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THE ROLE OF COMMERCIAL BANKS IN FINANCING SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIES IN NIGERIA

THE ROLE OF COMMERCIAL BANKS IN FINANCING SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIES IN NIGERIA

(A CASE STUDY OF UNION BANK OF NIGERIA PLC).

 

 

ABSTRACT 

The topic of dissertation is The Role Of Commercial Banks In Financial Small Scale Industry In Nigeria. A case study of union bank of Nigeria plc. The  major objective of the study is to ascertain the extent to which union bank of Nigeria plc has helped to financial small scale industries.Instrument of data collection is questionnaires and research questions which formed the source of primary data, while materials from various published articles, textbooks, journals and newspaper formed the secondary data.

The method of analysis is the use of  tables, percentages and chi-square .

The major finding of the research is that union bank of Nigeria plc has helped to financial small scale industries period under review.

The recommendation based on the finding is that in order to reduce the risk in small scale industry lending, the central bank of Nigeria and the government can do more than they are doing currently scheme.

The study concluded that if the desired objective of using small scale industries as catalysts of development is to be achieved than the role of commercial banks should be mutually supportive.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUTION ANALYSIS

1.1     Background to the problem

1.2     Problem statement

1.3     Objectives of the study

1.4     Research questions

1.5     Research hypothesis

1.6     Scope of study

1.7     Limitations of the study

1.8     Definition of study

Reference

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     Introduction

2.2     Meaning of small scale industry

2.3     Government policy

2.4     Support systems

2.5     Financing

2.6     Monetary policy development in favour of small scale industries

2.7     Benefits of small scale industry

2.8     Problems facing small scale industry

2.9.1  Financing the project

2.9.2  Technical knows how

2.9.3  Personnel, matters and general administration

2.10   Improving funding small scale industries

References

CHAPTER THREE:   

RESEARCH METHODOLGY

3.0     Introduction of the study

3.1     Research design

3.2     Area of study

3.3     Population of study

3.4     Sample size determination

3.5     Instrument for data collection

3.6     Validation of the instrument

3.7     Reliability of the instrument

3.8     Method of data collection

3.9     Data analytical techniques

 

CHAPTER FOUR:     

PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

4.1     Presentation of data

4.2     Hypothesis testing

 

CHAPTER FIVE FINDINS:

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1     Findings

5.2     Conclusion

5.3     Recommendation

Bibliography

Appendices

 

 

CHAPTER ONE 

INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND TO PROBLEM

The successive development plans of Nigeria have laid emphasis on the attainment of self reliance.  The need for this national objective is because much is expected from individuals from the view point of providing employment opportunities self reliance in basic food and material production high per capital income, foreign exchange earnings and the production of industrial raw materials.

Okporobie (1989:10) observes that Nigeria small scale industries continued to decline despite the so called priority given to the sector

However, the discovery by the central bank  that this policy was not enough by it self led to the central bank request with effect from 1970/80 that all commercial bank must reserve a proportion of the minimum credit allocation to indigenous borrowers for small scale Nigeria enterprises.  The target prescribed in 1979 was ten percent (10%) which subsequently raised to sixteen percent (16%).

Even though available data showed that performance of commercial banks against this directive has been disappointing. The central bank intends to  spare no effort in ensuring that banks fully couple without compromising the smooth functioning of the nation banning system.

He observed also, that without the development of small scale industries in Nigeria, the nations quest for industrialization will certainly remain forever at stake. It is the opinion of the researcher that future development in our industrialization must address the basic issues of creating linkages without the economy to begin to produce real inputs to our manufacturing activities .

Priority attention must therefore be given to these industries for which domestic inputs could easily be produced.  This will bring about  agro-allied industries like food processing and other by-products.

The objective should be to maximize the value added in their processing and manufacturing as final goods immediately inputs.

Nzewi and Oze (1985:56) observed that empirical evidence indicates that strong producer incentives to small scale industrialists are necessary not also only to meet the food requirement but also to  provide growing input supplies and demand as a foundation for sustained industrial growth.

The present economic constraint may well turn out to be a blessing in disguise to our industrialization effect particularly for dynamic manufacturing sector.  For instance, the market determinate exchange rate through seeing with its result and high cost of imported inputs may serve as an impetus for industrialist to intensify their search for local substitutes.

Ekenyong and Nyong (1992) observed that small scale enterprises are regarded an organic part of a viable structure for the attainment meaningful economy development in developing economic like Nigeria.

They are significantly more cost effective in bringing about development than large enterprises because of the perceived linkage and multiplier effects which small scale enterprises have on the performance of the economy and economic growth in general.

 

Osayameh (1989) observes that the strength that make small scale enterprises more amendable for assistance areas as follows.

1.       Personal commitment of the proprietor whose life savings usually form the start up capital.

2.      Low initial capital out lay requirement

3.       Ease of entry and exit and prevalence of just minimal legal constraints

4.       Amenability to business advisory services because of their small size which makes than more responsive to improvement suggestions.

Olashore (1987) Observes that the four main sources of enterprises financing open to small scale industry in Nigeria are.

i.        Formal financial institutions such as commercial banks merchant banks, insurance companies and the development bank.

ii.       Informal financial landlords, credit and savings associations “esus” friends and relations personal savings and .

iii.      Other financial scheme, NERFUND NEXIM

in 2001, there was an introduction of small and medium industries equity investment scheme (SMIEIS) in which N359 million was set aside to date by banks under small medium industries equity investment scheme.

Through union bank small and medium scale enterprises (SMES) department, the bank has remain ed in fore front of SMES financing nations was extended to the SMES as at 31st March 2004.

Small scale industry is any industry not exceeding N750,000 including working capital  but excluding cost of land.

It is also defined by center for industrial research and development of Obafemi  Awolowo university Ile Ife as  those industries whose total assets in plant, equipment and working capital do not exceed N250,000 with not more than 50 employees.

 

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The problem of credit to small scale industries may not necessarily be as a result of financing insufficiency but rather for some other reasons among which are.

i.        Insufficient preparation on the part of small scale entrepreneurs in their request for credit assistance.

ii.       Information gaps as to range of funding institutions and scope of services available in these institution

iii.      Moreover, servicing of small business accounts is relatively experience, risky and difficult to monitor with low turn over of account.

However, the parishioners in the sector small scale industry do not display competence in preparing justification for their project.  It is are to see most of them coming up with cash flow projections, projected balance sheets, among others.  They are based on personal rudimentary in formation and speculation.  At times when they seek the advice of consultants, the outcome that are made figures project based on assumptions which are most of their time unrealistic.

As a result such proposals are out rightly rejected by banks.

There are suitable when credit demands in this sector are not in compliance in this government monetary policy and credit guidelines which must be adhered to by banks.

The researcher identifies these problem and considers it necessary to carry our study on them.

 

1.3     OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The objectives of the study include:

a.       To ascertain the extent to which the union bank of Nigeria plc has helped to finance small scale industries.

b.       To identify the problems encountered by small scale industrialists in obtaining finance from union bank of Nigeria plc.

c.       To evaluate various measures introduced to boost industrial production and its financing and how this has affected realization of the set goals.

d.       To determine the causing changes in small scale industrial financing by union bank of Nigeria plc.

e.       To make suggestion and recommendations based on the data generated by the study.

 

1.4     RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The critical appraisal to give answers to the following questions.

a.       To what extent has  union bank of Nigeria plc helped to finance small scale industries?

b.       What are the problems encountered by the small scale industrialists in obtaining finance from union bank if Nigeria plc?

c.       What are the various measures introduced to boost industrial production and its  financing and how this has affected the realization of the set goals?

d.       What are the causes of changes in small scale industrial financing by union bank of Nigeria plc?

e.       Does any linear relationship exist between lending to small scale industries and economic recovery and self reliance on the economy?

 

1.5     RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

a.       There is no linear relationship between lending to small scale industries and economic recovery and self-reliance of the economy.

b.       there is no relationship between union bank of Nigeria plc lending to small scale industries and the attitude of this customers

 

1.6     SCOPE OF STUDY

The scope of the study is the role of commercial banks in financing small scale industries in Nigeria. A case study of union bank of Nigeria plc.  It does not cover the role of commercial banks in financing medium and large scale industries.

 

 

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ANALYSIS OF CRUDE PALM OIL

ANALYSIS OF CRUDE PALM OIL

 

 

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ABSTRACT

 

This project was carried out to ascertain whether the local palm oil met the required standard.  The analytical test carried out include the free fatty acid test the acid value, iodine value moisture, content, specification value, peroxide value, specific gravity, colour and viscosity.

 

The specific gravity of the oil sample was determined by comparing its weight when filled with the sample and that of water, while its moisture content was analyzed by oven drying the sample for a particular period time.  Titration process was used in the analysis of the saponification value, acid, free fatty aid test, iodine value acid the peroxide value.  The procedure were the same except different indicator that was used for some test e.g starch solution was for peroxide and iodine value while acid/ free fatty acid and saponification test uses phenolphthalein as their titration process.  The viscosity was also determined by allowing the oil sample to flow down at a particular time in the upper section of a viscometer, while its colour was analysis using the titanium plate disc of the colourineter to material it.

Form the test analysis, the result show that the palm oil sample under consideration has a value of specific gravity-0.915g, moisture content-1.729%, saponification value-196.35mg, acid-4769%, free fatty acid-23.97%,iondine value-49.17mg, peroxide value-26mg, colour-1125tianium disc and ciscosity-165.7 centipoises.

However, the obtained result shows hat the oil sample meets the required standard but only needed a little purification process on the moisture content as compared with the international requirement.

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

1.1     Objectives/Scope of Study

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE SURVEY

2.1     Historical Background

2.2     Composition of Crude Palm Oil

2.3     Production of Crude Palm Oil
2.3.1  Local Method of Production Pf Palm Oil
2.3.2  Industrial Method of Production Of palm Oil

2.3.3  Summary of Unit Operations

2.3.4  The General Flow Diagram

2.4    Characterizing/ Properties of Crude Palm Oil

2.5     Redlining Of Crude Palm Oil Physical & Chemical Refining

2.5.1   Physical Refinery Process Description:

2.5.2 Chemical Refining Process

2.6    Uses of Crude Palm Oil

2.7    General Characteristic of Crude Palm Oil

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS

EXPERIMENT 1

  • Determination Of Specific Gravity of Crude Palm Oil Sample
  • Determination For Moisture And Other Volatile Matter Present In The Crude Palm Oil Sample

CHAPTER FOUR

 RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

4.1 Discussion

Reference

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0     INTRODUCTION

Palm tree (Elaeis guineensis) is one plant which grows best in tropical regions.  Palm oil fruit is a drupe consisting of a hard seed surrounded by a soft semi fibrous and semi fleshy pulp. In the center of this stone or nut lies the seed.  The fleshy part of the fruit (the pulp) is at first black in colour, but as it ripens becomes bright red.  Palm fruit common name for member is palm a large fairly of chiefly tropic all trees shmbs and vines, most spies are traces characterized by a crown of compound teases called fronds terminal tall woody, in branched  stem.

 

Also oil palm being a nature of equatorial west Africa and preferring high rainfall and a more open kind a long river banks grow in bunches weighing up to ten kilograms and containing hundreds of fruitless like small plums.  The flesh is oily and the oil ran be recovered by very simple means so that it is probable that palm oil has been recovered and used for human food for tens of thousand of years.  The primitive extraction procedure are still in use in the village today.  A typical method consists of cutting the bunches, usually after climbing the tree and allowing them to ferment in a heap for six to seven days then production takes place.

 

Vegetable as it is generally called is an important product and raw material for most agro allied industries. More emphasis had been placed on vegetable oil from groundnut source in recent time, this had been attainted to its local usages most especially in domestic activities like cooking and as well as its cheap and local method of production but with the new trend in technology, vegetable oil is how being produced from both palm oil and palm kernel fruit.

 

 

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IMPORTANCE OF FISH PRODUCTION AND ITS MARKETING VALUE

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MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
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Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment :
Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
 Account Number:  0117780667. 
Swift Code: GTBINGLA 
Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANKER SECURITY GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>DELIVERY PERIOD FOR BANK PAYMENT IS  LESS THAN 2 HOURS

How to transfer from your bank account to All  Nigeriabanks

1. Access Bank:
—-*901#

2. EcoBank:
—-*326#

3. Fidelity Bank:
—-*770#

4. FCMB:
—-*389*214#

5. First Bank
—-*894#

6. GTB:
—-*737#

7. Heritage Bank:
—-*322*030#

8. Keystone Bank:
—-*322*082#

9. Sky Bank:
—-*389*076*1#

10. Stanbic IBTC:
—-*909#

11. Sterling Bank:
—-*822#

12. UBA:
—-*389*033*1#

13. Unity Bank:
—-*322*215#

14. Zenith Bank:
—-*966#

15. Diamond Bank
—-*710*555#

To know your BVN, dial
—-*565*0#.

E.g for First bank…   *894 *Amount *Acct. No. #

Please dail d code from d number u used to register d account from the bank

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ABSTRACT
The importance of fish production and marketing value of fish production in Ughilli North East Local Government Area of Delta State. Fishery industry in Ughelli North East Local Government were randomly selected to find out the importance of fishing. Questionnaires methods and oral interview were used in collection of data. Questionnaires were send out to people in fisheries industry to answer. The study review the importance of fish production industries, in the area of study include financial problem, inadequate pond for housing these fishes, and the marketing value.

 

 

 

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First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment :
Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
 Account Number:  0117780667. 
Swift Code: GTBINGLA 
Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANK SECURITY FOR GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>DELIVERY PERIOD FOR BANK PAYMENT IS  LESS THAN 24 HOURS

CALL OKEKE CHIDI C ON :  08074466939,08063386834.

AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO

08074466939 or 08063386834, YOUR PROJECT TITLE  YOU WANT US TO SEND TO YOU, AMOUNT PAID, DEPOSITOR NAME, UR EMAIL ADDRESS,PAYMENT DATE. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR MATERIAL IN LESS THAN 2 HOURS ONCE WILL CONFIRM YOUR PAYMENT.

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Although there are thousand of years of experience supporting aquaculture in and other countries, it is relatively young industry in the United States. It is also one of the fastest growing segments of animae agriculture. Aquaculture output has grown at a rate of more than 10% for captured fishers and 3% for livestock meat production (FAO, 2000) while only 13 million tons of fish were produced in North American in 1990, there were over 31 million tons produced in 1998. Concurrently, the value of this production doubled from 490 million to nearly 81 billion (USAA, 1998).

Human consumption of fish and related foods is increasing each year. Demand for fish products is greater than the ability of the oceans to supply them. A reduction in wild –caught fish coupled with increased consumption by American consumers has led to increased profitability, improvement in technology required for captive production, and a rapid expansion of farmed aquatic specie. As a result aquaculture is becoming a major alternatives crop globally and in many areas of the United States illustrates the increasing percentage of the total world fish production supplied by aquaculture in relation to the oceanic catch. Because the oceanic fish is no longer increasing significantly, additional production depends on growing more fish through aquaculture. Approximately 75 percent of the earths surface is covered by water yet humans harvest only 1 percent of their total food supply from this source.

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Over 4000 years ago the Chinese through trial and error developed a system approach to harvesting the nutritional riches of water. They found that different species feed in different natural niches. The animals of particular use to in the ancient Chinese were complementary varieties or crop. The common crop (Cyprinus Earpio) is abenethic that consumer invertebrates in the bottom of the ponds. For thousand of years carp species provided the Chinese with a sustainable harvest. The Chinese discovered that the use of manure as fertilizer could enhance the productivity of a pond. In the 1880s aquaculturist in Eastern Europe countries also cultured the common carp (Silver carp, black carp, grass carp), in the United States aquacultures was launched when the federal government began hatching and stocking program to restock salmon lost spawning rivers in the North West. In an attempt to increase Salmon numbers in the wild, the federal government began hatching program that were basically “put and take” system. Eggs were collected, hatched in captivity and fingerlings released. This program, although successful in increasing wild-caught number, was actually more successful in providing initial information and research for the science of aquaculture. Hatching and restocking into the wild required development of the same technology as that needed by commercial hatching. This made salmon the major marine fish industry of the United state with more than half the production coming from public because over 600 million commercial salmon landing accounting annually.

In the 1950s the US government supported programs of farm pond construction and stocking. Although more than 2 million ponds were constructed they have demonstrated little importance for food production. In 1960s ponds were constructed specifically for catfish in the Southern United States where production fastest growing agricultural enterprises from 1970s till today. Catch moved to the Mississippi delta Region. The federal research laboratory in sluttgart, Arkansas, helped promote catfish by providing information and support. Regional government aquaculture research centers have helped bolster growth and profitability of the industry. Aquaculture production in North America involves diverse farming systems in diverse areas. It is most concentrated in the southern region of the United States. Today the US catfish industry of the largest aquaculture industry in the world employing more than 25, 000 people and generating over $ 1 billion annually. More than 178, 000 acres of catfish ponds on 1300 farms produced approximately 100 million metric tones per year. Currently 80% of the catfish production occurs in the state of Mississippi with 105, 000 acres concentrated on 400 farms. Many other commercial species are also centred in the south East Louisiana is the leading producer of craw fish and arkangas leads in baitfish production. Florida is the leading in ornamental fish, increasingly there are niches being found for hybrid stripped bass, fresh water prawns, red fish and tilapias throughout the country. Other species that have potential include allegation, bullfrogs and turtles. Production of the American cupped oyster is predominately from the united state e.g. clams, crayfish, catfish, mussels, cyprinids etc.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The statement of the problem are;

  1. Do we have fishing ponds in Delta State of Nigeria?
  2. Do we have enough facilities to engage in fishing production?
  3.  What can the federal government do about the fishing industry
  4. What are the roles of the public concerning fish production?

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The purpose of this study is to examine the importance of fish production and it marketing value of fish production in Nigeria, which is the usefulness of rearing of fish and it nutritional value to human.

–                     To identify the marketing value of fish production in our means.

–                     To understand aquatic animals much better now than that in the past.

–                     To bridge the gap resulting from our having invested minimally in salt and fresh water food production research to compare with research investment made in food production from the land.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study of the importance of fish production and it marketing value of fish production in Nigeria is significance not only to agriculturist but to everybody. If the contribution of US aquaculture project growth is achieved, the federal government, state government, general public at large established a good and adequate fishpond the need of today would be meet. Therefore the significance of carrying out this study is to show the influence of fish production in Nigeria.

RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

The research hypotheses are stated in the alternative and null hypothesis.

  1. What types of fish do agriculturist rear in the area of study.
  2. What are the marketing value facing aquaculture production in the area of study.
  3. What are the main purpose for aquaculture keeping by the government of that state.
  4. What are the nutrients gotten from aquaculture?

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

Due to its compulsory has been carried out in some selected areas. This is also a result of a large number of fishpond within Nigeria. The selected fishponds covered are the school of education fish pond, Gabano hotel, Uniben fish pond, delta state fish pond Ughelli.

CONSTRUCTION OF A MANUAL GRAVELS GRADING MACHINE

 

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Note: our case study can be change to suit your desire location . we are here for your success.

                                   ORDER NOW

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
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Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment :
Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
 Account Number:  0117780667. 
Swift Code: GTBINGLA 
Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANKER SECURITY GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>DELIVERY PERIOD FOR BANK PAYMENT IS  LESS THAN 2 HOURS

How to transfer from your bank account to All  Nigeriabanks

1. Access Bank:
—-*901#

2. EcoBank:
—-*326#

3. Fidelity Bank:
—-*770#

4. FCMB:
—-*389*214#

5. First Bank
—-*894#

6. GTB:
—-*737#

7. Heritage Bank:
—-*322*030#

8. Keystone Bank:
—-*322*082#

9. Sky Bank:
—-*389*076*1#

10. Stanbic IBTC:
—-*909#

11. Sterling Bank:
—-*822#

12. UBA:
—-*389*033*1#

13. Unity Bank:
—-*322*215#

14. Zenith Bank:
—-*966#

15. Diamond Bank
—-*710*555#

To know your BVN, dial
—-*565*0#.

E.g for First bank…   *894 *Amount *Acct. No. #

Please dail d code from d number u used to register d account from the bank

CALL OKEKE CHIDI C ON :  08074466939,08063386834.

AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO

08074466939 or 08063386834, YOUR PROJECT TITLE  YOU WANT US TO SEND TO YOU, AMOUNT PAID, DEPOSITOR NAME, UR EMAIL ADDRESS,PAYMENT DATE. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR MATERIAL IN LESS THAN 2 HOURS ONCE WILL CONFIRM YOUR PAYMENT.

WE HAVE SECURITY IN OUR BUSINESS.   

MONEY BACK GUARANTEE

 

 

ABSTRACT

 I constructed manual gravel grading machine by following process. The design was done before started cutting the angle iron of from the frame as a support to the machine and welded, bearing and bearing housing was welded for rotation and pass the mild steel rod for turning the cylinder drum mum turning the handle, the cylinder drum is perforated holes of sieves for about Ø6mm, Ø68mm/ Ø10gm and constructed collection tray for grading particles the test rum was carried – out by tested gravel from I.M.T campus III, Ngwo, Aguobuow with result of sample from Ngwo smaller than samples from IMT campus III and Aguobuowa and particles less than 6mm, 8mm and 10mm pass through them but 7/10mm discharge through outlet.

 

 

COMPLETE MATERIAL COST 5000.

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
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ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment :
Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
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ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANK SECURITY FOR GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

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AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO

08074466939 or 08063386834, YOUR PROJECT TITLE  YOU WANT US TO SEND TO YOU, AMOUNT PAID, DEPOSITOR NAME, UR EMAIL ADDRESS,PAYMENT DATE. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR MATERIAL IN LESS THAN 2 HOURS ONCE WILL CONFIRM YOUR PAYMENT.

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study

1.2     Statement of the Problem

1.3     Objective of the Study

1.4     Significance of the Study

CHAPTER TWO

LITERURE REVIEW

2.1     Definition of Gravel

2.2     Uses of Gravel

2.3.0  Gravel Grading Devices

2.3.1  Mechanical Method

2.3.2  Tradition Method

CHAPTER THREE

CONSTRUCTION METHODOLOGY AND MATERIALS.

3.1     The Shaft / Handle

3.2     The stand / Frame

3.3     The Bearings / Bearing Housing

3.4     The Sieved Cylinder

3.5     The Collection Tray

CHAPTER FOUR

USES AND TEST-RUN EVALUATION RESULTS

4.1     Uses of the Constructed Machine

4.2.0  Test Run Evaluation

4.2.1  With Gravel Samples form I.M.T Campus III

4.2.2  With Gravel Samples from Ngwo

4.2.3  With Gravel Samples from Eguobuow

4.2.4  With Gravel Sample from Nsukka

4.3.    Approval of Test-Run Result

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1     Summary

5.2     Conclusion

5.3     Recommendation

References

CHAPTER ONE

1.1            BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The machine was initially designed before fabricated purposely for gravel separation, it was frame with angle iron with measurement to 6inch which carry the machine,

Secondly construct the collection tray with apartment after welded.

Thirdly, the bearing and bearing housing attached rotation of cylinder drum through help of shaft / handle. The shaft (mold started) used to guide cylinder drum before pass through baring and weld handle, the cylinder drum was perforated for serves diameter the 10mm, before finally assemblage the pars.

1.2            STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The main problem is the cost and is considering to importing foreign machine increases foreign economy while our economy reducing at the same time, in respect to performance, early manual gravel grading machine is imperfectly to separate gravel aggregates before after successful research made through constructing it by mechanical services to affair a required separation. It usually manual operation which consume greatest energy and from the machine tear and minced with gavel as a result of irrelevance material used of fabricate. As a problem it has noisy obratian and breading of bigger particles on smaller services to prevent pass.

1.3            OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The objection of the project is to acquire expertise in the construction of manual gravel grading machine and further having different size of gravel aggregates which hell builders in building construction in chosen the comet particle, it is also to remove unwanted coarse and pure from impunities, where the objective of this project is to provide an efficient of high work done.

1.4            SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY

Before, builder used mixed of different sizes of gravel to build but now, manual gravel grading machine is using to separate gravel aggregate according to sieves for specific used about diameters of 6mm, 10mm and /10mm and separate particles of impunities from gravel aggregate. It improves building technology and very cheap to maintain with the used of these machine it serves time and operates without used of any chemical energy which totally reduces labourers

POULTRY FARMING

(A CASE STUDY OF PHIMORMA NIGERIA LTD, NGWO UDI LGA ENUGU STATE)

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Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
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Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANKER SECURITY GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

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CALL OKEKE CHIDI C ON :  08074466939,08063386834.

AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO

08074466939 or 08063386834, YOUR PROJECT TITLE  YOU WANT US TO SEND TO YOU, AMOUNT PAID, DEPOSITOR NAME, UR EMAIL ADDRESS,PAYMENT DATE. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR MATERIAL IN LESS THAN 2 HOURS ONCE WILL CONFIRM YOUR PAYMENT.

WE HAVE SECURITY IN OUR BUSINESS.   

MONEY BACK GUARANTEE

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     Introduction

1.1            Background Of Study

1.2             Objective Of Study

1.3            Justification Of Study

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     Literature Review

2.1            Definition Of Poultry

2.2            Types Of Poultry

2.2.1    Fuel Range System

2.2.2    Pesticted Range System

2.2.3    Intestive Decp-Litter Of Battery Copar

2.3            Poultry Diseases

2.3.1    New Casttle Disease

2.3.2    Fowl Pose Disease

2.3.3    Gum Bow Disease

2.3.4    Marese Disease

CHAPTER THREE

3.0            Phinomar Nig Limited

3.1     Poultry Unit

3.2            Feed Mill Unit

3.3            Hatchiy Unit

3.4            Deep Litter System

3.5            Battery Cage System

3.6            Management Of Poultry

3.7            Management Of Chichs

3.8            Management Of Boiler

3.9            Management Of Commercial Lagers

3.10       Diseases In The Farm

3.11       Common Vaccine

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     Findings

4.1            Suggestion

4.2            Recommendation

References

                                            CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

          Poultry business and first introduce to Nigeria in the late fifties with the importation of selected breeds of exotic poultry.  The unitial success of the introduction and adaptation as evidence from improved production record, several fold higher than what could be drained for local breeds stimulate the expansion of the industry first by government firm and lat by entrepreneur who quickly understood the profit or gain of the men industry.

Consequently, the production marketing and consumption of the poultry production followed purely traditional method and channel.  Although cash income was the motivation there was rarely any good planning I this system of the poultry keeping.  No special provision or programme was made for breeding housing, recording or costing.

Prior, to the introduction of commercial poultry business in Nigeria a few commercial poultry business in Nigeria few commercial houses were importing eggs and broiler with the successful adaptation of exotil poultry in Nigeria around the middle and late fifties and in the main agricultural station like Umudike and summary the foundation for modern commercial poultry was first laid government programme were developed based on acceleration poultry production through the importation of laying flock and distribution of day old chick at subsidized price to farmers.

1.1     BACKGROUND OF STUDYD

          The background of the study, poultry family in Enugu stage: as I have explained the introductory pent of this topic.  The background also gives the partial meaning of the study poultry faming more especially in Enugu state.

How poultry faming begging to exist in Enugu, the taking care of poultry and its management how to feed the fow chick, from the egg stage to the dual purpose stage enter for meat or for production of eggs for hatching which will give rise to the younger chicks.