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THE EFFECT OF OIL SPILLAGE ON SOIL PROPERTIES AND PLANT PERFORMANCE IN WARRI AREA.
The effect of oil spillage and other industrial wastes on our environment have been a major concern in the Warri area. This write up provides a detailed study of oil spillage. It also contain an overview of soil composition and fertility in the Warri area.
Finally this project highlighted the consequences of oil spillage on soil and crop performance in the Warri area. The effectiveness of various results obtained depends on the nature of oil, relative properties of the soil and soil environment. Also this work gives some possible control measures to check spillage.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page ii
Table of contents viii
1.0 introduction 1
1.1 The nature and consequences of environmental pollution 2
1.2 aim and objectives 3
1.3 statement of problem 4
1.4 limitation of study 4
1.5 justification of study 5
2.0 literature review 6
2.1 soil and its properties 6
2.2 soil survey and soil particle size distribution in warri 8
2.3 oil spillage 10
2.4 causes of oil spillage 11
2.4.1 Mechanical failure 12
2.4.2 Operational discharges 12
2.4.3 Sabotage 12
2.4.4 Natural hazards 12
2.4.5 Corrosion 13
2.5 effects of oil spillage on soil properties and crop performance 13
2.6 soil solution 15
2.7 soil acidity 16
2.8 soil temperature and its effect 16
2.9 soil fertility 18
2.9.1 soil element 19
3.0 Methodology 21
3.1 materials 21
3.2 Methods 21
3.3 Laboratory analyses 22
3.3.1 Determination of soil ph 22
3.3.2 Determination of organic carbon 22
3.3.3 Determination of total – nitrogen 24
3.3.4 Determination of calcium 25
3.3.5 Determination of soil temperature 26
3.3.6 Determination of alkalinity 26
3.4 Study area. 27
4.0 Experimental result 28
4.1 Discussion 29
4.1.1 Soil ph 29
4.1.2 Organic carbon 30
4.1.3 Total nitrogen 30
4.1.4 Alkalinity 30
4.1.5 Temperature 31
4.1.6 Microbial count 31
5.0 Conclusion 32
5.1 recommendations 33
5.2 Possible control measures 33
In the oil producing areas, oil pollution has become a problem that calls for urgent attention due to its devastating effect on the environment. Oil pollution has a detrimental effect on the ecosystem and its effect are usually very visible and sometimes very devastating.
According to Nelson, (1999) pollution is said to occur when there is a release into the environment of substances and energy in quantities which are detrimental to man and other living organisms.
The environment here comprises of the Landscape ie soil, air, bodies of water, streams and lakes. There is also evidence that due to the activities of man, there has been a release into the soil substances that affects the soil structure, crop performance and the vegetation at large.
The effect of man’s operations on terrestial environment includes the interferance with the structure of land surface, the immediate sub-surface, streams and lakes. Petroleum and its components that have been released into the environment is eventually degraded into simple compounds of their constituent elements by physiochemical or biological agencies of the soil with or without human assistance and that had become innocuous after a long period of time.
Thus, when oil spillage occurs, its effects are usually pronounced on the soil flora and fauna as well as the soil structure.
1.1 THE NATURE AND CONSQUENCIES OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION
The nature and scope of environmental pollution which result mostly from the activities in the oil industry varies extensively. These activities include:
i. Unhealthy disposal of waste crude oil and chemical used during drilling, oil production, and processing.
ii. Indiscriminate channelling of liquid and semi-liquid waste into nearby streams, river and landscape.
iii. Oil spillage
iv. High level noise from the machinery.
The socio – economic and environmental impact of these activities result to:
i. Destruction of vegetation and other associated wide life.
ii. Damage to soil and crops by heat and the attendent loss of sources of livelihood.
iii. Pollution of air, land and water resulting in the destruction of both plant and main life and the alteration of the ecosystem.
iv. Contamination of the ground water.
v. Fire oiutbreak, explosion, and degradation of the environment.
It is worthy of note that while the oil industry in Nigeria ranks high in the ladder of environmental polluters, it is also the most actors in combating pollutions.
1.3 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The occurance of these oil spillage mostly in the river area of Warri has led to the mass