The relevance of population census to economic development of rural areas in nigeria.

The relevance of population census to economic development of rural areas in nigeria.

(a case study of orumba north local government in anambra state)

 

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Chapter one

  • Introduction 1
    • Background of the study 1
    • Statement of the problem 5
    • Purpose of the study 7
    • Significance of the study 8
    • Research questions 9
    • Scope of the study 10

Chapter two

  • Literature review 12

2.1    population issues                                         12

2.2    population. Development and employment in rural areas                    16

2.3 contribution of population to economic   development of rural ares.         18

 

Chapter three

  • Methodology 20
    • Brief outline of the study 20
    • Design of the study 21
    • Area of the study                  21
    • Population of the study 22
    • Sample of the study 23
    • Instrument for data collection 25
    • Validation of the instrument 25
    • Distribution and retrieval of the instrument                          25
    • Method of data analysis 26

 

Chapter four

4.0    data presentation and analysis           28

4.1    findings                                                                 33

 

Chapter five

5.0    summary of findings                                    34

5.1    recommendations                                                   35

5.2    conclusion                                                            37

5.3    limitation of the study                                 39

5.4    suggestion for further research 40

reference                                                 41

appendix a                                                  44

appendix b                                                  45

questionnaire                                              46

 

 

 

 

Abstract

The project is on the relevance of population census to economic development of rural areas in nigeria (a case study of orumba north local government of anambra state) the zone comprises of 16 rural communities namely; ajalli, ufuma, ndike, ndiowu, omogho, oko, amaokpala, awa, amaetiti, awgbu, ndiukwuenu, ndiokolo, okpeze, ndiokpalaeze, nanka and ndiokpalaeke these formed the area of the study:

 

In this research work, a sample population was selected and administered with questionnaire and their responses were analysed using percentage method, after the analysis, the researcher find out that adequate population census data is thus a sine qua non for economic development of rural areas and also adequate population census data will help in effective planning of these rural area in order to improve their standard of living. The researcher is of the view that population data required in planning process should be plan by the government which include employment situations based on the findings, youths were encouraged to participate on the society’s development and government should use skilled professionals in census data to eradicate unreliable census date, with this regard, some conclusion was drawn and recommendation were made bearing in mind that rural areas were faced with high population because of high birth rate


 

 

Chapter one

1.0  introduction

1.1 background of the study

at the center of every planning exercise is a population and there is no meaningful development planning activities without population census.

population census   in the work of the united nation organization (u.n.o) is the   total   process of collection compiling, evaluating analyzing and publishing or disseminating demographic economic and social data pertaining as a specific time to all persons in a country or in well delimited parts of the country. Usually done in every then years.

This definition implies that population census is purely a statistical exercise.

population of a country or other areas is the total number of people who live in it. Population changes as a result of migration.

The word “natural increase” is the different between births and death. In nigeria now, it is the poorest country in the third world, they have more birthrate than death especially in their rural areas, so their population increase unless a net loss resulting from  migration and effort  at self reliant growth must proceed  at a very rapid pace if the  welfare of Nigerians especially rural  areas to be improved.

 

yet, the basic ingredients for planning for development is that population and its composition according to age, six and residence among  others remain  largely  unknown. Available estimates of the total population in the country in each state and also in local government areas are mere guess.

 

the 1991 census places the population of Nigeria to be about 120 million people. This dramatically increased over the year for a multitude of reasons.  Most of which are social political and economic. One of the decisions to bring governance closer to the people was through the creation and recreation of states and local governance. They also lack economic and social amenities such as roads, pipe borne water. The rural communities are   poorly and economically down therefore referred to as economically underdeveloped.

 

adequately planning is thus very important for the development of the rural area. Planning is define as “attempt to guide and control the process of changes”. (brass 1990:430 relies heavily on census data. Currently, lack of population census data in sufficient quantity and quality has been generally accepted as one of the major factor militating against efficient and efficient planning  and administration of development plan in Nigeria and some other rural areas.

 

1.2 statement of the problem

successive Nigeria government during both colonial and post colonial periods understood the importance of accurate population census as the basic tool for good development planning in a country. An accurate and adequate knowledge of the population characteristics and trends   of a country are therefore, a sine qua non for meaningful development in the country. This is so, because development which involves optimum utilization of the nation’s human and natural resources to improve the conditions of living cannot take place without planning.

Lack of population census data in sufficient quality and quality has been generally accepted as one of major factor militating against efficient planning and administration of development plan in Nigeria and also in rural areas.

the importance of population census in rural development derives from the fact that a population census provides he main ingredient for planning. The basic population data required in planning processes should be plan by the government which include employment situation and sex. In every planning exercise, is a population and there is no meaningful development without planning, government is responsible for the planning of rural economic development and this is because efficient and effective planning will help the government to aim towards improving the standard of living of the rural dwellers. Another central problem, is data on socio economic variable. (a) employment situation: this is one of the major problem of population in rural areas.

 

1.3 purpose of the study

as a researcher, i hope to study why people are having this problem of population in rural area. And if there will be possible way by which these condition can be drastically be reduced. Furthermore, the purpose of this study is fund out the relevance of population census to rural development and i can now narrow down the question to general and specific issues on what can be accomplished by the study. The purpose of my study is based on this: –

  1. Employment situation: there should be industries, workshop should be organized and it effect by helping people to adjust to the rapid economic growth in the rural areas.
  2. Accurate and reliable census data, which is the major reason for population census.

 

1.4 significant of the study

practically, the result of this study will be useful to researcher. The study may arouse criticism and stimulate further researcher on the topic and also contribute to further knowledge and understanding of administrating considering the socio-economic and population data.

lack of population data in quantity and quality has been generally accepted as one of the factor militating against efficient planning. For instance education, employment should be provide for the rural people so that it can help in decreasing the sex and age of the rural areas because lack of unemployment can cause increase in population.

 

1.5 research question

  1. How relevance is population census to economic development of rural areas?
  2. What caliber of people are needed in population census?
  3. Do the personnel undergoes training exercise?
  4. Of what relevance is occupational distribution on agricultural zone to economic development of orumba north l.g.?
  5. Is educational background a pre-requisite for economic development of rural areas?
  6. Is it advisable to use skillful professionals in population census?

 

1.6 scope of the study 

the scope of this study is the relevance of population census to economic development of rural areas in nigeria. This work did not touch on other area except the one mentioned above. This work covers orumba north local government only and the local government comprises of 16 rural communities. This work has demanded visiting population information and management due to lack of fund, the researcher was forced to limit for questionnaire and some research was made.

 

 

 

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PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF OPERATING A SMALL SCALE BUSINESS IN ENUGU METROPOLIS

PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF OPERATING A SMALL SCALE BUSINESS IN ENUGU METROPOLIS

(A CASE STUDY OF GRAND METROPOLES HOTEL, ENUGU)

 

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ABSTRACT

 

This research work is a very crucial study for the managers and prospective owners of Small Scale Hotel.  The study has motivated by the diminishing state of the hotels and also the prospects.

To solve the research problem, both the primary and secondary data were collected.  The research instrument used in collecting the data were questionnaire, oral interview and field visits.  The respondents comprises of the owners, managers and workers Small Scale Hotels in Enugu.

In organizing and presenting data collected, tables and percentages were used.  The various hypothesis were tested using the chi-square.

  1. Most of the respondents rated the performance of hotels as being below standard and easily sheet down.
  2. Most of the respondents rated the hotels and yielding profits with bright future.
  3. Most of the respondents between most operators of the hotel are illiterates, has little money and keep no records of business.
  4. Base on findings, the researcher recommend that:
  • All hotels and prospects ones should study the proposed sight of their business before location. i.e proper financial records should be kept e.g the cash book

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE:

INTRODUCTION

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
  • PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
  • SCOPE OF THE STUDY
  • RESEARCH QUESTIONS
  • RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
  • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
  • LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS

 

CHAPTER TWO:         

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

  • DEFINITION OF SMALL SCALE BUSINESS
  • WHY PEOPLE WANT TO GO INTO BUSINESS OWNERSHIP
  • SCOPE OF SMALL SCALE BUSINESS
  • TOLE OF SMALL
  • SOURCES OF FUND FOR SMALL SCALE BUSINESS
  • GOVERNMENT COMMITMENT TO ENCOURAGES THE SMALL SCALE BUSINESS ENTERPRISES
  • FEASIBILITY STUDY
  • PROBLEMS OF SMALL SCALE ENTERPRISES

REFERENCES

 

 

 

CHAPTER THREE:     

RESEARCH DESIGN

  • AREA OF THE STUDY
  • POPULATION OF THE STUDY
  • SAMPLE AND SAMPLING PROCEDURE TECHNIQUES
  • INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION
  • VALIDATION OF THE INSTRUMENT
  • RELIABILITY OF THE INSTRUMENT
  • METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION
  • METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS

 

CHAPTER FOUR:       

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

  • PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
  • TESTING OF HYPOTHESIS
  • SUMMARY OF RESULT

 

 

CHAPTER FIVE:         

DISCUSSION, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION

  • DISCUSSION OF RESULT/FINDINGS
  • CONCLUSION
  • IMPLICATIONS OF THE RESEARCH FINDINGS
  • RECOMMENDATIONS
  • SUGGESTIONS

BIBLIOGRAPHY

APPENDIX:   QUESTIONNAIRES

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The Hotel business of what could be described as small scale hotel business started as a result of movement of people from one place or town to another.  These movement are categorized in:-

  1. Movement which one locality or town for example going to work from one’s house within the same city or from one’s city to another.
  2. Movement from one town to another like in the case of Ogui migration where there is an exodus of the people from rural area to the developed Ogui area. In this case, people concerned to go out for greener pasture like looking for better jobs and business.
  3. Movement from one country to another for wither business, study or search for better jobs.
  4. Movement to places of interest like – the Olumo Rocks in Abeokuta or Yoruba game reserve.

 

In 7course of these movement, it has not been easy for people to carry along the required quantity of food and drinks that would last them the length of time they would stay outside their homes.  The instructive desire to help in feeding of these group of travelers brought about the business of hotels.

 

Before the 15th century, what used to be called inns existed in Europe.  These were place where travelers called spend a night or two or even more and were served food and drinks at a cost.  The inns were merely remedy by inn-keepers between 1750-1850, the year of industrial revolution, the business of hotels became a common thing all over Europe.

 

In Nigeria, the business is beleected to have started with the arrival of Europeans into the country.  Before the Europeans, all travelers woe only cafered for by their hoppetabeo natures.  Travelers who come to peace mission were virtually carried for by their hosts.  These Europeans or their guide had to make do with the local food which brought about some kind of exchange process.

 

As this process continued, it dawned on the local people that food could be prepared and sold to these travelers who moved from one place to another.  This was the early shape of hotels unfit it grew to its present standard which was made possible by the attendant development of the country by the presence of the Europeans.

 

However, the small scale business may not be said to have attained its height in hotel management and its operations due to the difference in tradition and cactane in Nigeria.  The different ethnic groups or race have their favante dishes some of these dishes are beginning to gain national acceptances, while others are steel confined to their local use by the people concerned.  For instance garri is more or less a national food because majority of Nigerian do eat it.  One the other hand, “Tuoo” for instance still remain the food for the Northern part of the country.

 

Hotels plays very important role in the economic activities of the country because almost all business endeavour depends on hotel foundation eats across feeding the work force of the economy.

Besides the fact remains that a good number of hotels in Nigeria needs better operations and management.  These observation daily considers the cactaral background and ethnic difference in the country, the problems and prospects of operating and managing hotels in Nigeria therefore are what this research is all about.  In order to accomplish this study some hotel in Ogui Enugu has been selected as a case study.

 

  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Government of Federal State and Local levels have set agencies that are specifically changed with providing funds and other services for the small scale business people.  The purpose of establishing these support agencies by government is to encourage the rapid development of small or medium scale industries in the country for government want to encourage school levels to establish their own small business or unemployment and for economic development.

These support agencies are National Directorate of Employment (NDE), Funds for Small Scale Industries (FSSI) and National Economic Reconstruction Funds (NERFUND)

 

 

 

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CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR

CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR

A CASE STUDY OF ENUGU NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT ENUGU

 

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ABSTRACT

 

From independence (1960) till date the Nigeria society has been under-going rapid transition with the unavailable and the unusual step  by step transformation  process that affect all social systems of the Nigerian society. The public sector organization being deliberately and hurriedly reformed to avoid the pit falls of the past. Instantly, erratic decisions are being made, new programme established and the old ones re-established with new strategies in an effort to achieve a new social order.

In achieving this social order a number of reforms are introduced into the public sector organizations and these (reforms) tends to be prone to a form of organizational crisis or another.  With regards to the Nigerian  public sector these crisis arise out of situational uncertainties and inadequacies of an organization. These could be as a result of power tussles, inadequate funds, psychological disorientation of employees in an organization and its employers rejection of managements / authorities reforms. Any such crisis is capable of distorting the realization of organizations objectives.

An important step is ensuring success in the realization of these public sector organizations and to understand the dynamics of a particular crisis and implement appropriate remedies on conditions that the change motivators are genius and determined. We all know that the understanding of the dynamics of crisis is lacked in the public sector of Nigerian Economy. It is also true that our administrators in the public sector are always involved in the crisis management. In conclusion, we can see that there is no effective tool for crisis management in the Nigerian public sector.

 

For this singular reason the Enugu North Local Government (ENLG) was chosen to give a clear picture of public sector organization whose administrators have not been able to note that local government were created to act as an autonomous part of the central government in Nigeria.

 

In this study we have been able to identify few of the numerous crisis that could hit the ENLG and ranked them in order of probability of occurrence using that crisis with the highest probability in developing a crisis management more for use by organizations in the public sector of the Nigeria economy.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

  • Background of the study
  • Statement of problem
  • Research questions objective of study
  • Objective of study
  • Significance of study
  • Scope and limitation
  • Operational definition of terms

Reference

 

CHAPTER TWO

Review of related literature

2.1     A review of crisis management

2.2     Meaning of crisis

2.3     An overview of crisis management

2.4     Crisis forecast

2.5     Objective of crisis management

Reference

 

CHAPTER THREE

Research methodology and design

3.1     Sources of data

3.2     Data collection

3.3     Statistical tools

3.4     Sample procedure and size

3.5     The population and size

Reference

 

CHAPTER FOUR

Date presentation and analysis

4.1     Presentation of data

4.2     Analysis of data

Reference

 

CHAPTER FIVE

Summary, Recommendation and Conclusion

5.1     Summary of major findings

5.2     Conclusion

5.3     Recommendation

Bibliography

Appendix    I

Appendix    II

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

The Nigerian society is under-going a rapid transition in addition to the inevitable and unusually gradual transformation processes that affect all social systems, the institutions economic, political, legal etc. of the Nigerian society, are being deliberately and hurriedly reformed to avoid the pitfalls of the past new decision programes are established and new strategic adopted all in an effort to achieve a social order.

One of the on-going strategies to do this is the reform introduced into the public sector by the office of the chief of General Staff (CGS) making the local government an effective third tier of the government. Usually, such reforms tend to point to one form of organizational crisis or another crisis were refers to an usual situation the outcome of which is uncertain or capable of generating conflict. With regards to the Nigerian public sector, it arises out of the inherent disposition of the system to distort the political and administrative processes by its decisions or operations. It also arises from situational uncertainties and inadequacies of an organization.

 

There could be power tussle, inadequate funds or time to execute all envisaged projects. Psychological disorientation of the populace / employee and its rejection of the reform. There could be also either a lack of understanding of the full implication of established programmes or a deliberate clinging to politics established primarily to protect institutionalized class relations. Any such crisis is capable of distorting the achievement of the desired objectives of the public sector. Part of the process of ensuring success in the achievement of goals of these public sector organization is to understand the dynamics of such crisis and apply appropriate remedies, provided that thee change motivators are genuine and determined.

 

It is a known fact that the understanding of the dynamics of crisis is lacking in the public sector of the Nigerian economy it is equally true that the Chief Executive and administrators in the public sector are involved in the management of crisis rather than in crisis management. From the foregoing, it is seen that there is no effective tool for crisis management in the Nigerian public sector because  of its large size. It is pertinent that an organization within this sector is used as a  reference point in order to limit the wideness of this study. The Enugu North Local Government (ENLG) has been chosen for proper representation of the public sector organization in the economy.

 

In this thesis, we intend to identify a few crisis situation that could hit ENLG and through the research, rank them in the order of their probability of occurring. I will then use the crisis with the highest probability, to develop a crisis management tool for organizations within the public sector of the Nigerian economy.

 

 

1.1     BACKGROUND OF STUDY

The local’s government has been characterized by instability and discontinuity emanating from one crisis situation or the other. These crisis are often prompted by the activity of the federal government and other environmental factors which usually lead to complete dissolution and or take over of functions of the management group by government appointed administrators. In order words, the LG. of this country have always been subjected to the whims and caprices of the federal government. They were not allowed to make their own decisions as to contributing to the Nigerian economy or either way they give enough financial assistance (authority) to be accountable to the devise inherent is such local government.

 

The various government reforms are aimed at stabilizing and rationalizing local government organization or corporations. It is quite unfortunate however that the chosen implementation strategies seen to have resulted in unanticipated policy outcomes. As a matter of fact it is clear to all that the aims of establishing the local government in Nigeria which is to be an effective third tier of the government has not been realized. It is believed that this is mainly due to the inability of the local government to effectively manage the forms  of crisis that afflicted it since their inception.   It is against this background that crisis management in local government is being investigated.

 

Every crisis has four (4) main stages and allowing each crisis to pass through the four states has been the bare of effective local government in Nigeria.

The four stages of crisis include:

  • Prodromal stage (early warning stage )
  • Acute stage
  • Chronic stages
  • Resolution stages

Crisis management aim at avoiding the acute and chronic stages of crisis. A crisis is said to be effectively managed if it moves from prodromal to resolution stage we are aware that this has not been the case in the local government their crisis have been known to have gone through the four stages with inevitable consequences.

 

If we take a look at the second republic and early part of the aborted their republic (1988-1989) there were various crisis among which were:

  • Financial crisis
  • Power crisis
  • Manpower crisis
  • Political crisis

The entire above crisis, we unfortunately allowed to go through the four stages and this had their unpleasant effects on the local government in the country. For example, the Enugu North Local Government administration was engulfed by crisis during the year 1988 and 1989. this crisis went through the full cycle which cumulated in the intervention of both the state and federal government leading to the suspension of its popularly elected chairman.

 

Another example can be cited from the demonstration carried out by members of the National union of local government (NULGE) Enugu North local government branch on March 9th ’94 protesting for the non-payment of salaries for 6 months.

 

Furthermore, the strike action carried out by the National Union of Teacher (NUT) calling for the collection of their annual subventions directly from the federal government and not from the local government because they believe that this cannot be effectively carried out by them. It can be seen that after about two (2) decades of its establishment the local government cannot manage available resources and avoid conflict or crisis from happening.

 

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

It is quite unfortunate that going through literature very little work has been done on how best to handle crisis by scholars and practitioners. In view of these identified lapses, an inquiry into crisis management in the local

 

 

 

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LOGISTIC OF DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM IN BREWERIES

LOGISTIC OF DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM IN BREWERIES

(A CASE STUDY OF GLODEN GUINEA BREWERIER COMPANY)

 

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ABSTRACT

 

This research studies the logistics of distribution system in breweries

( A case study of golden guinea breweries).

The research started with the background of the study in chapter one, statement of the petroleum, objective of the study, research question and  hypo significance of the study, scope, limitation and delimitation of the study and definition of terms

This is followed by chapter two which deals with the review of related literature

In chapter three I discussed the research design and methodology, selection of population and sample size instrument for data collection, research procedure and analysis techniques

Chapter four contains presentation and analysis of data.

 

Finally, chapter five dealt with findings conclusion and recommendations.

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

  CHAPTER ONE

  • Introduction

1.1     Background of the study

1.2     Statement of the problem

1.3     Objective of the study

1.4     Research Hypothesis

1.5     Significance of the study

1.6     Scope, Limitation and delimitation

1.7     Definition of terms

CHAPTER TWO

  • Review of literature

2.1     Genesis and scope of logistics of distribution system

2.2     Channel of distribution

  • Functions of Middlemen

 

CHAPTER THREE

  • Research design and methodology

3.1     Selection of population and sample size

3.2     Instrument for data collection

3.3     Data collection

3.4     Research procedure

  • Analysis techniques

 

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Presentation and analysis

4.1     Test of hypothesis

 

CHAPTER FIVE

  • Findings conclusion and recommendation

5.1     Findings

  • Conclusion
  • Recommendations

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

  • INTRODUCTION

The distribution sector, up till today in the Nigerian commercial activities is left unused more or less by design than by ignorance the reason for this ugly trend of events cannot be dismissed from the fact that Nigerians still experience the seller market.

DR N.C. Nwaogwugwu observed as follows. The reason for the absence of marketing planning stems from the fact that products for distribution is channeled through established channel of distribution. The marketing manager simply allocates products to appointed distributor or co-operative societies an approved formula since demand is above the supply in most cases. There is no marketing problem encountered in the future. This is an example of the situation experienced in the developed economies.

 

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Since 1970, Nigerian as a developing nation has been marketing an encouraging progress in the area of industrialization especially in the beer industry. Several brands of beer has been launched into the Nigerian market especially during the second republic under the administration of Alhaji Alieu Shehu Shagari

 

The means procedure and method of distributing of goods to reach the final consumer have posed some problems for the management of every firm in particular and the economy in general. By distribution, we mean an efficient movement of raw materials from supplier and financial goods from the end of the production to the customers.  The beer industry being part and parcel of our economy, more so as there are rapid growth of beer firms in the country. There is no way it can fully separate itself from nations economic depression.

 

Therefore the following problems are identifiable: fair and dubious distribution of finished product to different parts of the country. For instance, how to supply the consumer resident in Northern part of the country with appropriate quantity of golden guinea beer which is brewed and bottled in the south in part.

 

The channel through which these finished products actually gets to the final users. The problem of producing the raw materials required for production purposed. The problems also concern the method or means through which such raw material is move from the suppliers to the manufacturers.

The inadequacy of raw materials and finished products has to a great extent motivated the researcher to make a serious study in that direction to find out ways by which raw materials can be distributed effectively to their raw materials can be distributed effectively increase in the price of goods and services which we have experiencing since the 1970’s distributive techniques.

 

The ugly state of affair placed many firms in the state of commercial stagnation, as they cannot improve on their market shares. The co 1.3 in increase of price due to the ineffective logistical approach as they consumer are forced through against their will to limit their consumption to the available goods and services. By this study it is the intention of the researchers to suggest ways by which materials and finished products can be effectively distributed.

This is based on the belief that the study could help firms and industries in designing and implementing successful programmes in their logistics and distribution system.

 

 

 

  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

There have concerned over the logistic of distribution system distribution is in the service industry. Many firm in a developing nation the basic infrastructure needed to support modern marketing activities are inadequate in golden guinea breweries limited.

There have been problem in distribution

 

 

 

Continue reading LOGISTIC OF DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM IN BREWERIES

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PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL AS A TOOL FOR ENHANCING ORGANIZATIONAL PRODUCTIVITY

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL AS A TOOL FOR ENHANCING ORGANIZATIONAL PRODUCTIVITY

 

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

In any evaluation of the condition necessary for the growth and survival of an organization, the role of performance appraisal is a strategic factor. It is believed that both the individual and the organization need to know how well actual performance is contributing to the accomplishment of the job plans, the staffing plan, and ultimately the overall strategic plan of the organization. In addition, the individual employee requires feedback relative to his or her own goals development, as well as that relative to management’s expectations.

 

Performance appraisal is a formal and systematic assessment of an employee to determine the degree to which the employee is performing his/her job effectively. It is usually made in a prescribed manner of specific intervals such as quarterly, bi-annually or even annually. Each employee at one time or the other wants his immediate boss or more still his employer to assess his on-the-job performance, and where necessary give him guidelines or advice for improving his efficiency.

 

An effective performance review system serves these general purposes. In other words, as Nwachukwu (1985) puts it, “the essence of performance appraisal is to give information for the promotion, demotion, transfer, pay increase, training and development and discharge of an employee”.

 

Secondly, it provides employees with constructive on how they are performing in their jobs as viewed by their managers, thus leading to increased productivity.

Therefore, in any organization, manpower remains the most prominent and the most valuable assets among other factors of production. It is this reason performance appraisal is given recognition as a tool to improve organizational activities.

 

 

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Since the study seeks to examine performance appraisal as management tool for increased productivity in Union Bank Nig Plc. It therefore attempts to identify various employee appraising techniques, some common appraisal problems and how proper performance appraisal can enhance increased productivity in Union Bank Nig Plc.

 

 

1.3     OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The purpose of writing this project is to investigate into how performance appraisal can enhance increased productivity in Union Bank Nig Plc. The study will among other things try:

  1. To find out the various performance appraisal techniques used.
  2. To examine the implications of performance and productivity.
  • To provide bases for reward employees in relations to their contribution to the organization.
  1. To identify some common appraisal problems of employees and how proper appraisal can enhance increased productivity.
  2. To make some used recommendations to management.

 

 

 

1.4     STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS

A hypothesis is a conjectural statement of relationship between two or more variables. They are always in declarative sentence form, and they relate either generally or specifically, variable or variables. They are particularly necessary in the studies of this nature where cause and effect…

 

 

Continue reading PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL AS A TOOL FOR ENHANCING ORGANIZATIONAL PRODUCTIVITY

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