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EFFECT OF GENDER AND LOCALITY ON ALTRUISTIC BEHAVIOR AMONG ADULTS

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CHAPTER ONE:  INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study –       –       –       –       –       –       1

Purpose of the Study       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       5

Statement of the Problem –       –       –       –       –       –       6

Operational Definition of Terms       –       –       –       –       –       7

 

CHAPTER TWO:  LITERATURE REVIEW

Theoretical Review   –       –       –       –       –       –       –       8

Empirical Review     –       –       –       –       –       –       –       14

Summary of the Review   –       –       –       –       –       –       26

Hypotheses      –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       27

CHAPTER THREE:   METHODOLOGY

Participants     –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       28

Instrument       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       29

Procedure –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       31

Design and Statistics       –       –       –       –       –       –       31

 

CHAPTER FOUR

Results    –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       32

 

CHAPTER FIVE

Discussion       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       35

Implications of the Findings        –       –       –       –       40

Limitations of the Study- –       –       –       –       –       –       41

Suggestions of Further Research     –       –       –       –       42

Summary and Conclusion           –           –           –           –           —          –           42       

Recommendations   –       –       –       –       –       –       –       43

References       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       44

Appendix I

Questionnaire on Altruistic Behavior   –       —      –

 

Appendix II

Calculation of spilt Half Reliability Coefficient

using pearson product moment correlation

coefficient based on data obtained from pilot study –

 

Appendix III

 Raw scores and squared scores of gender and

locality on Altruistic behavior among Adults   –       –

 

Appendix IV

Calculation on Two-Way ANOVA    –       –       –       –

 

LIST OF TABLES

Table I:    Summary table of mean on the effect of

gender and locality on altruistic behavior

among adults. 

 

Table II:   Summary table of two way-ANOVA on the

effect of gender and locality on altruistic

behavior among adults.  

 

ABSTRACT

This study investigated gender and locality on altruistic behavior among adults. A total of 100 participants comprising 50 males (25 rural and 25 urban), 50 females (25 rural and 25 urban) were used. The  participants who were within the age range of 25-55 years has a mean age of 41 years. A 15 tem questionnaire designed to measure-altruistic behavior was used. A 2 x 2 factorial design was adopted based on 2 levels of gender as factor; male/female, and 2 level of locality as a factor; Rural/Urban areas. Hence two-way ANOVA – F Test was applied as a statistical test to analyze the data. However, the findings showed no significant effect of gender on altruistic behavior [F (1,96) = 1.13, P>.05]. There was a significant effect of locality [F (1,96) = 67.95 <.01]. Those in the rural area were found to have higher level of altruism than those in the Urban areas. There was no interaction effect of gender and locality on altruistic behavior [F (1,96) = 34.92 >.05]. The findings were discussed in relation to the literature reviewed and recommendations were also made.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

We have considered whether helping could be a genetically transmitted product of evolution. But perhaps helping ruin in families rather than through the whole human race.    Some individuals have a stronger genetically based prosperity to keep than do others. One of the classic puzzle about social behavior is why human perform action that keep society.

        In 1944, a young Swedish diplomat named Raoul Wallenberg was sent into Baudapest, Hungary, with instructions from the Nazis. Wallenberg was an imaginative young man whose heroes were Charlie Chaplin and Mark brothers. Wellenberg decided to collect assortment of official-cooking Hungarcain documents, such as driver’s license and tax receipts, and try to pass them off to the German as “Swedish” protective “passports”. In a typical act of creative heroism, he dimmed? On top of a moving train carrying hundreds of Jews to the death camps. He then ran along the roof, dropping the passport through the air vent.

        Finally, he ordered the train to stop and release all the “Swedish citizens”. Raoul eventually saved more than 100,000 women, men and children through creative but exceptionally risked actions as (Folge man 1944 Wellenberg, 1990). Another example of altruism is that of Suzu Valadez, the woman who bring food and supplies to people living near the mellican garbage dump.        Altruism is a voluntary help fullness that is motivated by concern about the responsibility of personal reward (Midlarsky Kahana 1944).

        Altruism as a prosocial behavior is voluntary action that benefits another person. Prosocial behavior can include; comforting, helping, rescuing sharing, and co-operating, (Elsenberg 1992). In general, prosocial children have parents who are nuturant and supportive, often providing a model of prosocial behavior Zahn and Smith (1992). For instance individual who were active in the civil right movement during the 1950’s and 1960’s were likely to have parents who had vigorously worked for social cases in previous decades (Elsenberg 1992). Batson (1995) aggress that altruism is often selfishly motivated. However, people are sometimes purely altruistic and not the least but selfish. Batson (1995) proposes that we often help other people because we experience empathy, which means that we feel the same pain, suffering, or other emotion that someone else feels for example, you may feel empathy for a friend who did not get the job he hoped for.

        We mentioned that altruism is often selfish motivated, specifically, we may help other people for two major selfish reasons:

  1. We want to avoid the personal pain of seeing someone suffer or else the guilt of not helping someone in distress.
  2. We want to share vicariously the joy that someone feels when his or her life improves.

Notice, then that these reasons represent two different kinds selfishness, the first avoids personal pain and the second seeks out personal pleasure. Batson primary contribution is the research in altruism is that he has demonstrated how people can be altruistic when their empathy is roused, even when neither the “avoiding personal pain” nor the “seeking vicarious joy hypothesis can operate.”

Altruistic people were likely to come from families who encourage their children to think how their own action would have consequences for other people. This focus seems likely to encourage compassion. The parents themselves also served as model of altruistic behaviors. They encourage their children to ignore social class, race, and religion in choosing their friends. As a result, these same children grew into adult who could appreciate the similarities that bind all humans to one another. They are less likely to emphasize the kind of boundaries that separate “as” from “them”

Finally, it is obvious that we can be altruistic for a variety of reasons, we can be altruistic because we want to avoid personal pain and guilty, we are sometimes be altruistic because we want to experience vicarious joy. However, we can also be altruistic when neither of these more selfish rationales is relevant. Instead we help other people because we feel a bond with them. Our empathy is aroused, we want to reduce their distress and improve their lives.

In view of the above, the researcher want to investigate whether such factors like gender and locality will affect altruistic behavior among adults.

 

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The aims of this study are as follows!

To determine whether gender will significantly influence altruistic behavior among Adults.

        To determine whether locality will significantly influence altruistic behavior among Adults.       

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Often times, it perturbs me why we should not be our brothers keeper. However, I noticed that some individuals find it difficult to render help to others while very few see it as a way of life. Whenever I travel to the village, I noticed high degree of love from rural dwellers which I find difficult to see in the Urban areas. This gives me worry in addition to this, there is always an argument that males renders  prosocial help more than female. In other to give answers to this opinion and also to know how much we help ourselves, the present study was born. It came to the pick when I asked why people find it difficult to help strangers, accident victims etc.

        Therefore, the following problems would be addressed in this study.    

 Will gender significantly influence altruistic behavior among Adults?

        Will locality significantly influence altruistic behavior among Adults.

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS

Altruistic behavior – An act of help in which the person doesn’t look for reward or the  consequence. In this study participants who scores above 30 on altruistic behavior scale exhibits high altruistic behavior while score below 30 is a low altruistic behavior.

Gender: Being male or female.

Locality: Rural and Urban Areas.

 

THE EFFECT OF VIOLENT BEHAVIOR ON ADOLESCENT

THE EFFECT OF VIOLENT BEHAVIOR ON ADOLESCENT

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ABSTRACT

This study was design to examine the effect of violent behavior on adolescent. Using selected secondary school in Sapele Local Government area of Delta State as a case study. In attempt to achieve the objectives of the study, three hypotheses derived from the research questions were tested. A structured question was the instrument for the collection of relevant data from the sampled respondent. The collected data were subjected to both descriptive (frequency count, table and percentages) and inferential statistical (chi-square) analysis. The analysis of data revealed the following findings; that there is a significant relationship between perception of lack of equity and adolescent violent behavior, there is a significant relationship between poverty and adolescent violent behavior and also there is significant relationship between ineffective government and breakdown of law and order. Based on these findings, it was recommended among others that the government should create enabling environment for the youth, more job opportunities and sustainable development for the area as well as adopt equity and fair play in the sharing of the resources in the state. Adults and government officials should lead by good examples, because adolescent in the society observe the behavior of their role model and put such behavior into practice. And also, media content should be restricted to adolescent.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page …………………………………………………………….….i

Certification…………………………………………………..…………ii

Dedication ……………………………………………………………….iii

Acknowledgment……………………………………………………….iv

Abstract…………………………………………………………………..v

Table of content………………….…………………………………….vi

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study…………………………………1
  • Statement of the problem………………………………13
  • Objective of the study…………………………………..17
  • Research question……………………………………….19
  • Significance of the study……………………………….20
  • Research Hypothesis……………………………………20
  • Scope of the study………………………………………21
  • Operational definition of terms………………………22

 

 

 

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEWS

2.1    Introduction……………………………………………….24

2.2    Causes of adolescent violence……………………….29

2.3    Roles of mass media……………………………………30

2.4    Family influence…………………………………………31

2.5    Poverty……………………………………  …..…………..33

2.6    Unemployment……………………………………………34

2.7    Forming of groups/ gangs……………………………..36

2.8    Culture of drugs abuse…………………………………38

2.3.1 The Nigerian state and its response to adolescent violence in sample………………………………………….….39

2.3.2 Implication for human development………….……39

2.3.3 Introduction of security operatives………………….41

2.3.4 Establishment of development commission and board…………………………….……………………………….42

2.5    Theoretical frame work………………………………..46

2.6 The reason why the theory is appropriate for the study………………………………………………………………55

2.7    Founding fathers of social learning theory……….55

 

CHAPTER THREE: THEORETICAL FRAME WORK AND RESEARCH METHOD

3.1    Research design………………………………………….60

3.2    The study of population……………………………….61

3.3    Sample size and sampling technique………………61

3.4    Data collection instrument……………………………62

3.5    Method of data……………………………………………63

 

CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION, DATA ANALYSIS, AND FINDS

 

4.1    Table analysis of questionnaire used………………65

4.1.2 Table of age distribution……..………………………66

4.1.3 Table of gender distribution………………………….67

4.1.4 Table of religious background of respondents……68

4.1.5 Table of ethnicity………………………………..….…..69

4.2    Presentation of data analysis……………………..…..70

4.3    Discussion of findings………………………………..…70

 

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

 

5.1    Summary of findings……………………………………72

5.2    Conclusion………………………………………………..75

5.3    Recommendations……………………………………….76

 

REFERENCE

APPENDIX

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

There is a great concern about the incidence of violent behavior among children and adolescents. This complex and troubling issues needs to be carefully understood by parents, teachers and other adults.

Children as young as preschoolers can show violent behavior. Parents and adults who witness the behavior maybe concerned, however, they often hope that the child will grow out of it. Violent behavior in a child at any age always needs to be taken seriously. It should be no be quickly dismissed as just a phase they are going through.

Adolescent access to and consume a variety of these different media forms, many of which have high level of violent content. Most home have television sets and next to sleeping, watching the television (TV) is the frequent activity of adolescent. Lomonaco, Kim, and Ottaviano (2010) assert that the average child in the United States spends four hours a day watching the television. The situation in Nigeria is not very different most children, between 5 and 20 years of age, spend over 6 hours a day using entertainment media (television, commercial and self recorded videos, movies, video games, print, radio, recorded music, computers and the internet(Roberts, Foctir and Rideout, 2005). In recent times, watching Nigeria movies, (Africa Magic) most of which have a high violent content, has become a popular pastime of many youths. The implication n of this is that by the time the average child is 18 years old, he/she would have witnessed many act of violence, including murders. Beresin (2009) found that up to 20 acts of violence per hour occur in adolescent programmes.

The high level of violent content of the media forms correlate with youth violence. Internet website showing violence; (killing, shooting, fighting, etc) correlate with about 50% increase in reports of seriously violent behavior (Lomonaco et al, 2010). The result of the violent media programmes and desensitization to violent video games (Caragey, Cray and Bushman, 2007).

TV sets are commonly present in bedrooms. The effect of having a TV set in a child’s bedroom is that it increases their TV viewing time. It may also imply that parent will be less likely to monitor the content of what is watched, and might not be able to set consistent for media use. Also, such children might participate in fewer alternative activities, like reading, sports and games.

Violence is often considerable, even in programmes which are not advertized as violent. Overall, weapons appear on prime time TV on an average of about nine times each hour. Adolescent shows are programmmes are more likely to juxtapose violence with humor, and are less likely to show the long term consequence of violence.

While violence is not the human race, it is an increasing problem in modern society. With greater access to firearms and explosives, the scope and efficiency of violent behavior has serious consequences. We need to look at the recent school shootings and the escalating rate of youth homicides among urban adolescents to appreciate the extent of this ominous trend. While the cause of youth violence are multi factorial and include such variable as poverty, family psychopathology, child abuse, exposure to domestic and community violence, substance abuse and other psychiatric disorders, the research literature is quite compelling that adolescent exposure to media violence plays an important role in the etiology of violent behavior. While it is difficult to determine which children who have experienced violence are at greatest risk, there appears to be a strong correlation between violence and aggressive behavior within vulnerable at risk segments of youth.

Violent behavior among Nigerian youths

        One of the greatest problems in Nigeria is the menace of youth violence and the causes include such variable as poverty, family psychopathology, child abuse, exposure to domestic and community violence, substance abuse and other psychiatric disorders. It has become more sophisticated, dangerous and murderous in propensity. They have greater access to firearms and explosives and have acquired more precision, skill, and have become desensitized through watching media violence and playing violent video games. Youths are often involved in the vanguard of violent video conflicts in different parts of the nation and this has assumed a very serious dimension in recent years. Murder, robbery, rape, cult activities, ethno-religious military, kidnapping, vandalism, arson, etc have become very regular feature in our society.

Cult activities are still thriving in most Nigerian institutions of higher learning. Just in March, last year (2013), a arising hip-hop artist, Olariyan Mamilola was shot dead by suspect cult members, in an inter clash, (between a rival cult and the Buccaneers, to which he was believed to have belonged), in the Lagos State University, (Ige, 2013). At about the same time, a fourth year student of Abia State University, Uturu, was reported to have died during a cult initiation.

Social learning theory and violence behavior

Children learn by observing, imitating and adapting behaviors in his theory Bandura (1997) found that people learn through observation and that internal mental states are essential part of this process. A social model is required, and this allows one to cognitively process behavior, encode what is observed, and store it in the memory for later imitation. The social model can be a parent, sibling, friend, teacher, or the mass media. To learn through observation someone must notice something someone else is doing, remember to record it in their mind, and finally replicate the behavior. The choice to continue exhibiting the behavior depends on the outcome (positive or negative, reward etc). The only things that limit this type of learning are the intelligence level and the level of ability to copy the

THE EFFECT OF AGGRESSION AND VIOLENCE ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE

THE EFFECT OF AGGRESSION AND VIOLENCE ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE ( A CASE STUDY OF OGBE SECONDARY SCHOOL, EFFURUN, WARRI DELTA STATE STATE)

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                                           ABSTRACT

 This paper presents the findings on bullying behaviour among secondary school students in Ogbe Secondary School. The purpose of this study was to explore the perception of teachers and students about bullying behaviour among secondary school in Ogbe. More specifically, the study explore the element of bullying, characteristics of bullying, factors and consequences of bullying behaviour among secondary school students as perceived by both teachers and students. Both qualitative and quantitative approach was used through out the study. In which a cross sectional survey design was adopted. The study gathered 160 informant, where 100 teachers who were obtained through random sampling participated in the study. Purposive sampling was used to identify discipline teachers and students who participated in the interview. It was found that physical aggression was perceived to be the dominant element of aggression. Boys were highly preferred to be bullies than girls.  Also, watching violent films was the dominant factor for aggression and poor academic performance was mostly preferred as the impact of bullying.

 

The study recommends a collective collaboration among all educational stake holders to combat the problem.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page ……………………………………………………………….….i

Certification…………………………………………………………………ii

Dedication …………………..……………………………………………….iii

Acknowledgment…………………………………………………………..iv

Abstract……………………………………………………………………v

Table of content………………….…………………………………………vi

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study……………………………………………………1
  • Statement of the problem…………………………………………………..5
  • Objective of the study……………………………………………….7
  • Research question……………………………………………..….…8
  • Research Hypothesis……………………………..…………….……8
  • Significance of the study……………………………………..……….9
  • Scope of the study …………..………………………………..………9
  • Operational definition of terms…………………………….………..10

 

CHAPTER TWO:

2.1     Literature Review…………………………………….………….…11

2.2     Types of Aggression………………………………………….…….16

2.3     Prevalence of Aggression in school………….………………….…21

2.4     Characteristics of Aggression and violence …………………….…24

2.5     Psychological effects of Aggression ………………………………..28

2.6     Intervention strategies………..………………………………….…31

2.7     Causes of school aggression……………………………………….35

2.8     Theoretical frame work ……………………………………………37

 

CHAPTER THREE:

RESEARCH METHOD

3.1     Research Method ……………………………………………………39

3.2     Research design……………………………………….…………….39

3.3     The study population………………………………………………..39

3.4     Sample size and sampling technique………………………………40

3.5     Data collection instrument…………………………………………41

3.6     Method of data analysis…………………………………….………41

 

 

 

CHAPTER FOUR:

Data Presentation and Analysis.

 

4.1     Socio demographic characteristics of respondent…………..….……43

4.1.1  Sex distribution of respondents……..……….…………….………43

4.1.2  Age distribution of respondents………..………………………….43

4.1.3  Distribution of respondents by religion………………………..…44

4.1.4  Staff level of respondent………………………………..………….45

4.1.5  Respondents level of education……..………………………………45

4.1.6  Analysis of sex differences in bullying

behavior of the students……………………………………………..48

4.1.7 Analysis of level of involvement of the students

in bullying behavior …………………………………………….….50

4.1.8  Analysis of the bullying behavior of the students

in junior and senior secondary school classes …………..………..52

4.2     List of research findings …………………………….,…….………..53

4.3     Discussion of findings ………………………………………………54

 

CHAPTER FIVE:

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

 

5.1     Summary …………………………..…………………..……………56

5.2     Conclusion……………………………………………………….…57

5.3     Recommendations…………………………………………………..57

 

REFERENCE

APPENDIX

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION:

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY:

          Aggression among students of secondary school occur world wide, among all problems of secondary school, none is as debilitating as aggression because of its effect on the bully and the victim as well. Aggression is a pattern of  behaviour in which one individual is chosen at the target of repeated aggression of one or others; the target person (the victim) generally has less power than those who engage in aggression (bullies). Baron and Bryne, (2005). Social psychologist in their definition says that aggression is a psychological violence; a sustain aggression that strips a person of control and dignity Paszkiewicz (2010). Based o n this definition, the researcher will accentuate that aggression is using power to hurt or humiliate other person. Aggression is rampart in our secondary school and it has a lot of effects on the students. It’s difficult to discover a secondary school today was aggression does not exist.

 

According to the journal of the American Association; out of more 15,000 public school student surveyed in the United States, nearly 30% reported occasional to frequent involvement in aggression. Whether as a bully, or target or both. In the United Kingdom, the British School Health Education unit found that a quarter of 10 – 11 years old survey were bullied either everyday of “often”, another report says that 15% of Australian children admit to have being bullied weekly, the case with Nigerian school may not be different if appropriate statistic is taken. These figures can be higher in percentage depending on how one defines the problem and view its prevalence. If we will accept nicknaming children and excluding them from games as bullying, then these figures we see would get up to 100%.

 

The characteristics of aggression have two basic parts. Firstly, researcher on aggression indicate that relatively few children are purely victims or pure bullies, rather a long number play both role, they bully some students, and are bullied in return by others (Vermande, Oart, Goudenard Rispens 2000). Secondly, aggression seems to be common all around the globe. Baron and Bryne (2005) asserted that, on this topic bullying has been truly international in scope and has been examined the occurrence of bullying in many cultures. Aggression is played out with alarming frequency now a days and bullies and their victims may be of either gender. Consequently, concerns of parents, policy makers, educators and the public have escalated in awareness that bullying has serious damaging effect for bullying victims, foods and communities.

Countries around the world with the rise in the reported incidents of violence and the links that have been established between violence and aggression. In the western world, much attention has been devoted in stemming the act of aggression but in Nigeria, this act goes on in many schools unnoticed. (Bonke, 2009). Aggression has been defined variously by researchers.

 

According to Lunmdtti cited in Bonke 2009. Aggression occurs when a person will fully and repeatedly exercise power over another with hostile or malicious intent. A wide range of physical or verbal behaviour of an aggressive or anti-social nature are encompassed by the term bullying. This involves insulting, teasing, a busing verbally and physically, threatening, humiliating, harassing and mobbing. Pepler and Craig (2000), cited in Bonke (2009) observed that bullying is the most common form of violence, it is what drives the culture of violence, permitting the most power to dominate the less powerful. Nickel (2005) and Bonke (2009) also defined bullying as the “international”, unprovoked abuse of power by one or more children to inflict pain or cause distress to another child unrepeated or occasion, aggression is a growing and significant problem in many schools around the world. It is the experience among children of being a target of aggressive behaviour of other children who are not siblings and not necessarily age mates. Generally students who get bullied can be regarded as being passive or being submissive victims. They are usually quiet, careful, sensitive, and they start crying easily. They are unsure of themselves and have poor self confidence of negative self-image (Oghiagbephan, 2010). A broad definition of aggression as opined by (Olweus, 1993; Coloroso, 2002 and Bonke, 2009) is when a student is repeatedly exposed to negative action on the part of one or more other students. This physical action can take the forms of physical contact, verbal abuse or making faces and rude gestures, spreading rumours and excluding the victim from a group are also common forms of bullying. This negative actions are not necessarily provoked by the victims for such actions to be regarded as bullying, an imbalance in real or perceiving power most exist between the victims and the persons who victimize him or her.

 

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM:

          Educational stake holders including the parents, teachers and policy makers in Nigeria have different attitude towards bullying. For instance, in the study conducted across Nigeria by global initiative in 2008, revealed a high prevalence rate of corporal punishment and strong support of parents in both urban and rural schools. Eighty-five percent (85%) of parents accepted corporal punishment as the form of bullying and all pupils dislike corporal punishment. Punishment included contorted body position, frog jumps, and push up, kneeling down, standing in bright sun, lying on sand and lifting stones, with most pupils being subjected to more than two types of corporal punishment (Rawg, 2008).

EFFECT OF GENDER AND LOCALITY ON ALTRUISTIC BEHAVIOR AMONG ADULTS.

 EFFECT OF GENDER AND LOCALITY ON ALTRUISTIC BEHAVIOR AMONG ADULTS.

5000 naira or $20 for complete material . Order Now

CHAPTER ONE:  INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study   –       –       –       –       –       –       1

Purpose of the Study –       –       –       –       –       –       –       5

Statement of the Problem  –       –       –       –       –       –       6

Operational Definition of Terms –       –       –       –       –       7

 

CHAPTER TWO:  LITERATURE REVIEW

Theoretical Review    –       –       –       –       –       –       –       8

Empirical Review       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       14

Summary of the Review     –       –       –       –       –       –       26

Hypotheses       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       27

CHAPTER THREE:   METHODOLOGY

Participants      –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       28

Instrument       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       29

Procedure –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       31

Design and Statistics –       –       –       –       –       –       31

 

CHAPTER FOUR

Results     –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       32

 

CHAPTER FIVE

Discussion        –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       35

Implications of the Findings       –       –       –       –       40

Limitations of the Study-   –       –       –       –       –       –       41

Suggestions of Further Research        –       –       –       –       42

Summary and Conclusion –           –           –           –           —         –           42

Recommendations     –       –       –       –       –       –       –       43

References        –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       44

Appendix I

Questionnaire on Altruistic Behavior     –       —      –

 

Appendix II

Calculation of spilt Half Reliability Coefficient

using pearson product moment correlation

coefficient based on data obtained from pilot study     –

 

Appendix III

Raw scores and squared scores of gender and

locality on Altruistic behavior among Adults       –       –

 

Appendix IV

Calculation on Two-Way ANOVA     –       –       –       –

 

LIST OF TABLES

Table I:    Summary table of mean on the effect of

gender and locality on altruistic behavior

among adults.

 

Table II:   Summary table of two way-ANOVA on the

effect of gender and locality on altruistic

behavior among adults.

 

ABSTRACT

This study investigated gender and locality on altruistic behavior among adults. A total of 100 participants comprising 50 males (25 rural and 25 urban), 50 females (25 rural and 25 urban) were used. The  participants who were within the age range of 25-55 years has a mean age of 41 years. A 15 tem questionnaire designed to measure-altruistic behavior was used. A 2 x 2 factorial design was adopted based on 2 levels of gender as factor; male/female, and 2 level of locality as a factor; Rural/Urban areas. Hence two-way ANOVA – F Test was applied as a statistical test to analyze the data. However, the findings showed no significant effect of gender on altruistic behavior [F (1,96) = 1.13, P>.05]. There was a significant effect of locality [F (1,96) = 67.95 <.01]. Those in the rural area were found to have higher level of altruism than those in the Urban areas. There was no interaction effect of gender and locality on altruistic behavior [F (1,96) = 34.92 >.05]. The findings were discussed in relation to the literature reviewed and recommendations were also made.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

We have considered whether helping could be a genetically transmitted product of evolution. But perhaps helping ruin in families rather than through the whole human race.  Some individuals have a stronger genetically based prosperity to keep than do others. One of the classic puzzle about social behavior is why human perform action that keep society.

In 1944, a young Swedish diplomat named Raoul Wallenberg was sent into Baudapest, Hungary, with instructions from the Nazis. Wallenberg was an imaginative young man whose heroes were Charlie Chaplin and Mark brothers. Wellenberg decided to collect assortment of official-cooking Hungarcain documents, such as driver’s license and tax receipts, and try to pass them off to the German as “Swedish” protective “passports”. In a typical act of creative heroism, he dimmed? On top of a moving train carrying hundreds of Jews to the death camps. He then ran along the roof, dropping the passport through the air vent.

Finally, he ordered the train to stop and release all the “Swedish citizens”. Raoul eventually saved more than 100,000 women, men and children through creative but exceptionally risked actions as (Folge man 1944 Wellenberg, 1990). Another example of altruism is that of Suzu Valadez, the woman who bring food and supplies to people living near the mellican garbage dump.         Altruism is a voluntary help fullness that is motivated by concern about the responsibility of personal reward (Midlarsky Kahana 1944).

Altruism as a prosocial behavior is voluntary action that benefits another person. Prosocial behavior can include; comforting, helping, rescuing sharing, and co-operating, (Elsenberg 1992). In general, prosocial children have parents who are nuturant and supportive, often providing a model of prosocial behavior Zahn and Smith (1992). For instance individual who were active in the civil right movement during the 1950’s and 1960’s were likely to have parents who had vigorously worked for social cases in previous decades (Elsenberg 1992). Batson (1995) aggress that altruism is often selfishly motivated. However, people are sometimes purely altruistic and not the least but selfish. Batson (1995) proposes that we often help other people because we experience empathy, which means that we feel the same pain, suffering, or other emotion that someone else feels for example, you may feel empathy for a friend who did not get the job he hoped for.

We mentioned that altruism is often selfish motivated, specifically, we may help other people for two major selfish reasons:

  1. We want to avoid the personal pain of seeing someone suffer or else the guilt of not helping someone in distress.
  2. We want to share vicariously the joy that someone feels when his or her life improves.

Notice, then that these reasons represent two different kinds selfishness, the first avoids personal pain and the second seeks out personal pleasure. Batson primary contribution is the research in altruism is that he has demonstrated how people can be altruistic when their empathy is roused, even when neither the “avoiding personal pain” nor the “seeking vicarious joy hypothesis can operate.”

Altruistic people were likely to come from families who encourage their children to think how their own action would have consequences for other people. This focus seems likely to encourage compassion. The parents themselves also served as model of altruistic behaviors. They encourage their children to ignore social class, race, and religion in choosing their friends. As a result, these same children grew into adult who could appreciate the similarities that bind all humans to one another. They are less likely to emphasize the kind of boundaries that separate “as” from “them”

Finally, it is obvious that we can be altruistic for a variety of reasons, we can be altruistic because we want to avoid personal pain and guilty, we are sometimes be altruistic because we want to experience vicarious joy. However, we can also be altruistic when neither of these more selfish rationales is relevant. Instead we help other people because we feel a bond with them. Our empathy is aroused, we want to reduce their distress and improve their lives.

In view of the above, the researcher want to investigate whether such factors like gender and locality will affect altruistic behavior among adults.

 

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The aims of this study are as follows!

To determine whether gender will significantly influence altruistic behavior among Adults.