Category Archives: CHEMISTRY PROJECT TOPICS AND MATERIALS PREVIEWS

CHEMISTRY PROJECT TOPICS AND MATERIALS PREVIEWS

THE EFFECT OF OIL SPILLAGE ON SOIL PROPERTIES AND PLANT PERFORMANCE IN WARRI AREA.

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THE EFFECT OF OIL SPILLAGE ON SOIL PROPERTIES AND PLANT PERFORMANCE IN WARRI AREA.

ABSTRACT
The effect of oil spillage and other industrial wastes on our environment have been a major concern in the Warri area. This write up provides a detailed study of oil spillage. It also contain an overview of soil composition and fertility in the Warri area.
Finally this project highlighted the consequences of oil spillage on soil and crop performance in the Warri area. The effectiveness of various results obtained depends on the nature of oil, relative properties of the soil and soil environment. Also this work gives some possible control measures to check spillage.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page ii
Certification iii
Dedication iv
Acknowledgement v
Abstract vii
Table of contents viii
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 introduction 1
1.1 The nature and consequences of environmental pollution 2
1.2 aim and objectives 3
1.3 statement of problem 4
1.4 limitation of study 4
1.5 justification of study 5
CHAPTER TWO
2.0 literature review 6
2.1 soil and its properties 6
2.2 soil survey and soil particle size distribution in warri 8
2.3 oil spillage 10
2.4 causes of oil spillage 11
2.4.1 Mechanical failure 12
2.4.2 Operational discharges 12
2.4.3 Sabotage 12
2.4.4 Natural hazards 12
2.4.5 Corrosion 13
2.5 effects of oil spillage on soil properties and crop performance 13
2.6 soil solution 15
2.7 soil acidity 16
2.8 soil temperature and its effect 16
2.9 soil fertility 18
2.9.1 soil element 19
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Methodology 21
3.1 materials 21
3.2 Methods 21
3.3 Laboratory analyses 22
3.3.1 Determination of soil ph 22
3.3.2 Determination of organic carbon 22
3.3.3 Determination of total – nitrogen 24
3.3.4 Determination of calcium 25
3.3.5 Determination of soil temperature 26
3.3.6 Determination of alkalinity 26
3.4 Study area. 27

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Experimental result 28
4.1 Discussion 29
4.1.1 Soil ph 29
4.1.2 Organic carbon 30
4.1.3 Total nitrogen 30
4.1.4 Alkalinity 30
4.1.5 Temperature 31
4.1.6 Microbial count 31
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 Conclusion 32
5.1 recommendations 33
5.2 Possible control measures 33
Reference. 35
CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION
In the oil producing areas, oil pollution has become a problem that calls for urgent attention due to its devastating effect on the environment. Oil pollution has a detrimental effect on the ecosystem and its effect are usually very visible and sometimes very devastating.
According to Nelson, (1999) pollution is said to occur when there is a release into the environment of substances and energy in quantities which are detrimental to man and other living organisms.
The environment here comprises of the Landscape ie soil, air, bodies of water, streams and lakes. There is also evidence that due to the activities of man, there has been a release into the soil substances that affects the soil structure, crop performance and the vegetation at large.
The effect of man’s operations on terrestial environment includes the interferance with the structure of land surface, the immediate sub-surface, streams and lakes. Petroleum and its components that have been released into the environment is eventually degraded into simple compounds of their constituent elements by physiochemical or biological agencies of the soil with or without human assistance and that had become innocuous after a long period of time.
Thus, when oil spillage occurs, its effects are usually pronounced on the soil flora and fauna as well as the soil structure.

1.1 THE NATURE AND CONSQUENCIES OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION
The nature and scope of environmental pollution which result mostly from the activities in the oil industry varies extensively. These activities include:
i. Unhealthy disposal of waste crude oil and chemical used during drilling, oil production, and processing.
ii. Indiscriminate channelling of liquid and semi-liquid waste into nearby streams, river and landscape.
iii. Oil spillage
iv. High level noise from the machinery.
The socio – economic and environmental impact of these activities result to:
i. Destruction of vegetation and other associated wide life.
ii. Damage to soil and crops by heat and the attendent loss of sources of livelihood.
iii. Pollution of air, land and water resulting in the destruction of both plant and main life and the alteration of the ecosystem.
iv. Contamination of the ground water.
v. Fire oiutbreak, explosion, and degradation of the environment.
It is worthy of note that while the oil industry in Nigeria ranks high in the ladder of environmental polluters, it is also the most actors in combating pollutions.

1.3 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The occurance of these oil spillage mostly in the river area of Warri has led to the mass

PRODUCTION OF DEODORANT (AIR REFRESHING) FROM LOCAL PLANT MATERIALS.

PRODUCTION OF DEODORANT (AIR REFRESHING) FROM LOCAL PLANT MATERIALS.

COMPLETE MATERIAL COST 2500. BUY NOW

ABSTRACT
This study was carried out principally for the production of deodorant (Air refresher) from perfumery oil/ fragrance i.e. odor ferrous essential oil to match and conyzete with one produced from abroad.
Deodorant is a substance used in controlling odour and hides unpleasant smells.
The method generally used in this work is first the extraction of the perfuming oil/ fragrance i.e. odorless essential oil from local plant materials and then mixing of the substances. After which it was allowed to stand for twenty-four hours and stirred for proper mixture. The product is much higher efficient than the individual oils. And it is cheaper to operate from this project. It is quite possible to harness our natural endowment that would compete prodigiously with one produced abroad.
Hence our environment including homes, cars, hospital, toilets etc will be totally refreshed and the need to import deodorant will be avoided.

TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page ii
Certification iii
Dedication iv
Acknowledgement v
Abstract vi
Table of content vii
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Aim/ objective 2
1.2 Statement of problem 3
1.3 Justification of the study 3
1.4 Limitation of the study 4
CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Literature Review 5
2.1 Chemistry of air refresher 7
2.2 Compounds used as deodorants 12
2.3 Characteristics of an ideal air refresher 13
2.4 Classification of perfumes used in air refresher 14
2.5 Causes of odour 16
2.6 Principles guiding the most common and effective
odour control method 17
2.7 How air refreshment / deodorizers works 18
2.8 Factors that affect the activities
of air refreshers (deodorant). 20
2.9 Users of air refreshers 21
2.10 Brief description of the materials used 21
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Methodology 25
3.1 raw materials and equipment used 25
3.2 Method of extraction 26
3.3 Formulation 30
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Results and discussion 32
4.1 result 32
4.2 Discussion 32
4.3 Observation 33
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 Conclusion and recommendation 35
5.1 conclusions 35
5.2 Recommendation 36
Reference 37

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION
The world deodorant is substance used in controlling odor and wide unpleasant smells especially those of the body and environment. It is related to the Latin word perfumery ( to fill with smoke). Since it was found in a mixture of finely grounded spices field together by myrrh.
Deodorant was first developed by John Jayeo in 1817, which it was declared that resin soap could be dissolved to a clear solution in tarals or creosole to form a black deodorant fluid. Later on in 1987, damman a german scientist presented a method for preparing laysol a disintectant which follow in the category of deodorant containing a high proportion of phenols in soap solution which gave on dilution a clear solution in distilled water.
Deodorant is as result of heterogeneous mixture of different chemical substance, which retain a portion of the odorless principle, which can be blended by a vehicle, solvent and fixatives. But we have two kinds of deodorant which include body deodorant example perfume and environment deodorant, which is air refresher.
In order to produce a deodorant, many factors have to be considered. They include;
1 concentration
2 Organic matter
The deodorant has to be such that its concentration is such that it performs its specific function under the stated condition in the presence of organic matter.
1.1 AIM AND OBJECTIVE
This work is aimed at developing an economic and indigenous way of producing deodorant using local plant materials in the best interest of small-scale industries thereby

THE HERBARIUM TECHNIQUE

THE HERBARIUM TECHNIQUE

COMPLETE MATERIAL COST 2500. BUY NOW

ABSTRACT

Collection, processing and classification of plant, leaves specimens covering eight (8) families of plants with eight different species was done. This technique was done to establish a herbanum for the biology laboratory of science laboratory technology, IMT Enugu at its campus III of the eight families coverered, six were monocotyledon and these were families, Enphobiaceae, Myrtaceae, Gramineae, Meliaceae and compositae while two others were of Dicotyledon’s families, Papilionacea and Papilionacea and all these were Angiosperm. The plant specimens were systematically lodged in the herbarium cabinet in which they were appropriately labeled for future use. The procedures and technique involved carefully collection of plant specimens, laying of the specimens, pressing, drying, mounting, identification, documentation and storage of the plant specimens (leaves).
TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE
Introduction
Background Information
Aim and Objectives of the Study
Statement of Problem
Hypothesis
Significance of the Study
Limitation of the Study
CHAPTER TWO
Literature Review
Purpose of Herbarium
Nature of a Herbarium
Uses of Herbarium

CHAPTER THREE
Materials and Methods
Materials
Methods
Collection of Plant Samples
Processing of Plant Samples

CHAPTER FOUR
Results and Discussion
Classification of Plants Samples
Discussion

CHAPTER FIVE
Conclusion and Recommendation
Conclusion
Recommendation

REFERENCES
CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND INFORMATION
According to Clamberland (1994), herbarium can simply be defined as a collection of dried, preserved and pressed plant specimens which are arranged systematically, serving as a taxonomic refernce of plants for their identification and classification. He further defines it as a repository of preserved and labeled plant specimen to allow easy access and achival storage. The herbarium is useful for research issdentification of plants and for comparison of materials with precious collection. It is also a growing source of knowledge about th vegetation of an area. Its effectiveness and value depend on the care with which the specimens are preserved, mounted, completeness of identification, labeling, satisfactory arrangement and maintenance of the collection.
Dried and mounted specimen are stored in cabinets with tiht fitting doors. The storage cabinets is provided with partitions in which the families of plants may be arranged in alphabetical order or (more usually) in some presumed phylogenetic order. The specimens are typically in form of herbarium sheets, pressed and dried plants have been glued to a sheet of heavy paper, together with a labeled data. The label describes information which include the plants Latin names, the origin of the collections, the date of collection, and the name of the collector. Within the cabinet the specimens are arranged according to the family, genus and species they represent as well as the geographic location from which they were collected.

1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
AIM: Construction of a herbarium.
OBJECTIVES INCLUDES
i. To construct a herbarium.
ii. To identify plants

ANALYSIS OF THE EXTRACTS OF THE SEEDS OF CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS FOR ALKALOIDS

ANALYSIS OF THE EXTRACTS OF THE SEEDS OF CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS FOR ALKALOIDS

COMPLETE MATERIAL COST 2500. BUY NOW

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 2
1.2 AIMS OF THE STUDY 4
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 4
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 5
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY 5
1.6 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY 5

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 6
2.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE
ALKALOIDS 6
2.2 OCCURRENCE AND FUNCTIONS OF
ALKALOIDS IN PLANTS 8
2.3 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ALKALOIDS 9
2.4 ALKALOIDS CLASSIFICATION 10
2.4.1 PYRIDINE GROUP 11
2.4.2 PYRROLIDING GROUP 12
2.4.3 TROPANE GROUP 12
2.4.4 INDOLIZING GROUP 12
2.4.5 QUINOLINE GROUP 13
2.4.6 ISOQUINOLINE GROUP 13
2.4.7 PYENATHYLAMINE GROUP 14
2.4.8 PHENANTHRENE GROUP 14
2.4.9 INDOLE GROUP 14
2.4.10 ERGOLINES 15
2.4.11 BETA-CARBOLINE 15
2.4.12 YOHIMBANS 16
2.4.13 VINCA ALKALOIDS 16
2.4.14 KRATOM 16
2.4.15 TABERNANTHE – IBOGA ALKALOIDS 16
2.4.16 STRYCHNS NUX-VIMICA ALKALOIDS 17
2.4.17 PURINE GROUP 17
2.4.18 TERPENOID GROUP 17
2.5 ALKALOID ISOLATION 17
2.6 ALKALOID DETECTION 19
2.7 ALKALOID CONTENTS IN CASSIE
OCCIDENTALIS SEED 20
2.8 PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENT
(PLANT CHEMICALS) OF CASSIA
OCCIDENTALIS LINN 22
2.9 BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AND CLINICAL
RESEARCH OF CASSIE OCCIDENTALIS 23
2.10 PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES ON
CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS LINN 26
2.11 EVALUATION ON IN-VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL
ACTIVITIES OF CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS LINN 29
2.12 ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF
ANTRAQUINONE GLYCOSIDE FROM THE
SEED OF CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS LINN 30
2.13 TWO NEW ATHRAQUINONE FROM THE
SEED OF CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS LINN 32
2.14 EMODINE AN ANTIBACTERIAL
ANTHRAQUINONE FROM THE ROT OF
CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS LINNS 36
2.15 ETHNOBOTALNICAL INFO AND MEDICAL
USES OF CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS LINN. 37
2.16 CURRENT PRACTICAL USES OF
CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS 38
2.17 SEED OF CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS AS
USED FOR MAKING GELATOMANNAN GUM 41
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY 43
3.1 MATERIALS 43
3.2 REAGENT USED 44
3.3 COLLECTION AND PREPARATION OF PLANT
SEED EXTRACTS 45
3.4 EXTRACTION 46
3.5 TEST FOR ALKALOID 46
3.5.1 DRANGENDORFF’S REAGENT TEST 47
3.5.2 MAYER’S TEST 47
3.5.3 WAGNER AND LUGOIL’S TEST 47

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 RESULTS 49
4.1 TABLE I 49
4.2 TABLE II 50
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 51
5.1 DISCUSSION 51
5.2 CONCLUSION 52
5.3 RECOMMENDATION 53

REFERENCES 55
APPENDICES
ABSTRACT
The isolation and detection of alkaloid from the plant seed of Cassia occidentalis from leguminoceae family was carried out using solvent extraction process. The dried powered seed was soaked in a sample bottle using 1, 1- dichloromethane. After 3 days of occasional shaking, it was filtered, and the crude alkaloid was extracted using batch method.
Purification process of the crude alkaloid was not carried out. Thin layers chromatographic separation process was also not carried out. The crude alkaloid extracted from the seed of the plant was used.
The test for alkaloid was carried out using Drangendorff’s reagent, Mayer’s reagent and Wagner and Lugol’s reagent. The following reagent shows a positive test. Dragendorff’s reagent yield a Reddish-brown precipitation, Mayer’s reagent yields a cream precipitate, while Wagner’s and Lugol’s reagent yields a Reddish-brown precipitate.
The presence of these precipitates indicates the presence of alkaloid in the seed of cassia occidentalis.
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDIES
Alkaloids are larger groups of basic organic substance of natural origin usually plant which contains carbon, hydrogen and one or more nitrogen atoms. The nitrogen content is usually present in a heterocyclic ring such as in pyrrole, pyridine, pyrrolidine, quinoline or isoquinoline. It can be naturally occurring compounds containing basic nitrogen atoms (Finar I.L 2007).
According to Rogers M. F and Wink M. (1998), alkaloids are specific class of chemical compound found in plants and occasionally animals. Many have long historics as poison, narcotics hallucinogens and medicinal agents.
Generally, alkaloids are basic alkaline substances which can neutralizes acids. The basicity of alkaloids depends on lone pairs of electrons on their nitrogen atom thus forming salts with mineral acids such as HCL and H2SO4 and organic acids such as tartaric acid or malic acid. Alkaloids must be a product of plant or animal metabolism and must contain at least one nitrogen atoms that can be active as a base in acid-base reaction. Alkaloids could be classified either by the biological system in which they occur or by their chemical structure.
Hesse M. (2005), Said that most alkaloids contain oxygen but occasionally as in nicotine, this element is absence such oxygen free compounds are usually volatile. They vary widely in properties from one substance to the other. Some are relatively simple with a few as five carbon eg. xanthine, solamine is complicated with as many as 44 carbon atoms. Many compounds, although may fit some definition of alkaloids which are excluded from the group because. It can simply be done practically. Purines, pyridine, pyrazine, vitamins, antibiotics and amino sugar are all excluded.

CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS LINN.
The plant cassia occidentalis also commonly known as Negro coffee or coffee weed is a herb found in many countries including India, South America, and some parts of Africa. It belongs to the family Leguminosea. It’s habitat is likely meadows, pastures wastes places and it grow abundantly after rain. The leave are pinnately compounded with four to six (4 – 6) pars of smooth long-pointed ovate leaflet that has a sharp tip. Flowers occurs in leaf axils. Sepals are green and long. The petals are yellow and long. The stamens are of two different length. The pod is smooth and slender, slightly curved and dark brownish in colour. The seeds are dull and flattened on both ends. The seeds, leaves and other parts of the plants have been investigated and showed that it is highly medicinal. It has also been used for the treatment of inflammation, fever, liver disorder constipation, fungal infection, ulcers, respiratory infection and snake bite etc. The seeds when roasted are used as an alternative form of coffee tea.

1.3 AIMS OF THE STUDY
This project work is aim

FORMULATION OF ARTIST PAINT

FORMULATION OF ARTIST PAINT

COMPLETE MATERIAL COST 2500. BUY NOW

ABSTRACT
This study was carried out principally for the formulation of artist paint using available raw materials. Paint simplified is a material which may be applied to surfaces in relatively thin layers and which changes to a solid and may occur by evaporation of solvents, by chemical reaction or by combination of the two. Artist paint is the paint used by artists to do their paintings. These paints comprises of the water color paint, poster color paint, oil paint, acrylic paint and so on. The method generally used in this work was first, the collection of pigment of different colors, grinding the gypsum and then mixing of the substances. After which the substances was thoroughly stirred for proper mixture and so as to obtain finely non-granulled paint. The product is much highly efficient than individual paints. And it is cheaper to operate from this project. It is quite possible to harness our natural endowment that will compete prodigiously with one produced abroad, hence, our artists will do her expensive painting and the need to import artist’s paints will be avoided.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction
1.1 Properties of Artist Paint
1.2 Aim and Objective
1.3 Statement of Problem
1.4 Justification of Study
1.5 Limitation of the Study
CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Literature Review
2.1 Kinds of Artist Paint
2.2 Properties of the Backbone Composition of Artist Paint
2.3 The Backbone Composition
2.4 The Characteristics Features of the Backbone Composition of Artist Paint
2.5 Principles Guiding an Effective Artist Paint Formulation
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Methodology
3.1 Raw Materials and Equipment
3.2 Formulation
3.3 Percentage Measurement of Materials Used
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Results/Discussion
4.1 Results
4.2 Discussion
4.3 Observations
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1 Conclusion
5.2 Recommendation
5.3 Reference

TABLE OF FIGURES
Fig Pages
CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Paints usually consists of finely powdered insoluble materials, chiefly pigments, (which contributes opacity, color, and hardness and bulk to the film, suspended in a liquid binding medium known as a vehicle or binder, and a solvent or thinner which controls the consistency.

1.1 PROPERTIES OF ARTIST PAINT
Artist paints, water color in particular are made by grinding in a gum Arabic binding medium, together with certain necessary modifying ingredients. Clycerine and honey or sugar syrup (plasticizers) are often added in order to keep the colors from becoming mouldy and a wetting agent (such as ox gall) to make the colors “ take” well and spread uniformly on the paper. The proposition of the binder to the pigment is carefully balanced to give the pain, the exact correct properties. Upon application of the paints, the tiny grains of pigment become embedded in the coarse meshes of the paper, and this action is of as much importance in holding the color to the paper as he adhesive action of the gum binder.
The careful balance of the modifying ingredients in artist paint is necessary not only to give the correct working properties, but to ensure the proper balance of solubility that is the dried layer of a good artist paint must be sufficiently resistant so that subsequent brush strokes will not pick it up. On the other hand, the paint should not be so insoluble that one can not soften or run into it. Acqueous paints contain much less surplus binder. Unlike oil paint, the bulk of the paint – the water –evaporates completely on drying, leaving the pigment particles exposed partially to the air. This is not only causes brightness of lives and a mathe effect, but also eliminate a good many ill to which improperly painted oils are subject. However to achieve a performance a different set of precaution is necessary, because the colors are inherently less resistant to atmospheric conditions.
Water colors paintings leaves a very thin layer of pigment particles sufficiently held together to be a permanent coating. This thin layer or film, in contrast to the heavy of oil paint’s defects, such as cracking, peeling or blistering even so watercolors can be just oils if properly preserved.
In other to produced artist paint, many factors need to be considered.
They include;
– composition
– condition of watercolor paint in the container
– viscosity
– opacity and spreading rate
– drying time
– Fastness to light i.e. the paint shall have little or no color change.
– Financers of curing i.e. when tested using “Hegman lange”, the paint shall be finely ground to a max of less than 10 mirons (-10um)
– Bend tester: when tested the paint film shall not show cracking or loss of adusion.
– Resistant to mould, insects.
The artists paint has to be formulated such that its composition has to be one that performs its specific functions under the stated condition.
1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVE
This work is aimed at developing an economic and indigenous way of producing artist paint using local /available raw materials in