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NEED FOR ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY MATERIALS FOR BUILDING CONSTRUCTION

NEED FOR ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY MATERIALS FOR BUILDING CONSTRUCTION IN ANAMBRA STATE

 

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ABSTRACT

The major purpose of this study was to determine the needs for environmental friendly materials for building construction. The population of the study consisted mostly of big constriction firms in Anambra State that have had more than five years of active construction experience the sample for the study was 10 reputable construction firms which were drawn using simple random sampling. Four research questions and two hypothesis were formulated, which guided the study. A 30-item structured questionnaire was developed for data collection. Frequency count / percentages and weighted mean (likert scale) were used to answer the research questions, which chi-square was used to test the hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. It was concluded among others that environmental unfriendly building materials has serious negative impacts on the environment. Which needs an urgent attention in other to save the environment from global warming and other negative effects. Based on the findings and conclusions drawn from the study recommendations were made for  Anambra State government to take a legislation that will help for effective use of environmental friendly material for building construction in Anambra State.

         

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

  • Introduction 1

1.1     Background of the study                                                                1

  • Statement of the problem 2
  • Research aims and objectives 3
  • Significance of the study 4
  • Research question                                                   4
  • Research Hypotheses                                         4
  • Study area                                         5
  • Definition of terms.                               5

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     Literature Review                                                                         8

2.1     Negative Impacts

2.1.1   Extraction of raw materials

2.1.2   Construction Waste

2.1.3   Packaging

2.1.4 Transpiration

2.1.5 Use / Maintenance

2.2.0 Effects of using environmentally friendly material for building construction

2.2.1 Environmental friendly materials is describe by the dictionary as a product that has been designed to do the least possible damage to the environment.

2.2.2 Renewable source

2.2.3 Reusable or Recyclable

2.2.4 Locally available

2.2.5 Durability and Life Span

2.2.6 Energy Conservation

2.2.7 Improve Indoor Air quality

2.2.8 Reduce environmental Impact

2.3.0 Characteristics that determine the Environmental sustainability of given building materials

2.3.1 Life-Cycle Assessment

2.3.2 Pre-Building Phase

2.3.3 Building phase

2.3.4 Pose building Phase

2.3.4.1 To be reused in its entity

2.3.4.2 To be recycled or Down cycle

2.3.4.3 To be discarded

2.3.5 Features of environmentally friendly Materials

2.3.5.1 Pollution prevention measures

2.3.5.2 Waste Reduction Measures

2.3.5.3 Recycled content

2.3.5.4 Live cycle analysis for automobiles

2.3.6.1 Embodies energy measurement

2.4.0 Derivable benefits in using environmentally friendly materials for building constructions.

2.4.1 Reusability

2.4.2 Recyclability

2.4.3 Biodegradability

2.4.4 Re-education of construction waste

2.4.5 Energy Efficiency

CHAPTER  THREE

3.0     RESEARCH METHODOLOGY                                                             22

3.1     Introduction

3.2     Sources of data collection                                                                       28

3.2.1 Primary data                                                                                             28

3.2.2 Secondary Data                                                                                        28

3.3  Population of the study                                                                               29

3.4  Sample section technique                                                                           29

3.5     Research Methods                                                                                  30

3.6     Methods of Investigation                                                                         31

3.7.0 Validity and Reliability of the measuring instrument                                  32

3.8.0 Administration of questionnaires and Retrievals                                                   32

3.9.0 Method of Data Analysis                                                                          36

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     Cast study / Data Presentation / Analysis and Interpretation of data                     37

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1     Findings, Conclusion and Recommendation                                             67

5.1.1   Summary of findings                                                                               67

5.1.2   The effects of using environmentally friendly materials

for building constructions                                                                        68

5.1.3   The characteristics that determine the environmental

sustainability of a given building materials                                               68

5.1.4   The derivable benefits in using environmentally friendly

materials for building construction.                                                          69

5.2     Conclusion                                                                                             69

5.3     Recommendations                                                                                   70

References                                                                                              71

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

In recent years more and more attention is being paid to the environmental impacts of building materials. The constantly increasing cost of energy and raw materials force the construction industry to think about alternatives such as renewable energy sources and raw materials and the reduction of wast.

Climate change and environmental pressures are major drivers for the promotion of environmental friendly materials.

Furthermore, this trend is spreading fast and the international document stating intent of being more environmental friendly one as presented. The Kyoto protocol, the energy performance of building directive of the EU, Eneergy Efficiency Directive. In line with the desire for environmental friendly materials, some government have change their legislation setting targets for the sustainability of public and residential buildings.  On the other hand, statistics show that an important factor for the well-being of the inhabitants is the choice of building materials, “unhealthy” materials cannot only cause environmental problems but can equally cause asthma and cancer and therefore it is extremely important to choose low emitting building materials. We spend most of our times indoors and building materials influence the “health” and safety of the indoor environment.

The building industry in Anambra state is rapidly changing-new building materials are all the time emerging on the market and new construction techniques are being developed and more and more challenging designs are being developed to be built it in the expectation that the next building generation will be of low energy and sustainable building materials. The first step towards environmental friendly construction is the appropriate choice of building materials. This is a challenging task and which this research intends to investigate to ascertain the environmental impacts of the chosen materials before the design and construction phases.

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The use of environmental unfriendly materials in building construction is a major environmental problem that significantly needs attention. When environmental problem arises as a result of impacts of toxic construction materials the effect of those materials to the environment must be immediately assessed, which outcome depends upon a number of factors.

1)      Why is one material environmentally friendly and another not?

2)      Life cycle assessment of a material and its characteristics.

3)      How every phase of the life of a material influences the environment?

4)      The impacts of construction materials like concrete, block and timber to the environment.

5)      The rating of embodied energy of a material.

6)      The criteria that determine the sustainability of a building materials in a given environment.

The effects and consequences of using environmentally unfriendly materials have posed the challenge for the development and use of alternative materials that are friendly to the environment in the building construction industry.

1.3   RESEARCH AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

The aim of this study is to examine the need for the use of environmentally friendly material for building construction in Anamba State.

With the following objectives.

1)      To identity the negative impacts on the environment by the use of unfriendly building materials.

2)      To evaluate the effects of using environmentally friendly materials for building construction.

3)      To ascertain the characteristics that determine the environmentally sustainability of a given building material.

4)      To articulate the benefits in using environmentally friendly materials for building construction.

1.4   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

        The findings of this study will largely contribute to and influence the use of environmentally friendly materials for building construction.

Thus:

1)      Use of environmentally friendly materials will promote conservation of dwindling non-renewable resources in Anambra State.

2)      Environmentally friendly materials when used will help to increase the energy efficiency in construction and reduce negative impacts on human well being.

3)      Will define systematic approach, where by use of environmentally friendly material will ensure environmental sustainability.

1.5   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1)      What are the negative impacts on the environment by the use of unfriendly building materials

2)      What are the effects of using environmentally friendly materials for building construction.

3)      What are the characteristics that determine the environmental sustainability of a given building materials.

4)      What are the derivable benefits in using environmentally friendly materials for building constructions.

1.6   RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

The following null hypothesis was formulated for the study to be tested 0.0.5 level of significance

Ho:   Environmental unfriendly building materials does not have any significance impacts on the environment.

Hi:    Environmental unfriendly building materials has a significance impacts on the environment.

1.7   STUDY AREA

        This study was carried out in Anambra State, South-eastern Nigeria.

It boundaries are formed by Delta State to the West, Imo State and Rivers State to the South, Enugu State to the east and Kogi State to the North. A coordinates: 6.20N 7000.E with a total Area of 4,844km2 (1.870semi) population (2006 census) 4,055.048 (Anambra State-Wikipedia).

1.8   DEFINITION OF TERMS

*       Environment: The natural conditions in which people, animals and plants live (Oxford Dictionary).

*       Environmental friendly materials: A product that has been designed to do the least possible damage to the environment. (Oxford Dictionary).

*       Embodied Energy: The sealer total to energy input required to produce the product including transporting them to the building site.

*       Biodegradable: Materials ability to change to a harmless natural state by the action of bacteria (oxford Dictionary)

 

 

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EFFECTIVE WAYS OF CONTROLLING EROSION IN A BUILDING SITE IN SELECTED SITES

EFFECTIVE WAYS OF CONTROLLING EROSION IN A BUILDING SITE IN SELECTED SITES IN EKWULOBIA ANAMBRA STATE

 

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Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
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Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

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08074466939 Or 08063386834,   The Project Title  You  Selected On Our Website , Amount Paid, Depositor Name, Your Email Address, Payment Date. You Will Receive Your Material In Less Than 1 Hour Once We Confirm Your Payment.

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CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The development of soil erosion began when man settled down and started turning pasture land into farmland. The intensive exploitation of the land disturbed the natural soil vegetative cover and exposed its, surface to the effect of erosive agents and to introduce such forms of agriculture that did not destroy the land the devastation of land by erosion often led to the down fall of civilization e.g in Mesopotamia Syria, China and else where.

According to Robert. M. (1984), Erosion is manifested by the determination of soil surface effected by exogenous forces, especially water. Ice wind and, man as the significant anthropogenic factor. The disturbance of soil surface is accompanied by the removal of the detached soil particles by the force of kinetic energy of some of the erosion agents, namely water and wind and the deposition of this matter with a decrease in this energy. Erosion is caused by surface num off and result complex natural process. Water erosion is caused by precipitation. Areas with a low precipitation usually have a small surface num off because precipitation water infiltrates into the soil is consumed by vegetation erosion which may also be broadly cause by a natural factor organ.

It can also be carried by improper channeling neglect of natural sewage systems and obstruction of naturally sewage by buildings. Form land and other unplanned structure causes a great deal of damage.

Although the nature of soil within the area under consideration is mostly sandy with a very low water storage capabilities. Practical observation orchestrated form visit to those site prone to erosion have shown that their may be possibility of erosion if the nun off water is not properly channel e.g the nature of the soil. In sandy soil they can form a very good soil material but danger exist if the water table is near or surface nun off is not adequately channeled. The sandy easily eroded a way from it position their by causing or may lead to fully erosion.

Furthermore, erosion is seen as one of the most serious defects in contemporary residential buildings, it is observed here that apart form it causing rapid destruction of structure / buildings, it also result to severe damage to the soil and in severe case it adversely affect the health of the occupants.

1.2     STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

A certain condition or factor can make a soil or structure / building to loose their Sharpe effectively or ineffectively attain their maximum structural physical and economic life span. It has been seen that a number of fact observed to be responsible for the in-adequate or in-appropriate functioning channeling of sewage surface nun off water at the due time. These in turn expose the building site to the danger of erosion which accelerate their dilapidation. Among the factors or improper channeling / neglect of natural sewage system and obstruction of natural sewage by building without following the local authorities rules dropping of refuse in the drainage ways. Erosion plays a critical role in dilapidation of building and visible in construction industry as one of the most serious defect in contemporary residential buildings. All soils can suffer erosion but some are more vulnerable than others. Soils with dispersible subsoils, for example, are subject to serious erosion by funneling and gully formation.

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1.3     RESEARCH AIMS AND OBJECTIVE

The major purpose of this study is to determine. The effective way of controlling erosion in a construction site prone to erosion problem.

1)      Identity the various causes of erosion in building sites.

2)      Examine the appropriate materials and (new and old) used in controlling the erosion.

3)      Determine the most appropriate materials and techniques required for the controlling it.

4)      To recommend measure if implemented will lead to effective control of erosion in a construction

 

1.4     RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The study sought to answer the following research questions

1)      What are nature and various causes of erosion in building sites

2)      What are the process to be applied in erosion control.

3)     What are the  various types of materials to be used in controlling erosion

4)      If implemented will lead to effective control of erosion in an erosion prone site

1.5    SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY

The significance of this study shall include the follow:

1)      Contractors and engineers shall know how to control erosion in an erosion prone site.

2)      The engineers and the general public will because more aware on the importance of erosion control in a site.

3)      Lecturers, students consultants and other stakeholders in the construction industry will be theoretically & technically equipped on how to control erosion in an erosion prone construction site.

 

1.6     STUDY OF AREA

This study was delimited to the problem of erosion in a site prone to erosion. It focused on the type and magnitude of erosion at site in Anambra state and also looked at the specific remedial techniques to that building site will function effectively and efficiently. Attempt should be made to look into laboratory experimentation of the material used for effective control of erosion in building site prone to erosion. Ekwulobia erosion is gully erosion-gully erosion is of concern due to periodically intense rainfall and a large average of erodible soils. Effective design of gully control system must consider the gully network as a whole and be based on geomorphologic indicators such as type of network, order and stage of development.

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1.7     DEFINITION OF TERMS

According to Grolie (1990). Erosion is the wearing away of the earth surface by the action of water.

 

According to Milos Holy (1987). Building is permanent or temporary structure enclosed within exterior walls and a roof and including all attached apparatus. Equipment and fixtures that cannot be removed without cutting into ceiling floors or walls. In the year 1960 Bernard Huss define soil as the top layer of the earths surface in which plants an grow consisting of rock and mineral particles mixed with decayed organic matter and having the capability of retaining water.

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     LITERATURE  REVIEW

2.1     DEFINITIONS OF EROSION

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IMPACT OF EFFECTIVE BUILDING PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT IN SUCCESSFUL BUILDING PROJECT DELIVERY

IMPACT OF EFFECTIVE BUILDING PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT IN SUCCESSFUL BUILDING PROJECT DELIVERY IN AWKA ANAMBRA STATE

 

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction                                                                                                  1

  • Background of the study 1
  • Statement of the problem 2
  • Purpose of the study 3
  • Research question 4
  • Scope of the study                                                                                     4
  • Limitations of the study 5
  • Definition of terms. 5
  • Organization of the study 6

CHAPTER TWO

2.0       Literature Review                                                                                        7

2.1       Types of pressure groups                                                                            8

2.2       Pressure groups and democrats process in Nigeria                                9

2.3       Attitudes to and participation in the National democratic process      11

2.4       Contributions of functional pressure group to the democratic process 16

2.5       Obstacles to the effectiveness of pressure groups in the democratic

process                                                                                                           18

2.6       Summary of literature review                                                                    20

2.7       Theoretical framework                                                                                21

CHAPTER  THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY                                                                 22

3.1       Design of the study                                                                                      22

3.2       Area of the study                                                                                          22

3.3       Population of the study                                                                               22

3.4       Sample and sampling techniques                                                              22

3.5       Instrument for Data collection                                                                   23

3.6       Reliability and validity of the instrument                                                            23

3.7       Distribution and retrieval of instruments                                                             24

3.8       Methods of Data analysis                                                                           24

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0       Data Presentation and Analysis                                                                 25

4.1       Personal Data                                                                                                25

4.2       Analysis of research questions                                                                  26

4.3       Findings                                                                                                         30

CHAPTER FIVE

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation                                                      31

5.1       Summary of findings                                                                                   31

5.2       Conclusion                                                                                                    31

5.3       Recommendations                                                                                       32

5.4       suggestions or Further Research                                                               32

References                                                                                                    33

 

 

 

 

ABSTRACT

 

The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of effective building production management in successful building project delivery in Akwa in Anambra State. A three research question were formulated which guided the study. The population of the study comprises of building production management professionals in construction firms. A well structured questionnaire was distributed and 30 were retrieved out of 40 distributed for data collection. Frequency count / percentages and weighted mean (likert scale) were used to answer the research questions. It was concluded among other that; impact of effective building production management leads to successful building project delivery. Building production management; for quality assurance, utilization of labour and complete success in construction project supervision must be use at all time based on the conclusion drawn from the study, recommendations were made for the importance of effective building production management.

 

  

 

 CHAPTER ONE

1.0           INTRODUCTION

1.1.0        BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

       

The Nigeria construction industry has witnessed continued growth at a phenomenal rate construction methods have witnessed changes with current trends tending towards industrialization,  mechanization, prefabrication and the authomation of all the processes involved in the erection and installation of structure Kashish C. (2016). All these require high management impact with the population explosion and continued demand for new building of all kinds couple with the infrastructural facilities there is the need for professional practitioners in the building industry to impart knowledge of production management toward construction planning at the design stage for successful building delivering with appropriate construction tools. Robert F.C. and Michael C.L. (2001)

A concept and contents of modern day construction work are changing in a complex direction, the indication is a clear need for professionals to improve on modern techniques for learning and practice. It is only in this way that the construction industry can meet challenges and responsibilities imposed upon it is an effective and efficient manner so as to ensure quality of production in the construction industry. This will not only offer better value for money to the client but will make profitability of the industry more stable for any building project to be successfully execute on site, the constructors must forcast, plan and put in place various production Management Documents (Builder’s documents).

Federal Government National Building Code (2006).

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS

Bamisile (2004), the public at large, believe that most building product fails to offer value for money, construction projected are said to cast for much, take too long to complete and too prone to failure.

Ibironke T.O. (2009), asserted that the problem experience in the course of managing the three parameters, manifest primarily art two point in the total building process, i.e at the interface between the client and designer and the interfaces between the designer and the constructor. Ibironke T.O.(2009), further concluded that the major problem of project falling to meet with the client requirement of time, cost and quality (TCQ) includes the followings.

i       Client and designer may misunderstand or not

ii      Agree on the detail of the brief with regards to the buildings purpose performance or appearance.

iii     The designer and constructor may through misunderstanding or ignorance, misinterpret the objectives regarding, time, cost and quality specified in relevant contract document.

iv     Designer sometime may design a building that cannot be built to the required levels of quality, constructed with time and cost.

1.3   RESEARCH AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

        The aim of the research is to explore the impact of effective building production management in successful building project delivery with the following objectives:

1)     To identify factors affecting effective Building production management.

2)     To seek the importance of production management.

3)     To articulate the benefits of effective building production management to project delivery

 

 

1.4   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

        This project is highly significant in the following ways.

  1. This study will help in effective building production management.
  2. It will help students for research work and need for proper design and management of construction.
  3. This project will be useful to builders and other professionals in the building design and construction management.

1.5   RESEARCH QUESTION

The following research questions are found to drive the study.

1)     What are the factors that effective Building production management

2)     What are the importance of production management

3)     What are the benefit of effective building production management for project delivery.

1.6   STUDY AREA

This research was carried out in Awka Anambra State. It examined. The impact of effective building production management in successful building project delivery.

 

1.7   DEFINITION OF TERMS

Building production: This is the organization and management of plans, equipment, materials and labour involved in the construction of a building, while at the same time complying with all codes, rules and contractual stipulations.

Management: This is a social process entailing responsibility for the effective economics planning and regulation of the operations of an enterprise in fulfillment of a given purpose or task (Calvert R.E (1995).

Construction: The erecting or building of something especially a large structure such as a house, road, or bridge which involves type and quality of the structure, materials and workmanship (Encarta 2009).

Design: This is the realization of a concept or idea into a configuration, drawing, model, mould, pattern, plan or specification (on which the actual or commercial production of an item is based) and which helps achieve the item’s designated objectives

 

 

 

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