study, the antihyperglyceamic activities of the partition fractions of Hoslundia opposita leaf was investigated using glucose loaded wistar rats with a view to determine the most active fraction. A 1% Tween 80 in normal saline and glibenclamide (5 mg/kg) were used as the negative and positive controls, respectively.
The methanolic extract of the plant was successively partitioned into n-hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate, and evaporated to dryness in vacuo to obtain their corresponding n-hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate and aqueous fractions, which were similarly tested for their anti-hyperglyceamic activities. Activities of the fractions were statistically compared with themselves, and those of the positive and negative controls using ANOVA, followed by Student Newman Kuels’ test to determine the most active fraction.
The methanolic extract of H. opposita (200, 400 mg/kg) gave a similar profile of activity with glibenclamide probably indicating both extra-pancreatic and insulin release effects. The similar results given by 200 and 400 mg/kg confirmed that the constituents are probably acting in synergism as the extract was significantly more active than the partition fractions or the most active constituents are in the non-polar fractions. The activities of the fractions were significantly less than that of the standard drug used, glibenclamide (5 mg/kg). The comparable (p > 0.05) 20 % anti-hyperglycaemic activity given by both ethylacetate and aqueous fractions at 400 and 200 mg/kg, respectively may indicate that both demonstrated moderate anti-hyperglycaemic activity, depending on the dose. Also, since their greatest activity was at 4 h, both fractions may elicit their antihyperglycaemic activity by stimulating insulin release. Only aqueous fraction gave a possible mild extrapancreatic effect. The antihyperglycaemic constituents in these fractions are likely to be moderately polar to polar
in nature. Therefore, the totality of the results established the anti-hyperglycaemic activity of H. opposita and its usage in ethnomedicinal management of diabetes.
Medicinal plant is any plant, which in one or more of its organs, contains substances that can be used for therapeutic purposes or which are precursors for the synthesis of useful drugs (Sofowora, 2008). The practice of using plants in treating diseases is called herbal medicine and it dates back to very earliest periods of known human history. There is evidence of the use of herbs in the treatment of diseases and for revitalising body systems in almost all ancient civilisations – The Indian, Egyptian, Chinese and even the Greek and Roman civilisations (Bakhru, 1992). The universal role of plants in the treatment of diseases is exemplified by their employment in all the major systems of medicine, irrespective of the underlying philosophical premise (Evans, 2008). Examples of different diseases that plants have been used to treat include heart disorders, digestive disorders, constipation, diarrhoea, gonorrhoea, skin diseases, stomach ache, craw craw, asthma, toothache, hypertension (Bakhru, 1992; Evans, 2008). Some drugs of importance for the treatment of various diseases, which have been obtained from plants include atropine, bromelain, caffeine, cocaine, codeine, digoxin, emetine, morphine, noscapine, pilocarpine and quinine (Ertug, 2000).
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic, progressive group of disorders characterised by a relative or absolute deficiency of insulin secretion or peripheral insulin resistance resulting in hyperglycaemia and impaired metabolism of fats, carbohydrates and proteins (Olaniyi, 2005). It is a chronic disorder of carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism typified by persistent elevations (> 200 mg/dL) of fasting blood glucose, due to insufficient or complete cessation of insulin synthesis or secretion and/or peripheral resistance to insulin action (Murray and Pizzorno, 1997).
The disease is associated with increased risk of heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, retinopathy, neuropathy, ulceration and gangrene of extremities (Rotshteyn and Zito, 2004). Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder characterised by a high blood glucose concentration (hyperglycaemia) and a fasting plasma glucose (≥ 7.0 mmol/L) or plasma glucose (> 11.1 mmol/L) two hours after a meal, caused by insulin deficiency, often combined with insulin resistance.
Hyperglycaemia occurs because of uncontrolled hepatic glucose output, reduced uptake of glucose by skeletal muscle and reduced glycogen synthesis. When the renal threshold for glucose re-absorption is exceeded, glucose spills over into the urine (glycosuria) and causes an osmotic diuresis (polyuria), which in turn, results in dehydration, thirst and increased drinking (polydipsia). Insulin deficiency causes wasting through increased breakdown and reduced synthesis of proteins (Rang et al., 2007). Diabetes mellitus is one of the most important non communicable diseases in Nigeria and is second only to hypertension in terms of public health significance. The high burden of DM in Nigeria is largely attributable to cardiovascular diseases, which account for 15 % of all DM deaths (Ogbera, 2007; Ogbera et al., 2007).
1.1.1. Classification of Diabetes Mellitus
(a). Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes mellitus is caused by the autoimmune destruction of the β-cells of the pancreatic islets (Taylor, 1999). It is a disease resulting from absolute insulin deficiency, usually caused by autoimmune destruction of pancreatic islet cells. The initial clinical presentation may be ketoacidosis with an acute illness, or a more gradual presentation with symptoms of hyperglycaemia. Other autoimmune disorders may also be present such as Addison’s disease, thyroiditis and pernicious anaemia (Federal Bureau Prisons of Clinical Guidelines, 2008). A small subset of patients with type 1 diabetes has a non-
immune mediated disease process with a waxing and waning clinical course and this form of type 1 diabetes is strongly inherited and most commonly affects persons of African and Asian descent (Federal Bureau Prisons of Clinical Guidelines, 2008). Type 1 diabetic patients are usually young (children or adolescents) and not obese when they first develop symptoms (Rang and Dale, 2007). As in all autoimmune diseases, genetic susceptibility and environmental factors play important role in pathogenesis of type 1 DM (Kumar et al., 2005).
(b). Type 2 Diabetes
This form of diabetes was previously referred to as non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM) or adult-onset diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is characterised by tissue resistance to the action of insulin combined with a relative deficiency in insulin secretion. A given individual may have more resistance or β-cell deficiency and the abnormalities may be mild or severe (Katzung, 2006) It is likely that 10–20 % of individuals in whom type 2 diabetes was initially diagnosed actually have both type 1 and type 2 or a slowly progressing type 1, and ultimately will require insulin replacement (Katzung, 2006). Although insulin is produced by the β-cells in these patients, it is inadequate to overcome the resistance and the blood glucose rises (Katzung, 2006). In type 2 diabetes, the amount of insulin produced is not enough or cells of the body do not respond to its presence. It is usually associated with normal B-cell morphology and insulin content, if the β-cells have not become exhausted. (Singh et al., 2010).
(c). Gestational diabetes (GDM)
Gestational Diabetes GDM is defined as glucose intolerance of variable degrees with onset or first recognition during the present pregnancy (Jovanovic, 2001). It is diagnosed in approximately 4% of all pregnancies in the USA (Katzung, 2006). When maternal
glucose is not normalised, the outcome of pregnancy is not normal. Therefore, identifying the woman at risk for an abnormal outcome of pregnancy is based on maternal blood glucose (BG) levels (Jovanovic, 2001).
During pregnancy, placenta and placental hormones create insulin resistance that is most pronounced in the last trimester (Katzung, 2006). However, women with a history of GDM have an increased risk for future glucose intolerance, as manifested by maternal diabetes or by recurrent GDM in subsequent pregnancies



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This article highlights various college of education, polytechnics, universities website in Nigeria.


Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo,

Alvan Ikoku College of Education, Owerri,

Alvan Ikoku College of Education, Owerri,

Federal College of Educ. Abeokuta,

Federal College of Education, Eha-Amufu,

Federal College of Education, Kano,

Federal College of Education, Katsina,

Federal college of Education, Kontagora,

Federal College of Education, Obudu,

Federal College of Education, Okene,

Federal College of Education, Okene,

Federal College of Education, Pankshin,

 Federal College of Education, Yola,

Federal College of Education, Zaria,

Federal College of Education (Technical), Akoka,

Federal College of Education (Technical), Asaba,

Federal College of Education (Technical), Bichi,

Federal College of Education (Technical), Gombe,

Federal College of Education (Technical), Gusau,

Federal College of Education (Technical), Omoku,

Federal College of Education (Special) Oyo,

State college of education

College of Education, Agbor,

Akwa-Ibom State College of Education, Afaha-Nsit,

College of Education, Akwanga, ., form and admissions list

College of Education, Akwanga,

Cross River State College of Education, Akamkpa,

Adamu Augie College of Education, Argungu,

College of Education, Azare,

Bayelsa State College of Education, Okpoama,

Emmanuel Alyande College of Education, Oyo,

Enugu State College of Education (Tech.) Enugu,

College of Education, Ekiadolor,

Umar Suleiman College of Education, Gashua,

College of Education, Gindiri,

Michael Otedola College of Primary Education, Moforiji,

College of Education, Port Harcourt,

Adeniran Ogunsanya College of Education, Otto,

Tai Solarin College of Education, Ijebu-Ode,

Tai Solarin College of Education, Ijebu-Ode,

Ebonyi State College of Education, Ikwo,

College of Education, Ikere,

College of Education, Ilesha, .

College of Education, Ilesha,

College of Education, Ilorin,

College of Education, Jalingo,

Kano State College of Education, Kumbotso,

College of Education, Benue,

Kebbi State College of Education, Argungu,

College of Education, Minna,

Nwafor Orizu College of Education, Nsugbe,

College of Education, Oju,

College of Education, Oro,

College of Education, Oro,

Oyo State College of Education, Oyo,


College of Education, Warri,

College of Education, Warri,

FCT College of Education, Zuba,

Private college of education in Nigeria

Angel Crown College of Education, Gidan-Daya, .

Elder Oyama Memorial College of Education, Ofat-Adun,

Assanusiyah College of Education, Odeomu,

African Thinkers Community of inquiry College of Education,

Best Legacy College of Education, Ikirun,

Bauchi Institute for Arabic and Islamic Studies, .

Calvin Foundation College of Education, Naka,

Harvard Wilson College of Education, Aba,

Hill College of Education, Akwanga,

Institute of Ecumenical Education, Enugu,

College of Education, Foreign Links Campus Moro,

College of Education, Foreign Links Campus Moro,

Diamond College of education aba

Muhyideen College of Education, Ilorin,  

ONIT College of Education, Abagana, .

The African Church College of Education, Lagos,

St. Augustine College of Education, Yaba,

Yewa Central College of Education, Ogun,

List of Federal Universities in Nigeria

Abubakar Tafawa Belewa University,

Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria,

Bayero University, Kano,

Federal University, Gashua,

Federal University of Tech, Akure,

Federal University of Petroleum Resources, Effurun,

Federal University of Technology, Minna,

Federal University of technology, Owerri,

Federal University Dutse,

Federal University Dutsin-Ma,

Federal University, Ndufu-Alike,

Federal University, Otuoke,

Federal University, Wukari,

Federal University, Birnin Kebbi,

Federal University, Gusau

Michael Okpara Univeristy of Agric, Umudike, .

Modibbo Adama University of Tech, Yola, .

National Open University of Nigeria,

Nigeria Police Academy Wudil, .

Nigeria defense Academy, Kaduna, .

Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka,

Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, .

University of Abuja, Gwagwalada, .

University of Agriculture Abeokuta,

University of Agriculture Markurdi,

University of Benin,

University of Calabar,

University of Lagos,

University of Maiduguri,

University of Nigeria Nsukka,

University of Port-Harcourt

University of Uyo, .

Usmanu Danfodiyo University,

List of State Universities in Nigeria admission list

Abia State University, Uturu,

Adamawa State University, Mubi,

Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba,

Amrose Alli University, Ikot Akpaden,

Anambra State University of Sc. & Tech, Uli,

Anambra State University of Sc. & Tech, Uli,

Bauchi State Unibversity, Gadau,

Benue State University Markurdi,

Bukar Abba Ibrahim University, Damaturu,

Cross River State University of Sc. & Tech, Calabar, .

Delta State University Abraka,

Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki,

Ekiti State University,

Enugu State University of Sc. & Tech. Enugu,

Gombe State University, Gombe

Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University,

Ignatius Ajuru University of Education,

Imo state University,Owerri,

Jigawa State University,

Kaduna State University, Kaduna

Kano University of Sc. & Tech, Wudil

Kebbi State University, Kebbi,

Kogi State University, Anyigba,.

Kwara State University, Ilorin, .

Ladoke Akintola university of Tech,

Lagos State University Ojo,

Nasarawa State University, Keffi,

Niger Delta University, Yenagoe,

Olabisi Onabanjo University Ago-Iwoye,

Ondo State University of Sc. & Tech, Okitipupa,

Osun State University, Oshogbo,

Plateau State University, Bokkos,

Rivers State University of Sc. & Tech,

Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijebu-ode,

Taraba State University, Jalingo,

Umaru Musa Yar’Adua University,

Private Universities

Achievers University, Owo,

Adeleke University, Ede,

Afe Babalola University, Ado- Ekiti,

African University of Sc. & Tech, Abuja,

Al-hikmah University, Ilorin,

Ajayi Crowther University, Ibadan,

Al-Qalam University, Katsina,

American University of Nigeria, Yola, .

Babcock University, Ilishan,

Baze University,

Bells University of Technology, Otta,

Benson Idahosa University, Benin,

Bingham University, New Karu,

Bowen University, Iwo,

Caleb University, Lagos, .

Caritas University, Enugu,

CETEP City University, Lagos,

Covenant University, Ota,

Crawford University, Igbesa,

Crescent University,

Elizade University, Ilara-mokin, .

Fountain University, Oshogbo,

Gregory University, Uturu,

Hallmark University,

Igbinedion University, Okada

Joseph Ayo Babalola University,Ikeji,

Kwararafa University, Wukari,

Lead City University, Ibadan,

Madonna University, Okija

Mcpherson University, Seriki

Nigerian-Turkish Nile University, Abuja,

Novena University, Ogume,

Obong University, Obong Ntak, .

Oduduwa University, Ipetumodu,

Pan-African University, Lagos,

Paul University, Awka,

Redeemer’s University, Mowe,

Renaissance University, Enugu,

Salem University, Lokoja,

The relevance of population census to economic development of rural areas in nigeria


Tansian University, Umunya, .

University of Mkar

Veritas University, .

Wellspring University, Edo, .

Wesley University of Sc. & Tech, Ondo,

Western Delta University, Oghara

List of all the Federal Polytechnics in Nigeria

    Air Force Institute of Technology Nigerian Air Force,

    Air Force Institute of Technology Nigerian Air Force,

    Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Unwana,

Nigeria Army School of Military Engineering,

     Auchi Polytechnic .

     Auchi Polytechnic .

    Federal Polytechnic, Ado-Ekiti

Federal Polytechnic, Ado-Ekiti .

Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, .

    Federal Polytechnic, Bida,

 Federal Polytechnic, Bida,

   Federal Polytechnic, Damaturu,

     Federal Polytechnic, Ede, Osun State,

 Federal Polytechnic, Ede, Osun State,

 Federal Polytechnic, Ida,

   Federal Polytechnic, Ida, .

  Federal Polytechnic, Ilaro,

     Federal Polytechnic, Ile-Oluji, Ondo State,

    Federal Polytechnic, Mubi,

   Federal Polytechnic, Namoda,

   Federal Polytechnic, Nassarawa,

  Federal Polytechnic, Nekede,

    Federal Polytechnic, Nekede,

Federal Polytechnic, Offa,

 Federal Polytechnic, Offa,

 Federal Polytechnic, Oko,

Federal School of Dental Technology and Therapy,

Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna,

Hussaini Adamu Federal Polytechnic,

Nigeria Army School of Military Engineering,

Federal College of Animal Health and Production Technology

Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic Birnin Kebbi,

Yaba College of Tech,

List of State Polytechnics in Nigeria

 Abraham Adesanya Polytechnic, Ijebu-Igbo,

Abia State Polytechnic, .

Adamawa State Polytechnic,

Akwa-Ibom State Polytechnic, Ikot-Osurua,

Benue State Poly, Ugbokolo,

Gateway Polytechnic, Igbesa,

Rufus Giwa Polytechnic,

Rufus Giwa Polytechnic,

The Polytechnic, Ibadan, .

Institute of Mgt. and Tech,

Imo State Polytechnic, Umuagwo

Kano State Polytechnic,

Kogi State Polytechnic, Lokoja,

Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin,

Lagos State Poly, Ikorodu,

Moshood Abiola Poly,

Nasarawa State Polytechnic

Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic,

Delta State Polytechnic, Ogwashi-Uku,

Osun State Poly, Iree,

Osun State Poly, Iree,

Osun State College of Tech, Esa-Oke,

Delta State Polytechnic, Ozoro,

Plateau State Polytechnic, Barkin-Ladi,

Adamawa State Poly,

Rivers State College of Arts and Science,

Rivers State College of Arts and Science

Rivers State Polytechnic,

Gateway Polytechnic Saapade

Edo State Inst. of Tech and Mgt, Usen,

Niger State Poly, Zungeru, Niger State,

List of Private Polytechnics in Nigeria

Allover Central Polytechnic,

Crown Polytechnics,

Covenant Polytechnic,

Dorben Polytechnic, Bwari-Garam Road,

Fidei Polytechnic, Gboko,

Grace Polytechnic,

Grace Polytechnic,

Igbajo Polytechnic,

The Polytechnic, Ile-Ife, NITEL Road

Lagos City Poly, Ikeja, Lagos State,

Light House Polytechnic, Eubuobanosa,

Interlink Polytechnic,

Kings Polytechnic, Ubiaja,

RONIK Polytechnic,

Shaka Polytechnic, Polytechnic, Benin city,

Temple-Gate Polytechnic,

Wolex Polytechnic

Prime Polytechnic

The Polytechnic Imesi-Ile, Osun

Heritage Polytechnic, Ikot Udota

Ibadan City Polytechnic