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PRESERVATION OF ARCHIVAL MATERIALS IN NATIONAL ARCHIVES ENUGU

PRESERVATION OF ARCHIVAL MATERIALS IN NATIONAL ARCHIVES ENUGU

 

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ABSTRACT

Preservation of Archival materials is very important and very essential for prolonging of information and knowledge form one generation to another. This study discusses the methods of preserving Archival materials. The work is arranged in chapters for easy understanding. The chapters contained in this work are form one to five. The work does not only stop with the protection and safe-guarding of he archives from authorized access and loss resulting from water and fire but the provision of sophisticated and special storage building and also the control of the surrounding in which the records are kept. The cause of damages and deterioration of the Archival materials which includes chemical, physical and biological agents were also discussed. Interview method was used in the study, where some of the staff were interviewed to know how they preserve records (materials) and also the durability and effectiveness of the preservative measures in their Archives. Observation method was applied also to see how the materials were arranged and what they (staff) use in arrangement. At the end of this work, additional possible solutions will be suggested on how to preserve the materials

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0    Introduction …………………………………………………….1

  • Historical background of the  study…………………………

1.2  Statement of the problem……………………………………

1.3  Objective of the study……………………………………

1.4  Research Question ……………………………………………

1.5    Scope of the study…………………………………………

  • Significance of the study

CHAPTER TWO

2.0   ITERATURE REVIEW

2.1    Conservation and preservation

2.2    Cause of deterioration of Archival materials.

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0    Research  Methodology……………………………

3.1    Research Design ………………………………………

3.2   Population of study

3.3    Sampling procedure

3.4    Instrumentation

3.5    Organizational structure

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Preservation Analysis and discussion of finding

4.1    Data preservation

4.2    Interview with Chief Archivists

4.3    Interview with Head of processing Base unit

4.4    Interview with the Binder

4.5    Interview with the reprographer

4.6    Interview with the Head o Research room.

4.7    Data Analysis

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0   SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1    Summary of findings………………………………………

5.2    Conclusion ………………………………………..……

5.3    Limitations of the study…………………………………

5.4    Suggestion for the further Research

References…………………………………………………………

Appendix A………………………………………………………

Questionnaire …………………………………………………….

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The practice of keeping record is as old as civilization itself we would know little about civilization and ancient kingdoms but for the fact that records of Archaeologicla evidence of written record the discovery of the manuscript of the Hebrew torah in the temple is good example form biblical times. The Romans Emperor Justine (527-565 AD) has been quoted as issuing a decree to this governors in every province to set apart a public building to store their ecordsa. As a matter of fact, the measure of a nations civilization has always been judged by the pride. It place on its written records which from the raw materials of it history many individual does not know the important of preserving records of the past history until when hey are in need of it, this behavior is not peculiar to Nigeria alone but has prevalled in every country where people have not been in the habit of taking adequate care of their records, despite this archival centers have sprang up. Where ever it is realized that to destroy record is to destroy the very source form which reliable history could be written.

Archives have been defined as those records of any public private institution which are adjudged worthy of permanent preservation for reference and research purposes and which have been deposited or have been selected for deposit in an archival institution, Archives is also repository for an organized body of records produced or received by a public, semi-public institutional or business entity. In the transaction of its affairs and preserved by it or its successors. People some times refer to Archival institution “As Archives”.

The institution and Administration of Archives may be traced from autiquity Archives and Archival administration as they are understood today, dates from the French revolution. The establishment of the Archives departmentales in 1796 and Archives National in  1989, there was for the first time a unified Administratiion of Archives that embarked in existent repositories and records producing public agencies, they are responsible for the care of its documentary heritage. Another result was the principle of accessibility of Archives to the public.

The united Nations and the several internatioanal organizations maintain Archives. The internaitoanl council on Archives was founded in 1948 by professional Archivists. Meeting paris under the help of UNESCO. Membership is open to all professional Archivists and to representative of:-

  1. Central Archival directorates or administration.
  2. National and international regional association of Archivists.
  3. All Archival institution.

The science of records controls has to face at least three central issues such as

  • The determination of types of removed from agencies of origin.
  • The time of disposition
  • The manner of disposition.

Practice varies but elimination usually occur before transferring records from the agency of origin. The Archival materials include all books, maps, papers, photographs and other documentary materials other Archival materials include motion pictures, sound recording, photographic records and computer records micro copies are determined by special legislation as a practical medium for making additiaonl copies of warfare as preservation against normal deterioration or damage for use in international exchange.

The function of any Archival institution. The world over includes records disposition, arrangaement, description, publication, reference services and preservation of all the functions record.

Preservation of Archival materials does not stop with safe-guarding he Archives form losses resulting form fire and water. It includes also the provision of special storage buildings the control of the environment in which the records are kept, provision of conservation workshops and laboratories and well trained staff for conservation and restoration of activities.

In Nigeria these functions seems to have suffered prolonged neglect, due to miss guided actiosn and priorities misplacement, the term preservation has been defined as all measures taken by an archival to his archieves from deterioration. Preservation is aimed at preventing damages to the Archieves or restoring documents that have been damaged. According to Kelthpellia, and Meelia conservator constitutes two aspects conservation and restoration. Conservation is aimed at preventing measure taken to protect our Archives against diseases. It includes telling such steps as good house keeping or maintaining hygiene.

Restoration on the other hand means taking correction measures for strengthening weakened or brittle documents. When deterioration has set in on paper restoration is the only way to revive the documents and make it useable and serviceable. The history or preservation is as old as he invention of the art of writing, before the invention of writing, the primitive mam had learnt to make impressions on the walls of his caves such drawing provided useful research information for the archives.

Ancient Egypt were the first to develop the art of writing to record his dally activities record his social, economic physical and cultural as well as communications with others in distant lands and to records natural charges. The use of day of metal back leaves, parehments, papyrus, vellum, and paper. Some of those old form to written are still in else in some parts of the world despite the invention of paper. The felt still remain that all these materials were subjacent to rapid deterioration owning to national ageing and prolong stay and as a result of adverse weather effects and environmental factors such humility, light, insects heat and vermin’s.

However for this preservation, different measures are adopted such as wrapping the materials with clothes using preventice and preservative oil and storing them in cylindrical tubes. The problems of preservation of document have increased tremendously as a result of the predominant use of paper in printing and writing.

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF NATIONAL ARCHIEVES ENUGU

The pioneering efforts of DR. KENNETH .O. DIKE  a prominent historian and scholar led to the establishment of the Nigerian records office, now called the NIGERIAN NATIIOANAL ARCHIEVES in 1954 with headquarters at Ibadan. His survey and report of non-current official records of Nigeria were accepted by the colonial government on 1st April 1954 he was appointed the supervise of records to preserve and organize the records of Nigeria.

The Nigeria records office as it was first called was place in the Federal Ministry of education in 1957, and in the same year it become a division in the federal ministry of information till 1979, when it was again transferred to the newly ereelted ministry of social development, youths, sports and culture.

The National Archives right form the beginning has established its branches at Enugu and Kaduna. The Enugu office was opened in 1952, the development now have two repositories bult with part of he U.A.C independence gift to the chief. The Archivist is Mr. UWAKWA ORIJI. There are many sections in the National Archives Enugu, they are as follows:

1        Processing unit

2        Bindery / repairing section

3        Reprographic section

4        Research room

5        Library section

PROCESSING UNIT

This is where Archives start, the staff in this section will search for records and these records are in form of books, maps, papers photograph and other documentary materials. Records record of any public or private institution which is adjudged worthy of permanent preservation and conservation.

After the survey of the materials the staff will inform the office that has those record to tie and keep them, provision should be made and how to carry those materials to the Archival institution. Now the material acquired is in Archival custody. After acquiring sorting follows. The material are now order. Listing and classification of these records is another stage. Then these records are prepared for easy identification. During the real processing, then the records are based and labeled to know the contents of each box. The box will be in stock and are placed in the shelves, now open for use because the physical and intellectual control has been done.

MR: DENNIS OKE is in charge of this processing base unit. He is  an Archivist grade 2.

BINDERY / REPAIR/SECTIONS

In this section in the National Archives Enugu, the main preservation is done and maintained. The melteriells brought into the institution are examined to know the ones that are weak. The weak ones are sent to the buidery and repair section, materials brought into this section are examined again by the staff in charge to know the type of repair that will last longer. Millily the traditional repairs and rebined of documents is mostly done.

The traditional methods is where baking flour that is in form of paste is used ot rub on the paper mostly writeups nad pasted to it he write-ups. The flour paste serves as an adhesive to the paper.

Rebuilding of document is where give is rubbed on the spine of the text. In this section they bind books, rebuild books magazines and even projects for outsiders. Some of the machines in use in this section include:

1       Blocking machine: Is use for giving title ot the books and is

2       Polor: use for cutting of papers.

3       Nipping pressing; Is used to give pressure to the book after binding

4       Backing machine: Is used to give conceive and convex shape to the books.

5       Typing machine: Is used for printing letters of the alphabet on the books.

  1. C.C. ONURAL is in charge of this section and is a Higher Technical Officer.

REPROGRAPHIC SECTION

This section performs three functions to help it preserving materials. The first one is microfilming which means reproduction of documents; 33mm film is what they use. Microfilming is used to preserve the records, in that large volumes of records will be minimized to contellin in smell fum. It is easy to remove or evacuate in case of flood and fire outbreak, it saves the life span of the original copy, if photo production is another every of preserving the records; this is where old photographs of personalities are produced. As the photographs become old and brittle they are photographed to produced another one.

The type of machine used in the reproduction of these old photograph nad maps is called genography machine photocopying is another medium of preservation, it help to produced the Archival  materials in many copies.

RESEARCH ROOM

The reason for this section is to provide reference materials and assistance to researchers, because researchers are not allowed to go to the shelves or document boxes by themselves alone to collects materials, as a researchers, you introduce yourself to the security at the inquiring drop your bag and write your purpose of coming.

LIBRARY SECTION

The National Archival library is not like the academic school or public libraries; it is only a departmental library that preserves books and not Archival materials the library preserve, acquires and stores wide varieties of books and publications of government. The books are not catalogued rather they make use of register catalogue. The library helps users and researchers in their references works. Books are acquired through authors write-up and donations. The librarian in charge of this section is MR. CHRISTIAN UZOR, he is the librarian.

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROLEM

THE INVESTIGATOR IS TRYING TO LOOK UNTO

i        The condition of storage to the Archival materials.

ii       The problem of absolute equipment for preservation.

iii      The cellibers of staff that are supposed to work at the  Archival materials

iv      The kind of paper and other materials used in the preservation of Archival materials.

The preservation Archival materials have suffered prolonged neglect, due to misplacement of priorities. Many problems in he field of preservation and repair apply to all countries advice, but there are at addition many specific problems concerning each individual country, which depend upon the climate, the condition of storage degree of deterioration of holdings the kind of paper and he calibers of staff and the restoration workshop.

1.3   OBJECTIVE OF THEY STUDY

The investigator wishes to

i        Find out he methods of preserving Archival materials in national Archives Enugu.

ii       Examine the problems associated with preserving Archival materials

iii      Discover the causes of deterioration of Archival materials Archival Enugu.

v       Recommend measures that will help to solve the problems.

1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1       What are he causes of deterioration of Archival materials at the National Archival Enugu?

2       What are the materials deteriorate.

3       What are the problems associated with preserving Archival materials at the National Archival Enugu?

4       What are methods of preserving Archival materials at the National Archival Enugu?

5       What recommendations would help to solve he problems associated with preservation of Archival materials at the National Archival Enugu?

 

1.5   SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This study will only focus on the preservation of Archival Enugu, belt it is uppposed ot cover wider extents, not only preservation but also administration to archives but due to financial constraints and time factors, the investigator could not make it.

1.6   SIGNIFICNACE OF THE STUDY

This study will help those that keep records to know the modern and improved in preservation method and also ginger those that make use of Archival materials  to know how to manage keep, preserve and conserve their material and or documents properly.

 

 

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DEVELOPMENT OF PUBLIC LIBRARY IN NIGERIA WITH REFERENCE TO IMO STATE CENTRAL LIBRARY

DEVELOPMENT OF PUBLIC LIBRARY IN NIGERIA WITH REFERENCE TO IMO STATE CENTRAL LIBRARY , OWERRI

 

 

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ABSTRACT

This project is on the development of public libraries in Nigeria with reference to the Imo Central Library, Owerri. Chapter one of this work traces the history of public Library development in Imo State starting from the days of the eastern Nigeria Library Board which serried as a platform for the establishment of the Imo State Central Library Owerri. Chapter two highlights the roles which a public Library can play in the society in it’s capacity as an agency of education, information, culture, recreation and asthetic appreciation.

 

Services rendered by public Libraries were mentioned, such services includes reference services, circulations of materials, local collections development, display and exhibition, etc. problems militating against public Library development in the state were also highlighted in this chapter. Three methods of data collection were used in this project. Three methods of data collection were used in this project. These include: oral interview, examination of the Libraries records and the questionnaire made. Through these methods the researcher collected relevant data for this project work. In chapter five, findings were made from investigation carried act about the Library from these findings, the researcher therefore made a number of recommendations which he hoped will develop in Imo State.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background to the study
  • Statement of problems
  • Objective of the study
  • Research Question
  • Scope of the study
  • Significance of the study
  • Population of the study

CHAPTER TWO

  • Literature Reviews
  • The Public Library as an agency of education
  • The public Library as an agency for information
  • The public Library as an agency for rural extension
  • The public Library as an agency for manpower development.
  • The public library as a culture agency.
  • Public library: an agency for aesthetic appreciation
  • Public library: Agency for recreation
  • Services Rendered by the public library.
  • Circulation of material
  • Reference services
  • User Instrument / Education
  • Local Collection Development
  • Display and current awareness services
  • Clientele
  • Functions of public libraries
  • How public library is funded
  • Problems militating against public library development.

 

CHAPTER THREE

  • Research method
  • Oral Interview
  • Records and Report
  • Questionnaire

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Data Analysis and Interpretation
  • Oral Interview
  • Questionnaire method

CHAPTER FIVE

  • Summary of finding and conclusion

5.1     Findings conclusion

5.2     Conclusion

References

Appendix 1

 

CHAPTER  ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

In this modern world of information explosion the society is always in need of information agencies strive to meet this information need. Numerous definitions have been given to the term library, one of such definitions are contained in the encyclopedia Britannica (vol.22, 1988) state that “a library is a collection of written, printed or other graphic or visual materials (including files, photographs, tapes, phonograph records, video discs, microforms and computer programmes) organized and maintained for reading, study and consultation. Another definition of library is from the websters New York World Dictionary (1991) which states hat “library is a room or building where a collection of books, periodicals etc are kept for reading and reference” collier’s encyclopedia (vol.14,1990) defines the “library as collection of graphic materials, books, films, magazines, maps manuscripts, organized for use” while majority of people take a library to be a place where books are kept. These views of people about the library is not satisfactory.

Therefore, the definition of a library to be accepted by all should be the one given by Agbodike 1995 in a lecture delivered, “ A library is a collection of records of human culture in print or non-print information providing materials, or book and non-book materials, house, preserved, organized, interpreted and managed by professional librarians or clientele for information, knowledge, education, research, recreation and aesthetic appreciation and cultural enjoyment. The definition which unites the library to book alone is incomplete for there are many other forms of recorded knowledge such as tapes, firms, microfilms, microfishes, video tapes and projectors contained in the holdings of libraries. Commenting on the changing roles of the library, the father of librarianship, Melvin, Dewy (1906) stated that the library has lost it’s etymologic meaning and means not a collection of books but the central agency for disseminating information, innocent recreation or best of all, inspiration among the people.

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From the definition given above, the three components of a library are books, staff and building. A library cannot exist without books or a qualified institution called a library without a building, as well as adequate finance to run and maintain it. There are different types of libraries performing different functions aimed at satisfying their various patrons. These includes: school, academic, special national and public libraries. School libraries are libraries located in primary and secondary schools. They support and enrich the educational programmes in the schools in which they are located.

Academic libraries are libraries located in institutions of high learning while special libraries are those established in companies, organizations, government department and research institutions. This type of library satisfy the needs of subject specialists and researchers. The National Library of a country is the one responsible for collecting and conserving the whole of that county’s book production for the benefit of further generations. It is the chief depository of the national arts and culture.

 

Public libraries are libraries built for the general public. They are supervised, financed and supported them by the state or local government of a country. According to the New encyclopedia (vol. 22, 973) “public libraries are acknowledged to be an indispensable point of community life as promoters of libraries providers of a wide range of reading for all ages, and centres for community information services”. Public libraries are established by state law supported from the general public funds and administered for the benefit of the citizens of the town, city, or region which maintains it on the basis of equal access to all, whether they are artisans, or professionals. It does not discriminate as it’s doors are open to all classes of people.

The American library Association (1967), in one of its publications, stated the functions of public libraries. Again, at the seminar in library management, organized by the University of Ibadan and the British council (1970), it was considered that the public library should provide printed and audio-visual materials to meet the individual and group needs of its community for information, self realization, recreation and culture growth and for assistance in campaign out their duties are citizens and members of the community.

 

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1.1.1  HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE IMO STATE CENTRAL LIBRARY OWERRI.

The Imo State Library Board came into existence with the creation of Imo and Anambra state. Despite the creation of the Imo state out of the former east central state, both continued to maintain a central library services under the east central state library board until September, 1976, when the library staff of Imo State origin had to be transferred to Owerri to establish the administrative headquarters of the present Imo State library Board. At the same time, the assets and liabilities of the former east central state were shared. The movement of staff to Owerri created accommodation problems. Most of the junior staff occupied the uncompleted library building as their residence and worked very hard to see that the library was opened early for services.

1.1.2  IMO STATE LIBRARY BOARD:

The Imo State Library Board was actually set up by edict N0. 12 of the Imo State library Board edict 1977. The edict state: “There is hereby established a board to be known as the Imo state library Board. The Board shall be a body corporate with perpetual succession and a common seal and with power to sue and be sued in its corporate name”. The edict which set up the Imo state library  board had made it an animate body can sue and be sued in its corporate name.

 

The services of the board are supplemented by the divisional libraries at Aba, Abriba, Umuahia (now in Abia state), Orlu and Mbano. The Board started it’s operation with the sum of five hundred and forty thousand, eight hundred and thirty-two naira (540,832.00) for the financial year 1976 and 1977 with six catalogue cabinets, catalogue cards, some metal filing cabinets and few type writers. In addition to this, the state government provided the sum of five hundred thousand naira to cover its capital expenditure. Anambra and Imo state share a considerable quantity of new books which had not been allocated prior to the creation of state.

 

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1.1.3  APPOINTMENT OF THE BOARD

The Imo State library Board was appointment on 10th November, 1976. Its member were Professor A.O. Anya as chairman and seven members namely, professor, D.I. Nwoga, Dr. Eze Ogueri, Miss. Gloria I. Ofor, Mazi F. Nwosu Ezi, Mrs. R. Umelo, the permanent secretary, ministry of education and information (Mr. N.C. Okonkwo), or his representative and the director of library services. It held its first meetings on December 17th 1976 and it was addressed by the then honourable commissioner for education and information (Dr. M.A Nwachukwu), on 14th January 1977. The Board held three meetings altogether during the period under review.

The board relationship with the press has been most cordial and added to this is the Boards’ determination to provide adequate public library facilities for the state. It will not be satisfied until every major centre of the community in the state particularly the headquarters of the local government areas have been provided with effective public library services.

 

1.1.4  OFFICIAL OPENING OF THE CENTAL LIBRARY OWERRI

The state central library, Owerri was officially opened to the public on 12th November 1976 by then military governor of Imo state (His Excellency, commander Godwin Ndubuisi Kanu). The ceremony was witnessed by nearly five hundred guest including state commissioners, high ranking government officials, representative of various business concerns, banking and public affairs, and representatives from various local government areas in the state. The building of the library was designed to accommodate eight five thousand volumes of books, but it was opened with a book stock of about twelve thousand. On the ground floor, the building houses the children’s library, acquisition and cataloguing departments as well as an auditorium to sit some hundred persons, the mobile library garage and loading bag. The first floor contain a reference library and he adult reading library, the administration wing of the library which is behind the ground floor, contains the general office and accounts section while the first floor of the wing accommodates offices for the director and other personnel staff.

THE IMO STATE CENTRAL LIBRARY IS MADE UP OF THESE SECTIONS: CHILDREN’S SECTION ADULT LENDING SECTION TECHNICAL SERVICES  SECTION ACQUISITION SECTION NIGERIANA

SECTION

CHILDREN’S SECTION: The section started with a total of five hundred and three children, two hundred and fifty were makes and two hundred and fifty-three were females. These number has increased by much since then. A total number of five thousand seven hundred and fifty six books were issued in the same period, two thousand five hundred and thirty-two books were non-fiction. A number of writings with African and Nigeria background have been acquired for the children. Journals were also acquired for them.

ADULT LENDING SECTION: This section started with six thousand five hundred books and by 1977 the book stock had increased to then thousand six hundred books. The section does not had adequate fiction books in its holdings. But effort were made to improve the situation. The non-fiction holdings are improving every body. The number of non-fiction books borrowed was five thousand and twenty-six, out of this numbers, two thousand were borrowed by males while two thousand five hundred books were borrowed by females.

 

In 1977, there was an increase in borrowing of books by both sexes. The library has now a collection which reflects a wider range of fields.

TECHNICAL SERVICES SECTION: This section initially experience problem brought about by lack of tools and equipment and the task of processing books for the library, many unprocessed books were transferred to Owerri, form Enugu, and this created a lot of problems by sorting out the unnecessary materials accessioned, catalogued and shelve them and required. Before the creation of acquisition section, about four hundred and eighty-three children’s books and two thousand three hundred and nine-teen adult books had been accessioned and catalogued in the section. Four thousand materials are processed for Owerri, two thousand two hundred and twenty eight for Umuahia divisional library, one thousand six hundred and sixty for Aba and three hundred and seventy eight for Abriba divisional library respectively, (of which are now in Abia state).

 

ACQUISIITON SECTION: The acquisition department was not established as a separate section as soon as the library came down from Enugu. It was rather separated from the cataloguing division in February 1977. The acquisition policy of the Imo state library board states that: All books selected either by individuals, libraries or by a group should be passed to the acquisition department for pre-order searching. No blanket orders should be given to any vendor except in respect of annuals, in case of reference books only two copies of a title should be allocated to each library but not more than eight copies”.

With the creation of the section, acquisition duties have been streamlined and co-ordinated and co-ordinated with other sections of the services. The staffing of this section began with a librarian and typist. It was later joined by two library assistants. The secretaries performances ahs been satisfactions. The sections has been satisfactory. Its accessioned materials have virtually field up the shelves. According to records, some thirteen thousand seven hundred and four books were accessioned in the section while nine thousand six hundred and thirty-eight items on order were outstanding. Out of the thirteen thousand seven hundred and four accessioned book, seven thousand nine hundred and ninety seven were adult books while five thousand seven hundred and seven were juvenile.

 

NIGERIANA SECTION: This section consist mainly of Nigerian publications. The stock covers a total of one thousand three hundred and eight volume comprising serials, magazine and newspapers. Because of economic problems, not all books are purchased. The works of staff of this section include keeping the vertical files and writing of captions, it operates between 9:00am to 3:30pm. However, there are some accommodation problems being experienced in this sector.

SERVICES: The role played by the Nigerian section of the Imo Central library is separates from the purpose for which it was set up. The offer direct services which include personnel assistance given to readers in pursuit of information, the department and the character of such services very with the type of user it is designed to serve. They supply information based in bibliographic search.

It also provides indirect services, this makes it possible for user to have access to information. In this kind of services bibliographic are preferred which help the user in searching and retracing of the document which they use.

EXTENSION ACTIVITIES: The opening of he state central library, Owerri attracted lots of favourable comments from all and surrounding several visitors and student’s excursion groups visited the library and outstanding among them being:

(a)     Two groups of class five students from federal Girls Secondary School, Owerri, were introduced to the public service department (adult circulation and reference section of the library).

(b)     The press Club of the Community Secondary School Umuaka-Orlu were conducted round the library with a brief talk on the Boards Services.

(c)      Teacher librarian, the Imo and Anambra State join seminar in school libraries held in Owerri from 22 to 27th March, 1977.

1.1.5  BRANCH LIBRARIES OF THE IMO STATE CENTRAL LIBRARY

The libraries were established to carryout library development in the rural areas of the state. These libraries include: Mbano Branch commissioned by Dr. Raymond Ofoegbu, the then Imo State Commissioner for information, youths, sports and culture. The library is located at Mbano Local Government Headquarters. There is also the Aboh Mbaise and Orlu libraries. The divisional library was established on 14th December, 1981.

 

1.1.6  FUNCTIONS OF IMO STATE LIBRARY BOARD:

a        To establish, equip and maintain the state central library and its branches in any part of the state.

  1. To provide assistance to other persons in the organization of libraries.
  2. To make recommendations and give advice on library development or organization to any department of local government area in the state.

d        To make the facilities of the state library system available to members of the public and undertake bibliographic services in the state.

e        To establish and maintain the library’s mobile services

 

1.2     STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

a        Public libraries in Nigerian are confronted with a lot of problems. For instances they do not have enough information sources for the different categories of users.

b        The do not have enough space for accommodating the users.

c        Consequently, many users complain of their inability to satisfy various information needs.

d        Some public libraries in Nigeria operate without essential facilities like photocopying machines and toilet facilities.

e        There is also the problem of trained staff.

f        To find out the basis reason of establishing the Imo State library Board.

 

1.3     OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY:

a        The objective of the study is to trace history of public library development in Imo State.

b        By tracing the history, the study also aims at identifying factors and situation that have either contributed to public library development in Imo state or retorted their rate of development.

c        The study also aims at ceiling the attention of policy makers to the need for a speedy development of public libraries in the state.

1.4     Researcher asked a number of questions with which he hopes to find answers to problems posed by the study: these include:

 

a        Is the library adequately stocked with source of information

b        Are there facilities provided by the library headquarters?

c        Is the library staffed with well drained personnel?

d        As a public library, what roles does it play in the society?

e        What are the problems imitating against its proper development?

 

1.5     SCOPE OF THE STUDY:

a        This project ahs a historical overviews and would therefore cover issues of public library development starting from the Eastern region library days to the present Imo state.

b        Lack of time and finance would not allow for an exhaustive survey of this study thereby limiting it to the establishment and development t of the Imo state central library, Owerri only, among other public libraries in the state

 

1.6     SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY:

a        This project will be of great benefit to students especially those in the library and information science department.

b        The study will also be of great value to researchers who are entered in the area of public library development in Imo state.

c        Government authority who are desirous of establishing public in their states will also find this work beneficial.

1.7     POPULATION:

          The researcher sampled about fifty users and the staff of the Imo state central library Owerri, for data collection.

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.1     LITERATURE  REVIEW:

 

 

 

COMPILATION OF BIBLIOGRAPHY ON POULTRY IN NIGERIA; 2010-2015

COMPILATION OF BIBLIOGRAPHY ON POULTRY IN NIGERIA; 2010-2015

Do not place for this research work below.

Compilation are entries that stand for books, articles in journals, magazine and newspaper, entries are collection of data that are meant to describe books and journals in a systematic order. The project is arranged and organized to aid bibliographers and student access required information in just second and also serve as index to all those wishing to know about poultry.

I hereby extend my unalloyed gratitude to my sibling/ friends and well wishers. My special appreciation equally goes to my lecturer, Ezemba Nabu, who is my Head of department and others.

My profound gratitude’s go to my project supervisor Mr. Onwurah who humbly, patiently and carefully read through my work and made necessary correction, infact he is the architect of this work.

My gratitude goes to my lovely parent, Mr. Kenneth Ikechukwu and Mrs Anthonia Ikechukwu. Most especially to my elder brother Mr. Emmanuel Ikechukwu.

My special thanks and gratitude go to my coordinator for her effort, I will not forget my lovely friends Anurika Aghaulor for her effort ot the success of this work.

Finally, my special thanks go to my aunty Mrs Mercy Akwiwu for her supports, both financially and materially.

DEVELOPMENT OF PUBLIC LIBRARY IN NIGERIA

DEVELOPMENT OF PUBLIC LIBRARY IN NIGERIA WITH REFERENCE TO IMO STATE CENTRAL LIBRARY, OWERRI

 

 

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ABSTRACT

This project is on the development of public libraries in Nigeria with reference to the Imo Central Library, Owerri. Chapter one of this work traces the history of public Library development in Imo State starting from the days of the eastern Nigeria Library Board which serried as a platform for the establishment of the Imo State Central Library Owerri. Chapter two highlights the roles which a public Library can play in the society in it’s capacity as an agency of education, information, culture, recreation and asthetic appreciation. Services rendered by public Libraries were mentioned, such services includes reference services, circulations of materials, local collections development, display and exhibition, etc. problems militating against public Library development in the state were also highlighted in this chapter. Three methods of data collection were used in this project. Three methods of data collection were used in this project. These include: oral interview, examination of the Libraries records and the questionnaire made. Through these methods the researcher collected relevant data for this project work. In chapter five, findings were made from investigation carried act about the Library from these findings, the researcher therefore made a number of recommendations which he hoped will develop in Imo State.

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background to the study
  • Statement of problems
  • Objective of the study
  • Research Question
  • Scope of the study
  • Significance of the study
  • Population of the study

CHAPTER TWO

  • Literature Reviews
  • The Public Library as an agency of education
  • The public Library as an agency for information
  • The public Library as an agency for rural extension
  • The public Library as an agency for manpower development.
  • The public library as a culture agency.
  • Public library: an agency for aesthetic appreciation
  • Public library: Agency for recreation
  • Services Rendered by the public library.
  • Circulation of material
  • Reference services
  • User Instrument / Education
  • Local Collection Development
  • Display and current awareness services
  • Clientele
  • Functions of public libraries
  • How public library is funded
  • Problems militating against public library development.

CHAPTER THREE

  • Research method
  • Oral Interview
  • Records and Report
  • Questionnaire

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Data Analysis and Interpretation
  • Oral Interview
  • Questionnaire method

CHAPTER FIVE

  • Summary of finding and conclusion

5.1     Findings conclusion

5.2     Conclusion

References

Appendix 1

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

In this modern world of information explosion the society is always in need of information agencies strive to meet this information need. Numerous definitions have been given to the term library, one of such definitions are contained in the encyclopedia Britannica (vol.22, 1988) state that “a library is a collection of written, printed or other graphic or visual materials (including files, photographs, tapes, phonograph records, video discs, microforms and computer programmes) organized and maintained for reading, study and consultation. Another definition of library is from the websters New York World Dictionary (1991) which states hat “library is a room or building where a collection of books, periodicals etc are kept for reading and reference” collier’s encyclopedia (vol.14,1990) defines the “library as collection of graphic materials, books, films, magazines, maps manuscripts, organized for use” while majority of people take a library to be a place where books are kept. These views of people about the library is not satisfactory.

Therefore, the definition of a library to be accepted by all should be the one given by Agbodike 1995 in a lecture delivered, “ A library is a collection of records of human culture in print or non-print information providing materials, or book and non-book materials, house, preserved, organized, interpreted and managed by professional librarians or clientele for information, knowledge, education, research, recreation and aesthetic appreciation and cultural enjoyment. The definition which unites the library to book alone is incomplete for there are many other forms of recorded knowledge such as tapes, firms, microfilms, microfishes, video tapes and projectors contained in the holdings of libraries. Commenting on the changing roles of the library, the father of librarianship, Melvin, Dewy (1906) stated that the library has lost it’s etymologic meaning and means not a collection of books but the central agency for disseminating information, innocent recreation or best of all, inspiration among the people.

From the definition given above, the three components of a library are books, staff and building. A library cannot exist without books or a qualified institution called a library without a building, as well as adequate finance to run and maintain it. There are different types of libraries performing different functions aimed at satisfying their various patrons. These includes: school, academic, special national and public libraries. School libraries are libraries located in primary and secondary schools. They support and enrich the educational programmes in the schools in which they are located.

Academic libraries are libraries located in institutions of high learning while special libraries are those established in companies, organizations, government department and research institutions. This type of library satisfy the needs of subject specialists and researchers. The National Library of a country is the one responsible for collecting and conserving the whole of that county’s book production for the benefit of further generations. It is the chief depository of the national arts and culture.

Public libraries are libraries built for the general public. They are supervised, financed and supported them by the state or local government of a country. According to the New encyclopedia (vol. 22, 973) “public libraries are acknowledged to be an indispensable point of community life as promoters of libraries providers of a wide range of reading for all ages, and centres for community information services”. Public libraries are established by state law supported from the general public funds and administered for the benefit of the citizens of the town, city, or region which maintains it on the basis of equal access to all, whether they are artisans, or professionals. It does not discriminate as it’s doors are open to all classes of people.

The American library Association (1967), in one of its publications, stated the functions of public libraries. Again, at the seminar in library management, organized by the University of Ibadan and the British council (1970), it was considered that the public library should provide printed and audio-visual materials to meet the individual and group needs of its community for information, self realization, recreation and culture growth and for assistance in campaign out their duties are citizens and members of the community.

1.1.1  HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE IMO STATE CENTRAL LIBRARY OWERRI.

The Imo State Library Board came into existence with the creation of Imo and Anambra state. Despite the creation of the Imo state out of the former east central state, both continued to maintain a central library services under the east central state library board until September, 1976, when the library staff of Imo State origin had to be transferred to Owerri to establish the administrative headquarters of the present Imo State library Board. At the same time, the assets and liabilities of the former east central state were shared. The movement of staff to Owerri created accommodation problems. Most of the junior staff occupied the uncompleted library building as their residence and worked very hard to see that the library was opened early for services.

1.1.2  IMO STATE LIBRARY BOARD:

The Imo State Library Board was actually set up by edict N0. 12 of the Imo State library Board edict 1977. The edict state: “There is hereby established a board to be known as the Imo state library Board. The Board shall be a body corporate with perpetual succession and a common seal and with power to sue and be sued in its corporate name”. The edict which set up the Imo state library  board had made it an animate body can sue and be sued in its corporate name.

The services of the board are supplemented by the divisional libraries at Aba, Abriba, Umuahia (now in Abia state), Orlu and Mbano. The Board started it’s operation with the sum of five hundred and forty thousand, eight hundred and thirty-two naira (540,832.00) for the financial year 1976 and 1977 with six catalogue cabinets, catalogue cards, some metal filing cabinets and few type writers. In addition to this, the state government provided the sum of five hundred thousand naira to cover its capital expenditure. Anambra and Imo state share a considerable quantity of new books which had not been allocated prior to the creation of state.

1.1.3  APPOINTMENT OF THE BOARD

The Imo State library Board was appointment on 10th November, 1976. Its member were Professor A.O. Anya as chairman and seven members namely, professor, D.I. Nwoga, Dr. Eze Ogueri, Miss. Gloria I. Ofor, Mazi F. Nwosu Ezi, Mrs. R. Umelo, the permanent secretary, ministry of education and information (Mr. N.C. Okonkwo), or his representative and the director of library services. It held its first meetings on December 17th 1976 and it was addressed by the then honourable commissioner for education and information (Dr. M.A Nwachukwu), on 14th January 1977. The Board held three meetings altogether during the period under review.

The board relationship with the press has been most cordial and added to this is the Boards’ determination to provide adequate public library facilities for the state. It will not be satisfied until every major centre of the community in the state particularly the headquarters of the local government areas have been provided with effective public library services.

1.1.4  OFFICIAL OPENING OF THE CENTAL LIBRARY OWERRI

The state central library, Owerri was officially opened to the public on 12th November 1976 by then military governor of Imo state (His Excellency, commander Godwin Ndubuisi Kanu). The ceremony was witnessed by nearly five hundred guest including state commissioners, high ranking government officials, representative of various business concerns, banking and public affairs, and representatives from various local government areas in the state. The building of the library was designed to accommodate eight five thousand volumes of books, but it was opened with a book stock of about twelve thousand. On the ground floor, the building houses the children’s library, acquisition and cataloguing departments as well as an auditorium to sit some hundred persons, the mobile library garage and loading bag. The first floor contain a reference library and he adult reading library, the administration wing of the library which is behind the ground floor, contains the general office and accounts section while the first floor of the wing accommodates offices for the director and other personnel staff.

THE IMO STATE CENTRAL LIBRARY IS MADE UP OF THESE SECTIONS: CHILDREN’S SECTION ADULT LENDING SECTION TECHNICAL SERVICES  SECTION ACQUISITION SECTION NIGERIANA

SECTION

CHILDREN’S SECTION: The section started with a total of five hundred and three children, two hundred and fifty were makes and two hundred and fifty-three were females. These number has increased by much since then. A total number of five thousand seven hundred and fifty six books were issued in the same period, two thousand five hundred and thirty-two books were non-fiction. A number of writings with African and Nigeria background have been acquired for the children. Journals were also acquired for them.

ADULT LENDING SECTION: This section started with six thousand five hundred books and by 1977 the book stock had increased to then thousand six hundred books. The section does not had adequate fiction books in its holdings. But effort were made to improve the situation. The non-fiction holdings are improving every body. The number of non-fiction books borrowed was five thousand and twenty-six, out of this numbers, two thousand were borrowed by males while two thousand five hundred books were borrowed by females.

In 1977, there was an increase in borrowing of books by both sexes. The library has now a collection which reflects a wider range of fields.

TECHNICAL SERVICES SECTION: This section initially experience problem brought about by lack of tools and equipment and the task of processing books for the library, many unprocessed books were transferred to Owerri, form Enugu, and this created a lot of problems by sorting out the unnecessary materials accessioned, catalogued and shelve them and required. Before the creation of acquisition section, about four hundred and eighty-three children’s books and two thousand three hundred and nine-teen adult books had been accessioned and catalogued in the section. Four thousand materials are processed for Owerri, two thousand two hundred and twenty eight for Umuahia divisional library, one thousand six hundred and sixty for Aba and three hundred and seventy eight for Abriba divisional library respectively, (of which are now in Abia state).

ACQUISIITON SECTION: The acquisition department was not established as a separate section as soon as the library came down from Enugu. It was rather separated from the cataloguing division in February 1977. The acquisition policy of the Imo state library board states that: All books selected either by individuals, libraries or by a group should be passed to the acquisition department for pre-order searching. No blanket orders should be given to any vendor except in respect of annuals, in case of reference books only two copies of a title should be allocated to each library but not more than eight copies”.

With the creation of the section, acquisition duties have been streamlined and co-ordinated and co-ordinated with other sections of the services. The staffing of this section began with a librarian and typist. It was later joined by two library assistants. The secretaries performances ahs been satisfactions. The sections has been satisfactory. Its accessioned materials have virtually field up the shelves. According to records, some thirteen thousand seven hundred and four books were accessioned in the section while nine thousand six hundred and thirty-eight items on order were outstanding. Out of the thirteen thousand seven hundred and four accessioned book, seven thousand nine hundred and ninety seven were adult books while five thousand seven hundred and seven were juvenile.

NIGERIANA SECTION: This section consist mainly of Nigerian publications. The stock covers a total of one thousand three hundred and eight volume comprising serials, magazine and newspapers. Because of economic problems, not all books are purchased. The works of staff of this section include keeping the vertical files and writing of captions, it operates between 9:00am to 3:30pm. However, there are some accommodation problems being experienced in this sector.

SERVICES: The role played by the Nigerian section of the Imo Central library is separates from the purpose for which it was set up. The offer direct services which include personnel assistance given to readers in pursuit of information, the department and the character of such services very with the type of user it is designed to serve. They supply information based in bibliographic search.

It also provides indirect services, this makes it possible for user to have access to information. In this kind of services bibliographic are preferred which help the user in searching and retracing of the document which they use.

EXTENSION ACTIVITIES: The opening of he state central library, Owerri attracted lots of favourable comments from all and surrounding several visitors and student’s excursion groups visited the library and outstanding among them being:

(a)     Two groups of class five students from federal Girls Secondary School, Owerri, were introduced to the public service department (adult circulation and reference section of the library).

(b)     The press Club of the Community Secondary School Umuaka-Orlu were conducted round the library with a brief talk on the Boards Services.

(c)      Teacher librarian, the Imo and Anambra State join seminar in school libraries held in Owerri from 22 to 27th March, 1977.

1.1.5  BRANCH LIBRARIES OF THE IMO STATE CENTRAL LIBRARY

The libraries were established to carryout library development in the rural areas of the state. These libraries include: Mbano Branch commissioned by Dr. Raymond Ofoegbu, the then Imo State Commissioner for information, youths, sports and culture. The library is located at Mbano Local Government Headquarters. There is also the Aboh Mbaise and Orlu libraries. The divisional library was established on 14th December, 1981.

1.1.6  FUNCTIONS OF IMO STATE LIBRARY BOARD:

a        To establish, equip and maintain the state central library and its branches in any part of the state.

  1. To provide assistance to other persons in the organization of libraries.
  2. To make recommendations and give advice on library development or organization to any department of local government area in the state.

d        To make the facilities of the state library system available to members of the public and undertake bibliographic services in the state.

e        To establish and maintain the library’s mobile services

 

 

 

1.2     STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

a        Public libraries in Nigerian are confronted with a lot of problems. For instances they do not have enough information sources for the different categories of users.

b        The do not have enough space for accommodating the users.

c        Consequently, many users complain of their inability to satisfy various information needs.

d        Some public libraries in Nigeria operate without essential facilities like photocopying machines and toilet facilities.

e        There is also the problem of trained staff.

f        To find out the basis reason of establishing the Imo State library Board.

1.3     OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY:

a        The objective of the study is to trace history of public library development in Imo State.

b        By tracing the history, the study also aims at identifying factors and situation that have either contributed to public library development in Imo state or retorted their rate of development.

c        The study also aims at ceiling the attention of policy makers to the need for a speedy development of public libraries in the state.

1.4     Researcher asked a number of questions with which he hopes to find answers to problems posed by the study: these include:

 

a        Is the library adequately stocked with source of information

b        Are there facilities provided by the library headquarters?

c        Is the library staffed with well drained personnel?

d        As a public library, what roles does it play in the society?

e        What are the problems imitating against its proper development?

 

1.5     SCOPE OF THE STUDY:

a        This project ahs a historical overviews and would therefore cover issues of public library development starting from the Eastern region library days to the present Imo state.

b        Lack of time and finance would not allow for an exhaustive survey of this study thereby limiting it to the establishment and development t of the Imo state central library, Owerri only, among other public libraries in the state

1.6     SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY:

a        This project will be of great benefit to students especially those in the library and information science department.

b        The study will also be of great value to researchers who are entered in the area of public library development in Imo state.

c        Government authority who are desirous of establishing public in their states will also find this work beneficial.

1.7     POPULATION:

          The researcher sampled about fifty users and the staff of the Imo state central library Owerri, for data collection.

 

 

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COMPILATION OF BIBLIOGRAPHY ON POULTRY IN NIGERIA; 2010-2015

COMPILATION OF BIBLIOGRAPHY ON POULTRY IN

 NIGERIA; 2010-2015

 

 

COMPLETE PROJECT  MATERIAL COST 3000 NAIRA

 

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ABBREVIATION AND MEANINGS

 

PF:              Poultry farm

BS:             Broiler starter

BF:             Broiler finishers

FM:             Grower mash

LM:             Layer mash

NF:             vital feed

LF:              Livestock feed

TF:              Top feed

GH:             Guinea feed

BK:             Book

JN:              Journal

TH:             Thesis

 

 

INTRODUCTION

Poultry farms are farms that raise chickens, duck, turkeys and other birds for meat or egg production. In the must, poultry farming involved raising chickens in the back yard for daily egg production and family consumption. However, poultry farming today is a huge business that is split into several operations including hatcheries, pullet farms for meat product, or farms for egg producton. This paper will focus on poultry farms raising chickens.

Chickens originated from jngle fowl I South Easten Asia around 3200Bc (Dr. faran personal communicsation  2009) chickens were domesticated and spread to China, India Africa, pacific Island and Europe. They were primarily raise for human consumption. In addition, their feathers were used for making cushions, litter for fertilizer and in some societies chickens were used in lock fighting as a source of entertainment.

As the human population increase, the poultry industries continue ot grow to meet the demand for poultry products in world markets. The importance of poultry farms lies in the quality of product that are provided to humans. Broiler farms provides meat that supplies the human body with high quality proteins, layer farms provide egg rich in proteins and vitamins, especially the fat soluble vitamin (A.D.E and K) poultry farms are fast-paced operations that can expanded easily ot meet the ever-growign demand (Dr. M. Ferran, personal communication 2009).

Chickens are fast growing animals. In the past, it took about 4 months to produce a two kilogram chicken. However a two-kilogram chicken can be produce in 42 days (Dr. M. Ferran, personal communication 2009). Due to this fact, a better understanding of husbanding practices, and use of new technologies, poultry farms can be profitable enterprise. Each operations in he poultry business has become a huge business by itself. Some farms specialize in producing eggs for market consumption, or for hatching chicks for the purpose of meat production. Other business are focused on feed preparation or on using the wastes of poultry farms for compost production and fertilizing farm lands. If managed and marketed well, all segments of the poultry business can be profitable.

OBJECTIVES

This study will examine the feasibility of broiler producing farms in Lebanon. A rental for will be used as a representative case study for other poultry producers. Sensitivity analysis will use to determine potential profitability when input cost and point of sale values are varied. .

 

 

 

BIBLIOGRAPHIC ENTRIES

AGRICULTURE

 

Agale, Samuel-2012. Low soil fertility status and rapid nutrient depletions Thesis. 8 Nov; p.50

 

Ebong, G.A. 2015. Antioxidant and antitussive properties by poultry farmers: journal. 19 Mar; p. 46

 

Ibrahim, Muhammed. 2013. Yield and economic return of sesame: Thessi 15 May, p. 44.

 

Jiang, zhiben. 2014. Wild birds and poultry: Thesis. 21 aug; p. 32.

Vide, Adebayo 2012. Utilization and management of poultry waste:  15 May, p. 44.

 

Jiang, zhiben. 2014. Wild birds and poultry: Thesis. 21 aug; p. 32.

Vide, Adebayo 2012. Utilization and management of poultry waste: Thesis. 4 July, p.100.

 

Vijayakumari, B. 2010. fresh, composted and poultry droppings: Journal. 11 Jan; p. 36

 

Budarshan, Dutta. 2012. Agricultural management practices: Journal. 3 June, p.558-569.

 

Yakubu, Abdulmojed.2011. pre and post-slaughter traits of broiler chickens: book 4 Nov; p. 114-120.

 

VACCINATION

Oyelola, B. 2011. Briiler chick diet: Book. 6 April, P. 4 Wakawa, A.M. 2012. Vaccination of chickens: Thesis 25 Aug; p. 37-40

 

 

POULTRY INFECTION

Neba, chee.2013. pathogenic Avian influenza: Journal. 22 feb., p. 4-12.

Nweke, C.U. 2010. Moulds growing in commercial poultry feed: Book. 20 Nov., p. 4-19.

 

 

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