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COMBATING CORRUPTION IN NIGERIA

COMBATING CORRUPTION IN NIGERIA

: A CASE STUDY OF THE ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL CRIMES COMMISSION (EFCC)

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

 

Chapter One: Introduction

Background of the Study

Statement of the Research Problem

Research Objectives

Hypothesis

Significance/Scope of the Study

Organization of the Study

Research Methodology

 

CHAPTER TWO

Literature Review

 

CHAPTER THREE

Research Design

Research Methodology

Questionnaire Design

Population of the Study

Sample Size/Technique

Data Collection/instrument

Method of Data Analysis

 

CHAPTER FOUR

Data Analysis

Presentations of Data

Testing of Hypothesis

Interpretation

CHAPTER FIVE

Summary

Conclusion

Recommendation         

Bibliography                     

Appendix                          

 

 

ABSTRACT

        Writing on a project topic like ‘combating corruption in Nigeria; case study of the EFCC has presented numerous challenges, bearing in mind that not very many people are aware of the scope of responsibility being handled by the ant -graft body.

The journey takes one through in the first  instance the creating of an overview of the fact that corruption really has Nigerian in its stragle hold, the recognition of the harm the corruption endemie has wrought on the Nigerian psyche and the need for fighting this human created cancer.

The need for the creation of an anti-graft body becomes very apparent when one look at the presidents set by other matters of corruption (huge as it were) swept under the carpet for lack of gats to deal with same.

The response of Nigerian as to whether the aims, objectives for the setting up of  the EFCC have been met is also dealt with therein

How much can the EFCC achieve, and the question of whether Nigeria can in the end say ‘Uhuru is tackled therein.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Nigeria became an independent nation on the 1st of October 1960.

A country richly endowed with monumental geographical and diverse natural resources ranging from crude oil to gas (natural), coal al, et.

Nigeria possesses potential market ability for rapid economic development.

However, inspite of these obvious resources and its advantage, Nigeria remains a poor and underdeveloped country.

Scholars have achieved and advanced several reasons to explain this parlous and depleting state.

One of the major and prominent factors advanced is corruption

Corruption has been a major problem in Nigeria since independence.

Perhaps, it may be that we even inherited ‘the problem’ from our colonial masters.

Numerous state institutions have become dysfunctional because of large-scale corrupt practices.

Projects are routinely abandoned, and no one is brought to book, public goods and resources are diverted to private ends.

Corruption endangers the good governance and the democracy we see today.

Corruption was cited as one of the more prominent reasons for Nigeria’s first military coup by the coupists of January 15, 1966 military putsch.

Massive corruption and resource brigandage also were sited as reasons for the military takes over by the regime of Buharil Tunde Idiagbon on December 31st 1983.

This is in-spite of the fact that even the military elite cannot be called saints on the one side.

Due to the pervasive nature of corruption in Nigeria, Nigeria’s former President Olusegun Obasanjo in his inaugural speech on May 29 1999 affirmed that corruption, the single greatest bane of our society today would be tackled head- on, at all levels.

No society can achieve its full potentials if it allows corruption to become a full blown cancer as its has become in our nation.

According to the World Bank (1997:5), “corruption thrives when economic policies are poorly designed, education levels or standards are low, civil society participation is weak, public sector management is poor, and accountability of public institutions are weak”.

Corruption has become the order of the day in our public institution, and because Government business is nobody’s business, the country continues to suffer (Nzemeke and Erhagbe: 2002:131).

Corruption has been cited as the major reason why developmental prescription, aids and policies imposed on Nigeria by international financial organizations have inexplicably failed.

Thus, corruption is indeed, to the society and the polity what HW/AIDS is to the human body

While manifestation of the “acquired immune deficiency syndrome” caused by a bio-virus, corruption is an expression of the “Deficiency of integrity syndrome” caused by a socio-virus (corruption).

‘As HW/AIDS breaks down our immune system thereby making it susceptible to ills and sicknesses, so also corruption breaks down the law and order, structure of the economy, thereby making it easy for the nation to be infested with all sorts of deficiencies and crimes.

Sam Adesua (1987: 8-9) noted that “in Nigeria, …corruption is a well – organized and well entrenched social malady bestriding the nation, but which tends to have the tacit approval of almost every Nigerian in the social ladders”.

This is an opposite description of the corruption status in the Nigerian nation.

Corruption is no doubt pervasive in the country.

It permeates all strata of both public and private life.

It is not peculiar to any regime or government, in the country.

Honesty seems to have taken flight, and corruption has in the meanwhile tremendously gained ground and become very rampant.

According to Familoni (2005:51), becoming corrupt in Nigeria is almost avoidable, as morality is lax because to survive, people have to make money.

The 1996 study of corruption by Transparency International (TI) and Goettingen University ranked Nigeria as the most corrupt nation, among the fifty-four (54) counties listed in the study with Pakistan as the second most corrupt country.

Also in the 1998 transparency international corruption perception index (CPI), the image of Nigeria dipped further as she was ranked ninety (90) out of the ninety one (91) countries pooled – Bangladesh came first in the ranking.

The country remained or rather retained its position in 2003.

In 2006, the transparency international perception index ranked Nigeria one hundred and forty-two (142) out of one hundred and sixty-three (163) countries pooled, with Haiti as the most corrupt country in the world.

 

STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM

One of the pertinent issues in Nigeria today is the focus on one of the greatest impediment to good governance and sustainable development corruption.

In recent times, corruption has as an issue taken the front burner in development discourse worldwide.

Since 1996, the World Bank has supported more than six hundred (600) anti–corruption programmes and governance initiative developed by its member countries.

Especially in 1999, the World Bank institute budgeted a whopping $7.5million to fight corruption (Polzer, 200:2; Tesh, 1991:1).

Ironically, the global financial body was embroiled in scandalous dealings that led to the removal of its chairman.

This goes to show the obvious relevance corruption has to sustainable growth and development.

The world’s major religions in their holy books are concerned with the evil of corruption amongst the rich and powerful, and prescribed rules for punishing perpetrators and the wiping out of corrupt acts.

The Qu’ran chapter 83, warmed believers against the fraudulent and corrupt practices of the Arabian society in the pre-Islamic era (Olurode, 2003:3).

The Holy Bible in proverbs (22:8, 11:20 and 13:11)  (Olurode 2005:3) admonished the people about corruption and its consequences, promising perpetrators that they would be losers on judgment day.

Accountability is typically weak in Nigeria because the county is ripe for corruption and rife with it.

The motivation to earn extra income is extremely strong, worsened by poverty and low and declining civil services salaries.

Thus, corruption has become a cankerworm in the political system, stifling it of its potential sustainable growth.

 

RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

The aim of the research is to appraise Nigeria’s anti-corruption crusade with special focus on the EFCC

  • Identify the inherent nature of corruption in Nigerian since independence.
  • Assess the effect of corruption on Nigeria’s development.
  • Appraise the activities of the EFCC.
  • To ascertain if the EFCC has succeeded or failed in its quest to wipe out corruption in Nigeria.

 

HYPOTHESIS

  1. The level of corruption in the Nigerian polity is a function of bad governance and corrupt individuals
  2. The administration (1999 till date) has the political will to fight corruption.
  • The economic and financial crimes commission (EFCC) is capable of fighting corruption.

 

SCOPE OF STUDY SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

This research therefore focuses on the two term tenure of President Olusegun Obasanjo, and former president Yar’Adua’s short tenure, from 1999 till date with a view to the appraisal of the efforts of the EFCC at fighting corruption in Nigerian during the already mentioned time frame.

The administration of Obasanjo was the first to show the commitment of fight corruption with the appropriate mechanisms and where obvious (even if sometimes selected results have been seen towards the fight against corruption.

 

METHODOLOGY

In the course of this study, the researcher adopted primary and secondary methods of data collection.

They include:

Primary data: as primary data, we will make used of observation and interview.

Secondary data: for the secondary data, newspapers, textbooks, electronic media and the internet were explored

ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY

The study shall be divided into five chapters.

The first chapter discusses the background to the study, statement of problem, objectives of the study, scope of the study, hypothesis, research methodology, and organization of various chapters.  

       The second shall consist of the literature review, exhaustively discuss corruption in Nigeria, its historical antecedents and impact on the society.

Chapter three would focus on methodology.

Chapter four focuses in the EFCC, and chapter five focuses on achievement in the crusade, the summary and conclusion.

 

 

 

REFERENCES

Adesua, S, “Corruption, it is neurosis that may kill the nation” Sunday Sketch, October 11, 1987, Page 8 and 9, 1987.

Familoni, K, Political Economy of corruption. The Faculty of Social Science, University of Lagos, Akoka, Yaba, Lagos. 2005.

Polzer T. “Corruption: “Deconstructing the World Bank discourse, 2001.

Tesh. S. “Short History of Anti-corruption activities in the World Bank” 1999

Helping countries combat corruption. The role of the World Bank. Poverty reduction and economic management network. The World Bank, September 1997.

The transparency international corruption index (CPI).

Nzemeke A.D. and Erhagbe E.O. (2002): Nigeria’s people and culture: Mindex publishing company Ltd. Benin City.

 

 

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Continue reading COMBATING CORRUPTION IN NIGERIA

corruption and insecurity in nigeria: a fight against it

CORRUPTION AND INSECURITY IN NIGERIA: A FIGHT AGAINST IT (A STUDY OF ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL CRIME COMMISSION)

 

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ABSTRACT

This research work focuses on corruption and insecurity in Nigeria a fight against it with particular reference to economic and financial crime commission. The specific objective of this study is to identify the main causes of corruption and insecurity in Nigeria, examine the weakness of EFCC in fighting corruption in Nigeria and as well make recommendation that will help in dealing with such problem. With these objective, the research proceeded to use primary data collected via questionnaires and secondary data collected, through internet, books etc, to conduct the study. In the course of the study, the researcher made use of 200 sample size out of 400 population using Yaro Yamani’s formular to get the sample size. The data collected were analysed using simple percentage method and tables. In the course of carrying out this research, the research discovered some of the causes of corruption and insecurity in Nigeria, they include, greedy, tribalism and nepotism and equally lack of supervision of EFCC by the Federal Government.  And equally made recommendations that would help in tackling the problems.


 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

CHAPTER ONE

  • Introduction – –       –       –       –       –       –       -1

1.1   Background of the Study –       –       –       –       -1

1.2   Statement of the Problem –      –       –       –       -3

1.3   Purpose of Study –   –       –       –       –       –       -4

1.4   Significance of the Study –       –       –       –       -5

1.5   Research Questions –       –       –       –       –       -6

1.6   Scope of the Study   –       –       –       –       –       -6

1.7   Limitations of the Study –        –       –       –       -6

1.8   Definition of Terms –        –       –       –       –       -7

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0   Introduction –  –       –       –       –       –       –       -9

2.1   The Concept of Computer –      –       –       –       -9

2.2   Concept of insecurity –     –       –       –       –       -11

2.3   Historical Background of EFCC-      –       –       -11

2.4   Motivation for engaging in corruption –   –       -14

2.5   Possible solution to corruption in Nigeria –      -19

2.6   Manifestation of insecurity in Nigeria –    –       -21

2.7   Thematic explanation of causes of insecurity

in Nigeria  –      –       –       –       –       –       –       -25

2.8   Insecurity challenges: The way forward   –       -29

2.9   The scorecard of the EFCC     –       –       –      -31

2.10 Criticism of the EFCC –    –       –       –       –       -33

2.11 The effect of Kidnapping on Nigeria Economy -34

2.12 Corruption and insecurity as factors militating against nation development –  –       –       –       -36

2.13 Summary of Literature Review –       –       –       -39

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0   Research Methodology –   –       –       –       –       -40

3.1   Design of the Study –       –       –       –       –       -40

3.2   Area of the Study –   –       –       –       –       –       -41

3.3   Population of the Study – –       –       –       –       -41

3.4   Sample Size/Sampling techniques  –      –       -41

3.5   Instrument for Data Collection –      –       –       -43

3.6   Reliability and Validity of the Instruments –    -43

3.7   Distribution and Retrieval of the Instrument –44

3.8   Method of Data Analysis –        –       –       –       -44

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0   Data Presentation and Analysis –     –       –       -46

4.1   Presentation of Findings –        –       –       –       -46

4.2   Discussion/Analysis of Findings –   –       –       -56

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0   Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations -58

5.1   Summary of findings –     –       –       –       –       -58

5.2   Conclusion –    –       –       –       –       –       –       -59

53    Recommendations – –       –       –       –       –       -60

5.4   Suggestion for further studies  –       –       –       -61

References –     –       –       –       –       –       –       -62

        Appendix I –     –      –       –       –       –       –       -63

Appendix II/Questionnaire –    –       –       –       -64

 

 


CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION:
    • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY:

The greatest hindrance to development especially in the third world countries has been attributed to corruption and insecurity. Aliu (2010), observed that people in high places are corrupt because of greed. His view tend to have wider support as most people feel that the resources available in these country has the capacity to guarantee every members of the society with their basic need of life.

According to political bureau report (1987), corruption is essentially a product of our highly individualized materialistic society which emphasizes struggle by individuals to acquire as much wealth as they can without regard to how much wealth was obtained. Mba-Afolabi (1999), maintain that this situation has led individuals and groups of persons to pursue various illegal and anti-social means of making wealth.

 

Akintunde (2007), stipulated that the challenges that corruption poses to national life is grave. he maintain that since independence on 1960 successive administration have been enmeshed in crises of confidence based on formulating and implementing policy that will lead this country out of corruption.

 

Ibrahim and Igbuzor (2002), opined that the poor people in Nigeria rate insecurity as the key cause of poverty, they do not necessarily see poverty as a cause of armed conflict. They maintain that the inability of the government to provide basic infrastructural and basic service for its populace, new conflicts have emerged through politicized agents who have used the condition of the poor people to address the responses or non- responses of the state to the lawful learning of the citizen.

 

Finally, for the purpose of this study, insecurity is refers to the breach of peace and security, whether historical, religious, ethno-regional, civil, social, economic and political that have contributed to recurring conflict , which Nigeria has witnessed over the year resulting in wanton destruction and loss of lives and property.

 

  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM:

Suffice to state their insecurity and corruption has been identified as a main bane militating development and corruption national unity in Nigeria. The following research problems are identified;

  • Does corruption and insecurity hinder the growth of our society.
  • Does EFCC makes use of good strategies in fighting corruption
  • Does qualified personnel engaged in fighting corruption.

 

1.3   PURPOSE OF THE STUDY:

With this rhetorical question the researcher deems it imperative to delve on this topic “Corruption and insecurity in Nigeria, a fight against it. Every work must have its objectives in order to maintain a meaningful sense of direction, thus the following are the objective of this research work;

  1. To examine the causes of corruption and insecurity in Nigeria.
  2. To examine how corruption and insecurity hinders the growth of our society
  3. To examine the weakness of the institution set out to fight corruption
  4. To make recommendation, that will help in ameliorating the problem of corruption and insecurity in Nigeria.

 

1.4   SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY:

  • This research work is designed to know the eminent causes of corruption and insecurity and the best strategies to curb them.
  • It will equally enlighten the general public on the negative effect of corruption and insecurity on the economy.
  • It will serve as a reference material for further academic research work
  • It will equally create an enabling environment for EFCC to fight corruption.

 

 

1.5   RESEARCH QUESTION:

1)     Is poverty a contributing factor to insecurity in Nigeria?

2)     Does corruption leads to insecurity?

3)     Does tribalism and nepotism contributed to insecurity in Nigeria

4)     Is EFCC successful in combating corruption?

5)     Is greedy a contributing factor to corruption in Nigeria.

 

1.6   SCOPE OF THE STUDY:

        This study focused on the corruption and insecurity in Nigeria. A fight against it: a study of economic and financial crime commission (EFCC).

 

1.7   LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY:

The researcher faced several obstacles, hitches, hindrances at the cause of this research work which incapacitated him from carrying out a thorough job. These limitations range from insufficient fund, time tag, refusal by some of the staff of EFCC to give a necessary information.

 

1.8   DEFINITION OF TERMS:

It is important to conceptualize the meaning of the key words used in this work as it will obviously facilitate the appreciation of this work of research.

EFCC:              Economic and financial crime commission

CORRUPTION: Corruption is the diversion of resources for the betterment of the community to the gain of individual at the expense of the community

PROSECUTION: This is the process of trying to prove in a court of law that somebody is guilty of a crime.

CONVICTION: This is the act of finding somebody guilty of crime in a court of law.

MANIPULATION: This is the process of influencing somebody, often in a dishonest way so that they do not realize it.

INSECURITY: This is the breach of peace and security, whether historical, religions, ethno-regional, civil, social, economical and political that have contributed to recurring conflict.

 

 

Continue reading corruption and insecurity in nigeria: a fight against it

democracy and islamic sect/boko haram in nigeria

DEMOCRACY AND ISLAMIC SECT/BOKO HARAM IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF GOODLUCK JONATHAN REGIME)

 

 

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ABSTRACT

Democracy is always seen as an indispensable feature of any nation. The idea that the practice of true democracy is very pivotal for the survival and progress of every nation of that would Nigerian is not an exception. Thus, Nwabueze (1991:20) succinctly describes democracy as “A form of government which recognizes and institutionalizes the people as fountain of power and enables them by the means election at frequent intervals on universal adult franchise to choose and mandate those to govern a form of government in which the public good or welfare of the people is the object”. Lamentably, however, democracy in an underdeveloped nations like Nigeria is an irony comparing it to the above definition of democracy. True democracy should be people oriented without being coarsed in any way. In Nigeria, ethnicism and religion has distorted democracy, disorganized the whole political system and has finally made Nigerian nation a laughing stock in the community of nations. This is because people are busy fighting ethnic/religious crises and don’t even know the meaning of democracy let alone the practicing of true democracy. Moreso, the research work is purely centered an democracy and Islamic sect (bokoharam) with special reference to President Goodluck Jonathan regime. To efficiently carry out the research, the researcher used both primary and secondary sources of data collection. The primary source were oral interview on the masses about the regime of president Goodluck Jonathan, the questionnaire was also formulated to solicit information from the respondents which also acted as primary source of information, whereas the library materials, magazines, newspaper and internets materials acted as secondary sources of information. The researcher also formulated research questions that acted as guide to the study. The data generated from the questionnaire responses was presented and also analyzed using the questionnaire responses. However, the findings of the study reveals that Nigeria is not practicing true democracy i.e. they don’t even understand the meaning of democracy, let alone the practice of it. The members of the political class are very very corrupt. The citizens are not given the chance to exercise their fundamental human rights. There is high rate of insecurity of lives and properties in Nigeria especially in the regime of President Goodluck Jonathan regime. And report shows that the political class especially Buhari that wanted to be the president of the so called democratic nation but lost it to Goodluck vowed that he will make Nigeria ungovernable for Goodluck Jonathan. It was believed that Buhari, IBB, Atiku and other northern Bourgeois of this nation are the brain behind bokoharam attack to the regime of President Goodluck Jonathan that is why the bokoharam say that if they will come for negotiation, that Buhari most be there. As a result of the above findings, it was recommended that government should engage the group in a dialogue, and inaugurate programmes that would address issues, equally government should deal decisively with anybody sponsoring bokoharam activities in Nigeria.

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE

  • Introduction 1

1.1   Background of the study                                  2

1.2   Statement of the problem                        3

1.3   Purpose of the study                                        8

1.4   Significance of the study                                  9

1.5   Research questions                                          10

1.6   Scope of the study                                           11

1.7   Limitation of the study                                     11

1.8   Definition of the terms                                     11

CHAPTER TWO

2.1   Literature Review                                             13

2.2   Problems of democracy government in Nigeria      19

2.3   Boko haram history in Nigeria                         21

2.4   Boko haram attack in Nigeria                          23

2.5   Views of other people on Boko haram              26

2.6   Comparing Nigeria democracy and boko haram       32

2.7   Consequences of boko haram to national        development                                                    34

2.8   Summary of literature review                          37

2.9   Gap in literature                                              38

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0   Research Methodology                                     39

3.1   Brief outline of the study                                 39

3.2   Design of the study                                          40

3.3   Area of the study                                              40

3.4   Population of the study                                    40

3.5   Sample of the study                                         41

3.6   Instrument for data collection                  41

3.7   Validation of the instrument                            42

3.8   Distribution and Retrieval of instrument         42

3.7   Method of data analysis                                   43

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0   Data Presentation and Analysis                       44

4.1   Findings of the study                                       65

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0   Summary Conclusion and Recommendation   69

5.1   Summary of findings                                       69

5.2   Conclusion                                                      70

5.2   Recommendations                                           71

References                                                       74

Appendix                                                                 76

Questionnaire                                                  77


 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION

        Democracy and Islamic sect/Boko Haram in Nigeria. This study on democracy and Islamic sect in Nigeria is geared towards bringing to light the menace of Islamic sect/Boko haram on Nigeria democracy.

However, following the president Goodluck Jonathan regime, Nigeria have witnessed several dis-harmony on its socio-polity as a result of the problems posed by Boko haram which is an Islamic militant group based in the north which forbid western education and seeks the imposition of Sharia law in the country.

Therefore, Boko haram has done more harms than good to democracy in Nigeria because of its negative attributes which makes Nigeria an undemocratic nation.

 

 

1.1   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

        This research work is centered on democracy and religious sect/ Boko haram in Nigeria with a particular reference to Goodluck Jonathan Regime.

Democracy is a global maiden which every nation woos. It is a system of government based on popular consent. Nigeria, the most populous country in Africa has no choice then to align itself with the rest of the world on the democratic crave.

However, Nigeria has not been so lucky to be democratized. It has had long tortured history of dancing around democracy but has make gotten it right. This is largely due to some challenges it has suffered since its inspection which includes lack of large scale free and fair election, refusal to accept defeat in electrons by political gladiators, corruption, inobservance of rule of law, lack of freedom of speech and publication and that of freedom of worship which have been a threat to national peace and development by some religious sect.

Boko Haram is a controversial Nigerian militant Islamist group that seeks the imposition of Sharia law on the northern states of Nigeria. Equally, it is an Islamic group that forbids western education. It is a religious militant group base in the north and seek to establish Sharia law in the country, this have badly effected the socio-economic development in the country and have effected the democracy in the country.

 

  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The idea that the Islamic religion with its militant group Boko haram has been a threat to Nigerians and the world at large is very very true. Since Buhari lost as the presidential aspirant to Goodluck Jonathan, himself (Buhari) Atiku and other top politicians in the northern part of the country felt that their assured right which is leadership of this country/Aso rock has been taken or snatched from them unannounced. They (northern politicians) like a child that has been weaned by the mother is trying to use any gimmick to get Aso Rock back in their laps. That is why they vowed to give Goodluck Jonathan headache by making the masses (electorates) that voted him in hate him as they (the northern politicians) are using different tactics to fight Goodluck and the poor Nigerians masses that exercise their franchise.

Boko Haram has seriously undermined democracy in this country. Simply put, Boko haram has shown that Nigeria is very far from democracy that they have been clamouring for some years. How can we (Nigeria) claim to be a democratic nation when there are insecurity of lives and properties of the populace. How can Nigerian claim to be democratic nation when the so called old politicians/political aspirants decided to commit such deadly plan of sponsoring killers in the name of Islamic sect Boko haram to kill the very people he has planned to rule/head.

Recently, there is plan to have political talk with Boko haram sect. One wonders if the only way to get the attention of the leadership is through killing people, wasting and destroying our mearged resources.

Boko haram and insecurity it posed to this nation has publicly proved that Nigerian can never be one as they claim to be and that Nigeria is very far from practicing true democracy.

The truth is that Boko haram are not spirits, they are not the poor class or illiterates, rather they are the unhappy politicians from the north who is sponsoring killers to kill the masses for voting candidates of their choice.

Boko haram is corruption personified, it is only corruption that would make human being that is supposed to be a leader by example to turn and waste the destines of people for no reason.

Boko haram with its twin brother ethnicity has posed a serious question to our democracy. Boko haram (Islamic religion) is posing a challenge to democracy in Nigeria and more especially to the integrity of the northern politicians. Boko haram has demotivated Nigerian masses. The masses has lost hope in the leadership since blood is being shed every day and our law makers are not saying anything about it instead the leadership especially northern politicians are busy sponsoring that the killers should be praised by Boko haram having talk with the government on how they (the killer Boko haram) should be rewarded.

Boko haram has also proved that the judiciary is no longer the last hope of common man. Boko haram has shown that Nigeria doesn’t have law makers, judiciary, and executive. If the security agents in Nigeria understand that they are being paid for their job, why haven’t they discovered any leaders, sponsors, and supporter of Boko haram sect and deal with them as killing illiterate alimagiris would do nothing to curb the problem.

The conclusion is that the leadership of this nation is very corrupt and the masses is only trusting of God for the protection of their lives and properties and the judgement of the blood of the poor masses the leadership of this nation has shade because of corruption or greediness.

 

  • PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

This project work intents to achieve the following purposes: –

  1. To examine critically democracy and problems of democracy.
  2. To examine Boko haram and its consequences to democracy in Nigeria.
  3. Asses Boko haram major attacks on Nigeria.
  4. Consequences of Boko haram activities to National development.
  5. To make a recommendation that will help to sustain democratic rule in Nigeria.
    • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This research work would be of great benefit to the leadership to the country. It will serve as an appraisal to the leadership of this country.

Moreso, this work would be of great benefit to the northern politicians that are seriously preparing to come out in 2015 election because they will be able to know peoples view of their illicit behaviour. As the northern political aspirants are killing people to rule wood.

They will also learn that it is only wood and goats that they spared will vote them. God in heaven and any human being in Nigeria has learnt that after shading blood to rule, they will continue to kill when they are in office.

However, the research work will try to revive Nigeria as they will learn that they are still very far from practicing democracy.

The work will also serve as a reference point to future researchers.

 

  • RESEARCH QUESTIONS
  1. Is Boko haram a threat to the whole country?
  2. To what extent has Boko haram a threat to the regime of Goodluck Jonathan?
  • Did Atiku, Buhari and their acolytes vow to disturb the regime of Goodluck Jonathan?
  1. To what extent has Boko haram undermined Nigeria democracy?
  2. Is corruption a bane to Nigeria democracy?

 

 

 

  • SCOPE/DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY

This work covers democracy and religious sect in Nigeria, Goodluck Jonathan regime.

 

  • LIMITATION OF STUDY

This work is affected as a result of limited time and finance at the researcher’s disposal.

 

  • DEFINITION OF TERMS

It is essential at this stage of our study to define or clarify some terminologies used in this work. A clear idea of those basic concepts term will certainly provide an easy understanding the entire work.

DEMOCRACY

        It is a combination of two Greek words which are “demo” and “krato” meaning government by the people “consent”. Therefore, democracy, from a layman’s point of view is government of the people by the people and for the people.

Democracy may be defined as a system of government in which all qualified adult citizens share the supreme power directly or through their elected representatives. Democracy is a system of government based on popular consent.

Also, the term democracy has in another occasion been described as “government by consent of the governed” i.e. government with the approval of the people being governed.

BOKO HARAM

        Boko Haram is a controversial Islamist militant group that seeks the imposition of Sharia law in the northern states of Nigeria and rest of the country. It is a jihadist group that strongly opposes man-made laws and modern science.        

 

 

    

Continue reading democracy and islamic sect/boko haram in nigeria

IMPACT OF LEADERSHIP CRISIS ON NIGERIA NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF FOURTH REPUBLIC

IMPACT OF LEADERSHIP CRISIS ON NIGERIA NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF FOURTH REPUBLIC

 

ABSTRACT

The research explores the impact of leadership crisis on Nigeria national development. It appraises leadership crisis in Nigeria fourth republic and its impact on national development. The study projects the nature of leadership instability in Nigeria’s fourth republic and the consequences of mismanagement of the nation’s economic and financial resources.

INTRODUCTION

Nigeria is richly endowed by providence with human and material resources critical for national development and advancement. However, since gaining political independence, Nigeria has continued to meander the path befitting failed, weak and “juvenile” states. A state that had very great prospects at independence and was touted to lead Africa out of the backwoods of underdevelopment and economic dependency, Nigeria is still stuck in the league of very poor, corrupt, underdeveloped, infrastructurally decaying, crisis-riven, morally bankrupt and leadership-deficient countries of the South. Rather than become an exemplar for transformational leadership, modern bureaucracy, national development, national integration and innovation, Nigeria seems to be infamous for whatever is mediocre, corrupt, insanely violent and morally untoward.

Thus, one cannot but agree with the position that Nigeria is a victim of poor leadership and convoluted systemic corruption which has become pervasive and cancerous in the country’s national life. This view has been held strongly in literature by scholars and writers who have identified the inexorable nexus between leadership crisis and corruption in the country as the continued reason for Nigeria’s inglorious economic throes, political convolutions and national underdevelopment. Current debates rest on the conclusion that Nigerian leadership suffers from extreme moral depravity and attitudinal debauchery (Agbor, 2011; Agbor, 2012; Ezirim, 2010; Ebegbulem, 2009; Ogbunwezeh, 2007). In fact, Agbor argues that the success or failure of any society depends largely on the mannerism of its leadership. He adds that the result of poor leadership in Nigeria is embodied as poor governance manifested in consistent political crisis and insecurity, poverty of the extreme order among the citizens, debilitating miasma of corruption and rising unemployment indices. Tipping corruption as a dinosaur syndrome in Nigeria’s national life (anon, 2010), Nigeria’s nationhood has been caught in the whirlpool of a corrupt public sector that has remained a hotbed of all that is vice, sleazy and retrogressive. While not exclusive to Nigeria, a report considers corruption to be one of the most chronic macroeconomic problems confronting most African countries today (ACBF, 2007). It is seen as the root cause of the various economic and political crises that have plagued the African region, and continues to aggravate not only the problem of underdevelopment of each country, but also that of abject poverty of the citizenry. For example, political corruption is the cause of sit-tight political leaders, especially in Africa, with constitutional amendments making them eligible to contest presidential elections as long as they wish. The ability to continue to control state power enables them to allocate national resources as they wish. This promotes wanton, suboptimal allocation of national resources, and the ensuing macroeconomic mismanagement which result in persistent economic cataclysm.

Although not a Nigerian phenomenon, the specter of corruption seems to haunt the nation and has permeated the entire fabric of state. Aided by leadership crisis bedeviling the nation

CHAPTER  1

1.1  BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Agbor (2012) writes on the list of high-profile corrupt practices of some Nigerian leaders in the present fourth republic. He argued that the notoriety of Nigeria’s corruption by its elected and appointed leaders led to the country being ranked 143 out of 182 countries in Transparency International’s 2011 Corruption Perception Index. Corrupt practices among public officials have become a national pastime. He chronicles the high-profile list of corruption in Nigeria to include the arraignment of a one-time governor of Kogi State by the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) for embezzling and defrauding the state to the tune of N4 billion. In September 2006, the EFCC had 31 of Nigeria’s 36 state governors under investigation for corruption (BBC, 2006). A one-time female Senator from Ogun State was quizzed by EFCC for receiving $100,000 stolen from the Ministry of Health as well as the Health Minister and her deputy quizzed for stealing over N30 million from the Ministry’s unspent funds from the previous year. The oil subsidy and the police pension scam are the latest manifestations of wanton corruption traceable to attitudinal recklessness of Nigerian leadership. Uwujaren’s (2012) submission on this national embarrassment shows clearly a state suffering from leadership crisis. So far the EFCC has docked 20 of those who defrauded the federation through the fuel subsidy fund. Some of the cases revealed included Ogunbambo, Theck and Fargo who swindled the federal government of over N976 million for fuel they did not supply. Taylor, Nasaman and Ali were involved in N4.4billion fraud, and Alao was docked for N2.6 billion scam. Tukur, Ochonogo, External Oil, collectively defrauded the state to the sum of N1.899 billion. Nadabo, Peters and Abalaka and Pacific Silver stole the sum of N1.464billion and Watgbasoma, Ugo-Ngadi, Ebenezer, Ejidele and Ontario Oil defrauded the Federal Government of Nigeria to the tune of N1.959 billion (Uwujaren, 2012). The management of the police pension scheme has recently revealed a leadership that is grossly insensitive. It becomes very appalling to hear that over N200million (two hundred million naira) would be spent to verify less than twenty police pensioners overseas. The question is what then would be the total pension of those retired officers when over two hundred million is spent to verify them. Some of the state officials involved in this scam have come under prosecution by the EFCC. EsaiDangaba, AtikuKigo, Ahmed Inuwa Wada, John Yusufu, Veronica Ulonma, and ZaniZira are being prosecuted for defrauding the police pension scheme in the sum of N32.8billion (Uwujaren, 2012).

According to Ike (2010), it is estimated that by 1999 past Nigerian leaders had stolen or misused $407 billion or 225 billion pounds. This amount is equal to all western aid given to the continent of Africa. He also mentioned that the immediate former Chairman of Nigeria Economic, and Financial Crimes Commission disclosed that 220 billion pounds was squandered between independence from Britain in 1960 and the return to democracy in 1999. This stolen fortune tallies exactly with the 220 billion pounds of Western Aid given to Africa between 1960-1997. This amounted to six times the American help given to post-war Europe under the Marshall Plan for the Reconstruction of Europe. Ike also cited the World Bank’s list of Nigeria’s fund by depositors in four Western countries in 1999 and submitted to the then President of Nigeria. From that list, five of the depositors alone were responsible for much of the stolen funds in the World Bank list of 21 heavy looters. The total of amount deposited in western banks by the heaviest 21 looters is the equivalent of 150 billion dollars. He concluded that on balance, the leaders of the first and second republics were relatively not corrupt as evidence in the third and fourth republics has gradually shown the byzantine kleptomania and “lootocracy” by those supposedly entrusted with the national leadership. Thus corruption in Nigeria has both entangled the entire public and private sector matrix and deepened its vice-like grip on the society. The research therefore shall investigate the impact of leadership crisis on Nigeria national development of fourth republic

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The problem confronting this research is to appraise the impact of leadership crisis on Nigeria national development of the fourth republic

1.3      RESEARCH QUESTION

2            What is the nature of leadership crisis in Nigeria’s fourth republic

3            What is the impact of leadership crisis on Nigeria’s national development

1.4      OBJECTIVE OF THE RESEARCH

1      To appraise the nature of leadership crisis in nigerias fourth republic

2            To determine the impact of leadership crisis in nigerias national development

1.5   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study  shall  project the damaging consequences of leadership crisis on the country’s national development with a view to determining measures of mitigating and eliminating the menace in the nations leadership.

1.6   STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS

1      H0   The level of national development is low

H1     The  level of national development is high

2            H0  Leadership crisis in fourth republic Nigeria is high

H1    Leadership crisis in fourth republic Nigeria is low

3     H0  The impact of leadership crisis in Nigeria    is low

H1    The impact of   leadership crisis in Nigeria is  high

1.7       SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The study is focused on appraising the impact of leadership crisis on Nigeria national development of fourth republic.

1.1      DEFINITION OF TERMS

LEADERSHIP   

Cole (1997, p. 54) posits: Leadership is a dynamic process at work in a group whereby one individual over a particular period of time, and in a particular organizational context, influences the other group members to commit themselves freely to the achievement of group tasks or goals

CORRUPTION  

In defining corruption, Amuwo (2005) and Obayelu (2007) consider it as the exploitation of public position, resources and power for private gain. Fieldstad & Isaksen (2008, p. 3) and Ogundiya (2009, p. 5) define corruption as “the betrayal of public trust for individual or sectional gain.” Obayelu went further to identify corruption as “efforts to secure wealth or power through illegal means for private gain at public expense; or a misuse of power for private benefit.” Corruption covers a broad spectrum of activities ranging from fraud (theft through misrepresentation), embezzlement (misappropriation of corporate or public funds) to bribery (payments made in order to gain an advantage or to avoid a disadvantage). From a political point of view, Aiyede (2006, p. 5) views corruption as “the abuse or misuse of public or governmental power for illegitimate private advantages.” His view corroborates the position of Lipset and Lenz (2000) that corruption is an effort to secure wealth or power through illegal means for private benefit at public expense. Tanzi (1998) adds that such abuse of public power may not necessarily be for one’s private benefit but for the benefit of one’s party, class, tribe, or family. Although corruption is global in scope, it is more pronounced in developing societies because of their weak institutions. It is minimal in developed nations because of existing institutional control mechanisms which are more developed and effective.

NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

According to Imhonopi & Urim (2010), national development is the ability of a country or countries to improve the social welfare of the people, namely, by providing social amenities like good education, power, housing, pipe-borne water and others. The components of national development include economic development, socio-cultural empowerment and development and how these impact on human development.

 

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investigate a survey on the aftercare service and re-integration of ex-convicts in Nigeria

INVESTIGATE A SURVEY ON THE AFTERCARE SERVICE AND REINTEGRATION OF EX-CONVICTS IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background to the Study

        Laws are made in every society to regulate the behaviour of people and to ensure that individual live according to expectation of the society. However, crimes are committed in the society daily. Once convicted, criminals are imprisoned. The Nigeria prisons service is charged with the responsibility to keep convicts. It keeps custody, reform, rehabilitate and reintegrate offenders. The extent to which they have been able to achieve these objectives is the focus of this research.

Successful re-integration starts within the prison itself. During the period of incarceration, social reintegration programmes should be designed to fully meet prisoners educational, technical, vocational, cultural and health needs while being delivered in a setting which respects dignity and human rights. The prison should therefore be used as an effective tool to equip offenders with the necessary social and educational resources which can help them desist from crime when they are released.

According to Travis (2005) social reintegration is affected by how successfully programmes which were started in prison can be accessed, continued, practiced or completed in the community. He further stressed that there exists a wide range of treatment and reformation programs to prison offenders, like anger and aggression control program, anti-criminal thinking programes, job-rendiness training, sex offender program, drugs offender therapy. There are also myriads of industrial programs in which offenders can work while they are in prison, to provide service while gaining some of the skills they will need for re-integration into society.

All the aforementioned laudable programmes are rarely applied because most prison inmates return home years later in worse shape than when they committed the crimes that resulted in their imprisonment. Majority of the inmates leave prison and return to society largely uneducated, unskills with severe social and medical problems, often without family support and with the stigma of a prison record hanging over them. Many experience serious socio-psychological problems after release. As ex-convicts are periodically released into the society, their systemic marginalization threaten the very society their imprisonment was meant to protect. The question is what toll does this constant release of prison inmates who have duly served their term exact on a community. What do these trends  portend for public softy?

Aftercare services has the overall intents through effective correctional administration to reduce the high level of criminality among Nigeria lessening of prejudice against ex-prisoners in aid of their successful resettlements, to reduce the  rate of recidivism, promote entrepreneurship of ex-prisoners and the reduction of unemployment in Nigeria society. The question is, how successful has aftercare been, in its goals and objective? Another question is, what are the challenges faced by aftercare services in the reintegration of ex-prisoners?

This research examines the realities of prisoners reintegration and proffering specific solutions to prepare inmates for release, reduce recidivism, and restore them to full citizenship, while never losing sight of the demand of public safety. The study will also examine the obstacle of reintegrating ex-convicts in Akwa Ibom State.

 

1.2   Statement of the Problem

        Offenders released from confinement encounter a myriad of challenges with respect of securing employment. These include personal factor such as how self-esteem, low motivation, skill deficit, lack of training, poor  academic standard, substance abuse, social factors such as negative peer influence, and absence of family support and poor employment record. These is no gainsaying that obtaining legal employment is one of the best predictions of the  post-release success of ex-prisoners. They receive little pre-release support in securing accommodation and are often unable to find suitable living arrangements. Social isolation is a core experience of may ex-prisoners who may end up homeless or with unsuitable housing.

Drug dependent offenders are caught in a vicious circle unless the treatment they receive in prison for their addiction is maintained on their return to the community, the chances are that they will relapse and begin attending again to support their drug use; according to Burows et al, (2001) “failure for ex-prisoners to access appropriate support services in the community can result in offenders returning to prison time and time again as the cycle of  offending is perpetuated”.

Given the fact that may convicted persons do lose their fundamental right, they are likely to maintain criminal in the real sense by recidivism many released  prisoners find it difficult to design life a new, once they know that they have lost certain rights of their own. It is debilitating effect of civil disabilities on the ex-convict the inhibits  him or her from participating actively in community life  programmes for his or her wellbeing and for the well-being of the entire community or nation.

Prison inmates are  expected to the adaptive process of prisonisation which usually affects the prisoners in their transition as they return to the free world.

Research has shown that prolonged incarceration and poor prison condition certainly has psychological impact on the prisoners and has dire implication for post-prison free world adjustment. Life in the prison is depriving. The pains of imprisonment can serve to impede post prison adjustment. This study set out to investigate the reasons for the failure of post-integration of ex-convict in Akwa Ibom State.

 

1.3   Purpose of the study

        The purpose of the study is to examine the aftercare service and reintegration of ex-convicts in Nigeria, with particular reference to Akwa Ibom State specifically the objectives of the study are:

  1. To examine the obstacles to reintegrate ex-convicted in Akwa Ibom State.
  2. To ascertain the state of re-information of and rehabilitation programmes in Nigeria prisons services in Akwa Ibom State.

iii.     To ascertain the efficacy of the aftercare service in Akwa Ibom State.

 

1.4   Research Questions

  1. What are the obstacles to the reintegration of ex-convicts in Akwa Ibom State?
  2. What is the state of reformation/reintegration programmes in Nigeria Prison Service in Akwa Ibom State?

iii.     How effective are the Aftercare services in Akwa Ibom State?

 

1.5   Research Hypotheses

  1. There is no relationship between the quality of reintegrate programmes in the prison and successful reintegration into society after discharge.
  2. There is no relationship between the condition of prisons and successful reintegration into society after discharge.

1.6   Significance of the Study

The findings of this study will help other researchers to carry out a qualitative and comprehensive analysis of aftercare service in other states of the federation. The result of the study will help to further educate the academic community on Nigerian prisons service strategic roles and challenges. It will give prisoners an insight of what they will face on being released as such they could be motivated to engage in occupation and vocational training in order to make the self-reliant on discharge. It will make government to take steps in putting up a legal framework for comprehensive reform of the Nigeria prison system. The study will further assist the government to formulate crime control policy. The present policy of the government if to get criminal out of circulation by imprisonment. Less attention is paid to what happens when the convicted prisoner is released back into the society.

 

1.7   Scope and Limitation of the Study

The study is delimited to the aftercare unit of prison in Uyo, Eket, Ikot Ekpene, Abak and Ikot Abasi Ex-prisoners, Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) employers of labour and community leaders in Akwa Ibom State were involved in the study. This study is limited to Akwa Ibom State. They reason for choosing Akwa Ibom State includes its-proximity to the researcher, and the familiarity of the researcher with the area which facilitated the collection of data.

1.8   Definition of Key Concepts

Aftercare Service:   This is a scheme intended by the Nigerian prison services for the treatment and rehabilitation of discharged prisoners. The scheme is aimed at facilitating the re-integration of ex-convicts into the society through collaboration with NGOs, Employers of labour, community leaders etc.

Crime: This is a violation of societal rules as interpreted and expressed by a criminal legal code of a particular society and are subject to sanctions by state authority.

Punishment: It is the legal imposition of a penalty as ret4ribution for an offence.

Ex-convict: It refers to a person who has been released from prison after serving his sentence. In this study, the term “ex-convict”, “expresoner” and  “ex-offender” will be used interchangeably.

Recidivism: This is a process where a person relapses back to crime after serving term of imprisonment.

Quality of reintegration programmes: This is the general reintegration programmes. This is operationalized, as non-existing or/and lack of facilities and programmes lack of qualified correctional and  treatment specialists outdated disorganized or/and poor quality programmes.

CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

 

2.1   Literature Review

        Available literature indicates increasing disappointment with modes of operation, the prison in Nigeria are perceived to be ill disposed to achieving any meaningful reformation, rehabilitation and reintegration of convicted offenders (Odekunly, 1981: Ahire, 1990; Fanimu 2006). The Nigerian Prison Service, which operates under the Prison Act number 9 of 1972, has reinformation, rehabilitation and reintegration of offenders as part of its fundamental objectives (NPS, 1979)….

 

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2. EcoBank:
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3. Fidelity Bank:
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4. FCMB:
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5. First Bank
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6. GTB:
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7. Heritage Bank:
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8. Keystone Bank:
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9. Sky Bank:
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10. Stanbic IBTC:
—-*909#

11. Sterling Bank:
—-*822#

12. UBA:
—-*389*033*1#

13. Unity Bank:
—-*322*215#

14. Zenith Bank:
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—-*710*555#

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