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NAIRA EXCHANGE RATE DEPRECIATION AND DOMESTIC INFLATION IN NIGERIA

NAIRA EXCHANGE RATE DEPRECIATION AND DOMESTIC INFLATION IN NIGERIA

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ABSTRACT

The research work critically examined the extent to which naira exchange rate depreciation had affected domestic inflationary rate in Nigeria between 1985 – 2000. Therefore, in this study, the researcher examined the trend of inflation and exchange and the relationship between the two variables.   A model was specified to show the relationship between both variables.  Also interest rate was included in the model as one of the variables that affect inflation.The model was then estimated using multiple regression method and variable statistical tests where carried out on the regression equation. The result was analyzed accordingly. Moreover, the result of the statistical test shows that exchange rate depreciation of Naira is significant in explaining variation in the rate of inflation.

Finally, the data for the project work was collected from most recent years in order to make finding, adequate in explaining the cause of inflation in recent times.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page                                                                                          ii

Approval page                                                                                  iii

Dedication                                                                                         iv

Certification                                                                                                v

Acknowledgement                                                                                      vi

Abstract                                                                                            vii

Table of contents                                                                              viii

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction                                                                                                1

1.1            Background to the study                                                                   1

1.2            Statement of problem                                                              3

1.3            Significance of study                                                               5

1.4            Objective of the study                                                             5

1.5            Research hypothesis                                                                6

1.6            Scope of study                                                                        7

1.7            Definition of terms                                                                            7

Reference                                                                                 8

CHAPTER TWO                                     

Literature review                                                                               9

2.1            The concept of exchange rate                                                  9

2.2            Exchange rate management in Nigeria                                     19

2.3            Inflation – a concept                                                                28

2.4            Theories of inflation                                                                32

2.5            Inflation in Nigeria                                                                  37

2.6            Exchange rate depreciation and inflation in Nigeria                          41

2.7            Empirical evidence                                                                  43

Reference                                                                                 46

CHAPTER THREE

Research methodology                                                                      48

3.1            Method of data collection and analysis                                   48

3.2            Theoretical framework and model specification                      48

Reference                                                                                 53

CHAPTER FOUR      

Analysis of result                                                                    54

4.1            Presentation of result                                                              54

4.2            Analysis of result                                                                    55

CHAPTER FIVE

Summary, conclusion and recommendation                                               57

5.1            Summary                                                                                 57

5.2            Conclusion                                                                              58

5.3            Recommendation                                                                     58

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

1.1            BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

The naira exchange rate depreciation coupled with persist increase in the inflationary rate has been a major bane on economy of Nigeria.  To a layman inflation is a phenomena to embrace as his income increases daily without knowing the harmful side of such an increase.  Whether there is anything like depreciation or an improvement in the exchange or whether is income is nominal or real the layman do not know.

But this complementary problems so to say of naira exchange rate depreciation and inflation has been a thought of obesity in the hearts of Nigerians past and present governments and many patriotic Nigerians.

The pegging of, inflation in Nigeria can be said to be a direct result of the policies of the country’s governments to stimulate a fast rate of economic growth and development, since 1951 when the ministerial government was introduced between 1984 and 1986, the naira was quoted against dollar and pounds as the only intervening currencies which was in line with the International Monetary Fund (I.M.F) demand.  I.M.F had earlier complained that naira exchange rate was rising above the stipulated 2% limit.  The naira was then devalued at 1.000 4 US dollar.  The inflation rate in Nigeria was not serious problem before her independence.  But immediately after the civil war i.e. from 1970’s, the inflation rate in Nigeria took another dimension.  The value of naira as against dollar and pounds sterling started to deteriorate, in 1970, it was a naira to 1.400 dollar and 0.584 pounds sterling.  In 1971, it was 1.44 dollar and 0.582 pounds sterling to a naira.  In 1973, it was 1.519 dollar and 0.614 pounds sterling to a naira.  In 1974 it was 1.589 and 0.675 pounds sterling to naira which increased to 1.623 dollars and 0.734 pounds sterling in 1975 as a result of Udoji salary award of 1974 increased wage extensively.  Higher wages increased the purchasing power of consumers thus, leading to increase in their prices.

The introduction of Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP), and second-Tier Foreign Exchange (SFEM) in 1986 on one of government’s major policy packages, was aimed at making the over, valued naira exchange rate more realistic and responsive to market forces.  Regrettably, C. Anyanwu (1989) observed, the SAP/SEFEM was a disaster that was fast destroying the foundation of Nigeria economy.  There was consequent persistence of exchange rate depreciation of the naira (from 1.5691 naira to 1.0 dollar at the end of September 1986, 7.8950 naira to 1.0 dollar by mid February 1990).  Also by August 1998, the dollar was sold for 21.9960 naira at the Foreign Exchange Market (FEM) while at parallel market it was sold for 45 naira.  The value of naira continued to depreciate to the extent that the exchange rate was less than one dollar to a naira before 1990.  It was 0.119 US dollar to a naira in 1990.  This depreciated to 115.7 to a dollar by the 12 April, 2001 (CBN) 1994.  By 2003, it has risen N130 to the US dollar.

 

1.2            STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The depreciation of naira persistently, has various inflationary effects on the economy of Nigeria.  The effects of this macro-economic problem can be highlighted in different stages.  In the first place, when a currency is depreciated, it is designed to reduced or discourage the excessive dependence on a particular foreign or some foreign commodities.

This will make domestic prices of such imports may be intermediate goods and as a result tends to push the cost of production of final goods up.

In another way, deteriorating exchange rate of naira could bring about inflation of increase in wage rate or demand, when the naira is devalued, the price of important raw materials increases domestic firms may be willing to increase production reduction on their competition as a result of like in prices of raw materials.

Consequently, the output of the firms will attract high prices, therefore for consumers to meet their provisions level of consumption or maintain their real income, calls for wages increase which according to Sotersten (1994) will worsen the whole situation.

Nigerians as one of the developing nations that heavily depend on imported inputs, implements and machinery, the cost of these are usually very high due to poor exchange rate of naira.

This will discourage potential investors, how investment will lead to reduced national product, which is an indicator of stagnancy or retrogression of the economy.

For this reason, Obasanjo (1999) noted that any thing could happen of regulatory authorities did not take steps to tidy up the situation, so the researcher wants to find out the problems and suggest ways of remedying the situation.

 

1.3            SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY

For the purpose of this study, the researcher took a step further to determine the possible significances.

(i)                To give other researchers who which to write on this topic the process to follow

(ii)             To check the inflationary of deflationary gap

(iii)           To determine the cumulative impact of broad money growth and the sizeable devaluation of the naira

(iv)           To determine the fate of naira with other internal currencies.

(v)             To determine government policies.

1.4            OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The objectives of this study include the following

(i)                To identify the causes of inflation and exchange rate depreciation.

(ii)             Examine the extent to which naira exchange rate depreciation heed affected domestic inflationary rate in Nation.

(iii)           Assess the effectiveness of government earlier introduced policies.

(iv)           Give suggestion and recommendation on appropriate policies for the future.

 

1.5            RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

Since the research data was mainly from secondary sources, the hypothesis used will be in two forms to determine result.

The null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis.  The null hypothesis (Ho) will be tested against the alternative hypothesis (Hi)

(a)     Ho:    There is no positive or significant relationship

between exchange rate depreciation and domestic inflation in Nigeria.

(b)     Hi:     There is significant or positive relationship between

exchange rate depreciation and domestic inflation in Nigeria.

1.6            SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The study covers the period from 1985 to 2000.  It concentrates on the trend of exchange rate depreciation and inflation in Nigeria.  The study is limited to the period because of the problems associated with the availability and collection of secondary data needed for the research work due partly to the level of development of the Nigeria economy.

 

 

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BUDGETING: A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO PROFIT PLANNING AND CONTROL

BUDGETING: A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO PROFIT PLANNING AND CONTROL

(A CASE STUDY OF MOBILE TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORK NIGERIA LIMITED’ (MTN), ENUGU STATE)

 

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Account Name: 3059320631

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PROPOSAL

          Budgeting – A systematic approach to profit planning and control is a work that will be centered on the use of budgeting a tool for planning and control in order to maximize profit using mobile Telecommunication Network Nigeria Limited (MTN) Enugu, as a case study.

This research will be carried out through series of oral interviews and distribution of questionnaires in the collection of data and relevant information to the employees of mobile telecommunication Network Nigeria Limited Enugu.  The data that will be collected, will be analyzed as well as interpreted by the research from the testing and proofing of hypothesis.  The researcher will also source information from secondary data which includes text books, magazines, journals etc.

The researcher will be faced with the following constraints:

–                     Insufficient money to distribute as much questionnaires as possible.

–                     Poor response from the employees because they will be afraid of losing their job

–                     Insufficient time

In order for the company to achieve their objectives, the researcher will recommend that there should be budgetary control so that workers will be aware of the objective of the organization and subordinates opinion considered in the preparation of the departmental or company’s budget estimate.  This will help in encouraging goal congruence.

 

ABSTRACT 

          Budgeting – A systematic approach to profit planning and control is a work centered on the use of budgeting as a tool for planning and control for profit maximization in a mobile telecommunication network Nigeria Limited Enugu as a case study.

The objective of the study is to show the importance of budgeting as a tool for systematic profit planning and control in the mobile telecommunication network Nigeria limited which has profit maximization as its principal objective.

The research is also aimed at identifying the steps adopted in the formulation of annual budget of MTN Nigeria.

Consequent upon this, the following hypothetical question were used for the study.

  1. Managers use budgeting as a systematic approach to profit planning and control in attaining the goals of the business.
  2. Decision making is performed in mobile telecommunication using budgeting
  3. Utilization of resources is achieved with the use of budget and budgetary control

Following the investigation and analysis of data, the following findings were made

  1. The organization uses budgeting in achieving the goals and objectives
  2. The main objective of the organization is profit maximization
  3. Efficiency and effectiveness of the organization is achieved through the use of budgeting.

From the findings, the conclusions were arrived that budgeting is very essential and indispensable tool for profit planning and control.  It helps management to be well structured in sustaining the growth and expansion of the organization.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

 CHAPTER ONE

1.0     Introduction                                                                            1

1.1     Historical Development of the Firm                              4

1.2     Background of mobile Telecommunication                    5

Network Nigeria Limited/Present state of Affairs

1.3     Statement of problem                                                    8

1.4     Objective of the study                                                    8

1.5     Research Question                                                                   9

1.6     Research Hypothesis                                                     10

1.7     Scope and limitation                                                      10

1.8     Significance of the study                                                         11

1.9     Definition of terms                                                                  12

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     Literature review                                                            14

2.1     Introduction                                                                            14

2.2     Definition of budget                                                       15

2.3     Types of Budget                                                            17

2.4     The Budget period                                                                   20

2.5     Administration of the Annual Budget                                     21

2.6     Stages in the Budget process                                         24

2.7     Appraisal of fixed, flexible and other budget                          43

2.8     Planning function                                                           45

2.9     Controlling function                                                      46

2.10   Budgeting control                                                          50

2.11   Variance analysis                                                           51

2.12       Additional Tool for Budgeting and Budgetary

control: Zero Base Budgeting (ZBB)                                       57

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     Research Design and methodology                                58

3.1     Research design                                                             58

3.2     sampling technique                                                        58

3.3     Sampling design and population size                                      58

3.4     Sources of data                                                              60

3.5     Interview questions                                                        60

3.6     Method of data analysis                                                60

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data                  63

4.1     Analysis of questionnaires returned                              63

4.2     Hypothesis testing and proofing                                             71

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     Summary of findings recommendations and conclusion         77

5.1            Summary of findings                                                     77

5.2            Recommendations                                                                   79

5.3            Conclusion                                                                     80

Bibliography                                                                  81

Appendix                                                                       83

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0            INTRODUCTION

The growing complexity of the business environment and the ever increasing competition among firms in the modern time, make planning an invaluable tool for business success.  Successful management is no longer just a matter of flair, skill and determination, a conscious effort is needed to harness available resources towards the achievement of enterprise objectives.  Budgeting is one of the tools adopted by management for effective cost planning and control.

A budget is commonly understood  the forecast by a government, organization nor society of its expenditures and revenues for a specific period of time.  The  period covered  by a budget is usually a year known as financial year.  Budgeting is concerned with the utilization of financial resources to serve human needs.  Although a budget may be characterized by a series of goals with price tags attached.  It is mainly a mechanism for making choices among alternative expenditure.  When such are coordinated so as to achieve desired goals, the budget becomes a plan.  If there are specifications on how the goals are to be achieved, the budget becomes a psychological device to make administrators thin.  If however, the emphasis is placed on achieving the desired objective at the lowest possible cost, then the budget is an instrument for ensuring efficiency.

An enterprise which is effectively and efficiently managed produces good and rewarding result.  Management is efficient if it is able to accomplish the objectives with minimum efforts and costs.

Profit planning and control or budgeting is an integral part of management.  The financial manager has a particular interest in profits planning and control because he helps to regulate flows of funds which is his function.  The decision making process of management starts with planning.  ‘Planning is the design of a desired future and of effective ways of bringing it about.  In other words, planning involves the determination of the future course of action for accomplishing the objectives of the enterprise.  The basic purpose of planning is to provide guidelines for making decisions. It is a forward process to reducing uncertainty about the future.

Planning is a continuous process which would generally involve four fundamental steps.

  1. Establishing the objectives
  2. Determining the goals
  3. Developing strategies
  4. Formulating profits plans or budget.

Objectives are the statements of broad and long term desired state or position of the enterprise in the future. They are directional and motivational in nature and are generally the qualitative expressions of the desired future state.  For instance, the primary objective of an enterprise may be customers satisfaction, employee welfare, long-run- survival which depends upon the maximization of the long-run profit, that is wealth maximization.

Goals represent the operational specifications of the broad objective with time and quantity dimensions.  Goals are the quantified targets to be attained within a specific period e.g. long run profit maximization in order to increase the market value of the firm to shareholders is the broad objective of the firm.  But the goal for the next year may be to earn a 20% after tax profit on investment or a 5% profit on sales.

Strategies specify the ways of achieving the goal operationally.  For example, the strategies of a firm may include the use of retained earnings for expansion, keeping debt at a reasonable level, expanding sales through price reduction and aggressive advertisement.  Financial plans may take many forms, but any good plan must be related to the firm’s existing strength and weakness.  The strengths must understood, if they are to be used for proper advantage and the weakness must be recognized if corrective action is to be taken.

Finally, the formalization of objectives, goals and strategies for operational purposes is called the profit planning or budgeting.  It is called the profit plan or budget because it explicitly state the goals in terms of time expectations and expected financial results for each major segment of the entity.

 

1.1     HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE FIRM

It is important at this point to review briefly the history of the company mobile telecommunication Network Nigeria Limited (MTN).  It was incorporated in Nigeria on November 8. 2000 as a private company.  It secured a license to operate digital (Global system for mobile telecommunications GSM) telephony on February 9 2001, from the Nigerian communications commission.  On May, 2001, MTN emerged as the first to make a call on its GSM network in the new dispensation. Thereafter, the company launched full commercial operations beginning with Lagos, Abuja and Port Harcourt in the company now provides coverage to 85 cities and well over 5,000 communities and villages, spanning every geo-political zone and 31 of Nigeria’s 36 states.

It is the first to erect a country wide microwave radio transmission backbone, offering unrivalled value for money evidenced by a loyal customer base attracted by MTN’s convenience, mobility, roaming on 30 international networks and economical Tarrifs.  MTN’s product and services are available at its friendship centres and a nationwide network of dealership, banks and convenience channels including entries, petrol stations and neighourhood stores.

 

1.2            BACKGROUND OF MOBILE ELECOMMUNICATION NETWORK NIGERIA LIMITED/PRESENT STATE OF AFFAIRS

The company through systematic planning and control represents several millions of Nara in investment.  The company as at May 31, 2004, had a total of 21 mobile switching centres and over 940 radio base stations across the country. Several more are in the process of being installed.  On January 20, 2003, MTN commissioned the first phase of its digital microwave transmission backbone, Y’ello Balm.  Constructed  at a cost of $120 million.  Y’elloBalm is Africa’s most extensive transmission infrastructure and has significantly helped to enhance call quality on MTN’s network.  Y’ello Balm spans 3,400 kilometers and traverses over 120 cities, villages and communities; while coverage has been extent to more than 90 major towns and a total of over 5,000 villages and communities across Nigeria.  The second phase of Ye’llo Balm is currently on going and will spand another 4,500 kilometers.

MTN subsists on the core brand values of leadership, integrity, innovation, relationships and a ‘can do’ attitude, a passionate optimistic focus on the future.  It prides itself on its ability to make the impossible possible – connecting people with friends, family and opportunities.  The ownership structure is currently as follows:  Mobile telephone Networks International Limited 76.44%

Nigerian partners                    20.56%

International finance corporation and infrastructure investment arm of the world bank                           3%

100%

TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE/COMEMRCIAL SERVICE AGREEMENT

          The company is technically supported by Nami Tech in south Africa who doe the prepaid voucher and supplier to MTN.

COMPAY’S CONTRIBUTION TO NIGERIA ECONOMY

          MTN currently employs more than 1,200 Nigerians.  In addition, more than 160 Nigerian companies are currently MTN distribution partners.  Of these, more htan 25 are banks, many of which have spun off subsidiary companies, many of the dealerships have branches nationwide and employ dozens of people.  Another 6,000 companies, including petrol statiosn, supermarkets and many others, serves as sub-dealerships.

Yet a great may other Nigerians earn a living as self-employed proprietors, recahrge card or mobile phone accessory vendors, many others operate the hundred of business centres scattred allover our cities.

VISION

–                     To improve telecommunications infrastructures and access throughout the countries in which we operate

–                     Quality service

–                     High profile distribution and accessibility of our services and products

–                     Setting up a good base for future expansion.

–                     Training and transferring skills to local staff.

–                     Becoming a good corporate citizen and becoming a major player in the Nigerian economy.

MISSION

–                     TO BE A CATALYST FOR Nigeira’s economic growth and development, helping to unleash Nigeira’s strong developmental potential not only through the provisionof world class communiations but also through innovative and impactful corporate social responsibility initiaties.

–                     We want the cals you make on our network to   be of the best quanlity in Nigeira

–                     We want our network to cover the broadest areas of Nigeira and athe continuous enhancing of convenience and value derived from using our network.

–                     Every call made shoukd  re-inforce your conviction that MTN is needed.

1.3            STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

 

 

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THE ROLE OF COMMERCIAL BANKS IN FINANCING SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIES IN NIGERIA

THE ROLE OF COMMERCIAL BANKS IN FINANCING SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIES IN NIGERIA

(A CASE STUDY OF UNION BANK OF NIGERIA PLC).

 

 

ABSTRACT 

The topic of dissertation is The Role Of Commercial Banks In Financial Small Scale Industry In Nigeria. A case study of union bank of Nigeria plc. The  major objective of the study is to ascertain the extent to which union bank of Nigeria plc has helped to financial small scale industries.Instrument of data collection is questionnaires and research questions which formed the source of primary data, while materials from various published articles, textbooks, journals and newspaper formed the secondary data.

The method of analysis is the use of  tables, percentages and chi-square .

The major finding of the research is that union bank of Nigeria plc has helped to financial small scale industries period under review.

The recommendation based on the finding is that in order to reduce the risk in small scale industry lending, the central bank of Nigeria and the government can do more than they are doing currently scheme.

The study concluded that if the desired objective of using small scale industries as catalysts of development is to be achieved than the role of commercial banks should be mutually supportive.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUTION ANALYSIS

1.1     Background to the problem

1.2     Problem statement

1.3     Objectives of the study

1.4     Research questions

1.5     Research hypothesis

1.6     Scope of study

1.7     Limitations of the study

1.8     Definition of study

Reference

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     Introduction

2.2     Meaning of small scale industry

2.3     Government policy

2.4     Support systems

2.5     Financing

2.6     Monetary policy development in favour of small scale industries

2.7     Benefits of small scale industry

2.8     Problems facing small scale industry

2.9.1  Financing the project

2.9.2  Technical knows how

2.9.3  Personnel, matters and general administration

2.10   Improving funding small scale industries

References

CHAPTER THREE:   

RESEARCH METHODOLGY

3.0     Introduction of the study

3.1     Research design

3.2     Area of study

3.3     Population of study

3.4     Sample size determination

3.5     Instrument for data collection

3.6     Validation of the instrument

3.7     Reliability of the instrument

3.8     Method of data collection

3.9     Data analytical techniques

 

CHAPTER FOUR:     

PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

4.1     Presentation of data

4.2     Hypothesis testing

 

CHAPTER FIVE FINDINS:

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1     Findings

5.2     Conclusion

5.3     Recommendation

Bibliography

Appendices

 

 

CHAPTER ONE 

INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND TO PROBLEM

The successive development plans of Nigeria have laid emphasis on the attainment of self reliance.  The need for this national objective is because much is expected from individuals from the view point of providing employment opportunities self reliance in basic food and material production high per capital income, foreign exchange earnings and the production of industrial raw materials.

Okporobie (1989:10) observes that Nigeria small scale industries continued to decline despite the so called priority given to the sector

However, the discovery by the central bank  that this policy was not enough by it self led to the central bank request with effect from 1970/80 that all commercial bank must reserve a proportion of the minimum credit allocation to indigenous borrowers for small scale Nigeria enterprises.  The target prescribed in 1979 was ten percent (10%) which subsequently raised to sixteen percent (16%).

Even though available data showed that performance of commercial banks against this directive has been disappointing. The central bank intends to  spare no effort in ensuring that banks fully couple without compromising the smooth functioning of the nation banning system.

He observed also, that without the development of small scale industries in Nigeria, the nations quest for industrialization will certainly remain forever at stake. It is the opinion of the researcher that future development in our industrialization must address the basic issues of creating linkages without the economy to begin to produce real inputs to our manufacturing activities .

Priority attention must therefore be given to these industries for which domestic inputs could easily be produced.  This will bring about  agro-allied industries like food processing and other by-products.

The objective should be to maximize the value added in their processing and manufacturing as final goods immediately inputs.

Nzewi and Oze (1985:56) observed that empirical evidence indicates that strong producer incentives to small scale industrialists are necessary not also only to meet the food requirement but also to  provide growing input supplies and demand as a foundation for sustained industrial growth.

The present economic constraint may well turn out to be a blessing in disguise to our industrialization effect particularly for dynamic manufacturing sector.  For instance, the market determinate exchange rate through seeing with its result and high cost of imported inputs may serve as an impetus for industrialist to intensify their search for local substitutes.

Ekenyong and Nyong (1992) observed that small scale enterprises are regarded an organic part of a viable structure for the attainment meaningful economy development in developing economic like Nigeria.

They are significantly more cost effective in bringing about development than large enterprises because of the perceived linkage and multiplier effects which small scale enterprises have on the performance of the economy and economic growth in general.

 

Osayameh (1989) observes that the strength that make small scale enterprises more amendable for assistance areas as follows.

1.       Personal commitment of the proprietor whose life savings usually form the start up capital.

2.      Low initial capital out lay requirement

3.       Ease of entry and exit and prevalence of just minimal legal constraints

4.       Amenability to business advisory services because of their small size which makes than more responsive to improvement suggestions.

Olashore (1987) Observes that the four main sources of enterprises financing open to small scale industry in Nigeria are.

i.        Formal financial institutions such as commercial banks merchant banks, insurance companies and the development bank.

ii.       Informal financial landlords, credit and savings associations “esus” friends and relations personal savings and .

iii.      Other financial scheme, NERFUND NEXIM

in 2001, there was an introduction of small and medium industries equity investment scheme (SMIEIS) in which N359 million was set aside to date by banks under small medium industries equity investment scheme.

Through union bank small and medium scale enterprises (SMES) department, the bank has remain ed in fore front of SMES financing nations was extended to the SMES as at 31st March 2004.

Small scale industry is any industry not exceeding N750,000 including working capital  but excluding cost of land.

It is also defined by center for industrial research and development of Obafemi  Awolowo university Ile Ife as  those industries whose total assets in plant, equipment and working capital do not exceed N250,000 with not more than 50 employees.

 

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The problem of credit to small scale industries may not necessarily be as a result of financing insufficiency but rather for some other reasons among which are.

i.        Insufficient preparation on the part of small scale entrepreneurs in their request for credit assistance.

ii.       Information gaps as to range of funding institutions and scope of services available in these institution

iii.      Moreover, servicing of small business accounts is relatively experience, risky and difficult to monitor with low turn over of account.

However, the parishioners in the sector small scale industry do not display competence in preparing justification for their project.  It is are to see most of them coming up with cash flow projections, projected balance sheets, among others.  They are based on personal rudimentary in formation and speculation.  At times when they seek the advice of consultants, the outcome that are made figures project based on assumptions which are most of their time unrealistic.

As a result such proposals are out rightly rejected by banks.

There are suitable when credit demands in this sector are not in compliance in this government monetary policy and credit guidelines which must be adhered to by banks.

The researcher identifies these problem and considers it necessary to carry our study on them.

 

1.3     OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The objectives of the study include:

a.       To ascertain the extent to which the union bank of Nigeria plc has helped to finance small scale industries.

b.       To identify the problems encountered by small scale industrialists in obtaining finance from union bank of Nigeria plc.

c.       To evaluate various measures introduced to boost industrial production and its financing and how this has affected realization of the set goals.

d.       To determine the causing changes in small scale industrial financing by union bank of Nigeria plc.

e.       To make suggestion and recommendations based on the data generated by the study.

 

1.4     RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The critical appraisal to give answers to the following questions.

a.       To what extent has  union bank of Nigeria plc helped to finance small scale industries?

b.       What are the problems encountered by the small scale industrialists in obtaining finance from union bank if Nigeria plc?

c.       What are the various measures introduced to boost industrial production and its  financing and how this has affected the realization of the set goals?

d.       What are the causes of changes in small scale industrial financing by union bank of Nigeria plc?

e.       Does any linear relationship exist between lending to small scale industries and economic recovery and self reliance on the economy?

 

1.5     RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

a.       There is no linear relationship between lending to small scale industries and economic recovery and self-reliance of the economy.

b.       there is no relationship between union bank of Nigeria plc lending to small scale industries and the attitude of this customers

 

1.6     SCOPE OF STUDY

The scope of the study is the role of commercial banks in financing small scale industries in Nigeria. A case study of union bank of Nigeria plc.  It does not cover the role of commercial banks in financing medium and large scale industries.

 

 

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WORKERS’ PERCEPTION OF RETIREMENT AND ITS IMPLICATION ON PRODUCTIVITY

WORKERS’ PERCEPTION OF RETIREMENT AND ITS IMPLICATION ON PRODUCTIVITY

(A STUDY OF FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC, OKO)

 

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ABSTRACT

This research work was made to discover how workers perceive retirement and its implication for productivity using Federal Polytechnic, Oko as a case study. The case study is an institution of higher learning. It was established in 1992 through the collective effort of the community. It is located in Orumba North Local Government Area in Anambra State. The institution comprises of academic, non-academic and junior staff. This research work is intended to see whether it has anything to do with the way workers discharge their duties, if it is affecting them negatively to suggest possible ways that will help in correction of mistakes. Moreover, the study used one thousand, four hundred and three (1, 403) workers of which five hundred and twenty-one (521) was sampled out using a simple random sampling technique. Furthermore, questionnaire was used in obtaining the information for analysis. Finally, the result of the research showed that workers have started perceiving the retirement policy more positively especially the staff in Federal Polytechnic, Oko. Also, provisions were made to provide pre-retirement programmes to the staff. In order to equip them and make them to adopt to the dynamic world when they eventually leaves the work force. They were also encouraged to invest in a lucrative business while still in active service.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

1.0    INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background of the Study   –       –       –       –       –       –       1

1.2    Statement of the Problem           –       –       –       –       –       3

1.3    Objectives of the Study      –       –       –       –       –       –       4

1.4    Research Questions  –       –       –       –       –       –       –       5

1.5    Theoretical Framework      –       –       –       –       –       –       6

1.5    Significance of the Study   –       –       –       –       –       –       7

1.6    Scope of the Study             –       –       –       –       –       –       8

1.7    Limitation of the Study      –       –       –       –       –       –       9

1.7    Definition of Terms    –       –       –       –       –       –       –       10

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0    REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1    Workers Perception of Retirement and Their Productivity    -13

2.2    Workers Pre-retirement and Post-retirement Policy     –       15

2.3    Workers View about Retirement and Its Policy    –       –       20

2.4    Summary of Literature Review   –       –       –       –       –       24

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0    RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

3.1    Design of the Study            –       –       –       –       –       –       26

3.2    Area of the Study       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       27

3.3    Population of the Study     –       –       –       –       –       –

3.4    Sample of the Study           –       –       –       –       –       –

3.5    Instrument for Data Collection           –       –       –       –

3.6    Reliability and Validity of the Instrument            –       –       29

3.7    Distribution and Retrieval of Instrument            –       –       29

3.8    Method of Data Analysis    –       –       –       –                –       30

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0    PRESENTATION PRESENTATION

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0    SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1    Summary –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       38

5.2    Conclusion        –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       40

5.3    Recommendations     –       –       –       –       –       –       –       41

REFERENCES           –                –       –       –       –       –       44

APPENDIX         –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       46

APPENDIX B     –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       47

LIST OF TABLE

Table I:     Number of Tables Distributed, Collected and Lost       30

Table II:    Showing the Effect of Workers Perception of

Retirement on their Productivity        –       –       –       33

Table III: Showing the Extent in which Workers Post-

Retirement and Pre-retirement Policy in Nigeria

is been Implemented –       –       –       –       –       –       35

Table IV:   Showing Workers View about Retirement and

Its Policy   –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       36

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the Study

Federal Polytechnic Oko is an institution of higher learning situated within Oko town in Orumba North Local Government Area in Anambra State. The institution was the brain child of Oko Progressive Union (OPU) that was headed by its chairman, former Executive Vice President of Federal Republic of Nigeria, Dr. Alex Ekwueme, Ide of Aguata in 1979. The institution was approved by the then Anambra State Government and designated as College of Arts and Science designed to prepare candidates for General Certificate of Education (GCE) Examination both at ordinary and advanced levels. The school went on like this for some time, but on June 28, 1980, the institution was upgraded to the status of College of Arts, Science and Technology. The college was formalized as the Anambra State Polytechnic, Oko through edict No 12 of 1985.

In 1992, the Federal Government of Nigeria under the leadership of Chief Ernest Shonekon, head of the transition government and the Anambra State Governor, Dr. Chukwuemeka Ezeife (Okwudike) and the Minister of Education, Prof. Ben Nwabueze, changed the school into a federal school called, Federal Polytechnic, Oko, Anambra State.

Workers perception of retirement and its implications on productivity (A Study of Federal Polytechnic, Oko) was seen as an important issue which research must be carried out on because of the way various workers are viewing it (retirement).

In section (4) (1) of the pension decree, the statutory age of retirement for public service is 60 years. Judicial officers and academic staff of universities retires at the age of 70 and 65 years respectively. However, the civil service re-organization decree No. 43 of 1998 added the modification that officers should now retire from service on attaining the age of 60 or 35 years whichever comes first. The qualifying service of 10 years is for pension. It is also aimed at discovering how retirement affects the level of production in the institution to know if the perception has anything to do with the way in which workers put in their best or work in the institution. It also aimed at knowing if it has anything to do within the level of production to look for an alternative for amendment and work towards correcting those abnormalities made in the past.

 

1.1   Statement of the Problem

Fixed retirement age have been fixed and implemented in countries like Nigeria and United State of American. In Nigeria, a person is to retire if he/she has attained the age of 60 years and 70 years for judicial officers, yet, when a person is getting due for retirement, the person still feels bad. Then, when they finally retire, they may not afford to take care of themselves talk more of their family.

People detest going for retirement because of fear of how to fit into the society, meet their family financial needs and still live up to expected. This is because of non-payment of pension and at times may be delayed or paid half due to the corruption nature of our leaders and Nigeria non-implementation of policy and inconsistency. This makes the workers to manipulate their ways to any level when they are still on sit and enrich themselves and even when they cannot work again, giving room to unproductivity in the institution.

 

1.2   Objectives of the Study

Despite the fact that few studies have been carried out on retirement, the research work would find out more on how workers would perceive retirement policy in Nigeria.

The main purpose of this research work is to investigate how workers perceive retirement ant its implication on productivity and if their perception would affect their productivity level in their place of work. Other objectives include:

  1. To find out the various pre-retirement and post-retirement programmes available to workers.
  2. To find out how the workers perceives the retirement policy in Nigeria.
  • To find out how the existing retirement policy will change and enhance workers perception on productivity. This especially concerning the staff of Federal Polytechnic, Oko where the perception would have an effect on workers’ productivity either positively or negatively.

 

1.3   Research Questions

The following research questions are going to guide our study:

  1. To what extent has the workers’ pre-retirement and post-retirement policy in Nigeria been implemented?
  2. To what extent has the workers’ perception of retirement affected their productivity?
  • How do Nigeria workers view retirement and its policy?

 

1.4   Theoretical Framework

This research work is anchored on behavioural modification theory by B.F. Skinner who believed that all behaviour can be shaped and managed so as to achieve a potentially ideal individual in a potentially idea society. This theory is based on the law of effect on the principles that, if behaviour is reinforced, the chances that it will repeat are high. The theory calls for positive reinforcement of desired behaviour.

B.F. Skinner (1954) believed that the best way to modify behaviour was to modify environment. The closer position

reinforcement follows desired behaviour, the more likely it will occur. At all level of an organization, the way the workers perceives the retirement policy at their working place will definitely affect the way they put in their best into the organization towards the realization of the organizational goal. Researchers has shown that positive reinforcement is more effective than negative one in achieving lasting changes in behaviour. The Nigeria government should ensure that the workers at both federal and state, even local government gets all the titles due to them while at work so as to enable them to be honest in their duties and put in their best so as to achieve efficiency and productivity.

 

1.5   Significance of the Study

The study is very important as it would clarify the various misconception associated with policy of retirement.

The study would provide information for modifying the retirement policy and also for modification of already existing pre-retirement programmes for Nigeria workers.

The programme and policies if modified will bring a sense of belonging to those workers that are concerned. It will also help Nigeria workers to view retirement in the right direction.

Finally, the study will provide basis for the modification of organizational goals set in the organization for the welfare of both the workers and eth organization.

 

1.6   Scope of the Study

The study on workers’ perception of retirement and its implication on productivity will be limited at Federal Polytechnic, Oko in Orumba North Local Government in Anambra State among the academic, non-academic and junior staff of the institution.

1.7   Limitation of the Study

In this research work, efforts were made to cover such areas that are necessary like examining the minds of the workers and those retirees.

In the cause of the research, there was a great deal of shortcomings starting from both nature of the research and the stock of available information.

Finance constituted a major set-back in carrying out the research work. The cost of transportation to those retirees various destination coupled with other expenses.

This study became a success because the researcher was able to visualize and gather information from available sources she could lay her hand on, also with little money with her and contributions from siblings, then she was able to browse and get much more information than expected and part of the money was used by the researcher for transportation.

 

1.8   Definition of Terms

  1. Retirement:

It means cessation from active work having reached the retirement age set out by the employees.

  1. Pension:

It is earning payable at a regular interval to someone who retired from a pensionable employment.

  • Productivity:

It means workers output as a result of what they put into the job. The efficiency with which things are done or produced.

  1. Work:

This is the process of expanding energy in order to yield something tangible.

 

  1. Retirement policy:

Is a law made by the government on the rules guiding retirement of workers.

Retirement policy states that a worker at sixty years or a worker who has worked for thirty-five years should disengage from pensionable employment.

 

 

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WOMEN AND NATION BUILDING : AN APPRAISAL OF ANAMBRA STATE CENTRAL SENATORIAL DISTRICT: (2010 – 2015)

WOMEN AND NATION BUILDING : AN APPRAISAL OF ANAMBRA STATE CENTRAL SENATORIAL DISTRICT: (2010 – 2015)

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

CHAPTER ONE

  • Background of the Study————————————
  • Statement of the Problem————————————
  • Purpose of the Study—————————————–
  • Research Question——————————————–
  • Statement of Hypothesis————————————-
  • Theoretical Framework—————————————
  • Significance of the Study————————————-
  • Scope of the Study——————————————–
  • Limitation of the Study—————————————
  • Definition of Terms——————————————–

 

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1Contributionsof Women and Nation Building————–

2.2Challenges Affecting Women Participation in Politics       and Decision Making —————————————-

2.3 Summary of Literature Review——————————-

 

CHAPTER 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1  Design of the Study——————————————-

3.2  Area of the Study———————————————-

3.3  Population of the Study————————————–

3.4  Sample/Sampling Technique——————————–

3.5  Instrument for Data Collection——————————

3.6  Reliability and Validation of the Instrument————–

3.7  Distribution and Retrieval of the Instrument————-

3.8  Method of Data Analysis————————————-

 

CHAPTER 4

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.1  Data Presentation———————————————

4.2  Analysis of Research Question——————————

4.3  Testing of Hypothesis—————————————–

4.4  Interpretation of Results————————————-

CHAPTER 5

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1  Summary of Findings—————————————–

5.2  Conclusion—————————————————–

5.3  Recommendations———————————————

REFERENCE————————————————————–

APPENDIX A—————————————————————

 

 

 

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the Study

Since independence, women participation in politics and decision making in Nigeria have been a controversial issue. The 1st republic had only four female legislators in the whole of the country, a negligible number that cannot give women the necessary influence in politics. In that era, the contribution of women in nation building could only be imagined and not felt. The imposition of military rule, an era that followed this period from 1966 did not foster women participation in politics and very little was heard of women in politics and decision making (Samuel and Segun, 2012:7). The participation of women in nation building increased in the 2nd and most particularly in republic.

Few women emerged as councilor, one woman, Chief (Mrs.) TitilayoAjanaku, as Chairperson of Abeokuta Local Government Council in Ogun State, two female Deputy Governors, AlhajaSinatuOjikutu and Mrs. Cecilia Ekpenyong in Lagos and Cross River State, respectively. Furthermore, only one woman was elected to the Senate and very few others to the House of Representatives. It is worthy of note that before 1999, the proportion of seats occupied by women in national parliament never exceeded 3.1% and 5% for federal Executive council (Luka, 2012). But these women proved they deserve more opportunities with their stellar performances.

The year 1999 marked the beginning of a new dawn as Nigeria returned to civilian government after the demise of military rule. Women political participation witnessed sharp improvement over previous experience. President Obasanjo who assumed power on May 29th 1999 made a clear departure from the past and appointed 4 out of the 29 senior ministers representing 13.7% and 3 out of the 18 junior ministers representing 16.6%. Furthermore, he appointed 2 women advisors and 2 senior special assistants and 6 special assistants and 1 special assistant to the vice president as well as 8 permanent secretaries (Luka, 2012:29). Women were also appointed as commissioners and were members of the executive councils in all the states (Kalawole et al, 2012:135). It should be noted that while the number of women in political position drastically increased between 1999 and 2011, the positions were mostly appointive rather than elective. From 1999 to 2011, no woman was elected into the office of the president or governor in any of the 36 states.

However, In 1999, out of the total seat of 469 (Senate and House of Representatives), there were only 15 women representing 3.19%; this increased to 25 in 2003 representing 5.33%; there was a further increase in 2007 to 34 representing 7.24% and a slight decline in 2011 to 33 representing 7.03%. Although between 2003 and 2007, 4 to 6 women were elected as deputy governors. In spite of these improvements, the representation of women in politics and decision making in Nigeria is still a far cry from the global benchmark of 35% affirmative action. It is against this background that this paper examines “women in Politics and Decision Making in Nigeria: Challenges and Prospects”.

In Nigeria and the rest of the world, women have over time proven to be valuable assets and contributors to nation building.

In Nigeria, women have shown bright potentials in politics and public leadership, both in democratically elected positions and political appointments. These potentials are also present in their various philanthropic efforts and even in different organizations.

A lot of calls have been made from various quarters for Nigerian women to be given more opportunity to contribute their rather unique inputs to nation building as the few whom have received such rare opportunity have excelled beyond expectations.

In Nigeria, today, almost half of the women work outside the home -both in formal and informal sectors- for pay to augment the family resources. While some women, particularly the rural women, work in the farms/agricultural production, many others in the cities work in the public and private sectors, including government, commercial/trading, industrial, financial and service sectors of the economy, thereby contributing substantially to national development (Falusi, 2011).

Unequivocally, a woman is not, in any way, inferior to a man. Their roles, both in the family and nation-building, are complementary and co-terminus and the one should not be seen as inferior or subservient to the other. This argument could be faulted in the agrarian age when male dominance was largely dependent on their physical abilities that allow them to till the ground and lift heavy objects and equipments, a feat that eludes feminity, but not in this knowledge driven generation where intelligence and initiative reigns supreme.

With increased focus and sensitization on women empowerment, women (especially, Nigerians) have played key roles in building the Nigerian state. Since the inclusion of more women in key sectors of the Nigerian economy, such as the appointment of Late Prof. Dora Akunyili as D.G. of the National Agency for Food and Drugs Administration and Control (NAFDAC) who saved millions of lives and ended the era of impunity in the manufacture, sales and distribution of food and drug products in Nigeria and also went further to set a pace in the information ministry as the minister of information and national orientation, Dr. NgoziOkonjo-Iweala (Co-ordinate Minister of the economy) whose appointment as the minister of finance/coordinating minister of the Nigerian economy have saved Nigeria a lot of trouble especially during the world economic recession; and her contributions to exalting the nation to the position of the best economy in Africa; a feat the nation has not achieved in the last three decades, Diezani Allison Madueke (Minister of petroleum resources); she initiated the fight against the cabal that are running the downstream sector to abyss, a battle which seems to elude her but her bravery has informed the Nigerian people of the activities of these cabals and has set the pace for the fight against corruption in the oil sector., Princess Stella Odua (Former Aviation Minister and presently senator representing Anambra North senatorial district), Hon. Mrs. Uche Ekwunife (Senator; Anambra Central Senatorial District) and a host of other Nigerian women, they have managed to achieved giant strides in areas where their male counterparts have failed to farewell, and these qualitative contributions of women/woman nature in nation building is an area this research work will seek to explore.

More opportunities should be allowed women by the Nigerian governments at all levels in order to further enhance their role and unlock their potentials in nation-building. In order to appreciate the role of women in nation-building, a statement by a former American Secretary of state, Hillary Clinton, is most instructive: “What we are learning around the world is that if women are healthy and educated, their families will flourish. If women are free from violence, their families will flourish. If women have a chance to work and earn as full and equal partners in the society, their families will flourish. And when families flourish, communities and nations will flourish”.

Although there is no legal and constitutional constraint that women are suffering from, the marginalization rather emanates from the cultural orientation that subordinates women to men. It is known that no man wants to work under a woman and men all together do not enjoy giving women higher authority than their male counterparts. The call for women engagement in nation building is not for a proportionate representation but for a fair share; say 40% opportunity for women to participate in key sectors that will enable them contribute to nation building.

Globally, nations as Brazil, South Korea, Malawi, Argentina, Kosova and Liberia are being led by DimaYouseff, Geun-hye Park, Joyce Banda, Cristina Fernandez, AtifeteJahajaSirleaf respectively as presidents.

  • Statement of the Problem

A few will deny that one of the richest under-utilized resources in the world today is the talent of women. Unfortunately, the world has for many years squandered this talent in a most shameful fashion. According to Kayode (2015) statistics has it that over half of the Nigerian population is made up of women. Yet, and regrettably so, women have not been accorded their due recognition in the national scheme of things by the Nigerian government. In spite of the immeasurable impacts made by some women who by accident occupied public positions of trust, Nigerian women are still to gain promise or at least be granted equal opportunity to contribute to policy formulation and implementation that may contribute to nation building

It will therefore, be a problem of this study to identify the various strides and contributions of women in socio-economic and political development in Nigeria.

It is also a problem for this study to analyze the extent to which these contributions have conduced to nation-building in Nigeria.

Another problem facing this study will be to identify the challenges to women involvement in policy formulation and implementation.

Finally, examining if increased women involvement in policy formulation and implementation could engender effective nation-building in Nigeria also constitutes a problem of this study.

  • Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study focuses on highlighting deeply the concept of women and national building.

Specifically, this study will seek to find the following:

  1. To identify the various strides and contributions of women in socio-economic and political development in Nigeria.
  2. To analyze the extent to which these contributions have conduced to nation-building in Nigeria.
  3. To identify the challenges to women involvement in policy formulation and implementation.
  4. To examine if increased women involvement in policy formulation and implementation could engender effective nation-building in Nigeria.

 

  • Research Questions

The following research questions will guide the researcher towards finding solutions to the problems under study:

  1. What are the various strides and contributions of women in socio-economic and political development in Nigeria?
  2. To what extent have these contributions conduced to nation-building in Nigeria?
  • What are the challenges to women involvement in policy formulation and implementation?
  1. Can increased women involvement in policy formulation and implementation engender effective nation-building in Nigeria?

 

1.4   Statement of Hypothesis          

The following hypothesis will help ascertain the independence of the variables of this research problem.

  1. Ho: Women cannot contribute effectively to nation building.

H1: Women can effectively contribute to nation building.

  1. Ho: There are no challenges affecting effective women participation in politics and decision making.

H: There are challenges affecting effective women participation in politics and decision making.

  • Ho: There cannot be increased role for women in nation building.

H1: There can be increased role for women in nation building.

  • Theoretical Framework

The controversial and contemporary nature of women role in nation building and other aspects of human endeavor where women are been marginalized and their viability and importance undermined have given rise to studies geared towards revealing the overwhelming contributions of women to nation building. These studies gave birth theLiberal Feminism theory by Moore (2010).

Liberal Feminism

Feminism, however, is far from being a unified perspective, Moore (2010), in her study of “the place of women in a globalized world”, postulated that the uniqueness of the feminine nature of women, the psychological dexterity that allows them to endure longer than men, take care at performing tasks, pay attention to details and the responsibility that comes with their motherly and home-making nature plugs the holes in the care-free, frolicking, and hasty nature of men. She argued that women should be liberated from the shackles of perpetual relegation and the viable potentials that come with their unique nature, respected and harnessed as a new dimension yet to be fully explored in modern globalization.

1.6 Significance of the Study:

At the successful completion of this research work, it will be of tremendous importance to the following parties in the following ways:

  1. Career Women: This study will reveal how best they can contribute to nation building and thereby serve as a motivating factor for them to strive to succeed in this area of human endeavor.
  2. The Government: This study will service them with the required information that will inform them of the giant strides of achievements of the Nigerian women who have been given various opportunities to contribute to building the Nigerian nation, thereby highlighting the need to give the Nigerian women more opportunity to contribute to building the Nigerian nation.
  3. Other Researchers: This study will provide them accurate data on the contributions of women to nation building and serve them as a reference material when carrying out research on related topics.
    • Scope of the Study

The scope of this study focuses on the role/contributions of women in nation building. The researcher narrowed the scope to cover only Anambra Central Senatorial District in Anambra state of Nigeria.

1.8   limitation of the Study

The researcher encountered problems in carrying out this research work. The problems include:

  • Time Factor: There was not enough time to gather all the necessary information relating to the study because the researcher has to combine the research work with other curricula activities.
  • Financial Constraint: The low financial capacity of the researcher also restricted the area of the study. As a result of this, it became necessary to limit the extent of the research to available resources.
  • Attitude of respondents: Some respondents complained of time and did not detail their response and others were not available during the researcher’s visit. And others were indifferent about the topic and could not give constructive opinion.
    • Definition of Terms

The following terms will be frequently used in this study and their definitions in line with the context of the study will aid easy understanding.

  1. WOMEN: Adult female human beings
  2. NATION BUILDING: Efforts geared at improving and sustaining the social, political and economic state of a country.
  • GENDER EQUALITY: The principle that views both male and female humans as equal and supports equal treatment for both genders.
  1. CONTRIBUTIONS: The action or service performed by someone (women in this case) to cause or increase the chances of achieving something (nation building).
  2. ROLE: The function or position that somebody (women) have or is expected to have in the society.
  3. DISCRIMINATION: The practice of treating some people (women) in society less fairly than others (men).

 

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