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construction technology research topics and material preview

THE POLITICAL CORRUPTION IN NIGERIAN GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS

THE POLITICAL CORRUPTION IN NIGERIAN GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS CASE STUDY OF ANAMBRA STATE

 

 

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                                            ABSTRACT

The major purpose of this study was to examine the political corruption and its effect in the Nigerian government and politics. The study looked into political levies of Anambra state citizens being the case study of the work. For comprehensive understanding of the place and its impact of this study. The work has been divided into five chapters. In chapter one, comprises of statement of problems, significance of the study, purpose and research of the study and others. In chapter two comprises of the causes of corruption and poverty in Nigeria, Nigeria’s political godfathers, the evils of corruption, the effects of corruption in Nigeria which had put the federation into high jump from 1999-2010 in Nigeria especially Anambra state. In the same chapter two we have another concept which is madness of second tenure system in Nigeria government as a major causes. In chapter five we have the recommendations and suggestions based on the findings from the research work from 2000 -2010 political lives of Nigerian citizens.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER  ONE

Introduction ………………………………………………..…….……1

1.0     Background of the study…………………………………..……..……1

1.1     Statement of the problem…………………………………….…..……7

1.2     Purpose of the study…………………………………..…………..……9

1.3     Research question…………………………………..…………….……12

1.4     Significance of the………………………………………….…..……13

1.5     Theoretical framework……………………………………………..……15

1.6     Scope of the study………………………………………….…..……17

1.7     Limitation of the study…………………………………….…..……18

1.8     Definition of terms ……………………………………….…..……19

CHAPTER TWO

2.1     Literature Review  ……………………………………….…..………23

2.2     Corruption and poverty in Nigeria ……………………………………………..27

2.3     Nigeria’s political godfathers …………………………………………………….28

2.4     The effects of corruption …………………………………………………………..30

2.5     The evil of corruption ………………………………………………………………31

2.6     Madness of second tenure system March 8, 2006…………………………33

CHAPTER  THREE

3.1     Design of the study ………………………………………………………………….34

3.2     Area of the study………………………………………………………………………35

3.3     Population of the study……………………………………………………………..35

3.4     Sample / sampling techniques ……………………………………………………36

3.5     Instrument for data collection ……………………………………………………37

3.6     Reliability and validity of the instrument ……………………………………37

3.7     Distribution and retrieval of the instrument …………………………………37

3.8     Method of data analysis ……………………………………………………………38

CHAPTER FOUR

4.1     Data presentation………………………………………………………………………39

4.2     Interpretation of Result……………………………………………………………..44

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1     Summary of findings ………………………………………………………………..44

5.2     Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………………..47

5.3     Recommendation …. ………………………………………………………………..49

Reference ……………………………………………………………………………….53

Appendix ……………………………………………………………………………….54

Questionnaire  …………………………………………………………………………55

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Nigeria and political corruption – political corruption is not a recent phenomenon that pervades the Nigerian state.

Since the creation of modern public administration in the country, there have been cases of officials misuse of resources, embezzlement of funds, looting of government property for personal enrichment “the rise of public administration and the discovery of oil and natural gas are two major events seen to have led to a litany of ignorale corrupt practices in the country over the years, the country has seen its wealth withered with little to show in living condition of the common man.

 

In this view, a Nigerian political leader, Obafemi Awolowo raised a salent issue when he said since independence, of few holding the cow for the strongest and most cunning to milk”, under those circumstances everybody runs over everybody to make good at the expense of others. Characteristically, apologist for the failings of African governments have blamed colonist for the pervasive corruption. According to this view, the nations’ colonial history may have restricted any easily influence in an ethnical revolution through out the colonial period. most Nigerians were stunk in ignorance and poverty. The trapping of flash cars, houses and success of the colonialists many influence the poor to see the colonialist as symbols of success and to emulate the colonists in different politicla ways.

Involvement in the agenda of colonial rule may also inhibit idealism in the easily stage of the nascent nations’ development. A view common held during the colonial days was that the colonists property (cars, houses, farms etc) is not our property.

Thus vandalism and looting of public property was not seen as a crime against society.

This view is what has degenerated into them or sent disregard for public property and lack of public trust and concern for public goods as collective national property.

According to Sen (1999 p. 225) states that corruption is “an effort to secure wealth or power through illegal means private gain at public expenses or a misuse of public power for private benefit”.

Therefore electoral corruption includes the purchase of vote with money, promises of offices or special favours, coercion, intimidation and interference with freedom of election (Nigeria is a good example where this practice is common, botes are bought, people are killed or maimed in the name of election, losers end up as the winners where voters turns up in areas where vogues were not cast.

Generally, the implication of political corruption appears in different forms such as electoral corruptions, bribery, fraud, embezzlement, extortion, nepotism godfatherism, favouritism, madness of second tenure system and others.

The implication of political corruption as an impediment to the economical, social cultural and political stability is not a recent phenomenon that pervades the Nigerian state.

It started as far back as the colonial era among the colonists but grown to its apex / climax since, the creation of modern public administration in the country.

There have been cases of official misuse of resources for personal enrichment. Nigeria’s political godfathers, which came into existence as a result of inability of some aspirants of political officers to afford or sources their fund to run the election political godfathers there are those who are the powerful wealthy men who sponsor the political aspirants in Nigeria palace known as political godfathers in which their political fathering activities has been culminating to political polarizations, political traumas, political upheavals and political brouhaha which has become the talk of the day.

What is known as Anambra state today was created as far back as 1991 under the leadership of Ibrahim Badamosi Babangida, Anambra today is one of the largest and dominating southeast state and comprises of (21) twenty one local governments.

Since 19991, the violence, corruption and godfatherrism” occurring elsewhere in Nigeria have run a rampant in Anambra since then Anambra has been proved by some political analysis to remain the eyes of the most political corrupt state in Nigeria in which a wealthy member of Chris Uba is an iconic example of the godfathers phenomenon in Nigeria as a prove in 2003 Anambra gubernatorial  election when PDP candidate Dr. Chris Nwabueze Ngige was sponsored and financed to rig the 2003 election in Anambra which the whole world witnessed their high level of electoral rigging, political irregularities political quagmires, political traumas and political upheavals as a result of godfatherrism, favoritism second tenure madness, nepotisms and other. By virtue of this unattainable agreement between Dr. Christ Nwabueze Ngige and his godfather Christ Uba, the two political gladiators degenerated a series of political traumas, electoral irregularities riggings, thurgry, kidnapping, killing, vandalization, false impeachment and all that.

 

1.1     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Nigeria as a nation is facing serious political corruption problems namely:

i        Lack of political education

ii       Godfatherism concept

iii      Electoral irregularities

iv      Lack of party idealogy

v       Political polarizations, upheavals, quagmires, traumas and brouhaha.

vii     Ethnicisms, nepotism, sectionalism and tribalism among the politicians.

vii     Madness of second tenure concept

viii    Lack of patriotism among he leaders

ix      Marginalization

x        High level of insecurity

xi      Poverty at its climax heralding to high level of thugry and violent.

xii     Centralization of power at the state level a case study of Anambra.

From all indications, challenges are daily, weekly monthly and yearly and may be to complete in the near  future, unless there is a panel committee set up to eradicate the situation. However, they have to educate and internalize the masses to a lager extent using electronic voting system as to ensure transparency, justice, equity, good concense and free and fair elections. A question just came to my mind now, saying how can massive thurgry, been reduced in Anambra state election? The answer says that there should be an adequate provision of job opportunity as to engage the youths in one job or the other so that it will limit their state of poverty as an off-shoot of thurgry.

Based on these, the researcher has to vividly analyze those things that contributes to political corruption and its effect in Anambra state.

 

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1.2     PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The purpose of this study is to examine and provide the following in depth through analysis of political stability in Nigerian government and polities.

i        To provide adequate political education to the Anambra youth and other politicians.

Ii       To provide suitable  environment to enhance political stabilities.

Iii      To give a stop to luke warm concept of godfatherism in politics.

iv      To provide job opportunities to Nigerian & Anambra youths to reduce the level of poverty which has  been an offshoot of massive thurgry and kidnapping during election.

v       To give proper causation and warning to the fraudulent INEC officials on the side of their electoral fraud and regulates which has been culminating to political traumas and qaugmire in Anambra state.

vi      To mandate the state government to delegate power to the local government level as to enhance mass participation and political enlightment.

vii     To ensure political stability which may conversely heralds to free and fair election in Anambra state

viii    To encourage electronic voting system in Anambra state for more effective and efficient politicking and free and fair elections.

Ix      To ensure mass participation in the political activities

x        To ensure adequate party ideology in Nigeria government and politics.

More so, the study has the following aim to explain why Anambra state elections had never once been conducted free and fair.

1.3     RESEARCH QUESTIONS

          The researcher put down the following questions when he was carrying out this project.

i        To what extent does political corruption affects the Anambra state political, social and economical lives of people?

ii       What ways could the political leaders, followers and INEC officials would be baptized (improved) so as to

ensure theoretical framework.

There are several ways of studying any phenomenon in any schoarlarly enquiry inorder to ensure a systematic and objective analysis for the purpose of this discourse I don’t prehendal theory of democracy working on the assumption that power is central to politics the starting point of Richard Joseph Prehendal theory is that the Nigeria political life is entirely characterized and dominated by corruption Omo O. (1993 p 16) central to prehenda analysis are the concepts of clietlism and prehendalism. He sees chetelism as patron diet ties clietlism he further argues is the very channel throng which one joins the dominant class and a practise which is then seen as fundamental to the continued enjoyment of the prequisties of that class. He define prehendalism as the procurement of office of state either through examinations or as a reward for loyal service to a lord or a rule A critical assignment of post independent Africa states reveals that to be ruler whether at the federal. State or local level is to be in charge of the treasury and use the wealth that properly belongs to the people to legitimately enrich party faithful investors in elections friends clients and proves godfather allies to sustain a corruption life style.

 

From the above prehensalism provide a framework through which Africa and Nigeria affairs as it relates to corruption and development can be studied higher equity, transparency, free and fair elections?

iii      How can electronics voting system effect or culminates or heralds to free and fair election in Anambra state?

iv      How has godfatherism contributed to the present high level of political brouhaha, political traumas, political upheavals in Anambra state?

v       How does purchasing of votes, collection of votes, where and when election was not conducted nor votes being cast contributes to the electoral malpractices in Anambra state.

1.4     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study will be significant in the need to improve political stability in Nigeria with particular emphasis to Anambra state is imperative in the following.

i        In the view of improving political equality among the Anambrarians.

ii       In the view of eradicating high level of political illiteracy among the Anambra youths through political education.

iii      This study will also be significant in finding solution to the rampant political thugry, mass kidnapping, frequent abductions, killing etc.

iv      It will also be significant in eradicating high level of insecurity in Anambra state.

v       This study will also be significant in prohibiting any thing concerning godfatherism in Anambra state.

vi      This study will also be significant in effecting political stabilities thereby resulting to free and fair election heralding to credible representatives.

 

vii     This study will be significant in giving room for the state government delegating political, financial and administrative autonomy to the local government in Anambra state.

viii    This study will also be significant in enlightening Nigerian politicians with party ideology rather than their formal party without ideology system.

ix      It will be significant in leaving little or no change for political irregularities, electoral fraud and other political traumas in Nigeria particularly Anambra state.

In this report, the researcher will also be significant in eradicating of political arsons, kidnapping and other political upheavals and how Anambra and its neighbouring states can benefit or gain from the refined effective and efficient political administration both economically, politically, socially and cultural harmony and stability.

1.5     SCOPE OF THE STUDY

In studying the political corruption in Nigeria government and politics, it becomes imperative to confine this to a democratic dispensation in actualizing transparency, equity, justice, good conscience and free and fair election to an extent within the constraint of time and of the study.

Consequently, Anambra state. government was used as a case study

1.6     LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

Research was not problem free

In this work, the researcher was faced or confronted with some major problems which tampered for hindered the progress of this work. Prominent among these was the issue of distribution of the questionnaires. The researcher used to go from local government to local government and from staff to staff, among the twenty one (21) local government in Anambra state. in research for the solution to the problem as a result of this, the researcher run these regular visits to different (Hpm) of the local governments.

More  so.   adequate explanations was made to explain the need for questionnaires. The researcher spend more time going from one staff to the other in various offices in the state, that is time that they are suppose to use for another thing.

Also money for transportation to meet them i.e the staff in their various houses and a times, when you got to some, they will not respond to you some i.e the staff will just tell you that they do not have time to discuss anything with you concerning to that now.

 

1.7     DEFINITION OF TERMS

  1. Corruption: in a layman understanding, corruption is defined as a perversion or change from good to bad. Therefore corrupt behaviour involves violation of established rules for personal gain and profit (Sen 1999 P. 275). Corruption is also an effort to secure wealth or power through illegal means for private gain at public expense or misuse of public power for private benefit

ii       Godfathers in Nigeria: The term godfathers (alkla money bag, alkla loan-shacks) refers to superfluously very wealthy men (no known women yet) that finance elections.

Note: when the godfathers sponsor election, they normally cover the government treasury and control the government in order to recoup their investment.

iii      Madness of second Tenure: This simply means the sit tight system adopted in Nigeria governance where by the governors, chairpersons, president will be on the government seat and lying or agitating for second tenure for him to be re-elected into the seat.

iv      Political polarization: this simply means the dividing house (party) into different groups of people with different opinion or idea, in a state as a result of politics, i.e disapproval among the individual in the society as in Anambra politics.

v       Political Brouhaha and upheavals: this is unnecessary estimate, criticism or activity especially in news report to show disapprovals.

vi      Electoral corruption: This includes purchase of votes with money, promises of office or special facours, coercion, intimidation and interference with freedom of election.

vii     Fraud: It involves some kind of trickery, swindle and detect counterfeiting, acketing, smuggling and forgery (Ibid Pu).

Viii   Embezzlement: This is theft of public resources by public officials. It is when a state officials steals from the public institution in which he / she is employed.

ix      Extortion: This is money and other resources extracted by the use of coercion violence or threats to use force. (Bafart et al 1997, P.11).

x        Favouritism: this is a mechanism of power abuse implying a highly biased distribution of state resources.

However, this is seen as a natural human productivity to favour friends, fairly and anybody close and trusted.

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CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     INTRODUCTION

According to the Africans in America news watch special report of November 19,2009. Godfathrrism is both a symptom and a cause of the violence and corruption that together permeate the political process in Nigeria, public officials who owe their position to the efforts of a political godfather incur a debt they are expected to repay without and throughout their tenure in office. Godfathers are only relevant because politicians are able to deploy violence and corruption with impurity to compete for office in contests that often effectively, and some times actually exclude Nigeria’s voters altogether. But their activities also help to reinforce the central role of violence and corruption in polities by making it even more difficult to win elected office without resorting to the illegal tactics they present. Nigeria’s godfatherism phenomenon is not unique to the ruling PDP, but as with many of the other abuses described in this report it seem most often in the conduct of PFP officials as both a cause and a result of the party’s success in maintaining its power.

What are godfathers in Nigerian electoral system?

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USE OF BUILDER’S PLANT IN CONTRACT EXECUTION BY INDIGENOUS CONTRACTORS IN NIGERIA

USE OF BUILDER’S PLANT IN CONTRACT EXECUTION BY INDIGENOUS CONTRACTORS IN NIGERIA

(PROBLEMS AND REMEDY IN THE USE OF BUILDER’S PLANT IN ENUGU STATE)

 

 

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ABSTRACT

This project report explains the use of builder’s plant in contract execution by indigenous contractors in Nigeria and the maintenance management of those builders plant. This report also deals on the scope and definition of builder’s plant. Furthermore, this project report deals with the aim, objective and importance of the study and also provide the literature review which deals with the need for application of plant in contract execution and the implications of the relevant plants in various contract particularly in Enugu state. Down is some possible factors that militate against a successful contract made by unavailability of builder’s plant. In addition, it also emphasizes on the method adopted in the research of this study. The write up further explains how long a particular machine can be use and it will be due for maintenance and also how breakdown are being taking care of in some construction companies. At the end, it deals with the corrective measure to be apply in upgrading the use of construction plant in contract execution in Nigeria.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

1.0  Background of the Study                                         1

1.1      Statement of the Problem                                 2

1.2      Aims and Objectives of the Study                      3

1.3      Scope of the Study                                          4

1.4      Significance of the Study                                         4

1.5      Limitation of the Study                                     6

1.6      Research Questions                                          7

1.7      Definition of Related Terms                               7

CHAPTER TWO

2.0  LITERATURE REVIEW                                       10

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0  RESEARCH METHODOLOGY                               24

3.1      Research Design                                              24

3.2      Area of Study                                                  25

3.3      Scope of Work                                                25

3.4      Population                                                      25

3.5      Instrumentation                                              26

3.6      Validation of Instrument                                   28

3.7      Method of Data Collection                                 28

3.8      Method of Data Analysis                                   28

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.1      Findings and Data Analysis                                29

4.2      Statement of Breakdown in Plants                      29

4.3      Presentation of Data Analysis                            34

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0  DISCUSSION, FINDINGS, CONCLUSION

AND RECOMMENDATION                                   36

5.1      Discussion of the Study                                    36

5.2      Conclusion                                                      39

5.3      Recommendations                                           40

Bibliography                                                    42

Questionnaire                                                  4

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0  BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Science and technology have been striving hard to enhance the living standard of man by eliminating stressful method of production with the invention of more efficient and productive methods. This scientific advancement is spread over all areas of human endeavor.

Therefore in the indigenous construction, where the traditional method of construction was providing difficult and tedious with such problem of high work load without adequate skilled labour to carry out the work efficiently and effectively to meet the societal demand.

Hence, the use of builder’s plant by the Nigeria indigenous contractors to supplement the shortage of labour, there by requiring a minimal skilled labour for a relatively large volume of work, and by increasing the speed of construction, can result to earlier completion, enabling the building owner to occupy the building and recover his capital outlay at an earlier date.

Mechanical plant/builder’s plant may also be introduced to carry out operations for which manual labour is not available or is in short supply or to carry out operation which cannot be done either economically or physically by manual labour.

The introduction of this builder’s plant can reduce the effort required to be made by the operators in carrying out his work and can improve his working condition.

 

 

1.1  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Certain setback exists over the years to militate against the various indigenous construction firms in Enugu state from the use of builder’s plant in construction work. These operational problems may includes the following:

–             Lack of exposure – The ability of the indigenous contractors to be expose to construction plant as professional.

–             Lack of capital – The money involve for purchasing or hiring of the construction plant which is needed by the indigenous construction firms.

Availability of trained manpower – The use of powered and sophisticated factors based, mobile and fixed machinery in building construction industry, etc.

Meanwhile, these operational problems confronting the indigenous contractors if overlook or neglected might impede the industrialization process of the construction industry in Enugu state.

Therefore in view of these observations, there is absolute need for remedy and prevention of the problems from further confrontation of the indigenous contractors.

 

 

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ANALYSIS OF CONVENTIONAL PROCUREMENT STRATEGIES AND THEIR APPLICATION IN NIGERIA CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

ANALYSIS OF CONVENTIONAL PROCUREMENT STRATEGIES AND THEIR APPLICATION IN NIGERIA CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY .

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ABSTRACT

Procurement systems and project organization provide the framework for implementation and development of projects. Procurement systems and project organizations are well studied and established for major developments and in developed countries in particular. When these systems are used in developing countries for major commercial, social and infrastructure developments, appropriate results are seldom achieved. This may be due to a variety of factors, which include systematic, environmental, cultural, economic, legal, political and social cultural amongst others. Not withstanding this, a major challenge in the establishment of appropriate and sustainable procurement systems and project organizational models for low-cost housing and infrastructure. The proper aims to propose a generic model of procurement system and project organization based on theory and practice as a basis for the implementation and development of low-cost housing.

 

 

 

                  TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION                                                                   1

1.1            Background of the Study                                                        1

1.2            Statement of the Problem                                              2

1.3            Purpose of the Study                                                     2

1.4            Research Questions                                                                 3

1.5            Research Hypothesis                                                     3

1.6            The Scope of the Study                                                 4

1.7            Significance of the Study                                                         4

1.8            Definition of Terms                                                                 5

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     LITERATURE REVIEW                                                        7

2.1     Procurement Methods                                                    7

2.2     Application of Procurement Strategies in

Nigerian Construction Industry                                     7

2.3     Statutory Duties of a Builder in any

Procurement Strategies in Nigeria                                  15

2.4     Construction Industry                                                   18

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     RESEARCH METHODOLOGY                                             20

3.1            Research Design                                                            20

3.2            Population of the Study                                                 20

3.3            Source of Data                                                                        22

3.4            Location of Data                                                            22

3.5            Method of Investigation                                                 23

3.6            Instrument for Data Collection                                      23

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.1            Analysis of Data                                                           24

4.2            Presentation of the Data                                                          24

4.3            Testy of Hypothesis                                                                29

4.4            Discussion of Findings                                                  32

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION                        34

5.1            Recommendations                                                                   34

5.2            Conclusion                                                                     35

 

References                                                                      37

Questionnaire                                                                          39

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Procurement has been seen to be process of obtaining or buying supplies of something like fixed assets (land, building, etc) especially for individual and government.

 

Therefore, procurement strategies has become a fashionable term with our construction industry, practitioners and researchers determines the overall framework and structure of responsibilities within the process, it is also a key factor contributing to the overall client satisfaction and project success. Procurement strategies and their application is of important in our construction industry.

 

However, one must not be carried by which ever method of procurement strategies proposed for a construction project, the major issue is the different types of procurement are contractual obligations, responsibilities and line of communication between the parties. One thing to remember is that which ever method that is used, the statutory duties of the professionals are always distinct and mandatory. Hence the engagement of a builder in the procuring contract is statutorily required and highly recommended whichever procurement strategy that is adopted.

 

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The general aim of study is to ascertain by reviewing, evaluating and identifying how procurement strategies can be applied in our Nigeria construction industry. Therefore, this issue raised the researcher’s interest to know how procurement strategies can be applied in our construction industry particularly Nigerian economy.

 

 

1.3     PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

  • To determine what are the procurement strategies;
  • To know its application in our Nigerian construction industry;
  • To know the statutory duties of a builder in construction industry;
  • To know what is construction industry.

 

1.4     RESEARCH QUESTIONS

  1. What are the procurement strategies?
  2. Where can they be applied in Nigerian construction industry?
  3. How can we know the statutory duties of a building in our construction industry?
  4. What is construction industry?

 

1.5     RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

 

 

 

Continue reading ANALYSIS OF CONVENTIONAL PROCUREMENT STRATEGIES AND THEIR APPLICATION IN NIGERIA CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

THE ROLE OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT AUTHORITIES IN MINIMIZING BUILDING COLLAPSE IN NIGERIA

THE ROLE OF  LOCAL GOVERNMENT AUTHORITIES IN MINIMIZING BUILDING COLLAPSE IN NIGERIA

 

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ABSTRACT

The incidences of buildings collapse has become very frequent in recent times, particularly within the country. These incidences of collapse buildings have continued “embraces’ professionals and stakeholders alike in the construction industry, even as all efforts are being made to stem the side of occurrences and mishap.

We read on the pages of newspapers or hear from our radios or television sets, news of buildings collapsing and killing or maiming of occupants or workmen on what may now be regarded as a recurrent feature of our national life. It is in dead a very sad aspect of our socio-economic life that we should allow those who do not possess the skills at appropriate levels to design and supervise the erection of buildings and other structures. In view of the every rising prices of goods and services in the country, I think it is about time that those whose duties, it is to act, come out with suitable building codes and bylaws that will guarantee the lives and properties of innocent citizens, who may still perish due to such avoidable mistakes, that have been responsible for the untimely death of occupants of building structures in the recent past. This study is also addressing the need for the local government-authorities to play their roles in the construction industry to stem the spate of building collapse in Nigeria.

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0  INTRODUCTION                                               1

1.1  Background of the Study                                         1

1.2  Statement of the Problem                                 5

1.3  Objective of the Study                                      5

1.4  Relevant Research Question                              6

1.5  Scope and Delimitation of the Study                   6

1.6  Significance of the Study                                         7

1.7  Definition of Terms                                          8

 

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0  LITERATURE REVIEW                                       9

2.1  Historical Background                                       9

2.2  Roles of the Local Government Council Areas              11

2.3  National Building Code                                      15

2.4  Supervisor Control Measure                               17

2.5  Design and Construction Deficiencies                  18

2.6  Negligence, Ignorance and Poor Supervision        19

2.7  Maintenance of Buildings                                   19

2.8  Mis-use of Building                                           20

2.9  Soil Conditions                                                       21

2.10 Construction Malpractices                                 21

2.11 Post Construction Activities                               23

2.12 Materials Quality                                              24

2.13 Fire Hazards                                                    25

2.14 Structural Failure                                             24

2.15 Inexperience of the Builders                              28

 

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.1  Research Methodology                                      30

3.2  Sources of Data                                               30

3.2.1 Primary Data                                                 30

3.2.2 Secondary Data                                              31

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.1  Presentation of Data Analysis                            32

4.2  Responses Collected from Individuals

in the Questionnaire                                                34

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0  SUMMARY, CONCLUSION

AND RECOMMENDATIONS                                 50

5.1  Summary                                                       50

5.2  Conclusion                                                      52

5.3  Recommendations                                           55

 

References                                                      66

Appendix                                                        68

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0  INTRODUCTION

1.1  BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The Nigerian experience have shown that buildings collapse have taken a lot of lives and properties hence, the need to stop the large increase in the number of buildings collapsing in the country. In the last quarter of 2011, there was a catastrophic collapse of a 5-story hospital building under construction in pape Abuja that led to loss of lives and injuries. There has been series of buildings collapse in Nigeria from North to South, West to East, the story is the same. These ugly incidences that have now become some reoccurring decimal all over Nigeria have sent a lot of Nigerians to their early raves and have equally turned hundreds to disables and also make them homeless.

 

Whenever this ugly monster shows its face stakeholders always look for whom to blame, because this incidences of collapse buildings has continued to “embarrass” professionals and stakeholder alike in the construction industry. Most at times, the largest proportion of the blame goes to the institutions that are responsible fro the training of professionals in the building industry are ready to accept the blame, infact, they prefer shifting the blames on each other. Even as all efforts are being made to stem the tide. There I should be urgent need to set in motion a mechanism that would ensure that the incidences of collapsed buildings was eradicated or reduced to the barest minimum.

 

However, it is the work of the architect and the structural engineer to ensure that the structures will not be liable to collapse in Nigeria, were considered as design errors.

 

Failure in design is often attributed to coincidence of factors rather than just a single cause a greater attention is being placed on design errors or inadequacies, where a major factor is the chain of events leading to collapse. The cause of the above is obviously structural and is common in Nigeria, as a result of quacks who practice as structural engineers and architects. These quacks often make errors in their assumptions regarding loading and flexural conditions, coupled with poor detailing and drafting, carelessness in treatment of constructions, improper location, inadequate attention to thermal and shrinkage effects; others are inadequate site investigation, improper planning and absence of professionals to give the technical input, improper selection of materials and lack of maintenance.

A look at most collapsed buildings, shown that often, it is the absence of building code and regulation leads to collapse, mostly due to structural issues.

 

According to Parker Gay, Mac Guire (1958), the negligence and ignorance constitute building collapse in Nigeria. Majority of owners of collapse buildings are illiterates who are ignorant of the existence of professionals in the building industry. Failure in building also occurs as a result of misuse of buildings. Buildings of different structural designs serve different purpose, structural design for residential building is different from industrial building.

 

Despite the various efforts, the rate of building collapse to date has continued unabated with two building collapsing in Lagos within a week. Government at all levels have not shown or displayed concern for the ugly occurrences. Most of design and plans are good but no monitoring and supervision. Most time, owners of buildings and other professionals want to cut corners. Howe can good quality work be guaranteed when there is no sincerity on the part of those involved and professional are not allowed to the job.

 

Thus in Nigeria today, all building specifications are to maintain the British Standard (BS). This gave to the Enugu Urban District Council Building Bye Law. This has undergone a lot of modification since 1954 and the most recent which was standard for the whole state.

 

Regrettably, the operatives noted, the increasing rate of buildings collapse witnessed in Nigeria in recent years has reach such a disturbing state that governments and federal and sate levels had to step up attention at adopting intervention measures to minimize the ugly situation in the building industry.

 

 

1.2  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The building collapse syndrome has taken a lot of lives and properties in Nigeria due to

–             Non-professionals and quacks involved in the construction process, in the Nigerian experience;

–             The use of sub-standard materials, components and products;

–             Improper planning;

–             Absence of building code/regulations in the industry;

–             Lack of maintenance culture;

–             Inadequate soil investigation;

–             Poor detailing and drafting, etc.

 

 

1.3  OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

(i)         The aim of this project is to stop the increasing number of the building collapse in the country, so as to protect the health, safety and general welfare of the building users.

(ii)       To eliminate the incessant collapse of buildings in the country, so as to protect image of the country within the comity of nations.

 

1.4  RELEVANT RESEARCH QUESTIONS

 

 

Continue reading THE ROLE OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT AUTHORITIES IN MINIMIZING BUILDING COLLAPSE IN NIGERIA

AN APPRAISAL OF BUSINESS CONTINUITY PLAN BY FACILITIES MANAGERS IN NIGERIA

AN APPRAISAL OF BUSINESS CONTINUITY PLAN BY FACILITIES MANAGERS IN NIGERIA

 

 

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ABSTRACT
Happenings all over the world have shown that no business facility is devoid of disaster. It is in the light of the above that good facilities management practice, demands a proactive approach to such problems by preparing business continuity plan (BCP). This research project is undertaken to appraise the plans prepared by the facilities management firms in Nigeria as fall back measure in case of any disruption in organizations business procedures. Field survey was undertaken with structured questionnaire and oral interviews with stakeholders as the instruments of research.

 

Purposive sampling was adopted in the interview. Seventy questionnaires were distributed out of which forty three were completed and returned, giving 61.4% response. Results showed that although facilities managers in Nigeria are well aware of the risk portfolio of their organizations, but adequate measures are not put in its proper place to prevent and prepare for any eventuality. For example, respondents opinion on how often BCP is being used in managing facilities shows that 65.1% do not use it often, 69.8% agreed that BCP is based on demand by client/organization. The outcome of the result of the study showed that even if BCP is in use, it is not proactive, also refusal of government and clients to request for BCP contributed to the lack of preparation of plan.

 

It was recommended that government should make it mandatory for all organizations to request facilities managers to prepare BCP to guide and prepare for any eventuality in the form of disasters and their position as part of their financial statement. Professional bodies and associations affiliated to disaster management, should assist organizations by organizing workshops, training, awareness campaigns for personnel of such organizations.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
While governments, not-for-profit institutions, and non-governmental organisations also deliver critical services, private organisations must continuously deliver products and services to satisfy shareholders and to survive. Although they differ in goals and functions, business continuity planning (BCP) can be applied by all governments.

 

Elliot et al (1999) defines business continuity planning as identifying an organisation’s exposure to internal and external threats and synthesizes hard and soft assets to provide effective prevention and recovery for the organisation, while maintaining competitive advantage and value system integrity.

 

There is much misunderstanding of business continuity management (BCM) and as yet no commonly practiced methodology for the assessment of an organisation in this regard (Honour 2001). Elliot et al (1999) noted that there is no structured implementation of capabilities to directly address the risks presented to us in the modern world. These newly emphasized risks in partnership with the inherent vulnerabilities resulting from the lack of a structured approach to BCM calls for a more robust and measurable means of protecting our continuity management that is continuity assurance.
As the name implies, continuity assurance is concerned with actively planning to avert the threat or reduce from the act, though this recovery is implicit in the approach detailed in this work.

 

1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
Management of facilities in developing countries like Nigeria is replete with a lot of problems. Prominent among them is the disruption of business operations, delays, ineffective or poor quality service. This is due to lack of clear understanding of those organisations risk profile or portfolio and absence of proactive measures that will ensure the continuation of critical business operations. As a result of the aforementioned, this affects the organisations in many ways, e.g. service provision is poor or substandard, profit maximization is seriously affected and the reputation of the organisation is equally affected, etc.

 

1.3 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
Emergency Preparedness and Business Continuity is one out of the eleven (11) core competencies in the management of facilities. This needs a holistic study of the core competencies to see ways and means for effective facilities management. Business Continuity Plan (BCP) is suppose to be properly put in place for any business to strife, be it small, medium or big.

 

It is in the light of the above that a critical look at plans that are supposed to be put in place by FM for business to continue and also to mitigate any negative effect of any disaster on the organisation.
It is an acknowledged fact that one of the important and necessary conduction for smooth successful and effective management of any facility devoid of any interruption that may have far reaching impact on the organization is the putting in place proactive measure to ensure the continuation of critical activities considering the facilities management practice in Nigeria (being at the development stage) a feedback system is needed or information is needed on how this important activities were undertaken especially the approach adopted, (1) quality of the plan, (2) how they are implemented and (3) problems relating to the implementation and above all the quality of human resource who prepares and implement (facilities management) this will enable the facilities management practice to benefit from such results.

 

 

Continue reading AN APPRAISAL OF BUSINESS CONTINUITY PLAN BY FACILITIES MANAGERS IN NIGERIA