TAXATION AS AN INSTRUMENT OF FISCAL POLICY IN NIGERIA

TAXATION AS AN INSTRUMENT OF FISCAL POLICY IN NIGERIA

COMPLETE MATERIAL COST 2500.

CHAPTER ONE

  • Introduction
  • Objective of the study
  • Significance of the study
  • Statement of problem
  • Hypothesis
  • Scope and limitation of the study
  • Definition of terms

 

CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1 Definition / forms of taxes

2.2 The tax system

2.3 Principles / characteristics of a good tax system

2.4 Development of Nigeria tax system

2.5 The role of taxation in the Nation’s development

2.6 References

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

3.1 Study area

3.2 Sources of data (Primary and Secondary Sources)

3.3 Method of investigation

 

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.1 Data presentation

4.2 Analysis

4.3 Testing of hypothesis

 

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1 Summary of findings

5.2 Conclusion

5.3 Recommendation

Bibliography

Appendix

 

ABSTRACT

 

          This research is proposed to investigate taxation as a fiscal policy tool – on its use in solving economic problem such as inflation reduction, harmonization of policies on tax as it relates to government policies and conflict in objectives, inequality, multiple tax problem etc.

This work is a critical look at the existing forms of taxes in the county. It also looked at the Nigeria tax system in terms of tax policy; tax laws and finally taxes administration. It talked about principles / characteristics of a good tax system and of course, the role of taxation in the Nation’s development.

Questionnaires were administered on the relevant population sample. Also they were interviewed and data collected, analyzed and interpreted. Chi – square was used in analyzing the data collected. The collected data were tabulated according to their relevance to the hypothesis.

It was discovered that some level of stability has been achieved by way of reduction in inflation.

Also, the production sits for have received considerable amount of encouragement through various incentives given in order to encourage production activity. It was also discovered that provision of tax system on resource allocation, increase in disposable income, has not been sufficient.

In all, it was concluded that the Nigeria tax system is fairly adequate.

CHAPTER ONE

 

  • INTRODUCTION

The economy of any county regardless of its structure is normally regulated by certain policies developed by the government of such a country. Among these policies there are economic policies, social policies etc.

However, the economic policies are more fundamental in that it serves as a foundation for the success of other policies of the government. The constituent elements of these economic policies need to be manipulated, and most of them simultaneously for the desired result. One of the essential arms of economic policies, the fiscal policy, is related to government tax and expenditure. In another way around form, Baumel, W.J. and Blinder A.S., (1979) in the book “Economic principles and policy” defines fiscal policy as governments plan for spending and taxation. It serves as a means of planning, controlling and co-ordinating the tempo of activities in the economy.

Taxation is one of the courses of action of fiscal policy. According to Olanifan I.F. (1994) it is the compulsory transfer of resources from the private sector to the public of the economy of the nation. The direction of taxes is seen in its potential effects on the determinants of growth. This is done by way of;

  1. Altering the determinants of economic development e.g. capital formation, technological change, factor supplies etc.
  2. Permitting the financing of government activities or government financed privated investment without the undesirable effects of other methods of financing. It could also be seen in its potential effects upon the rate of growth such as the level of governmental expenditure: on the branch of stability; on resources allocation; also on distribution of income and wealth.

This important aspect of the fiscal policy has been a major sources of revenue generation in Nigeria roughly this around the turn of this century. Apart from serving this important purpose, it has also been a major policy instrument that the government has consistently used in planning, controlling and co-ordinating the various economic activities of the country gear towards economic growth.

The tax system being a principal fiscal tool, when effectively executed, is capable of helping the nation out of the state of economic recession which is the main problem of distributing the standard of living of individuals in the country.

Therefore, it is the main objective of this study to take critical examination and evaluation of the tax system as all instruments of fiscal policy. And after the analysis, the researcher is deemed to suggest welling planning solution as to the pervading problems of this tax system.

 

  • OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The aim of this research work is to examine how the use of taxation as a fiscal instrument in Nigeria has affected the nation’s socio-economic life. These objectives are as follows:

  1. Identification of taxation as to how it is used in income and wealth redistribution, solving the problem of inequalities.

It also sets out to establishing raw taxation

Hypothesis Testing Steps, Examples And Formula

Hypothesis Testing Steps, Examples And Formula

 

A hypothesis is an intelligent guess of the solution to the research problem. A hypothesis is a statement which guides a researcher by providing a tentative solution to the research problem.

A hypothesis must be the problem under investigation. It must be testable, clesrly stated and unambiguously.

A hypothesis provides direction to a research project, and also enables the researcher to assess information collected.

Examples of hypothesis:

Research Topic: Influence of computerization in operational efficiency in commercial banks: a study of UBA Plc Station road branch Abuja.

Statement of Hypothesis:

  1. Computerization has enhanced operational efficiency and effectiveness in UBA Plc.
  2. The use of computers has increased customer satisfaction in the Bank.

 

You may also like: How To Choose A Good Research Topic

 

Role Of Research Supervisor

 

The relationship existing between a supervisor and students ought to be like that of a leader and his subordinate.

By virtue of his training and exposure, the supervisor is expected to influence and motivate his students to carry out their research projects successfully.

Student supervisors’ responsibility and his role towards students’ research for effective project works are as follows:

 

  1. Guiding students to select and present appropriate project topics for his/her project.
  2. He ensures that students comply strictly with the research procedure or research methodology.
  3. He ensures that students do not deviate from the approved project topics and research objectives in their collection and analysis of data for the research work.
  4. He exhibits a high sense of maturity, patience and understanding in handling students’ problems.
  5. He takes time to thoroughly and systematically scrutinize the students work at every stage of the research project.
  6. He sometimes acts as a liaison between the student and the organizations the students are using or intends to use for their case study.

 

Read also: How To Write A Literature Review For A Research Paper

 

 

 

 

Importance Of Research Writing To The Students

Importance Of Research Writing To The Students

 

The importance of research works for students cannot be over-stressed. A student ought to take research writing seriously for the following reasons:

  1. Research work enables the students to develop an inquisitive mind, always wanting to find out why things happens the way they happen.
  2. The usefulness of research work is that it enables the student to be methodical in his approach to solving the research problem.
  3. Research work makes student to cease to depend on the rule-of-the-thumb but to be scientifically minded.
  4. Research work enables the student to be more organized with his work and do things in an orderly manner.
  5. Acquiring appropriate research writing skill gives the student a sense of independence and self-confidence which propel him to always insist on producing original research report.
  6. Mastery of the techniques of research writing enables the student to develop a sense of proportionality.
  7. Research writing develops the student the habit of tenaciously pursuing his goals to a conclusive end, which is the achievement of result.

 

Read Also: How To Choose A Good Research Topic

 

Causes Of Students Poor Performance In Research Work

 

There are many reasons why students perform poorly in research work. Some of the causes for poor performance are as follows:

Wrong choice of research topic is the greatest factor responsible for students’ poor performance in research work.

  1. Lack of basic research writing skill.
  2. Students lack of interest in research work.
  3. Students prefer to copy other research reports. Students these days engage in plagiarism which is the criminal act of copying other people’s work.
  4. Encouraging students to switch supervisors. Students do bribe supervisors to fall out of favour with them. They also tip the staff of their academic department to affect changes of supervisors.

 

You may also like: WHAT IS RESEARCH AND STEPS IN CONDUCTING A RESEARCH PROJECT

 

Related project material site

banking and finance project      

http://researchmaterials.com.ng/

http://grossarchives.com/

http://grossarchivesite.blogspot.com.ng/

http://projectmaterialsite.blogspot.com.ng/

Easy project

secret 2020

 

 

 

 

 

Latest jamb news 2017: Jamb Directs Candidates To Check Utme Centres Today

All appears set for the conduct of this year’s Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) as the Joint Admission and Matriculation Board (JAMB) yesterday directed candidates to check for their examination centres with effect from tomorrow on its website.

 

Head of Media and Information of the board, Dr. Fabian Benjamin, who disclosed this in a telephone interview ahead of the board examination billed to commence on Saturday, May 13 assured that necessary machinery has been put in place to ensure a hitch free exercise.

 

“We are good to go, every machinery has been put in motion, we enjoined parents and candidates to give us their support and on our part, we are assuring of a level playing filed for everyone.”

 

Benjamin disclosed that the board had so far registered more than 1.7 million candidates for the 2017 UTME across the country.

The board concluded the sale of 2017 UTME application document in a grand style recording over 1.7 million candidates at the close of the site by 12 midnight on Friday, May 5, 2017.

 

According to JAMB’s spokesman who described the figure as unprecedented however assured that adequate facilities had been put in place to accommodate the upsurge in the number of candidates.

He said, “In 2016, about 1.2 million candidates wrote the examination. It was the same in 2015 and that was why we projected for 1.5milion candidates this year. Although registration period was reduced from six weeks to one month, despite this, we have recorded 1.7million candidates. This shows the effectiveness of our processes. It also shows that whenever you have a setback you should not give up.

 

“We have put everything in place to ensure the success of the examination. We have the capacity to accommodate 1.7million candidates. In 2016, we used 510 computer-based centres, including six foreign centres for 1.2million candidates. This year, we are making use of 633 centres. There is an increase of more than 100 centres to take care of the additional candidates.’’

How To Choose A Good Research Topic

HOW TO CHOOSE A GOOD RESEARCH TOPIC

Choosing a good research topic is important to any researcher. Every researcher must look around his environment and beyond to pick out problems which individuals. Organizations and society are having.  A research topic reflects a particular problem facing an individual, organization or society.

 

CRITERIA FOR SELECTING A RESEARCH TOPIC

A good research topic should address the issue which the researcher intends to tackle. A good research topic must be of interest to the researcher. It should be sufficiently original and be significant. Research topic must make contributions to learning and should allow for feasible research.

CHOOSING A RESEARCH TOPIC

  1. Pick a topic that has been of special interest to you.
  2. Look through a list of research works previously carried out by individuals or institutions.
  3. Focus attention to a different time span, or
  4. Choosing a geographical area, or sample,
  • Adopting a different design for the study.
  1. Read through the sections of a few research reports under the heading, “suggestions for further research”
  2. Consult a staff member, especially your academic adviser and discuss the issue of identifying a problem with him.
  3. Select a topic from a list drawn up your department or have a topic assigned to you by the department from their list.

 

EXAMPLES OF A RESEARCH TOPIC

Suppose a company like ZENOX Nigeria Ltd, is sustaining losses instead of making profit, then based on this problem, we will frame the topic: ‘internal Control in an Organization. A study of ZENOX Nigeria Ltd

HOW TO WRITE A PROJECT PROPOSAL AND PROPOSAL WRITING FORMAT

 

Again let us take the second example of a real problem which occurred in Nigerian Bottling Company. The Nigerian Bottling Company Plc introduced a new soft drink called Fanta Chapman in the Nigerian market. The product attracted much attention at the time due to the television and other medium advertising used to promote it. Many consumers were stimulated and they wanted to try the new product. People desires on the product were not satisfied, and this turned the expectation of the company. The product failed in the market. Based on the manifesting phenomenon, the researcher can frame a research topic to reflect the problem. The research topic can run thus; “Product performance in the Nigerian Market, A study of Fanta Chapman”. The research topic can be stated as “Causes of Product Failure in the Market, A study of Fanta Chapman”.

 

You may also like : WHAT IS REASEARCH AND STEPS IN CONDUCTING A RESEARCH PROJECT

 

 

WHAT IS RESEARCH AND STEPS IN CONDUCTING A RESEARCH PROJECT

To talk of research is to talk about problem solving. A particular way of solving problems has been recommended by scientists and this method is what we adopt in research work.

What is research?

 

 

Research is the systematic and scientific method of finding solution to a problem. The operative words here are “systematic” and “Scientific”. By “systematic” we mean that to solve a problem we adopt a particular or laid-down process which we call the “scientific method”. Research is a planned process of conducting investigations in order to achieve a pre-determined objective. The objective is usually a solution to one or more specific problem, or an addition to current knowledge in a particular field. The scientific method encourages doubt and criticism so that what emerges (the solution) is the real evidence which has stood the test of reasoning.

 

STEPS IN CONDUCTING A RESEARCH PROJECT

 

You may also like :  How to write a literature review for a research paper

We will now discuss the sequence of steps involved in conducting a research project.

  1. Definition or statement of problem.
  2. Review of related literature.
  3. Formulation of hypotheses.
  4. Designing the study or research design.
  5. Collection of data.
  6. Organization of data.
  7. Analysis of data.
  8. Interpretation of data.
  9. Writing the research report.

 

Read also how to write a project proposal and proposal writing format

 

 

The starting point of research is the definition of problem. Every research begins with the researcher focusing his attention at identifying and defining the problem whose solution is considered to be useful to the organization,

 

more  related topics online

importance of research

 

what is the important of research

Latest Jamb 2017 update: Crosscheck Your Data Before Midnight – JAMB To Candidates

Latest Jamb 2017 update:  the Joint Admissions and Matriculation Board (JAMB) has urged prospective candidates for its Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) to crosscheck the data on their registration forms for the last time on May 6.

The board’s Head of Media and Information, Dr Fabian Benjamin, made the call in an interview with the News Agency if Nigeria (NAN) on Saturday in Lagos.

Jamb official news site

 

 

The call comes ahead of the 2017 UTME scheduled for May 13 across 633 centres nationwide.

NAN reports that registration of candidates for the examination was closed by the board by 12 midnight on Friday, May 5.

ALSO READ: FG Plans To Re-open Chibok’s Girls School

 

HOW TO WRITE A PROJECT PROPOSAL AND PROPOSAL WRITING FORMAT

 

According to Benjamin, the call for the crosschecking of data by prospective candidates was to ensure total inclusiveness.

He added that the board intended to ensure that no candidate was left out during the examination due to one reason or the other.

“All candidates who desire to do any change on their registration details are urged to do so today as the platform closes finally by 9 p.m. of Saturday May 6.

 Nigeria universities

 

“We are giving all the candidates the last chance to ensure that everyone is carried along and provided with equal opportunity.

“We also want to avoid a situation whereby candidates will have cause to complain of one incident or the other just before the commencement of the examination,’’ Benjamin said.

 

How To Write A Literature Review For A Research Paper

Niger Delta Crisis: Why Buhari Presidency Orders Opening Of Maritime University In Delta State

NIGER DELTA Crisis: Why BUHARI PRESIDENCY ORDERS OPENING OF MARITIME UNIVERSITY IN DELTA STATE

• ACCELERATES ACTIONS TOWARDS LASTING PEACE, STABILITY IN REGION
• LICENSES FOR MODULAR REFINERIES TO REPLACE ILLEGAL ONES IN THE OFFING
• GOVERNOR IN ASO ROCK, COMMENDS FG EFFORTS

In a clear effort to further the Niger Delta New Vision policy of the Buhari administration, the Presidency has directed the resumption of activities towards the eventual opening of the Nigerian Maritime University before the end of the year, in line with the demands championed by major stakeholders in the region.

Coming as one of the several follow-up actions to the recent Presidential level interactive engagements with the Niger Delta oil producing communities, the prompt implementation of directive on the re-opening of the Maritime University to the Ministry of Education is to be coordinated by a 5-man inter-agency Committee headed by the Minister of Education.

Other members of the Committee will come from:
i)    The Ministry of Petroleum Resources,
ii)   National Universities Commission (NUC)
iii)  Nigerian Maritime Administration and Safety Agency (NIMASA) &
iv)  Office of the Deputy Governor of Delta State

The Committee is to finalize the ongoing processes towards the opening of the Nigeria Maritime University in the 2017/2018 Academic Session. The Committee will work collaboratively with the current Principal Officers and the Governing Council of the institution.

Besides this, and in further demonstrating its unalloyed commitment to a new vision for the Niger Delta, the Buhari Presidency has been working assiduously to evolve a number of robust strategies for key multi-sectoral outcomes and deliverables for the people of the oil-producing communities.

Some of those include:
a)  General guidelines issued by the Federal Government, reaffirming its commitment and outlining its objectives towards the establishment of Modular Refineries in the Niger Delta.
*This includes, the development of the technical criteria for issuing operating licenses that is now in final stages of drafting and would be released soon.

b) A roadmap for addressing regional development challenges is being developed by an inter-agency working group comprising of Ministry of Niger Delta, Niger Delta Development Commission, Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Petroleum Resources and Ministry of Power, Works and Housing. This group is working in partnership with experts seconded by Pan-Niger Delta Forum (PANDEF) and key resource persons financed by a bi-lateral international development partner.
*The roadmap will be based on the framework of the 16-point agenda developed by PANDEF.

c) A strategy for community-based participation in pipeline protection and policing is underway and will be validated with series of engagement processes, collaboratively with PANDEF, oil communities and other communities in the region that play host to the vast network of oil pipelines in the Niger Delta.

*Meanwhile, there are plans by the Presidency to conclude the fact-finding tours to the Niger Delta with visits by Vice President Yemi Osinbajo, SAN, to Cross River and Ondo States.

It would be recalled that under the directive of President Muhammadu Buhari, the Vice President undertook visits to oil producing States in the Niger Delta. During the visits, series of townhall meetings and consultations were held with a broad spectrum of stakeholders in a confidence building effort.

Meanwhile earlier today the Delta State Governor, Senator Ifeanyi Okowa commended the Buhari administration for its commitment to addressing the concerns of the Niger Delta people.

He asserted the restoration of peace in Delta State and noted that the State Government is actively working with the FG on several of the plans, including the opening of the Maritime University. The Governor who said he was in the Presidential Villa to show gratitude to the FG, spoke with reporters after a brief call on the Vice President.

Laolu Akande
Senior Special Assistant to the President on Media & Publicity
Office of the Vice President
05 May, 2017

HOW TO WRITE A PROJECT PROPOSAL AND PROPOSAL WRITING FORMAT

HOW TO WRITE A PROJECT PROPOSAL AND PROPOSAL WRITING FORMAT

A research proposal is an abridged account of what a researcher intends to do and the procedure or methodology he intends to adopt in doing it. The significance of the research proposal is that it enables the researcher to have a clear perspective of what is involved in carrying out the project by preparing the research proposal. The researcher can anticipate the major problems, cost and the practicability of the technique selected for the study.

PROPOSAL WRITING FORMAT

Research proposal writing format can be written in two forms, one is called the simple research proposal, while the other is called the comprehensive research proposal.

Simple Research Proposal; contains the following parts

  1. The research topic.
  2. Objective of the study.
  3. Sources of data.
  4. Plan for the review of relevant literature.
  5. Method of field data collection.
  6. The research instrument to be used for the study.

Read Also: Research Question Format and guide in Writing Research Questions

 

Comprehensive Research Proposal; contain the following parts

  1. Title Page
  2. Summary
  3. Tables of Contents
  4. List of Tables
  5. List of Figures
  6. Background of the Study
  7. Statement of the Problem
  8. Objective of the Study
  9. Research Hypotheses/Research Questions
  10. Significance of the Study
  11. Scope/ Delimitation of the Study
  12. Definition of Important Terms
  13. Review of Relevant Literature
  14. Research Approach/Methodology
  15. Time and Finance Cost Requirements
  16. List of References/Bibliography
  17. Appendices

Read also: Qualitative Research Question Example and Examples Of Good Research Question

How To Write A Literature Review For A Research Paper

It is very pertinent to know how to write a literature review for a research paper, thesis and research proposal. What do we mean by literature and literature review? Literature means any material, in whatever form, which is relevant and contains what will enable a researcher solve a specific problem.

 

Read also: Qualitative Research Question Example and Examples Of Good Research Question

Literature review is essentially a survey or pursue and documentation of the views or works of other people which are relevant to the investigation being conducted. Literature review has to do with planning, collection, and appraisal, interpretation, deducing and recording of conclusions on the views expressed in published and unpublished documented materials particularly related to the subject matter of a research problem.

 

Review of literature is crucial to the success of the research project.

Project topics and materials