PRODUCTION OF HIGH QUALITY BODY PERFUME
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Perfume can be defined as any mixture of pleasantly odours substances incorporated in a suitable solvent. In other words, perfume is the term applied to a conventionally strong alcoholic solution of odourants, as apposed to such water solutions as toilet water and eases. The act of perfume production is known as perfumery and a perfumer is the person who practice it.
This perfume was produced from local raw materials to compete with perfume produced from synthetic raw materials as well as those imported from abroad. In the production, different perfume oils were used. Ethyl alcohol was introduced as a vehicle and castor oil was used to act as a fixative. The essential oils were poured into a flat bottomed flask, and was stirred slowly until complete dispersal was achieved. The mixture was left for. 48 hours and then water was added to reduce concentration. Then the mixture was left for three weeks to mature.
A purified perfume was gotten after the local raw materials were subjected various processing conditions. Nine different types of perfume brand were formulated using the various perfume oil provided.
The cost of producing perfume using local raw materials was cheaper than producing it using synthetic raw materials as well as those imported.
Comparing the standard of the result of the perfumed produced with the market standard it was discovered that there was a slight difference between the qualities between local raw materials and the market standard.
This project was done to make our country aware of their natural resources and to harness our natural endowment to produce adequate and reliable perfumes that would complete prodigiously with synthetic perfumes.
Literature review 5
- Brief description of perfumes. 5
- Historical background of perfumes 5
- The role of perfumes 7
- Perfume creation 9
- Uses, application and general
importance of perfume. 18
- Raw materials for a perfume 21
- Reactions in perfume and products 26
- General methods of isolating essential oils. 31
- Formulation procedures of perfumes 40
Experimental procedure 45
- Raw materials used 45
- Equipment and general process description 45
- Extraction procedure 47
- Perfume compounding/formulation 49
Discussion & Results 51
- Results 51
- Discussion 57
Conclusion and recommendation 59
- Conclusion 60
Perfumes may be divided into two classes, the first which includes all primitive or simple odorifierous bodies derived from the animal or vegetable kingdom, as well as the definite chemical compounds specially manufactured, while the second comprises the various bouquets or mlanges made by blending two or more of the foregoing in varying proportions toilet powders, dentifrices, sachets. The first class comprises of the following;
- The animal products, ambergris, castor, civet, must
- The essential oils (also called attars), mostly procured by the distillation of the stems, leaves, flowers and other parts of plants.
- The philicome butters or oils, which are either solid or liquid fats charged with odours by the processes of inflowering or maceration.
- The odoriferous gum – resins or balsams which exude naturally or form wounds in the trunks of various trees and shrubs, such as benzoin, opoponax, peru, tolu, storax, myrrh.
- The large number of synthetic perfumes which simulate the odour of the natural scents.
The second class contains the endless combination of tinctures sold under fancy names which may or my not afford a clue to their composition, such as comclie francise, cau de senteur, eucle cologne lavender amber, blumengeist. In general, they are mixtures of a number of perfumes dissolved in alcohol.
Most of the perfumes in the market belong to the second class, since, in most cases, they are prepared by blending various natural or artificial odorous principles.
Perfumes are used in many diverse consumer products, among them are the various preparations for the cleansing, care, beautification and scenting of the human face and body, laundry soaps, bathing soaps and detergents and other more recent laundrying aids, the various kinds of household cleanser and polishes, the growing range of air fresheners and disposable paper products such as facial and toilet tissues and diapers.
Due to the various uses of body perfumes in the country, the need arises for it’s production from locally raw material in order to reduce cost of buying from abroad and subsequent importation into the country. Only some of the firms that manufacture or market scented products employ specialists trained in the application, testing, and selection of fragrances, thus is not surprising, since few companies can employ experts on all materials used in their products.
Perfumes is usually a minor component, both in quantity and in functional importance. In terms of cost however, fragrance is often a major consideration, through usually lacking a functional purpose, perfume is often one of the few product characteristic by which the consumer can differentiate between brands. Hence it may play a major role in supporting brand linage and market position.
This work is aimed at developing an economic and indigenous way of producing body perfume using locally raw materials in the interest of small scale industries thereby conserving their foreign exchange earnings. Perfumes poses special challenge to the chemist because of it’s complexity, to the product manager and marketing researcher because of the peculiarities of consumer response to it, and to the purchasing executive because of the confidentiality surrounding it’s composition.
A great number of different materials may be used in one fragrance making as many as 300. The type of materials are used, the perfume essential oils for the odours and the fixative that make the perfume last. The oils may be dissolved out of flowers and leaves by solvents such as alcohol. Perfume has two faces, it is a liquid with definite physical and chemical properties, it is also a sensation, experienced either – consciously or subconsciously, which affects people in different, hart-to-verbalize ways.
The chemical and physical properties are important primarily to the