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PRODUCTION OF HIGH QUALITY BODY PERFUME

PRODUCTION OF HIGH QUALITY BODY PERFUME

 

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COMPLETE PROJECT  MATERIAL COST 5000 NAIRA OR $10 , 

. A FRESH TOPIC NOT LISTED ON OUR WEBSITE COST 50,000 NAIRA ( UNDERGRADUATE) OR 100,000 FOR SECOND DEGREE STUDENTS. $500. PLUS  FREE SUPPORT UNTIL YOU FINISH YOUR PROJECT WORK. CONTACT US TODAY, WE MAKE A DIFFERENT. DESIGN AND WRITING IS OUR SKILLED.  DESIGN AND WRITING IS OUR SKILLED.

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ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
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Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment :
Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
 Account Number:  0117780667. 
Swift Code: GTBINGLA 
Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

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E.g for First bank…   *894 *Amount *Acct. No. #

Please dail d code from d number u used to register d account from the bank

CALL OKEKE CHIDI C ON :  08074466939,08063386834.

AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO

08074466939 or 08063386834, YOUR PROJECT TITLE  YOU WANT US TO SEND TO YOU, AMOUNT PAID, DEPOSITOR NAME, UR EMAIL ADDRESS,PAYMENT DATE. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR MATERIAL IN LESS THAN 2 HOURS ONCE WILL CONFIRM YOUR PAYMENT.

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ABSTRACT

 

Perfume can be defined as any mixture of pleasantly odours substances incorporated in a suitable solvent. In other words, perfume is the term applied to a conventionally strong alcoholic solution of odourants, as apposed to such water solutions as toilet water and eases. The act of perfume production is known as perfumery and a perfumer is the person who practice it.

This perfume was produced from local raw materials to compete with perfume produced from synthetic raw materials as well as those imported from abroad. In the production, different perfume oils were used. Ethyl alcohol was introduced as a vehicle and castor oil was used to act as a fixative. The essential oils were poured into a flat bottomed flask, and was stirred slowly until complete dispersal was achieved. The mixture was left for. 48 hours and then water was added to reduce concentration. Then the mixture was left for three weeks to mature.

A purified perfume was gotten after the local raw materials were subjected various processing conditions. Nine different types of perfume brand were formulated using the various perfume oil provided.

The cost of producing perfume using local raw materials was cheaper than producing it using synthetic raw materials as well as those imported.

Comparing the standard of the result of the perfumed produced with the market standard it was discovered that there was a slight difference between the qualities between local raw materials and the market standard.

 

This project was done to make our country aware of their natural resources and to harness our natural endowment to produce adequate and reliable perfumes that would complete prodigiously with synthetic perfumes.

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction                                                                   1

CHAPTER TWO

Literature review                                                            5

  • Brief description of perfumes. 5
  • Historical background of perfumes 5
  • The role of perfumes 7
  • Perfume creation 9
  • Uses, application and general

importance of perfume.                                        18

  • Raw materials for a perfume 21
  • Reactions in perfume and products 26
  • General methods of isolating essential oils. 31
  • Formulation procedures of perfumes 40

CHAPTER THREE

Experimental procedure                                                          45

  • Raw materials used 45
  • Equipment and general process description 45
  • Extraction procedure 47
  • Perfume compounding/formulation 49

 

CHAPTER FOUR

Discussion & Results                                                    51

  • Results 51
  • Discussion 57

CHAPTER FIVE

Conclusion and recommendation                                   59

  • Conclusion 60

Reference                                                                       61


CHAPTER ONE

 INTRODUCTION

Perfumes may be divided into two classes, the first which includes all primitive or simple odorifierous bodies derived from the animal or vegetable kingdom, as well as the definite chemical compounds specially manufactured, while the second comprises the various bouquets or mlanges made by blending two or more of the foregoing in varying proportions toilet powders, dentifrices, sachets. The first class comprises of the following;

  • The animal products, ambergris, castor, civet, must
  • The essential oils (also called attars), mostly procured by the distillation of the stems, leaves, flowers and other parts of plants.
  • The philicome butters or oils, which are either solid or liquid fats charged with odours by the processes of inflowering or maceration.
  • The odoriferous gum – resins or balsams which exude naturally or form wounds in the trunks of various trees and shrubs, such as benzoin, opoponax, peru, tolu, storax, myrrh.
  • The large number of synthetic perfumes which simulate the odour of the natural scents.

The second class contains the endless combination of tinctures sold under fancy names which may or my not afford a clue to their composition, such as comclie francise, cau de senteur, eucle cologne lavender amber, blumengeist. In general, they are mixtures of a number of perfumes dissolved in alcohol.

 

Most of the perfumes in the market belong to the second class, since, in most cases, they are prepared by blending various natural or artificial odorous principles.

Perfumes are used in many diverse consumer products, among them are the various preparations for the cleansing, care, beautification and scenting of the human face and body, laundry soaps, bathing soaps and detergents and other more recent laundrying aids, the various kinds of household cleanser and polishes, the growing range of air fresheners and disposable paper products such as facial and toilet tissues and diapers.

Due to the various uses of body perfumes in the country, the need arises for it’s production from locally raw material in order to reduce cost of buying from abroad and subsequent importation into the country. Only some of the firms that manufacture or market scented products employ specialists trained in the application, testing, and selection of fragrances, thus is not surprising, since few companies can employ experts on all materials used in their products.

Perfumes is usually a minor component, both in quantity and in functional importance. In terms of cost however, fragrance is often a major consideration, through usually lacking a functional purpose, perfume is often one of the few product characteristic by which the consumer can differentiate between brands. Hence it may play a major role in supporting brand linage and market position.

This work is aimed at developing an economic and indigenous way of producing body perfume using locally raw materials in the interest of small scale industries thereby conserving their foreign exchange earnings. Perfumes poses special challenge to the chemist because of it’s complexity, to the product manager and marketing researcher because of the peculiarities of consumer response to it, and to the purchasing executive because of the confidentiality surrounding it’s composition.

A great number of different materials may be used in one fragrance making as many as 300. The type of materials are used, the perfume essential oils for the odours and the fixative that make the perfume last. The oils may be dissolved out of flowers and leaves by solvents such as alcohol. Perfume has two faces, it is a liquid with definite physical and chemical properties, it is also a sensation, experienced either – consciously or subconsciously, which affects people in different, hart-to-verbalize ways.

 

The chemical and physical properties are important primarily to the

DEVELOPING THE PROCESS OF PLASTIC INDUSTRY IN NIGERIA

DEVELOPING THE PROCESS OF PLASTIC INDUSTRY IN NIGERIA 

COMPLETE MATERIAL COST 5000.

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
 GTBANK
Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment :
Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
 Account Number:  0117780667. 
Swift Code: GTBINGLA 
Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANKER SECURITY GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

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Enter Amount

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CALL OKEKE CHIDI C ON :  08074466939,08063386834.

AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO

08074466939 or 08063386834, YOUR PROJECT TITLE  YOU WANT US TO SEND TO YOU, AMOUNT PAID, DEPOSITOR NAME, UR EMAIL ADDRESS,PAYMENT DATE. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR MATERIAL IN LESS THAN 2 HOURS ONCE WILL CONFIRM YOUR PAYMENT.

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ABSTRACT

Plastics are long-chair compounds or polymers derived from petroleum. Also, mastic an solid to be any of the several chemically produced substances that can be formed into shapes when heated or made into this threads & used to make various artificial fabrics.

It’s part’s is produced by a combination of heating, flowing deformation, chemical reaction & cooling depending on whether the material is thermoplastic or thermosets.

The development of plastic processing come up due to the increase in plastic consumption which increases tremendously as result of wide change of industrial revolution.

Plastic have different applications & methods which depends on the environment & the availability of raw materials, nature is to be subjected to.

In plastic products, what to be produce determines what processing method to be employed & type of processing machine to be used, but generally, plastic production comes in one method. When the machine is switched on, it is allowed to heat to a certain temperature before the introduction of the high or low density ethylene as a raw material in to the extruder and the raw material will pass through different zones of increasing temperature until it reaches the final zone which has lower temperature to previous zones before passing through the nozzle which contains a dies which has it’s function as keeping the flowing material in shape & introducing it into the mould where the plastic material cools after showing with air & takes the shape of the mould.

The dressing process is next to this to give it it’s finish & final shape before consumption.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0    INTRODUCTION

Plastics is any of the several chemically produced substances that can be formed into shapes when heated or made into this threads & used to make various artificial fabrics.

However, they are nonmetallic basic engineering materials that can be formed 7 shaped by many methods. Plastics may be compositions formed from such nat resins.

Plastics is to generics name of an industry & its products in this usoge, plastics is a plural word. The industry, this name is & late twenties, when d formability of these compositions while in this plastics state, was thought to be their most important features. Celluloid was the first synthetic plastic being white in colour, abundant in supply, retains its original shiny white surfaces, & was also less costly. This was no later replaced by improved plastic for even better appearance & scratch resistance.

Today, every or almost manufactured products uses plastics in some form, in the end product or in the manufacturing process. Plastics includes paints, fabrics, rubbers, insulation foams, greases, nils, filos, ‘glasses’ structural materials, adhesives and basic mord and fabricating materials. This inturn increase the consumption of plastics tremendously as a result of wide change of industrial revolution. This is as a result of wide versatile of plastics materials which have many different characteristics at a given period & conditors. As a result of this, polymer can be changed in different forms, shapes, compositors to meet raw material needs. Owing to this, sanities, chemical engeers etc have been making researches to improve plastics qualities and versatility; it’s versatile nature made it possible for its application virtually in all materials both at come, industries and as raw material in the manufacture of other compounds.

The kind, chemical and physical properties of plastic  materials is the major reason(s) for the versatility in use and production. It has low strength, low stiffness tinder to creep, low hardness low density sensitivity to high and temprature, flammability, execellent electrical characteristics and lost of other ;These properties can be manipulated to obtain a better and more useful material by addition of one or more compound could additives simpler methods for production of this plastic materials abound. This makes the sitting-up of plastic industous         a sure business for up coming Engineers. Some of these methods include infects moldings, extrusion, puctrusion etc.            Application of any method depends on the environment, raw material available, nature of plastic to produce and use to which the material is to be subjected to.

There are many kinds of chemically different plastics. Each kind may be made into hundreds of compositions or alloys which proceeds some special and desirable combination of properties. Many plastics are identified by the base resin and the filer. When no filer is used, the chemical name is adopted in short form and the generic name for that particular chemical class of material is appropriated.

In selecting a plastic material from the many varieties, the production engineer selects the minimum-cost variety having the greatest number of desirable properties for his application. Several types of plastics may be used in a single assemble to gain  specific properties for each type of stress in production some plastics are very hard while others are more transparent than glass. The beauty of the finest material may be preserved and protected by the use of suitable plastic resins. The transparent plastic, the acrylic resin that is used for excellent optical properties may be obtain for scientific apparatus by the use of the crystal-clear acrylic plastic. The polystyrenes, vinyl, acetate, nylon, polycarbonate, polysuefones and the polyolefin can be made in transparent form.

In the decorative plastic, there is a most attractive variety of textures , colour and design available. Multi coloured designs may be printed on paper, wood etc  bonded with synthetic resins to produced and decorative laminates.

A variety of plastics have heat-resistant properties while many such as polyphenylneoxcde and polysucfone   can be steam-sterilized Other such as polystyrene may soften at temperature below boiling water. Each plastic materials has an operating temperature limit must not be exceeded if the original shape is to maintain.

Most of the thermosetting materials are suitable for use in the 3000 range. The latest development is that variety of engineering thermoplastics the offer stability at working temperature previously limited to thermosetting. Thermoplastic materials with or without glass fillers, along with other filled thermoplastic are now doing jobs previously limited to the thermosets.

Most of the plastics are chemically resistant in some forms. Polystyrene for ex has excerlenet acid resistance but styrene is attested by gasoline and other hydrocarbons. Chlorinated polyether plastics is especially made to meet the required for a very high degree of chemical resistance. Some plastics will withstand many chemicals but pass gas a or liq components while some has chemical resistance and doest not pass component of many products.  Some plastics will withstand many chemicals but pass gas a or liq components while some has chemical resistance and doest not pass component of many products.  Some plastics will withstand many chemicals but pass gas a or liq components while some has chemical resistance and doest not pass component of many products.

 

Advantages      

A widely recognized formular states that a sale is made by the materials that offers the most “plus” properties for the price asked. The plastic does used in many application before there are no other materials that will do the job at a reasonable price, therefore plastic are selected merely b/c they are as good as other materials, yet cost less. The savings in price may be the result of a low-cost materials, but in most cases, the savings result from reduced processing and fabricating cost.

The plastics have proves themselves superior to many other materials, with the exception of a few of the extra ordinary ceramics and metttallic alloys used for the space vehicles.

Under architectural and home constructions., the plastics are contributing many desirable benefits & properties. The dentist uses plastics adhesives for comnting the inlags in place. The uses plastics resins for his molds which consequently harden quickly by a chemical reaction, reproducing every minute ditial and also eliminating shrinkage.


CAREER OPPORTUNITY IN PLASTICS       

The continuing expending plastics industry offers many and varied job carriers. Chemist, chemical Engr. Physicists, mechanical and electrical engineers do must of the research and developed

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A REFRIGERATING UNIT

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A REFRIGERATING UNIT

COMPLETE MATERIAL COST 5000.

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
 GTBANK
Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment :
Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
 Account Number:  0117780667. 
Swift Code: GTBINGLA 
Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANKER SECURITY GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>DELIVERY PERIOD FOR BANK PAYMENT IS  LESS THAN 2 HOURS

CALL OKEKE CHIDI C ON :  08074466939,08063386834.

AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO

08074466939 or 08063386834, YOUR PROJECT TITLE  YOU WANT US TO SEND TO YOU, AMOUNT PAID, DEPOSITOR NAME, UR EMAIL ADDRESS,PAYMENT DATE. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR MATERIAL IN LESS THAN 2 HOURS ONCE WILL CONFIRM YOUR PAYMENT.

WE HAVE SECURITY IN OUR BUSINESS.   

MONEY BACK GUARANTEE!!!

ABSTRACT

The design and construction of s refrigerating unit is handled from the knowledge of the working principles of laws of thermodynamics.

The size of the containing vessel i.e the case as established to be of 45cm by 32 cm in dimension. The Angle iron mild steel to used in the fabrication and welding. The box case of two layers are fabricated. Plastic (cooler) box is then  placed inside the upper part with the other parts of the refrigerator were brought in. they were all fixed onto a wooden base with all the connections (electrical) made.

The capacity of the refrigerator is based on the workdone by the compressor which is O.I hp in specification. The size of the components used are

  1. Condenser: The size is 0.1hp and it is a plate type condenser with extended surface.
  2. Compressor: The size is 0.1hp (75 watts)
  • Copper wire: it is of 0.5cm in diameter and the total copper wire length is about 600cm (1½ roll)

The introduction of cooling fluid and filling of the compressor enabled the compressor to start functioning when connected to electricity using a 13 AMP rated socket

The interior of the plastic box is lined with dominium box with tubes arranged in convolution around it. This world effectively and cooled the water dropped into it. It compares favorably with the ones in the market.

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION

1.1     SCOPE OF THE PROJECT

 

CHAPTER TWO

HISTORY OF REFRIGERATION

TYPES OF REFRIGERATING DEVICE

USES OF REFRIGERATION

 

 

CHAPTER THREE

SEQUENCE OF OPERATIONS

SELECTION OF REFRIGRANTS

CONSTRUCTION PROCEDURE

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

 

\CHAPTER FOUR

  • CONCLUSION
  • RECOMMENDATIONS

REFERENCES.

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

Refrigeration is the process of lowering the temperature of a substance below that of its surrounding.

Refrigeration is the practical application of the first and second law thermodynamics. Comprehensive understanding of the basic principles of thermodynamics is crucial for full understanding of basic operation of refrigerator. The first law states that the energy can neither be created nor destroyed. If energy of 2.5J appears in one forms it appears in another without a corresponding decrease of energy on the other form. The second law states that no system can receive heat at a given temperature and reject it at a higher temperature without receiving work from the surrounding heat always flow from Warner to cooler body. Through consideration of these laws, the ideal refrigeration cycle are considered. The carnot cycle is reversible and consist of adiabatic compression witherma rejection of heat, adiabatic expansion and wothermal addition of heatl the carnot cycle is unattainable ideal which serves as a standard of comparison and it provides a convenient guide to the temperature that should be maintained to achieved effectiveness. The efficiency or coefficient of performance (C.O.P.) of a carnot cycle depends on the temperature at which heat is added and rejected.

Therefore,

C.O.P =      T1

T2 – T1

Where T1 = Evaporation temperature

T2 = Conducting temperature

In actual refrigeration there will be issues causing C.O.P to be less than that for ideal cycle. The basic methods of refrigeration like the mechanical refrigeration ejector (steam jet) refrigeration absorption refrigeration uses similar process for obtaining refrigeration effect. That is evaporation in the evaporator, condensation in the condenser, the main difference is in the way used refrigeration being done. The most compression. The cycle efficiency can be ignored in a number of ways.

  1. Multistage system: When evaporation and condensing temperature (pressure) difference is large, it is prudent to separate compression into two stages. The use of multistage system open up the opportunity to use flash gas removal and inter cooling as a measure to improve performance of the system
  2. Cascade system: This appears in situation where the evaporating temperature is very low (below 600c). the refrigerant is used to achieve the cooling. The liquid with low boiling points are used as refrigerants.

 

1.1     SCOPE OFD THE PROJECT

The scope of this project is mainly concerned with the design and construction of a refrigerating unit that has a very performance level and with the cost of fabrication lower than that of existing prototype

A good refrigerator is one that has all the basic components of compressor, condensers, fan motor, copper tubes and

UTLILIZATION STUDIES OF ENUGU COAL

UTLILIZATION STUDIES OF ENUGU COAL

 

COMPLETE MATERIAL COST 5000.

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
 GTBANK
Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment :
Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
 Account Number:  0117780667. 
Swift Code: GTBINGLA 
Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANKER SECURITY GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>DELIVERY PERIOD FOR BANK PAYMENT IS  LESS THAN 2 HOURS

CALL OKEKE CHIDI C ON :  08074466939,08063386834.

AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO

08074466939 or 08063386834, YOUR PROJECT TITLE  YOU WANT US TO SEND TO YOU, AMOUNT PAID, DEPOSITOR NAME, UR EMAIL ADDRESS,PAYMENT DATE. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR MATERIAL IN LESS THAN 2 HOURS ONCE WILL CONFIRM YOUR PAYMENT.

WE HAVE SECURITY IN OUR BUSINESS.   

MONEY BACK GUARANTEE!!!

ABSTRACT

This study has its theme as a utilization studies of Enugu coals with the view of studying its properties, classification, preparation storage etc comparing coals obtained from different locations.

The Enugu coal is a sub-bitummous and non coking coal.  It is very rich in waxes and resins, thus it may be suitable for the production of liquid fuels and a range of chemical raw materials.

After all necessary studies which includes proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, caebonization tests, classification test, chemical and petrographic propertics, coal blending studies, from coking studies etc a wide range of chemical products was found present in the Enugu coal.  It is obvious that for waxy and resinous materials of which Enugu coal is there are rumbrous applications in the chemical industry.

The development and acquisition of coal utilization technology was this frustrated due to coal fields were underdeveloped and this inadvently contributed to near abandonment of the existing coal field.  In solving the problem associated with this, the country must therefore follow the foot-steps of the industrialized nations by encouraging research and also voting in  large sums of money on developments of coal associated with the extraction, processing and use of coal.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITRATURE REVIE

  • Enugu coal fields
  • Geology and resource assessment
  • Properties of coal
  • Elassification of coal
  • Coal preparation
  • Coal storage
  • The exidation of exposed coal
  • Thermal decompostion
  • Gasification of coal

 

CHAPTER THREE

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

 

CHAPTER FOUR

EXPERIMENTAL RESULT

 

CHAPTER FIVE

DISSCUSSION

  • Enugu coal utilization
  • Uses of Enugu sub-bituminous coal
  • Techinical peasibility for Enugu coal
  • Market potentials of Enugu coal product

CHAPTER

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

REFERENCES

APPENDIX


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Coal is a black combustible compact, & stratified inhomogeneous mass of arganic material originated from metamorphosed plant which is usually found interspersed with smaller amount of inorganic mather in its sedimentary rocks.  Coal formation has occurred over long period of time, often under high pressure of overburden at elevated temperature and also with the actions of some bacteria.

Coal still provide a large portion of the words energy reguirements, accounting for 40% of worldwide electricity generation and for process weat in many industries.  As the planets population and energy use expand in the future, the use of coal is bound to increase in the future because words reseros are large and widespread and coal is a low-cost alternative to other fuels.

Coal has a significant role to play in the industrial development of Nigeria.  Apart from crucial role of coal in the metallurgical industry.  It is also a major substitute for petroleum by products in the chemical industry.  The enormous potential of coal resources in the overall economic development of Nigeria has prompted the need to consider how best to update information and knowledge of the coal utilization of this country.

As rate as 1949, the British colonial government commissioned a study the report of which clearly showed the chemical utilization of the Nigeria (Enugu) coal in the following words; “the production of all liquid fuel requirements of Nigeria and adjacent territories, and the development of an export chemical industry is of such technical and economic promise as to justify the active prosecution of the chemical utilization project.

The project focuses on the utilization studies of the Eungu coal and also on the re-integeration of coal the energy mix of Nigeria with a new to pringing out its potentials establish chamels of exchange of information and laso build up a bank of documented results.  The most auspicious of this point of view of its export ability, but also for its local consumption or needs for power generation and metallurgical coke production.

In Nigeria coal is found in commercial quantity in Enugu and hence Enugu is euphemically repred toas the coal city” Enugu coal met the need of our rellacy system and electricity supply in addition to employment opportunities for Nigerians.  Futher more, many chemicals of higher commercial values can be derived from coal which ran lead to building coal-based chemical plant in enugu state or other neighbouring state of the country.

In this project some factors reelected to the utilization of Enugu coal were looked into like Historical background of Enugu coal, coal fields, geological assessment, coal properties, classification, preparation, thermal decomposition and gasification of coal, some experiements and their results help in the importance and utilization of this Enugu coal.

It view of Nigeria over dependence on crude oil and the oil glot undermined further developments, exploitation and diversigation of our coal industry. To reverse the trend the extraction of our coal mus be improved.

Nigerian cement company, Nkalagu was designed to utilized Enugu coal for energe in their clinker production.  So also the Oji River power station was designed to utilize Enugu coal for electricity generation.  With oil boom coupled with the war coal suggered a major setback in the both production and utilization and the development of technologies for more efficient coal utilization.  Conversion to heat from gaseous and liquid fuels should be one of the prime objectives in meeting the energy requirements of this country.

It will be tantamount to economics short sightedness if the importance of coal in the industrial development of this country is judged by its present low level of its utilization.  The Enugu coal industry must be seen as a long neglected economic frontiers that needs urgent resuscitation.

Therefore, proper management of

BLEACHING OF PALM OIL USING NATURAL ADSORBENT

BLEACHING OF PALM OIL USING NATURAL ADSORBENT

COMPLETE MATERIAL COST 5000.

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
 GTBANK
Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment :
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ABSTRACT

Crude palm oil is the major desired product in palm oil industry. It is obtained from the mesocarp of palm oil fruit and can be subjected to further refining processing stages in order to produce refined, bleached palm oil. This study is aimed at determining the performance, effectiveness of natural adsorbent (in this case kaolin clay) in palm oil bleaching. It was also investigated to identify the suitability of the natural adsorbent as a bleaching agent on palm oil. The type of process carried out here is physical process which is bleaching process. The bleaching process was carried out at temperature of 99.9oc and contact time of 30 minutes. The colour of the oil was tested using a photo-colorimeter at 490nm. Acid values were subsequently tested after each experiment and thus the free fatty acid content. The bleaching stage of palm oil refining has been identified as the major contributors to the total operating cost of the plant due to the cost of chemicals (phosphoric acid and bleaching earth) that are being used in these processes. In this research, a suitable bleaching of palm oil using natural adsorbent will be experimented upon in a laboratory scale in order to help the palm oil refiners to predict the exact ratio of phosphoric acid and bleaching earth to the crude palm oil. By so doing, hopefully there would be reduction in the operating costs and time of the overall palm oil refining process.

DEFINITION OF TERMS/ NOMENCLATURE

ABS –       Absorbance Value

AOCS –    American Oil Chemist Society

AV    –       Anisidine Value

BE   –       Bleaching Earth

CF    –       Calibration Factor

CPO –       Crude Palm Oil

CU   –       Copper

DBPO –    Degummed Bleached Palm Oil

DOBI –     Deterioration of Bleachability Index

EDTA  –    Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic Acid

Fe    –       Iron

FFA  –       Free Fatty Acid

FFB  –       Fresh Fruit Bunches

G      –       Gram

H2O  –       Water

IV     –       Iodine Value

KOH –       Potassium Hydroxide

Meq  –       Milliequivalent

Ml    –       Mililiter

mmHg –    Millimeter Mercury

Na    –       Sodium

NaOH –     Sodium Hydroxide

P      –       Phosphorus

PORIM-    Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia

PPM –       Part Per Million

PV    –       Peroxide Value

W     –       Weight of Sample/Test Portion

C      –       Quantity of Residue

K      –       Constant unrelated to the amounts of solute and                    adsorbent

M     –       Quantity of absorbent

N      –       Constant unrelated to the amounts of solute and                    adsorbent.

X      –       Quantity of substance adsorbed.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page                                                                                 i

Letter of transmittal                                                                 ii

Certification/Approval page                                             iii

Dedication                                                                       iv

Acknowledgement                                                            v

Abstract                                                                           vi

Definition of terms/nomenclature

Table of Contents

CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION

  • Historical Background 1
  • Statement of Problems 3
  • Objectives of the Study 4
  • Scope/Limitation of the Study 4

1.4.1 Scope                                                                      4

1.4.2 Limitation of the Study                                           5

1.5 Method of Research                                                   6

1.6 Significance of Study                                                 6

 

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 Literature Review                                                       8

2.1 Palm Oil (Elaeis guineensis)                                      8

2.1.1. Palm Oil Composition                                            8

2.1.2 Varieties of Palm Oil                                               9

2.1.3 Uses of Palm Oil                                                     9

2.2 Processing of Palm Oil                                                       10

2.2.1 Properties of Palm Oil                                             11

2.2.2 Composition and Constituents of Crude Palm oil   11

2.3 Quality of Crude Palm Oil                                          13

2.3.1 Free Fatty Acid                                                        13

2.3.2 Moisture                                                                 13

2.3.3 Heavy (trace) Metals                                                        14

2.3.4 Deterioration of Bleachability Index                                14

2.4 Refining methods of Palm Oil                                    15

2.4.1 Chemical (Alkaline) Refining                                   16

2.4.1.1 Gum Conditioning and Neutralization                         16

2.4.1.2 Bleaching and Filteration                                    17

2.4.1.3 Deodorisation                                                      17

2.4.2 Physical Refining                                                    18

2.5 Environmental and Health Issue                               19

2.5.1 Number of Processing Stages                                  19

2.5.2 Cost Advantage                                                       19

2.6 Factors Affecting Bleaching Process of

Crude Palm Oil                                                                20

2.7 Bleaching Process Theory                                          20

2.7.1 Mechanism of Bleaching Process                            21

2.7.2 Bleaching Agents                                                    22

2.7.2.1 Acid Activated Bleaching Earth                            22

2.7.2.2 Natural/Neutral Bleaching Earth                         22

2.7.2.3 Activated Carbon                                                 22

2.7.2.4 Synthetic Silicate                                                 23

2.8 Types of Bleaching Methods                                      23

2.9 Types of Adsorption                                                   24

2.9.1 Physical Adsorption                                                        24

2.9.2 Adsorbents                                                             25

2.9.2.1 Natural Adsorbent                                                       26

 

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 Methodology                                                              27

3.1 Materials                                                                    27

3.2 Preparations of the Bleaching Adsorbents                 27

3.3 The Bleaching Process                                                       28

3.3.1 Characterization of Oil Samples                              29

3.3.2 Colorimeter Determination of Bleaching Extent      30

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 Results/Analysis                                                       32

4.1 Results                                                                      32

4.2 Analysis                                                                     32

4.3 Observation                                                               37

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendations                38

5.1 Discussion                                                                         38

5.2 Conclusion                                                                        41

5.3 Recommendations                                                     42

References                                                               44

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

It has been established that oil palm, Elaies guineensis is native to Africa. The commercial values of this crop lies mainly in the oil that can be obtained from the mesocarp of the fruit- palm oil. Both are edible oils but with very different chemical composition, physical properties and applications.

Palm fruit is widely cultivated due to commercial and processing viability as harvesting becomes easier. Palm oil and palm kernel oil have a wide range of applications, about 80% are used for food applications while the rest of feedstock for a number of non-food applications.

Palm oil is one of the various types of vegetable oils, belonging to the group called liquids, owing to its fatty acids content. The majority of the fats contains some colouring matters either as a natural constituent or discoloration produced during the processing. Natural pigments present in vegetable oils are mainly the carotenoid, giving yellow and red colours.

As earlier stated, palm oil has a wide range of applications which include:

  1. Cooking and frying: refined bleached and deodorized (RBD) is considered the best frying and cooking oil, since it is resistant to high temperature and does not produce odour.
  2. Palm oil based fats and margarine produced the most successful result in the preparation of bread, pies, biscuits, short cakes and pastries.

Palm oil is used mainly for cooking such as cooking oil, margarine and shortening. It also has non-food applications such as soap, detergent, cosmetics.

Obviously now, palm oil has become an increasingly important vegetable oil in the world market and today is the largest traded vegetable oil in the world. Palm oil industry can be divided into several main sectors according to their activities which are as follows:

  1. Plantations: planting of the oil palm and harvesting of the fresh fruit bunches (FFB).
  2. Palm oil mills: processing of the fresh fruit bunches into crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernels.
  3. Palm kernel mills: extraction of the palm kernel oil.
  4. Palm oil processing: refining and fractionation, production of downstream products.

 

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS

The topic of this project is “Bleaching of palm oil using natural adsorbent”. Crude palm oil is expected to be bleached using natural adsorbent. In this project work, any type of natural adsorbent could be used to achieve the bleaching purpose. The colour producing substances contained in the crude palm oil is to be adsorbed on an adsorbent material by the method or process of bleaching.

Furthermore, this project work under investigation allows for any suitable method of bleaching to achieve bleaching aim provided the method is within the scope of the topic. The natural adsorbent used is kaolin clay.

 

1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The aim of this project is to bleach palm oil using natural adsorbent such as clay samples on bleaching of palm oil is to be evaluated. It is also aimed at reducing the operating cost and time of the overall palm oil refining process. It is meant to determine and predict the suitable ratio of bleaching earth to crude palm oil. This process or method should be able to operate at various quality of crude palm oil fed and yet ensuring efficient separation.

 

1.4 SCOPE/LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

1.4.1. SCOPE

The scope of this project work is bleaching of palm oil using natural adsorbent. The topic requires that the bleaching process is to be carried out using natural adsorbent only. It does not give room to investigate other type of adsorbent in order to determine their performance and efficiency on the bleaching of palm oil.

Furthermore, the topic entails that the work need to be carried out, that is, carrying out a lab scale experiment for bleaching in order to get the required quality, and comparing it with the results and information obtained from literatures. During this stage, the number of experiment needed to be run are determined through the design of experiment method.

Also, some suitable quality checking experiment for the crude palm oil prior to bleaching is carried out.

 

1.4.2 LIMITATION OF STUDY

The topic under study being “bleaching of palm oil using natural adsorbent” has various limiting factors when carrying out the investigations. In the first place, the adsorbent required for this project is natural adsorbent. On that effect, the performance of other adsorbents (synthesized) were not investigated. Furthermore, the type of natural adsorbent to be used for the project work posed some problem as the quality and effectiveness of such adsorbent has to be determined and as well the area where it could be gotten.

Consequently, the time frame within which the project work is to be carried is very short, and thereby adding to the number of constraints encountered. The cost of the project work also pose some problems.

 

1.5 METHOD OF RESEARCH

The topic under investigation was carried out by laboratory experiment in order to evaluate the performance of natural adsorbent on bleaching of palm oil.

Other method of research includes using text books from the library to get the literature review and also using the interne, journals.

 

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

The laboratory investigation into the possibility of using natural adsorbent in our locality is very crucial because it can be used as alternative adsorptive cleansers in refining crude palm oil. It is also to get the laboratory scale of the work and its equivalent scale up value for commercial purposes for the oil refining industry. Since to use vegetable oil for food, it has to be refined, therefore oil refining aims at purifying the oil so that it be free of contaminants that may impose health constraints.

Other significance includes:

  1. It can help to boost the economy of the nation. This is true because bleaching clays which are available in our locality can easily be obtained and as well sold to countries that has none or less quality of these clays for refining operations.
  2. The capital that is being spent on importing adsorbents by the vegetable oil refining industry could be channeled into other project and thereby making the refined oil available at an affordable rate.

It can promote entrepreneurship thereby creating job opportunities to people. This can be achieved if the cost of