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MAGAZINE READING HABITS OF STUDENTS IN INSTITUTION OF HIGHER LEARNING

MAGAZINE READING HABITS OF STUDENTS IN INSTITUTION OF HIGHER LEARNING

 (A STUDY OF NNAMDI AZIKIWE UNIVERSITY, AWKA)

 

ABSTRACT

 

The purpose of this study is to find out how students are affected by Magazine reading and the various ways to encourage greater reading among students. This research is based on reading habits of students in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Anambra state. This work will further feature the reactions and manner of students towards reading magazines. In this research work, chapter two and three present related literatures which have x-rayed what other scholars or theorists have contributed to the study. We equally use this to present survey method. It is used and it constitutes the presentation and analysis of data collected for this study. The chapter four and five deal with the data presentation and analysis. Also, the summary, conclusion and recommendations, where modest suggestions are made on how to improve the reading habits of students in the higher level of education are seen.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     Introduction  ………………………………………………..………1

1.1     Background of the study ………………………………………..…4

1.2     Statement of the problems …………………………………………7

1.3     Purpose of the study ………………………………………….……8

1.4     Significance of the study …………………………………..………8

1.5     Scope of the study …………………………………………….……9

1.6     Research questions …………………………………………………9

1.7     Limitation …………………………………………………….……10

1.8     Definition of terms …………………………………………..……10

 

CHAPTER TWO

Literature Review

2.0     Introduction  ………………………………………..……..………12

2.1     Theoretical framework ……………………………………………12

2.2     Empirical Aspects …………………………………………………15

2.3     Summary of Literature Review  …………………………………24

CHAPTER THREE

Research methodology

  • Research design …………………………………………..………26
  • Population of the study ……………………………………..……26
  • Sample and Sampling techniques ……………………………….28
  • Instrument for data collection ………………………….….……28
  • Method of data Analysis and presentation ……………………29
  • Sources of data ……………………………………………….……29
  • Steps to ensure validity and reliability …………………….…..29

 

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Data Presentation and Analysis …………………………..….…30
  • Discussion of findings …………………………………….………40
  • Summary of findings ………………………………….………….42

 

CHAPTER FIVE

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation  ……………….………43

  • Summary, Conclusion ……………………………………………43
  • Recommendation …………………………………………………45

 

References  …………………………………………………..…..…46

Appendix ………………………………………………………..…47

Questionnaires …………………………………………………… 48

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0     INTRODUCTION

 

Magazine is a package of news events written in analytical form. Because of the periodic nature of the magazine, information on day to day events are not emphasized, instead it concentrates on giving in0depth, focus, perspective, bearing explanation or interpretation of news, since it has more time and considers pace to dig or investigate and also research into issues and situations.

The magazine in any society occupies an indispensable position. The magazine has been described as a daily historic document. This is because it chronicles every significant issue or event happening within society. The magazine serves to check such exercises its report, of issues of the day. Thus, it is the most important source of reference for scholars, historians, sociologists, politicians and so on.

Magazine is a big industry. It is capital intensive and expensive. Its customer ship transverses its area of circulation, and it often loyal. From its advertises who ensure heavy revenue to the buyer who does same, it is all hopes of good income.

As a big industry, the magazine ensures employment opportunities, fulfills its obligations to its employee by paying salaries and Emoluments, helps in ensuring community development through provision of social and welfare amenities.

The magazine has provided excellent facilities for product promotion and advertisement. This is a most undeniable contribution ot product development. Advertisements of goods and services give us information on the merits and demerits of that product and help decide what is good for the individual. Apart form this, adverts helps develop healthy rivalry between manufacturers of similar goods.

Magazine has a vital importance in discovering areas of societal structural decay, lack of amenities like potable water, light, roads, medical and paramedical facilities. The magazine must then address these issues accordingly with a purpose of ameliorating the situation.

One things that will be a recurring decimal is that people have different views of reading magazines. That is to say, “what is perceived is according to the perception of the perceiver” which is another way of saying that people have reasons for choosing different media based on what they want to get form those media.

As Awodiya (1974) points out that most people read news magazines because of the durability of information gathered from them. Magazine offers the opportunity to read, re-read, discuss and debate on the information.

Macdugall (1984) believes that magazines are read by some people because hey take the readers behind the events of the day’\s actions, relate the news to the readers, own frame work and experience, make sense out of the facts; put factual news in perspective, add meaning to the news and help point-out the significance of current events.

The above assumptions have made the researcher to find-out the magazine reading habits of students in the tertiary institution. This is the area of special interest in this project.

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

In Nigeria, the very first magazine was the SPEAR AND DRUM, but the very serious attempt to publish a magazine started with publication of Nigerian Magazine in 1963.

One major characteristic of magazine in Nigeria at that time was the very transience nature of their existence. For three years after Nigerian magazine emerged, West African reared its head for a short span of 12 months (January-December, 1966). A number of factors accoutered for West African demise, but paramount among them were finance and ravaging Nigerian Biafra Civil War at that time.

However, this magazine, after some serious re-organization four years after the war, resumed publication that lasted for eight years. That was the period between 1974 and 1982.

The plight of West Africa has been very similar to that of other Nigerian Magazines. Many of them often are off the streets, the very month they started.

Given this transience Magazine, there is no gain saying the fact that Nigerian magazine readers should now have a more steady Nigerian periodicals that are serious, objective, analytical, purposeful and enduring.

At least, one that could compete favourably with Newsketch, time etc. it was with this five need in Nigerian readers that the birth of Newswatch was created with such riotous joy and since then, some magazines in this same pedestal have emerged, these are “This week” African Guardian” etc.

Since this study is focused towards finding out magazine reading habits of students in the institutions of higher learning, one question may manifest, what use of Nigerian under graduates make of the information gathered form the magazines?

In the study by Wilbur Schramm and David White in (1949:106), it was discovered that readers with low education attainment, sensational news and pictorials materials. They also found out that those at the top of education curve tend to use it less mainly for information and public affair.

Again, a similar study which proceeded that of Wilbur Schramm and David W, which was conducted by other communication experts, Paul Lazarfled and Patricia Kendall (1948:439) also discovered that readership of magazines increases with higher level and decline as level of education decline.

In the same note, Obiajulu Emejulu (2004), maintained other materials are routinely adapted to classroom and other educational purpose by resourceful teachers. This makes for diversity, creativity and fun in the classroom.

Our interest in students of tertiary institutions is not without convincing reasons. Studies have reverted that high propensity to read magazine is contingent on a person’s educational background. We therefore, picked on Nigerian undergraduates believing that they constitute one of the higher educational groups in the country. This is based on the studies we have cited.

1.2     STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS

  1. Magazine credibility is likely to determine high readership among Nigerian undergraduates.
  2. The need for information form magazine may positively or negatively determine high readership among Nigerian undergraduates.
  3. The value of magazine may determine its vital source of information to Nigerian undergraduates.
  4. Gender determines high readership of magazine among students in Nigeria.
  5. year of study influences the high readership of magazine among students in high institutions in Nigeria.

 

 

1.3     PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

          The research is aimed at:

  1. To find out the rate at which students in Nigeria higher institutions read magazine.
  2. To examine the nature of news stories or features and articles they read and why they read them.
  3. To examine to what extent information gathered form magazine is made useful by students of higher learning.
  4. To obtain scientific information regarding the habits of magazine readership of Nigeria undergraduates.

1.4     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

An effective magazine editor should have foresight to always meet its  target audience. This study on media pattern in Nigeria has not been extensive as we think would have been adequate, instead an impediment to dissemination of information. It is of this reason I was motivated to carry out this research. This study will enable the editors to give insight into what their readers want to read. Again, this study is very important because it will help both editors and the media in general and for scholarship in communication.

1.5     SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The magazine reading habit is fairly wide in scope. However, in this study the researcher will only focus on the magazine reading habit of students in tertiary institution, using Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka as a case study.

  • RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following research questions are to be used.

  1. Does magazine credibility determine high readership among students in the higher level in Nigeria?
  2. Does the need for information determine high readership by Nigerian undergraduates?
  3. Does vital source of information determine high readership of magazine by Nigerian students?
  4. Does gender influence high readership of magazine among students in Nigeria?
  5. Does the year of study influence the high readership of magazine among students in high institutions in Nigeria?

1.7     LIMITATION OF THE SUTDY

          This research work was immensely constrained by the time scheduled based on other school engagements like magazine production and my final semester examination.

On a similar note, not all my respondents returned their questionnaires as at the time needed. So, many of the respondents shy away form the questionnaires.

1.8     DEFINITION OF TERMS

CONCEPTUAL DEFINITION

  1. Institution: A large important organization that has a particular purpose.
  2. Magazine: Type of large book printed with a paper cover that you can buy weekly or monthly containing articles.
  3. Periodical: A magazine published every week, month especially one that is concerned with an academic subject.
  4. Audience: Group of people who gather to watch or listen to something like play, concert etc.

Operational  Definition

  1. Institution: This is the place where the research is carried out or the school I find my audience.
  2. Magazine: Analytical book for the audience that disseminates day-to-day information.
  3. Periodical: Publication intended for general audience at a given interval, weekly or monthly.

 

 

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MAGAZINE READING BEHAVIOR OF STUDENTS IN TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS IN ANAMBRA STATE

MAGAZINE READING BEHAVIOR OF STUDENTS IN TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS IN ANAMBRA STATE

(A CASE STUDY OF FEDERAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION (TECH) UMUNZE

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

CHAPTER ONE

  • Introduction
  • Statement of problems
  • Research questions
  • Significance of study
  • Purpose of the study
  • Limitations of study
  • Delimitations
  • Definitions of terms

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0    Literature review

2.1    Introduction

2.2    Theoretical framework

2.3    Empirical Interpretation

2.4    Summary of Literature review

CHAPTER THREE

  • Methodology

3.1    Research design

3.2    Population

3.3    Sampling / sample

3.4    Sample size

3.5    Sampling techniques

3.6    Measuring Instrument

3.7    Validity / Reliability

3.8    Method of data analysis

 

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Presentation of data and analysis

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0    Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1    Summary

5.2    Recommendation

5.3    Conclusion

Reference

Appendix 1

Questionnaires

 

ABSTRACT

Magazine is an embodiment of detailed report, analysis and interpretation of events combined with literary and artistic works produced periodically for the generally born specific audience. Okumma, (1999,p.34) magazine as a print medium like the newspaper which is a bound periodically (not an everyday publication) that contains variety of content written by various contributions. On this platform therefore, this study looks at “magazine reading habits of students in tertiary institutions in Anambra state with Federal College of education (Tech) Umunze as the study area. The magazine emerged to satisfy their desire for education, information and entertainment as knowledge is always acquired everyday in the life of human being. The survey research method was deemed right in conducting the research. Out of a total population of 5000, a sample size of 400 was used and data was collected from respondent through the use of questionnaire. The copies of questionnaire were used as instrument to elicit or generate relevant responses from eh population of the study. At the end of the study, it was discovered that a good number of students at their early age of study could not distinguish between magazine and newspaper and in that loose interest in reading magazines. I will recommend that magazine owners’ practitioners should bridge this gap by ensuring that students devote more time on reading magazine through attractive and interest in the packaging.

 

 CHAPTER ONE

1.1     INTRODUCTION

 

          Magazine is a type of printed publication. It is a periodical publication containing articles and illustrations often on a past and present events aimed and written for a particular readership.

Magazine are usually published weekly, monthly or bi-monthly. It is like the newspaper only that they are well and better packaged, bound together and contains in-depth and well researched news.

According to Nwosu (2005,p.13) Magazine like the newspaper is a popular read. It is ubiquitous, found in all nooks and crannies of any society. It is like the newspapers an institutionalized material which has created excitement and sadness.

According to Alozie (2009,p.102), magazine is a bound printed publication which contains news and other forms of information on a wide range of recent and past events.

Also, according to Owuamalam (2010,p.12) sees magazine as the collection of materials usually text and visuals compiled into a volume as a publication

The inquisitive nature of man has been the basic instinct that has driven him to grace for the intriques of life.

To assuage the thirst for information, education and entertainment, the mass media, an institution channel with the responsibility of detailing the events, of the day in words sound and pictures came as a rescue.

However, the audiences of this great institution (mass media) are known to be discriminatory, responsive and are also selective in choice and perception of mass media messages. They prefer a medium that can report, analyse and interpret events in a colourful package. No other medium can carry out this responsibility objectively and excellently except the magazine.

According to Okunna, (1999,p.34) explained that magazine as a print medium like the newspaper which is bound periodically (not an everyday publication) that contains variety of content written by various contributions.

Furthermore, Haulting and Nelson, (1992,p.100) described it as “A publication which serves as stored house for essays, stories, news, poems and other items to entertain and instruct readers.

Moreso,a magazine is an embodiment of detailed reports ,analysis and interpretation of events combined with literary and artistic works produced periodically for the generally born specific audience .

The audience reacts to the contents of the message presented . Different people utilize different media for different purposes or reasons. The selection of a particular media meswsage depends on expectation or importance of the media to the users value.

Many magazine publish special edition to reach those specialized audience. What may appear to be one nationally distributed magazine is actually several specialized publication under the same cover. For example, time magazine publication both demographic and regional editions. There are three types of magazine, trade, consumer magazine and business magazine. Trade magazine cater to different callings except professions. They discuss, pricings, where to get what product etc. they are principally concerned with merchandising on marketing operations. The circulation is to people involved in the trade for proper information and news. Retailers and distributerso could benefit from the contents.

Consumers magazine, involves very popular type of magazine, the general interest and special interest appeals. In Nigeria, both enjoy sizabale number of readership. The general interest editorial content cuts across a lot of key demographics zones, age, sex, profession, ethnicity etc. this is because the articles are broad affecting everybody in a special way. Also special interest magazine is more restricted and is directed to select people of both sexes an unspecified mature age group.

According to Nwosu (2005.p.21) Business magazine is a publication that is directed at an identified group with some peculiarity would run into the type of industry, business, professions, vacation or occupation. It is educative and should enhance mobility in either status intellectual or in profession after imbibing the subject of discourse.

Also there are variations of magazine based on the frequency of publication. These include weekly monthly and quarterly magazine. The radiation of magazine is one thing, the attitude of the generality of the people towards them is another thing. People tend ot read one type of magazine or the other. This different in choice can be attributed to their different contents, gender, age, educational level, profession and economic status.

While some people red stories relating to national and international news like economy, spors, political, editorial etc, others are interested in reading entertainment materials like cartoon, feminine issues in terms of fashion and cookery as well as crime, accidents and disaster. It is realization of the indispensable and invaluable rote, which the magazine play in keeping the society alive that a loss of question to mind. What constitutes an impediment to the reading or what influences their reading behaviour of these magazine.

Weber and Flaming (1989,pp.142-150)  had conducted a lot o studies on magazine reading behaviour. Their studies have come to prove that male have more positive attitude towards reading of magazine than the female. A major reason for the overall steady growth of magazines has been their ability to adapt with remarkable efficiency to the changing media behaviour of readers and the unpredicatable changes in the economy. In the light of this awareness, the study reflects its search light on “Reading behaviour of students in Institution of Higher Learning in Anambra States (A case study of Federal College of Education (Tech) Umunze.

1.2   STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS

Magazine a division of the print media, known for

disseminating detailed information of events to the public in, 15 role as the information processor, the magazine which is involved in news gathering, editing and dissemination has built, within its structure, devices to ensure the packaging of stories   worthy   of   publication   in   order   to   perform  the enormous function of mass communication. The extent to which the magazine performs the functions referred to the audience perception of the  content.  But the students  of Federal College of Education (Tech) Umunze, a subsection of the public, have different attitudes towards different classes of magazine.

Hence, this research was carried out on the magazine reading behavior of students in Federal College of Education (Tech) Umunze in order to unfold the factors necessitating the choice of magazine. Thus, the study tended to answer the question as to why some students of this school read certain content of the magazine and others. It also examined the question whether time factor, age and year of study affect the magazine reading habit of students.

1.3   OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

This esearch is primarily undertaken to uncover the degree of magazine reading behaviour of students in Federal College of Education (TECH) Umunze

1)      To examining the magazine reading nature of students

2)      Ascertain the frequency of issues affecting students covered by the magazine.

3)      To examine the extent at which the student’s reads the magazine.

4)      To ascertain whether the magazine adequately solve the problems of the students

1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

To  realize the set objectives of      this study, the following questions are posed;

  1. Does the proliferation of magazines determine students
    reading habits of such magazine?
  2. To what  extent  do  magazine  contents  influence  the
    students  in  Federal  College  of Education  (Technical)
    Umunze?
  3. Docs the frequency of publication   affect  the  reading habits of students in Federal College of Education (Tech] Umunze?
  4. What factors or situations influence the reading habits of students in   Federal   College    of   Education (Tech) Umunze?

1.5   SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

 

  1. The existing problems  of magazine  reading  habits

of students in institution of higher learning like Federal College of Education (Tech) Umunze, are significant to justify the need to change  the  status quo and this  study will offer solutions to the problems.

The need for this study is seen in terms of the benefit the study would offer to the research, individuals, the media and the society. The study will help the researcher to understand students more with a view to advising them on how best to achieve a greater improvement in their quest for academic and intellectual proficiency. It will also help the media owners and media practitioners to know if information meant for students reach them. It will also enable the media practitioners to know how the dissemination of information could be best handled.

Consequently, it will also enable media practitioner’s to appreciate more of the problems relating to information flow as it concerns the students level of commitment for information meant for them. The study will be of great value in determining the extent to which the magazine reading rate has influenced the contribution of students for the issue of societal betterment- It will also help the society in gaining an insight into the role the society can play in order to boost student’s awareness.

1.6      PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

  1. The purpose of the study  is  to find  out  if students of this institution read magazines.
  2. To discover the kind of magazine that they read
  3. To determine the reading behaviour in terms of where and when they read magazine.
  4. To discover what influences the reading behaviour of the students.
  5. To know the problems that militates against

the reading behaviour of the student in Federal College of Education (Tech) Umunze.

TYPES OF MAGAZINES

Magazine are of different types, depending on its areas of interest. As the case maybe, every magazine has a target audience whoe the magazine want to satisfy. To be able to satisfy the needs of this particular audience, the magazine is packaged in a way that those needs are met, magazine covers a wide range. Some are focused on sports, health, telecommunicaiton, advertising, education, fashion, entertainment etc the type of magazines are as follows:

  1. General interest magazine
  2. Special interest magazine

3       News magazine

  1. Sensational magazine
  2. Scholarly magazine etc.
  3. The general interest magazine: Is published by Clair Maxwell cent, and it is published weekly and established in 2002. according to Mott (2010,p.103) general interest magazine contains a wide variety of reading materials that are intended to appeal to virtually every kind of reader. These include entertainment, opinion, news, interpretation etc.
  4. Special interest magazine: According to Hiebert et al (1974), on their discusion of the nature of the special interest magazine; magazine are increasingly providing communicaiton for special interest groups and have increasingly found their strength in their ability to reach readers who are related not by geography but by interest whether professional, occupational, vocational or even sexual. Moreover, the special interest magazine offers its readers content that is tailored to match their specific interest and thus justify the high subscripiton ratio which they pay for such magazine.

3       The news Maagzine

This type of magazine is the most influenctial of the types of magazines. They are publications designed to summarize the news and provide added depth and interpretation that newspapers cannot give. They deal more with contemporary affairs, publish articles, news and discuss issues in such diverse fields like religion, labou, politics, sports, art, the environment etc.

  1. Sensational magazine: This type of magazine can also be find in a newspaper format. They are thin, but large in size as compared to other magazine. Sensational magazine are said to thrive on creating a stir. Flashy headlines are used to attract attention of the readers, and the main focus is on stories related to celebrities or any other amazing stories.
  2. Scholarly magazine: This mainly focus on academics and it reviews inforamtion and in depth in all subjects. The formats of providing inforamtion in a scholarly magazine is in highly order and so the text books alike. You find more of graphs and charts rather than picturs and as well as teaching and providing help in researches. And was founded in the 18th century.

1.7     LIMITATION OF STUDY

In the cause of conducting this research work, some constraints were encountered. Some students who were administered questionnaires did not return them thereby limiting scope of sampling. Also some of the student refused to volunteer sensible answers in completing the questionnaires. Another impediment to this study was the difficulty in the access to right literature which almost hindered to greater extent, the whole research process. Even the researcher found it daunting to get a related literature or material in the course of this study. Finally, the constraints in having access to the departmental library for more research on the study nearly crippled the efforts of the researcher.

 

1.8  DELIMITATIONS

This research work was delimited to only the regular students running their programmes in federal College of ducat ion (Tech) Umunze.

1 .9 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS

Certain variable are of keen interest to the research, are magazine, reading habit, communication, random sampling, design, college, institution, information, education, message, source, channels and response.

MAGAZINE: Is a type of printed publication. It is a periodical publciation containing articles and illustratins often on a past and present events aimed and written for a particualr readership.

READING BEHAVIOUR: This is the way students read magazine behavior,  interest,  potentials  and  opinion  of an  audience whose life have been affected by being exposed to magazine.

COMMUNICATION:   Communication    is    defined    as the sharing of ideas, information, opinion, feelings or experiences between people. This values two-ways flow of information, the source and receiver.

RANDOM SAMPLING: Random sampling is the method of a population a universal so that each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected.

DESIGN: This is the term used to describe a number of decisions which need to be taken regarding the collection of data before ever data are collected.

MESSAGE: This is the actual content or derivable meaning of the message or derivable meaning of the information exchange via communication. It is that purpose of communication and embodies the idea, thought or expression that the source sends to whomever the message is meant for [the audience].

SOURCE:    This    is    the    major    element    person)    who information or message comes from. It is usually a human element viz, a speaker, teacher, writer, broadcaster etc.

CHANNEL(S): This is the medium via which the message or information passes to the receiver (audience). It may consist of various means like: a printed material, a broadcast medium, a town crier, an adverts van etc.

RESPONSE: After the receiver has interpreted the message, he would then react by manner of the response. Whatever way the receiver responds depends on his interpretation of the message.

 

 

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ASSESSING THE OPERATIONAL PROBLEMS OF PRIVATE BROADCASTING MEDIA IN NIGERIA

ASSESSING THE OPERATIONAL PROBLEMS OF PRIVATE BROADCASTING MEDIA IN NIGERIA

[CASE STUDY OF VISION AFRICA 104.1FM AND FAMILY LOVE 103.9FM] UMUAHIA NORTH

LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

ABIA STATE

 

 

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ABSTRACT

The topic of this research work, assessing the operational problems of private broadcasting media in Nigeria is self emphatic and the researcher focus on the private broadcasting media of Umuahia North, Abia State Nigeria. Private broadcasting media depends to a large extent on the government and the private media owners reason that the government who deregulated broadcasting media  and set up (NBC) in decree 38 of 1992 who are in-charge of the private broadcasting media licensing, renewal, and revocation should endeavour to see that it thrives well, also the private media owners should make efforts to see they avoid any form of operational problem. So in order for there to be progressive operation in private broadcasting media there is need to identify and curb various operational problems militating against private broadcasting media organizations in the country.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   Introduction                                                             1

  • Background of the study 1
  • Statement of problems 5
  • Objective of the study 6
  • Significant of the study 7
  • Research questions 8
  • Limitation of the study                                            8
  • Scope of the Study 9
  • Definition of Terms 9

CHAPTER  TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW                                                   11

2.1   Literature Review                                                     11

2.2   Trends in Newspaper Coverage of Sports in Nigeria      14

2.3   An overview of Nigeria Sports                                   22

2.4   Problems of Nigerian Sports                                     24

2.5   Roles of the Press in Tacking the Problem                      27

2.6   Theoretical Framework                                            29

2.7   Summary of literature review                                   32

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOOGY                                    33

Introduction

  • Research design and Method of study 33
  • Population of the study 33
  • Design of the study 23
  • Sampling techniques         36
  • Instrument for Data collection 36
  • Validation and reliability of Data Source 36
  • Method of Data analysis 37

CHAPTER FOUR

Data Presentation, Analysis and discussion                    38

4.1   Data presentation and analysis                               38

4.2   Discussion of findings                                             44

CHAPTER FIVE

Summary, conclusion and Recommendations                   47

  • Summary of findings 47
  • Conclusion 48
  • Recommendations  50
  • Area of further study                                        52

References                                                                               53

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0                                   INTRODUCTION

 

1.1   Background of the Study

 

        Broadcasting is a global phenomenon. As an essential aspect of any nation’s social and cultural life, its significance cannot be over emphasized. Combining audio, vision and motion the broadcast media effectiveness in communicating information with speed and accuracy to heterogeneous audience has been proven over the years. However, in Nigeria for several decades following the inception  of broadcasting in 1957 (Obazele, 1996), the industry led a sheltered life shielded from the winds, the free market forces as successive regimes ensured that the sector remained an exclusive monopoly of the central government. Even the 1979 constitutional provision for the establishment of private electronic media could not change the trend.

Heralding the emergence of private broadcasting in Nigeria, to be or not to be generated diverse opinions. Some is of the thought that the best way to use the broadcast media as a facilitator of development is to have them owned and controlled by the government, others opined that the best result will be achieved by the private sector.

Against the background of the Nigeria public yearning for a greater variety in programming as well as alternative sources of information to the mainstream government controlled stations, the federal government during Babangida’s regime promulgated decree N0. 38 which liberalized the industry and also established the National Broadcasting Commission (NBC). This decree (38) of August 24 (1992) empowered the NBC to regulate the entire broadcast industry, both public and private.

This singular act by the Babangida’s military presidency eclipsed the over 50 years of sole government domination of the sector in Nigeria. The NBC’s major responsibilities are, insurance, renewal and revocation of licenses as well as setting and enforcement of standard in context and quality of programmes on Radio and Television etc.

As excepted the NBC has recorded some achievements, some of the first set of private broadcasting organization whose presidential approval secured by the NBC, had already begun full operation. These includes clapper board television Lagos, Minaj system television Obosi, Ray power in Lagos, Vision Africa Umuahia, and latter Family love Fm Umuahia.

In the light of the original blue-print of their establishment, the private broadcasting organization are excepted to adhere to the regulatory broadcasting policies, codes and standard in the course of their operations towards attaining a set of predetermined goals laid down by the regulatory bodies such as NBC.

The deregulation of the broadcast industry which finally kicked off in May, 1993, with issuance of television and cable satellite redistribution licenses to private organizations saw DAAR communication Limited Lagos in 1992 emerge as the first recipient of the radio licenses (Guardian Oct. 1995).

Thus, a study directed towards examining or assessing the operational problems of private broadcasting media in Nigeria using Family Love Fm and Vision Africa Fm as a study, is a worthwhile exercise.

  • Statement of the Problem

In view of this discussion, this study look at the operational problems of private broadcast media (radio) in Nigeria using Vision Africa 104.1 Fm and Family Love 103.9Fm Umuahia as a case study.

Most private broadcast media (radio) are faced with a lot of problems in their operation. This is so because, since they are not owned by the government and cannot serve as the mouth piece and to some extent, this affect them because, the government is not responsible for their finances they are only sponsored by their owners and incase of financial constraint, they will surely be affected.

Most private broadcasting media lack the tactics in the management of its staffs and resources available to them and this causes lack of commitment by its workers thereby causing more harm than good to the organization.

Most private broadcasting media are faced with impediments that lead to ineffective coverage which leads to distortions in their operation.

1.3   Objective of the Study

The research objective is not the problems of private broadcasting in Nigeria but these are the specific objectives which led to the main objective:

  1. To know and identify the challenges and setbacks encountered by private broadcasting organization.
  2. To know if private ownership affects private broadcasting organizations from carrying out its duties effectively.
  3. To know if there is any prospect for advancement and improvement of the private broadcasting organizations.

1.4   Research Questions / Hypotheses

These are the various research questions that guides this study:

  1. What are the challenges and setbacks encountered by private broadcasting organizations?

2,     To what extent does private ownership affect private broadcasting organizations from carryout its duties effectively?

  1. Is there any prospect for advancement and improvement of the private broadcasting organizations?

1.5   Significance of the Study

These are the various significant of the study in broadcasting:

  1. It provides insight into more effective broadcasting towards achieving the predetermined goals and obligation.
  2. The research work is of benefit to students of mass communication, who are notably the future broadcasters who will definitely get to face the challenges faced by the private broadcasting organizations, as it lists out guides towards effective and result oriented broadcasting operations.
  3. The research work can serve as a material for reference to individual in the field of broadcasting.

1.6   Scope of the Study

        This study examined the operational problems of private broadcasting media in Nigeria through a study of this nature sufficient validity.

The researcher will not find it easy to examine or assess every private broadcasting media in Nigeria because of certain factors such as home and finance, that is why this study is limited to Family Love Fm and Vision Africa Radio Stations Umuahia.

1.7   Limitations of the Study

A lot of problems were encountered in the course of carrying out this research work because of some reasons.

Financial constraints were the first consideration, due to the economy of the country presently transport fare has sky rocked and because of that the researcher is a student therefore could not afford it.

Also, the researcher also found it very hard to locate the place the stations are situated.

The researcher did not also have adequate time for more research to be done of the study because of he task of putting school activities and the research together.

1.8   Definitions of Terms

Broadcasting: The transmission of information ideas, issues, operations through air space by means of radio frequency of signals capable of being received aurally or visually or both by the general public.

Broadcast media: This consist of all radio and television stations owned and controlled by the government or individual and it can also be used in sending out programmes on radio or television to a large number of people in order to achieve information and entertainment dissemination.

Radio: It is an aural or audio medium and the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating some property of electromagnetically energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase or pulse width.

Operational problems: The difficulties encountered by the private broadcasting media in their operation or in the dissemination of news, entertainment and information.

Private Broadcast Media: It means those radio or television stations owned or belonging to one particular individual or a group only.

 

 

 

 

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ASSESSING THE OPERATIONAL PROBLEMS OF PRIVATE BROADCASTING MEDIA IN NIGERIA

ASSESSING THE OPERATIONAL PROBLEMS OF PRIVATE BROADCASTING MEDIA IN NIGERIA

[CASE STUDY OF VISION AFRICA 104.1FM AND FAMILY LOVE 103.9FM] UMUAHIA NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA ABIA STATE

 

 

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ABSTRACT

The topic of this research work, assessing the operational problems of private broadcasting media in Nigeria is self emphatic and the research focus on the private broadcasting media of Umuahia North, Abia State Nigeria. Private broadcasting media depends to a large extent on the government and the private media owners reason that the government who deregulated broadcasting media  and set up (NBC) in decree 38 of 1992 who are in-charge of the private broadcasting media licensing renewal, and revocation should endavour to see that it thrives well also the private media owners should make efforts to see they avoid any form of operational problem. So in order for there to be progressive operation in private broadcasting media there is need to identify and curb various operational problems militating against private broadcasting media organizations in the country.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   Introduction                                                             1

  • Background of the study 1
  • Statement of problems 5
  • Objective of the study 6
  • Significant of the study 7
  • Research questions 8
  • Limitation of the study                                            8
  • Scope of the Study 9
  • Definition of Terms 9

CHAPTER  TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW                                                   11

2.1   Literature Review                                                     11

2.2   Trends in Newspaper Coverage of Sports in Nigeria      14

2.3   An overview of Nigeria Sports                                   22

2.4   Problems of Nigerian Sports                                     24

2.5   Roles of the Press in Tacking the Problem                      27

2.6   Theoretical Framework                                            29

2.7   Summary of literature review                                   32

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOOGY                                    33

Introduction

  • Research design and Method of study 33
  • Population of the study 33
  • Design of the study 23
  • Sampling techniques 36
  • Instrument for Data collection 36
  • Validation and reliability of Data Source 36
  • Method of Data analysis 37

CHAPTER FOUR

Data Presentation, Analysis and discussion                    38

4.1   Data presentation and analysis                               38

4.2   Discussion of findings                                             44

CHAPTER FIVE

Summary, conclusion and Recommendations                   47

  • Summary of findings 47
  • Conclusion 48
  • Recommendations  50
  • Area of further study                                        52

References                                                                               53

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0                                   INTRODUCTION

 

1.1   Background of the Study

 

        Broadcasting is a global phenomenon. As an essential aspect of any nation’s social and cultural life, its significance cannot be over emphasized. Combining audio, vision and motion the broadcast media effectiveness in communicating information with speed and accuracy to heterogeneous audience has been proven over the years. However, in Nigeria for several decades following the inception  of broadcasting in 1957 (Obazele, 1996), the industry led a sheltered life shielded from the winds, the free market forces as successive regimes ensured that the sector remained an exclusive monopoly of the central government. Even the 1979 constitutional provision for the establishment of private electronic media could not change the trend.

Heralding the emergence of private broadcasting in Nigeria, to be or not to be generated diverse opinions. Some is of the thought that the best way to use the broadcast media as a facilitator of development is to have them owned and controlled by the government, others opined that the best result will be achieved by the private sector.

Against the background of the Nigeria public yearning for a greater variety in programming as well as alternative sources of information to the mainstream government controlled stations, the federal government during Babangida’s regime promulgated decree N0. 38 which liberalized the industry and also established the National Broadcasting Commission (NBC). This decree (38) of August 24 (1992) empowered the NBC to regulate the entire broadcast industry, both public and private.

This singular act by the Babangida’s military presidency eclipsed the over 50 years of sole government domination of the sector in Nigeria. The NBC’s major responsibilities are, insurance, renewal and revocation of licenses as well as setting and enforcement of standard in context and quality of programmes on Radio and Television etc.

As excepted the NBC has recorded some achievements, some of the first set of private broadcasting organization whose presidential approval secured by the NBC, had already begun full operation. These includes clapper board television Lagos, Minaj system television Obosi, Ray power in Lagos, Vision Africa Umuahia, and latter Family love Fm Umuahia.

In the light of the original blue-print of their establishment, the private broadcasting organization are excepted to adhere to the regulatory broadcasting policies, codes and standard in the course of their operations towards attaining a set of predetermined goals laid down by the regulatory bodies such as NBC.

The deregulation of the broadcast industry which finally kicked off in May, 1993, with issuance of television and cable satellite redistribution licenses to private organizations saw DAAR communication Limited Lagos in 1992 emerge as the first recipient of the radio licenses (Guardian Oct. 1995).

Thus, a study directed towards examining or assessing the operational problems of private broadcasting media in Nigeria using Family Love Fm and Vision Africa Fm as a study, is a worthwhile exercise.

  • Statement of the Problem

In view of this discussion, this study look at the operational problems of private broadcast media (radio) in Nigeria using Vision Africa 104.1 Fm and Family Love 103.9Fm Umuahia as a case study.

Most private broadcast media (radio) are faced with a lot of problems in their operation. This is so because, since they are not owned by the government and cannot serve as the mouth piece and to some extent, this affect them because, the government is not responsible for their finances they are only sponsored by their owners and incase of financial constraint, they will surely be affected.

Most private broadcasting media lack the tactics in the management of its staffs and resources available to them and this causes lack of commitment by its workers thereby causing more harm than good to the organization.

Most private broadcasting media are faced with impediments that lead to ineffective coverage which leads to distortions in their operation.

1.3   Objective of the Study

The research objective is not the problems of private broadcasting in Nigeria but these are the specific objectives which led to the main objective:

  1. To know and identify the challenges and setbacks encountered by broadcasting organization.
  2. To know if private ownership affects private broadcasting organizations from carrying out its duties effectively.
  3. To know if there is any prospect for advancement and improvement of the private broadcasting organizations.

1.4   Research Questions / Hypotheses

These are the various research questions that guides this study:

  1. What are the challenges and setbacks encountered by private broadcasting organizations?

2,     To what extent does private ownership affect private broadcasting organizations from carryout its duties effectively?

  1. Is there any prospect for advancement and improvement of the private broadcasting organizations?

1.5   Significance of the Study

These are the various significant of the study in broadcasting:

  1. It provides insight into more effective broadcasting towards achieving the predetermined goals and obligation.
  2. The research work is of benefit to students of mass communication, who are notably the future broadcasters who will definitely get to face the challenges faced by the private broadcasting organizations, as it lists out guides towards effective and result oriented broadcasting operations.
  3. The research work can serve as a material for reference to individual in the field of broadcasting.

1.6   Scope of the Study

        This study examined the operational problems of private broadcasting media in Nigeria through a study of this nature sufficient validity.

The researcher will not find it easy to examine or assess every private broadcasting media in Nigeria because of certain factors such as home and finance, that is why this study is limited to Family Love Fm and Vision Africa Radio Stations Umuahia.

1.7   Limitations of the Study

A lot of problems were encountered in the course of carrying out this research work because of some reasons.

Financial constraints were the first consideration, due to the economy of the country presently transport fare has sky rocked and because of that the researcher is a student therefore could not afford it.

Also, the researcher also found it very hard to locate the place the stations are situated.

The researcher did not also have adequate time for more research to be done of the study because of he task of putting school activities and the research together.

1.8   Definitions of Terms

Broadcasting: The transmission of information ideas, issues, operations through air space by means of radio frequency of signals capable of being received aurally or visually or both by the general public.

Broadcast media: This consist of all radio and television stations owned and controlled by the government or individual and it can also be used in sending out programmes on radio or television to a large number of people in order to achieve information and entertainment dissemination.

Radio: It is an aural or audio medium and the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating some property of electromagnetically energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase or pulse width.

Operational problems: The difficulties encountered by the private broadcasting media in their operation or in the dissemination of news, entertainment and information.

Private Broadcast Media: It means those radio or television stations owned or belonging to one particular individual or a group only.

 

 

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Communication Project Topics And Materials For Students in Nigeria

Communication Project Topics And Materials For Students in Nigeria

 

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We provide recent Communication Project Topics And Materials For Students , research topics in mass communication and journalism , project topics on advertising and public relations And mass communication project proposal and final year project topics mass communication  to help  students in  achieving  grade A result in project writing. Best and reliability is our standard. Below is:

Mass Communication Project Topics And Materials For Students

1 The Role Of Public Relations In Enhancing Customers’ Sati Station  (A Case Study Of Nigerian Airways Enugu )
2 The Impact Of News Commentaries On Radio Listeners (A Case Study Of Federal Radio Corporation Of Nigeria Enugu)
3 Hazards Of Journalism Profession Under Military Regime
(From 1993 – 1998)
4 Mass Media Coverage Of Rural Development News. A Content Analytical Study Of The Guardian, Daily Champion, Punch And Daily Star Newspapers.
5 The Role Of Modern Technology In Achieving Communication Efficiency In Nigeria
6 Information Technology And The Changing Role Of Mass Media In Nigeria A Discourse On The Impact Of Information Technology And Media Development In Nigeria
7 The Role Of The Broadcasting Media In Uplifting The Educational System Of Enugu State.  (A Case Study Of Enugu Metropolis )
8 A Comparative Study On “The Importance Of Pidgin English In Broadcasting (A Case Study Of The Esbs Enugu
9 The Impact Of Testimonial Use On Advertising Effectiveness (A Case Study Of Kanu Nwankwo In Pear Milk Advertisment)
10 An Assessment Of The Effects Of Television Programmes On Youths(A Case Study Of Campus Circuit On Minaj Broadcast International)
11 The Role Of Radio In Democratic Society (A Case Study Of Enugu North Local Government Area)
12 The Role Of Public Relations In Enhancing Customers Satisfaction In A Government Perastattals
13 The Role Of Public Relations In Enhancing Customers Satisfaction In A Government Perastattals
14 The Role Of Radio In Mobilizing Women In Politics In Enugu Urban Areas
15 The Impact Of Women In Advertisements
(A Case Study Of Delta Soap Television Advertisement)
16 The Role Of Community Public  In Conflict Management
17 Public Relations As A Tool For Industrial Harmony.
(A Case Study Of Construction Industry In Enugu State
18 The Role Of Mass Media Coverage In The Family Planning And It’s Adoption By The Families In South East Geo-Political Zone And Nigerian Generally.
19 The Role Of Public Relations In Building A Corporate Image
20 Comparative Analysis Of The Problems Facing Private Televisions And Government Televisions In The Dissemination Of Information In Nigeria
22 The Use Of Computer In Management Information System In First Bank Plc, Enugu.
23 The Role Of Print Media Communication In Sports Development.
(A Case Study Of Enugu State)
24 Role Of Mass Communication In Developing Countries Nigeria As A Case Study
25 Influence Of Media Ownership On Professionalism
26 Effects Of Government Ownership And Control Of Mass Media On Me Dia Objectivity (A Case Study Of Esbs)
27 Mass Media And The Management Of Human Rights Abuses In Nigeria
29 Media Ownership And Its Influence On Editorial Policy (A Case Study Of Announcer Newspaper Owerri)
30 Television As An Instrument Of Educational Advancement In Enugu State
31  Attitude Of Female Mass Communication Students Towards Journalism As A Career
32 Attitude Of Television Audience Towards Commercial Interruption Of Television Programmes.
33 Television Viewing Habits Of Nigerian Elites.  A Case Study Of Enugu Metropolis
34 Communication And Its Problems In Developing Countries (Nigerai As A Case Study}
35 The Impact Of Nigerian Press On Shaping The Country’s Political Structure (Period Of Study 1999 To 2004
36 Public Relations, As A Tool For Eradicating Cultism In Nigerian Tertiary Institutions (A Case Study Of Institute Of Management And Technology (Imt) Enugu
37 Public Relations As A Management Function Problems And Impact (A Case Study Of The Anambra State Education Commission Awka
38 An Appraisal Of Press Freedom In African Societies (A Case Study Of Nigeria In Period Of 1999 – 2003)”.
39  Media Staff Welfare And Effective Journalism In Nigeria
A Case Study Of N.U.J Press Centre Enugu State Chapter
40 The Effects Of Tobacco Advertising On Youths (A Case Study Of Students Of Institute Of Management And Technology)
41  Cultural Influence Of Foreign Programme In Broadcasting (A Case Study Of ‘Channel O’ Programme On Enugu Residents)
42 The Effect Of Voilent Film On Nigerian Children . A Case Study Of Children In Enugu Urban
43 Assessment Of The Role Of The Media In Anti – Corruption Campagin
44 Feedback Mechanism As A Tool In Determining Programming (A Case Study Of Esbs 2 Fm) Enugu.
45 Press As A Vehicle For Effective Rural Development (A Case Study Of Idemili Local Government Area Of Anambra State
46 Language Problems In Nigeria Broadcast Media
47 Newspaper And Television As An Agent Of Social Development (A Case Study Of Adaba Community.
48 The Impact Of Western Television Programmes On The Cultural Values Of The Nigerian Youths: A Case Study Of Esut Students, Enugu.
49 Privatization And Commercialization Of Electronic Media In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Minaj System Television Obosi)
50 The Impact Of Advertising On The Marketing Of Global System For Mobile (Gsm) Communication In Enugu State (A Study Of Mtn Nigerian Communication Limited)
51 Television Tobacco Adverts And Teenage Smoking Habit: ( A Survey Of Youths In Owerri Municipality
52 Viewer Ship Of Television Programmes In Enugu State (Case Study Of Enugu South Local Government)
53 Improving Organizations Profitability Through Effective Advertising. (A Survey Of Some Selected Hotels In Enugu Urban)
54 Electronic Media As An Effective Instrument For Cultural Propagation  (Case Study Of Osina Town In Imo State)
55 The Role Of The Press In A Democracy (The Press In Perspective)
56 The Role Of Radio In Mobilizing Nigerian Women Into Politics
57 Sustainable Educational Policies And National Development, The Nigeria Experience(35 Pages)
58 Reporters Responsibilities And The Urban – Rural News IMBALANCES IN Nigerian Newspapers
59 The Role Of Public Relations In The Maintenance Of Industrial Harmony(A Case Study Of Enugu State)
62 The Impact Of Radio Programme In Economic Development In Nigeria.(A Case Study Of Radio Nigeria Enugu National Station)
63 Problems Of Broadcasting In A Depressed Economy (A Case Study Of The Esbs (Enugu)
64 The Impact Of News Commercialization On Management Of Broadcast Media In Nigeria (Case Study Of Nigeria Television Authority (Nta) Enugu.
65  The Role Of Radio In Improving The Educational System In Enugu State: A Case Study Of Esbs/Imt Poly Air Programme
66  An Assessment Of Mass Media’s Role In Supporting Women Employment Campaign In Nigeria
67  Trend In The Use Of Human Models In The Nigeria Advertising Industry
68  Public Relations As Tool For Enhancing Consumer Satisfaction A Case Study Of Nigerian Airways,
69 Newspaper Readership Pattern Among Nigerian Youths (A Case Study Of Imt Students)
70  The Effect Of Good Public Relation And Organized Promotions On The Achievement Of Marketing Objective, Case Study Of Nigeria Brewerie Plc
71  An Appraisal Of Nigerian Media As An Instrument For Eradicating Corruption (A Case Study Of Federal Radio Corporation Of Nigeria’s Effects In Obasanjo’s Anti-Corruption Crusade). :
72  Sustenance Of Nigerian Mass Media Industry The Critical Role Of Advertising
73  The Assessment Of Nigeria Press Council As A Regulatory Mechanism For Nigerian Journalists
74  The Effects Of Television Advertisements On The Buying Habit Of Consumers [Peak Milk Advert In Perspective] A Case Study Of Enugu Urban Dwellers

75  The Effects Of Tv Adverts On Children  (A Case Study Of Enugu Urban)
76   The Role Of The Media In The Crusade Against Global Terrorism – A Case Study Of The Vanguard And Punch Newspapers
78  The Role Of Mass Media In Educational Development In Nigeral  A Case Study Of Nta Enugu
79  Government Use Of Extra Legal Measures Against Media Practitioners A Case Study Of Sani Abacha Regime.
80    The Role Of Third World News Agencies In Global Dissemination Of Information (A Case Study Of News Agency Of Nigeria (Nan)
100   An Evaluation Study On The Impact Of Colour Representation In Magazine Advertising  ( A Case Study Of Anambra State Polytechnic Oko)
101   The-Influence Of Age, Sex And Economic Status On Media Preference Among The Enugu Audience.
102     Crimes In Nigerian Newspapers: A Content Analysis Of The Guardian And Daily Times.
103   How Existing Laws And Ethics In Nigeria Affects The Operations Of The Journalist
104    The Influence Of Broadcast Media Campaigns About Aids On The Nigerian Youths.
105   Cable Television Services And Cultural Imperialism:
A Study Of Viewership Patterns In Port Harcourt
106    Western Media Reportage Of Developing Countries; A Study Of British Broadcasting Corporation (Bb) And Voice Of America (Voa)
107   An   Assessment Of Mass Media’s Role In The Campaign Against Drug Abuse In Nigeria
108     The Role Of The Broadcast Media In The Campaign Against  Hiv/Aids In  Nigeria
109    Public  Relations As A Means Enhancing Banking Operations  A Case Study Of First Bank Of Nigeria Plc Enugu Main Branch
110    The Impact Of Advertising In A Corporate Organization ( A Case Study Of First Bank  Of Nigeria )
111   The  Role Of Television In The  Political Mobilization Of Rural   Areas In Nigeria

112    The Role Of Mass Media  In Community Development
113    The Influence Of Gold Circle Condom  Television Advertisement On The Behavioral  Partial Of Nigerian Men
114    The Impact Of Using Celebrities In Television Advertisement ( A Study Of Pepsi Soft Drink In Benin Metropolis)
115    Viewer Ship Of Television Programmed In Enugu State (Case Study Of Imt Students)
116      Radio As An Effective Tool For Social Development In Nigerian Rural Areas
117    Press Freedom In Nigeria An Evaluative Study Of The Situation From 1993 To  2013
118     The Impacts Of News Commercialization On Mass Media Image In Nigeria
119    A Case For Community Radio In Information Between Urban And Rural Areas In Enugu State
120   Impact Of Exposure To Foreign Media On Nigerian Youths
121    A Comparative Assessment Of Public Relations Functions In The Nigerian Banking System And Government Parastatals (A Case Study Of Anammco Nigeria Ltd Emene Enugu And All State Trust Bank Plc Lagos)
122    Hazards Of Journalism Profession Under Military Regime (From 1993 – 1998)
123      Campaign For Women Empowerment In Nigeria. It’s Strategies, Problems And Prospects
124      Press Freedom In Nigeria: A Study Of Government And Relations Under Ibrahim Babangida Regime
125     An Appraisal Of Nigeria Media As Instrument Of Eradiating Corruption In Nigeria  (Case Study Of Nta Effect On Obasanjo’s Anti- Corruption Crusade)
126    The Effectiveness Of Advertising On Organizations Profit Maximization (A Case Study Of Some Selected Hotels In Enugu Urban)
127    Changing Hostile Attitude Of Oil Producing Communities Through, Effective Publication  (A Case Study Of Shell Petroleum Development Company)
128   Information Technology And The Changing Role Of The Media In Nigeria (A Case Study Of The Impact Of Information And Media Development In Nigeria)
129    Effect Of Government Ownership And Control Of Mass Media On Media Objectivity  (A Case Study Of Esbs)
130    Children And Mass Media: The Role Of Mass Media In Childhood Socialization  (A Case Study Of University Primary School Enugu And Obiagu Primary School)
131    The Nigeria Media Under Military Rule  (Case Study Of Abacha Era/Regime)
132    Government Use Of Extral Legal Measures  Against Media Practitioners A  Case Study Of Sani Abacha Regime
133    Impact Of Colour Representation In Newspaper Advertising (A Case Study Of Vanguard Advertisement)
134    An Appraisal Of Press Freedom In Nigeria Under Civilian Rule  (A Case Study Of President Obasanjo
Administration 1999 – 2003)
135    The Impact Of Media On Cultural Imperialism In The Modern Society  (A Case Study Of Enugu Metropolis)
136    The Effectiveness Of Publications Department In Government Establishments University Of Nigeria Teaching Hospital As A Case Study
137    The Media As An Agent For Democratization In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Guardian Newspaper)
138  The Role Of Radio In Political Mobilization  Nigeria Broadcast Media  (A Case Study Federal Radio Corporation Nigeria (Frcn) Enugu State)
139   The Effectiveness Of Television In Political Development Of Rural Areas In Nigeria
140   Effect Of Commercialization On The Performance Of Broadcasting Organization (A Case Study Of N.T.A, Enugu)
141   The Relevance Of Community Jounalism In Poverty Alleviation Programmed I Nigeria (A Case Study Of Ezeagu Local Government Area)
143     The Role Advertising In The Sustenance Of Media An Industry In Nigeria
144     The Role Of The Media In The Promotion Of Government Policies In Nigeria (A Case Study Of The Esbs Enugu)
145    The Effects Of Public Relations Practices In Private Nigeria Airline: A Case Study Of Virgin Nigeria Airline.
146   Accessing The Role Of The Broadcasting Media As Instrument For Rural Development  (A Case Study Of Achi In Udi Local Government Area Of Enugu State)
147     Comparative Analysis Of Gate Keeping Function In Mass Media Establishment (A Case Study Of Imo Broadcasting Corporation    Ibc Owerri)
148   The Impact Of Radio Broadcasting In Improving The Educational System In Nigeria  (A Case Study Of Esbs/Imt Poly-Air Programme)
149     The Role Of The Broadcast Media In Campaign Against Hiv/Aids In Anambra State
150   The Impact Of Foreign Films On The Behavioural Pattern Of Youths (A Case Study Of Post Secondary Schools/Institutions)
151    An Appraisal Of Attitudes And Behaviours Of Elderly People Towards Television Programmes
152   The Role Television As An Instrument For Educational Development In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Nta Enugu)
153    The Impact Of Television In The Political Development Of Rural Areas(A Case Study Of Nwangele L.G.A In Imo State)
154   The Influence Of Newspaper Ownership In Coverage Of Government Polices And Programmes
155     Portrayal Of Women In Advertisement  (A Case Study Of Delta Soap Television Advertisement
156     Uses Of Public Relations In Propagating Nigeria Democratic Development (Focus On Obasanjo’s Administration From 2003 Till Date)
157     The Role Of Nigeria Mas Media In Women Political Empowerment
158   The Role Of Television In Dissemination Of Information In Local Government Areas  (A Case Study Of Sapele Local Government)
159    Role Of The Media In Rural Development (A Case Study Of Nachi In Enugu State)
160     Evaluation Of Government Attitude Towards The Nigerian Media In The Present Democratic Dispensation 1999 – 2006
161      Comparative Analysis Of The Role Of “Gate Keeping In Government And Private Media (A Case Study Of Cosmo Fm And Radio Nigeria Enugu
162    Campaign For Women Empowerment In Nigeria. It’s Strategies, Problems And Prospects
163   Investigative Journalism Practices  And  Problems  In  Nigeria
164     The Effect Of Billboard Advertising In Product Promotion (A Case Study Of Enugu Metropolis)
165    The Effectiveness Of The Mass Media As An Instrument For National Development (Focus On Nigeria)
166    The Role Of Radio In Democratic Society (A Case Study Of Enugu North Local Government Area)
167  The Role Of Public Relations In Enhancing Customers Satisfaction In A Government Perastattals

168    Social Responsibility Roles Of The Nigeria Press In Obasnjo’s Leadership, A Fulfillment Or Betrayal
169   Impact Of Public Relations On Crisis Management Of Multi-National Corporations (A Case Study Of Nnpc – Port Harcourt.)
170   The Role Of Community Public Relations In Crisis Management
171   The Apathetic Behaviour Of Nigerian Journalists To Science And Technological Reporting (A Case Study Of Journalists In South – Eastern Nigeria)
172   The Electronic Media  As A Channel  For  Creating  Awareness And Mobilizing  Public  Support In  National  Development( A Case Study Of Ray  Power  Fm  Radio, Ugwu-Abor  In Enugu  State).
173    The-Influence Of Age, Sex And Economic Status On Media Preference Among The Enugu Audience
174      Impact Of Home Movie On The Liffe Students Of Tertiary Institution In Nigeria [A Case Study Of I.M.T]
175   Intensive Promotion And Students Consumption Pattern Of Coca-Cola Products (A Case Study Of Institute  Of Management And Technology (Imt) Students)
176    Audience Perception Of The Credibility Of Foreign And Local News Organizations.
177     Effect Of Traditional Communication on Modern Communication
178    Proposals For Effective Application Of The Media In The Crusade Against Female Circumcision In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Vanguard And Thisday Newspapers
179      The Role Of Radio In Democratic Society (A Case Study Of Enugu North Local Government Area)
180    The Impact Of Advertising In A Corporate Organization (A Case Study Of First Bank  Of Nigeria Plc)
181   Crimes In Nigerian Newspapers A Content Analysis Of The Guardian And Daily Times
182    The Effects Of Televisions Advertisements On The Buying  Habit Of  Consumers (Peak Milk Advert In Perspective) (A Case Study Of Enugu Urban Dwellers
183     Credibility Of Nigeria Broadcast Media (A Case Study Of Nta Enugu)
184    Development Journalism A Pre-Requisite For Rural Development In Third World Countries With Nigeria As A Typical Example
185   The Effect Of Guinness Beer Billboard Advertising On Product Promotion (A Case Study Of Enugu Metropolis)
186     Nigeria’s Image And The Place Of The Public Relation In Its Reconstruction (A Case Study Of The Public Relation Practiiancers In Enugu Urban)
187    Effect Of Commercialization On The Performance Of Broadcasting Organization  (A Case Study Of N.T.A, Enugu)
188    Feedback Mechanism As A Tool In Determining Programming (A Case Study Of Esbs 2 Fm) Enugu.
189    Radio Programmes In National Development: (A Case Study Of Ibc Radio Station, Owerri – Imo State).
190    The Impact Of Media On Cultural Imperialism In The Modern Society (A Case Study Of Enugu Metropolis)
191    The   Contribution Of Television To Educational Development In Nigeria. (A Case   Study Of The Nigeria Television Authority, Channel 8, Enugu).
192     The Role Of Print Media Communication In Sports Development(A Case Study Of Enugu State)
193     Impacts Of The Electronic Media In The Economic Development Of Nigeria (A Case Study Of Enugu State Broadcasting Service Enugu)
194    Modern Journalism And The Effect Of Gratification Practice (A Case Study Of Esbs) Enugu
195    The Effects Of Cartoon Advert On Children (A Case Study Of Tom And Jerry)
196   The Media As Na Agent For Democratization In Nigeria
(A Case Study Of Guardian Newspaper)
197     The Advent Of Modern Communication Gadgets Implication For Nigerian Journalism
198    Comparative Analysis Of The Roles Of Mass Communication And Interpersonal Communication In Rural Development: (A Case Study Of Umuchigbo  In  Enugu  East  Local Government Area, Enugu State).
199       The  Role Of  Media  In  The  Management  Of  Environmental  Health  Issues  In  Nigeria
200    The Role Of Apcon In Promotion Of Advertising In Nigeria
201   Public Relations As A Tool For Enhancing Industrial Harmony: (A Case Study Of Nigerian Immigration Service Enugu State Command)
202   The Role  Of  Mass Media  In  Promoting  Family  Welfare  Programmes ( A Case  Study  Of  Enugu  Metropolis)
203   Problems Of Broadcasting Media In Advertising Process (A Case Study Of Enugu State Broadcasting Service, Enugu)
204    The Impact Of Indecent Movies On Childhood Socialization A Case Study Of Awkunanaw Enugu
205   An Evaluation Of The Effectiveness Of Advertising In Changing Consumer Behaviour (A Case Study Of First Bank Of Nigeria Okpara Avenue Century Ii Advert Campaign)
206   Effect Of Commercialization On The Performance Of Broadcasting Organization  (A Case Study Of N.T.A, Enugu)
207    Impact Of Mass Media On The Attitude Of Nigeria Teenagers To Aids A Case Study Of Oregun High School Oregun Ikeja Lagos
208    Impact Of Drug Trafficking And Abuse In Our Nations Image, Content Analysis Of Selected International And Local Media Contents On Nigeria
209   The Relevance Of Community Jounalism In Poverty Alleviation Programme I Nigeria (A Case Study Of Ezeagu Local Government Area)
210   Effect Of Modern Nigria Film On Nigrians (A Case Study Of Enugu Urban Dewellers)
211    Public Relations As A Management Function Problems And Impact (A Case Study Of The Anambra State Education Commission Awka
212   Radio Listening Habits Of Students In Higher Institutions Of Learning A Case Study Of Institution Of Management And Technology (Imt) Enugu.
213   The Role Advertising In The Sustenance Of Media An Industry In Nigeria
214  The Role Of The Media In The Promotion Of Government Policies In Nigeria (A Case Study Of The Esbs Enugu)
215   Magazine Readership Attitude Of Student Under Graduates (A Case Study Of Institute Of Management And Technology, Enugu).
216   Global Challenges Facing Nigerian Media Establishments In The Dissemination Of Information: (A Case Study Of Nta, Abuja).
217   Cable Television Services And Cultural Imperialism:
A Study Of Viewership Patterns In Port Harcourt
218  The Role Of Electronic Media In The Crusade Against Religious Intolerance In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Residence If Awka Anambra State)
219   Sales Promotion As A Panacea For Improved Sales The Nigeria Botlling Company Experience (A Case Study Of Nigeria Bottling Company Plc 9th Mile Corner)
220  Television As A Postive Contributor To The Socialization Of Children
221  The Role Of Mass Media In Generating Awareness Against Drug Abuse. A Case Study Of Vanguard And Punch Newspaper
222   The Role Of Opinion Leaders In Development Communication (A Case Study Of Ugwuaji And Akpuoga Rural Communities In Enugu State)
223   Modern Journalism And The Effect Of Gratification Practice (A Case Study Of Esbs) Enugu
224   The Impact Of Federal Radio Corporation Of Nigeria (Frcn) Enugu On Mobilizing Electorates During In The Local Government Area
225    An Analysis Of The Problems And Prospects Of Classified Advertising In Enugu Metropolis
226   The Role Of Public Relations In Ensuring Organizational Success And Survival (A Case Study Of Institute Of Management And Technology  Imt Enugu.
227     Press As A Vehicle For Effective Rural Development (A Case Study Of Idemili Local Government Area Of Anambra State).
228   Language Problems In Nigeria Broadcast Media
229    Impact Of Media Political Campaign On Voting Choice Of The Electorate (A Case Study Of 2003 Presidential Election, And Study Of Owerri Municiapal Council In Imo State.
230   The Effect Of Elephant Television Advertisement On The Buying Habit Of Consumers Among Imt Students
231  The Impact  Of Western Television Programmes On The Cultural Values Of The Nigerian Youths: A Case Study Of Esut Students, Enugu
232    Radio As A Tool For Politcal Education In The Rural Areras. (A Case Study Of Ikeduru L.G.A )
233   Privatization And Commercialization Of Electronic Media In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Minaj System Television Obosi)
234   The Impact Of Television Advertising On Nursing Mothers: (A Case Study Of Baby Products)
235    Television Tobacco Adverts And Teenage Smoking Habit ( A Survey Of Youths In Owerri Municipality
236   The Impact Of “Super Story” Drama Series On The Effectiveness Of Unilever Adverts (Unilever Sponsor Of “Super Story”)
237   Improving Organizations Profitability Through Effective Advertising (A Survey Of  Some Selected Hotels  In Enugu Urban)
238  Electronic Media As An Effective Instrument For Cultural Propagation (Case Study Of Osina Town In Imo State)
239      The Role Of The Broadcast Media In Campaign Against Hiv/Aids In Anambra State
240    Radio As An Effective Tool For Social Development In Nigerian Rural Areas
241   Media Coverage Of 2003 Election (A Critical Analysis Of Audience Perception)
242   The Influence Of Political Advertising On The Political Behaviour Of Nigerias (A Case Study Of 2003 Presidential Election)
243   Audience Attitude Towards Television Coverage Of Public Executions
244  A Comparative Analysis Of Newspaper Readership Attitudes Among Male And Females Students Imt, Enugu
245   Development Journalism: A Pre-Requisite For Rural Development In Third World Countries With Nigeria As A Typical Example
246    A Comparative Analysis Of The Problems Militating Against Private  And Government Televisions In The Dissemination Of Information In Nigeria
247   Problems And Practice Of Investigative Reporting
248    Mass Communication As A Catalyst To Rural Development (A Case Study Of Orumba South Local Government Area Of Anambra State)

249    The Impact Of Television In The Political Development Of Rural Areas (A Case Study Of Nwangele L.G.A In Imo State)
250    Appreciation Of Viewer Preference Of Television Station (A Case Study Of Enugu Urban Residents)
251    The Impact Of Press As Agent Of Socialization And Mobilization.(A Case Study Of National Orientation Agency, Enugu State)
252    The Importance Of Computer Technology In Mass Media Performance
253    The Problems And Challenges Of The Media In A Depressed Economy (A Case Study F The Guardian Newspaper)
254     The Apathetic Behaviour Of Nigerian Journalists To Science And Technological Reporting (A Case Study Of Journalists In South – Eastern Nigeria)
255    The Effect Of Billboard Advertising On Product Promotion (A Case Study Of Enugu Metropolis)
256      Nigerian Television Authority And Rural Development (A Case Study Of Ishiagu, In Ivo Local Government Area Of Ebonyi State)
257   How Existing Laws And Ethics In Nigeria Affects The Operations Of The Journalist
258    Uses Of Public Relations In Propagating Nigeria Democratic Development (Focus On Obasanjo’s Administration From 2003 Till Date)
259    The Role Of Journalists Towards Curbing The Escalating Crime Wave In Enugu Metropolis
260    The Impact Of Portrayals Of The Image Of Women On The Television Adverts Of Alcohol & Tobacco: (A Case Study Of Guinness Stout & Benson & Hedges Cigarette).
261    Challenges  Facing  Nigerian  Mass  Media  In  Rural  Development  (A  Case  Study  Of   Poverty   Alleviation  Programme  In  Awgu Local  Government  Area
262    An Assessment Of Mass Media’s Role In Supporting Women Employment Campaign In Nigeria
263     The Role Of Television In Dissemination Of Information In Local Government Areas (A Case Study Of Sapele Local Government)
264   The Impact Of Cartoons On Newspaper And Magazine Readership Among Students: A Case Study Of Institute Of Management And Technology, Enugu.
265   Public Relations As A Stimulus Of Increased Productivity In Business Organization, A Case Study Of Anammco
266    Power Interruptions And Broadcasting Media Programmes In Enugu: Case Study Of Esbs Radio And Television
267   The Effect Of Mass Media Campaign On Family Planning A Case Study Of Residents Of Enugu
268   The Attitude Of Top Management Towards Public Relations Function (A Case Study Of Anamco Plc., Enugu)
269   The Effect Of Television Advertisement On The Buying Habits Of Consumers (A Case Study Of Bournvita Beverage).
270    Audience Perception Of Commercial Telecast During Nta Network News Programme: (A Case Study Of Onitsha Metropolis)
271   Public Relations As A Tool For Achieving Organizational Objectives: (A Case Study Of United Bank For Africa (Uba) Plc., Enugu)
272   Public Relations As A Managerial Tool In Business Organization (A Case Study Of First Bank Of Nigeria Plc. Enugu).
273   Nigerian Home Movies And Negative Influences On Igbo Culture
274    Television As A Positive Contributor To The Socialization Of Children
275  The Impact Of Media Link Programme Of Frcn Enugu In Promoting Economic Development Of Rural Communities In Enugu State. (A Case Study Of Awkunanaw Community)
276    The Role Of Electronic Media In National Image Building A Case Study Of Enugu State Metropolis
277    An Appraisal Of Press Freedom In Nigeria, Under President Olusegun Obasanjo. Regime  (1999-2007)

278  Communication: The Key Thing In Public Relation

300      Television As A Tool For National Integration

300      The Influence Of Ait Coverage On Post 2011 Election Sentiments

301  The Impact Of Nigerian Press On The Choice Of Political Candidate

302the Impact Of Management Style Radio On Reporters And Programmes Producers In Radio Stations

303   Assessment Of The Impact Of Foreign Media Campaign On Hiv/Aids Eradication In Nigeria

304 Cushioning The Effect Of Cultism In Nigeria Tertiary Institution

305         The Role Of Television In Political Persuasion

306         The Effect Of Twitter Social Networking Sites On The Behaviour Of Secondary School Students

307         The Role Of Africa Independent Television In Promoting Popular Culture Among Youths

  1. Uses Of Internet Services In Radio Journalism At Kaduna State Media Corporation
  2. Attitude Of Female Caritas Towards Journalism As A Career
  3. The Role Of Advertising In Brand Building (Case Study Of Nigeria Bottling Company)
  4. The Role Of Advertising In Brand Building (Case Study Of Nigeria Bottling Company)
  5. Impact Of Social Media On Modern Journalism (A Study Of Journalists In Makurdi Metropolis)

 

 

 

 

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