PRODUCTION OF PLANT MIRROR USING LOCAL RAW MATERIAL

PRODUCTION OF PLANT MIRROR USING LOCAL RAW MATERIAL

 

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ABSTRACT

 

This project “production of plane mirror using local raw material” is meant to study the possibility of producing plane mirror using sand rich in silica as its major local raw material.

 

Plane mirror is produced by casting one side of a sheet glass.  Presently in Nigeria, sheet glass is not used easily produce and as such, the local raw material used in the in the production of plane mirror in this product backing paint.  The facilities for the production include spraying gun and finger brush.

 

In the course of production, the silver nitrate was first mixed with a reducing reagent; we formaldehyde of glucose, all in a distilled water.  After which the mirror backing paint was mixed with some amount of thinner.  The float glass was then washed with warm water and allowed to dry.  After drying, it was first coated with silver nitrate solution after the use of talcum power to rub on the back of the glass.

 

A second spraying of mirror- backing paint was done after the silver nitrate coating had dried up.  This whole operation now resulted to a plane-mirror since a plane mirror is also a coated glass.

 

The reflection of the mirror was taken after coating the glass, while the refractive index of the glass was taken before coating the float glass to form a mirror.

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Historical Background

1.2     Definition:

1.3     Aims:

1.4     Scope of Study:

1.5     Uses:

1.6     Properties:

CHAPTER TWO

  • LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     Plane Mirror

2.2     Raw Material for Production of Plane Mirror

2.2.1  Sand

2.2.2       Soda Ash (Sodium Trioxocarbonate Iv)

2.2.3       Limestone (Calcium Trioxocarbonate (W)

2.3.0       Other Raw Material (Ie Additives)

2.3.1       Colouring and Decolourizing Agents

2.3.2       Melting and Refining Agents

2.3.3       Opalizing Agents

2.2.4       Modifiers

2.3.5       Cullet

2.40        Types of Furnaces

2.4.1       Tank Furnance

2.4.2       Pot Furances

2.4.3       Day Tanks

2.4.3       Recuperative Furnance

  • Glass Formation

2.5.1       Glass Melting Process

2.5          Preparation of the Batch

2.5.1       Melting Of Glass

2.6          Types of Glasses

2.6.2       Float Glass

2.7          Manufacture of Mirror

2.7.1       Sequence of Production

2.7.2       Cutting

2.7.2       Labelling

2.7.3       Polishing

2.7.4       Washing Operation

2.7.5       Silvering Spraying

2.7.6       Painting

2.7.7       Oven

2.7.8       Cleaning and Inspection

2.7.10     Drilling

2.8.0       Types of Mirrors

2.9.0       Optical Properties of Mirror

2.9.1       Refractive Index and Dispersion

2.9.2       Transparency

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0          Experiment Procedure for Production Of plane mirror

3.1          Raw Materials

3.2          Apparatus/Equipment

3.3          Preparation of mirror silvering chemical

3.4          Operational procedures involved in the production of plane mirror

  • Experimental Result
    • Refractive Index Of Glass

3.5.2       Reflection of Plane Mirror

  • Experimental Date For Refractive Index
    • Experimental Data For Reflection

3.5.2       Reflection of Plane Mirror

 

 

CHAPTER FOUR

DISCUSSION

 

CHAPTER FIVE

CONCLUSION

 

CHAPTER SIX

RECOMMENDATION

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

  • INTRODUCTION

1.1     HISTORICAL BACKROUND

According to the history of glass- mirror- Eye glasses- spectacles – contact lenses online”, the history of mirror dates back to the ancient time when mankind first saw reflections in a pound or river and considered it magic. At first polished stone or later glass was used in early man-made mirrors later glass was used in combination with metals like tin, mercury, and leads to create mirror.  Today combing glass and metal is still design used in almost all modern mirrors.  Mirrors are made by coating flat glass with silver, gold or mirror paints dates from Roman times and the inventor is unknown.

 

According to steve Robinson (htlp:11 www. Restoration-advice org/pages/mirrors-history html), mirror made of brass are mentioned is the bible, and mirrors of bronze were is common use among the ancient Egyptians, Greeks and Romans.  Polished silver was also used by the Greeks and Romans to produce reflection.  Crude form of glass mirrors were first made is Venice in 1300.  By the end of 17th century mirrors were made is Britain and  the manufacture of mirrors developed in the other European countries and in U.SA.

 

The first attempt to back glass with a solution of silver was made by the German chemist Justus von liebiy in 1836, various methods have been developed since then, that depend on the chemical reduction of a silver salt to metallic silver.

 

 

1.2     DEFINITON:      

According to “the history of glass-mirror on line” mirror can be defined as a reflecting surface that forms an image of an object when light rays coming from that object fall upon the surface.  A plane mirror, which is flat, reflects light without changing the image.  Thee are two types of mirror; the convex mirror and the concave mirror. A convex mirror look like an upside-down bowl.  In a concave mirror which has bigger in the center, while a concave mirror which has a bowl shape, object looks smaller in the center the

 

 

1.3     AIMS:        

The aim of this project is to determine

 

 

 

This article highlights various college of education, polytechnics, universities website in Nigeria.

 

Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo,

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Private college of education in Nigeria

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ONIT College of Education, Abagana, .

The African Church College of Education, Lagos,

St. Augustine College of Education, Yaba,

Yewa Central College of Education, Ogun,

List of Federal Universities in Nigeria

Abubakar Tafawa Belewa University,

Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria,

Bayero University, Kano,

Federal University, Gashua,

Federal University of Tech, Akure,

Federal University of Petroleum Resources, Effurun,

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Modibbo Adama University of Tech, Yola, .

National Open University of Nigeria,

Nigeria Police Academy Wudil, .

Nigeria defense Academy, Kaduna, .

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Umaru Musa Yar’Adua University,

Private Universities

Achievers University, Owo,

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Babcock University, Ilishan,

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Caritas University, Enugu,

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Crawford University, Igbesa,

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Elizade University, Ilara-mokin, .

Fountain University, Oshogbo,

Gregory University, Uturu,

Hallmark University,

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Paul University, Awka,

Redeemer’s University, Mowe,

Renaissance University, Enugu,

Salem University, Lokoja,]

Tansian University, Umunya, .

University of Mkar

Veritas University, .

Wellspring University, Edo, .

Wesley University of Sc. & Tech, Ondo,

Western Delta University, Oghara

List of all the Federal Polytechnics in Nigeria

    Air Force Institute of Technology Nigerian Air Force,

    Air Force Institute of Technology Nigerian Air Force,

    Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Unwana,

Nigeria Army School of Military Engineering,

     Auchi Polytechnic .

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    Federal Polytechnic, Ado-Ekiti

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Federal School of Dental Technology and Therapy,

Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna,

Hussaini Adamu Federal Polytechnic,

Nigeria Army School of Military Engineering,

Federal College of Animal Health and Production Technology

Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic Birnin Kebbi,

Yaba College of Tech,

List of State Polytechnics in Nigeria

 Abraham Adesanya Polytechnic, Ijebu-Igbo,

Abia State Polytechnic, .

Adamawa State Polytechnic,

Akwa-Ibom State Polytechnic, Ikot-Osurua,

Benue State Poly, Ugbokolo,

Gateway Polytechnic, Igbesa,

Rufus Giwa Polytechnic,

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The Polytechnic, Ibadan, .

Institute of Mgt. and Tech,

Imo State Polytechnic, Umuagwo

Kano State Polytechnic,

Kogi State Polytechnic, Lokoja,

Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin,

Lagos State Poly, Ikorodu,

Moshood Abiola Poly,

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Delta State Polytechnic, Ogwashi-Uku,

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Delta State Polytechnic, Ozoro,

Plateau State Polytechnic, Barkin-Ladi,

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Rivers State College of Arts and Science,

Rivers State College of Arts and Science

Rivers State Polytechnic,

Gateway Polytechnic Saapade

Edo State Inst. of Tech and Mgt, Usen,

Niger State Poly, Zungeru, Niger State,

List of Private Polytechnics in Nigeria

Allover Central Polytechnic,

Crown Polytechnics,

Covenant Polytechnic,

Dorben Polytechnic, Bwari-Garam Road,

Fidei Polytechnic, Gboko,

Grace Polytechnic,

Grace Polytechnic,

Igbajo Polytechnic,

The Polytechnic, Ile-Ife, NITEL Road

Lagos City Poly, Ikeja, Lagos State,

Light House Polytechnic, Eubuobanosa,

Interlink Polytechnic,

Kings Polytechnic, Ubiaja,

RONIK Polytechnic,

Shaka Polytechnic, Polytechnic, Benin city,

Temple-Gate Polytechnic,

Wolex Polytechnic

Prime Polytechnic

The Polytechnic Imesi-Ile, Osun

Heritage Polytechnic, Ikot Udota

Ibadan City Polytechnic

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