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CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study – – – – – – 1
Purpose of the Study – – – – – – – 5
Statement of the Problem – – – – – – 6
Operational Definition of Terms – – – – – 7
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
Theoretical Review – – – – – – – 8
Empirical Review – – – – – – – 14
Summary of the Review – – – – – – 26
Hypotheses – – – – – – – – 27
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
Participants – – – – – – – – 28
Instrument – – – – – – – – 29
Procedure – – – – – – – – – 31
Design and Statistics – – – – – – 31
Results – – – – – – – – – 32
Discussion – – – – – – – – 35
Implications of the Findings – – – – 40
Limitations of the Study- – – – – – – 41
Suggestions of Further Research – – – – 42
Summary and Conclusion – – – – — – 42
Recommendations – – – – – – – 43
References – – – – – – – – 44
Questionnaire on Altruistic Behavior – — –
Calculation of spilt Half Reliability Coefficient
using pearson product moment correlation
coefficient based on data obtained from pilot study –
Raw scores and squared scores of gender and
locality on Altruistic behavior among Adults – –
Calculation on Two-Way ANOVA – – – –
LIST OF TABLES
Table I: Summary table of mean on the effect of
gender and locality on altruistic behavior
Table II: Summary table of two way-ANOVA on the
effect of gender and locality on altruistic
behavior among adults.
This study investigated gender and locality on altruistic behavior among adults. A total of 100 participants comprising 50 males (25 rural and 25 urban), 50 females (25 rural and 25 urban) were used. The participants who were within the age range of 25-55 years has a mean age of 41 years. A 15 tem questionnaire designed to measure-altruistic behavior was used. A 2 x 2 factorial design was adopted based on 2 levels of gender as factor; male/female, and 2 level of locality as a factor; Rural/Urban areas. Hence two-way ANOVA – F Test was applied as a statistical test to analyze the data. However, the findings showed no significant effect of gender on altruistic behavior [F (1,96) = 1.13, P>.05]. There was a significant effect of locality [F (1,96) = 67.95 <.01]. Those in the rural area were found to have higher level of altruism than those in the Urban areas. There was no interaction effect of gender and locality on altruistic behavior [F (1,96) = 34.92 >.05]. The findings were discussed in relation to the literature reviewed and recommendations were also made.
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
We have considered whether helping could be a genetically transmitted product of evolution. But perhaps helping ruin in families rather than through the whole human race. Some individuals have a stronger genetically based prosperity to keep than do others. One of the classic puzzle about social behavior is why human perform action that keep society.
In 1944, a young Swedish diplomat named Raoul Wallenberg was sent into Baudapest, Hungary, with instructions from the Nazis. Wallenberg was an imaginative young man whose heroes were Charlie Chaplin and Mark brothers. Wellenberg decided to collect assortment of official-cooking Hungarcain documents, such as driver’s license and tax receipts, and try to pass them off to the German as “Swedish” protective “passports”. In a typical act of creative heroism, he dimmed? On top of a moving train carrying hundreds of Jews to the death camps. He then ran along the roof, dropping the passport through the air vent.
Finally, he ordered the train to stop and release all the “Swedish citizens”. Raoul eventually saved more than 100,000 women, men and children through creative but exceptionally risked actions as (Folge man 1944 Wellenberg, 1990). Another example of altruism is that of Suzu Valadez, the woman who bring food and supplies to people living near the mellican garbage dump. Altruism is a voluntary help fullness that is motivated by concern about the responsibility of personal reward (Midlarsky Kahana 1944).
Altruism as a prosocial behavior is voluntary action that benefits another person. Prosocial behavior can include; comforting, helping, rescuing sharing, and co-operating, (Elsenberg 1992). In general, prosocial children have parents who are nuturant and supportive, often providing a model of prosocial behavior Zahn and Smith (1992). For instance individual who were active in the civil right movement during the 1950’s and 1960’s were likely to have parents who had vigorously worked for social cases in previous decades (Elsenberg 1992). Batson (1995) aggress that altruism is often selfishly motivated. However, people are sometimes purely altruistic and not the least but selfish. Batson (1995) proposes that we often help other people because we experience empathy, which means that we feel the same pain, suffering, or other emotion that someone else feels for example, you may feel empathy for a friend who did not get the job he hoped for.
We mentioned that altruism is often selfish motivated, specifically, we may help other people for two major selfish reasons:
- We want to avoid the personal pain of seeing someone suffer or else the guilt of not helping someone in distress.
- We want to share vicariously the joy that someone feels when his or her life improves.
Notice, then that these reasons represent two different kinds selfishness, the first avoids personal pain and the second seeks out personal pleasure. Batson primary contribution is the research in altruism is that he has demonstrated how people can be altruistic when their empathy is roused, even when neither the “avoiding personal pain” nor the “seeking vicarious joy hypothesis can operate.”
Altruistic people were likely to come from families who encourage their children to think how their own action would have consequences for other people. This focus seems likely to encourage compassion. The parents themselves also served as model of altruistic behaviors. They encourage their children to ignore social class, race, and religion in choosing their friends. As a result, these same children grew into adult who could appreciate the similarities that bind all humans to one another. They are less likely to emphasize the kind of boundaries that separate “as” from “them”
Finally, it is obvious that we can be altruistic for a variety of reasons, we can be altruistic because we want to avoid personal pain and guilty, we are sometimes be altruistic because we want to experience vicarious joy. However, we can also be altruistic when neither of these more selfish rationales is relevant. Instead we help other people because we feel a bond with them. Our empathy is aroused, we want to reduce their distress and improve their lives.
In view of the above, the researcher want to investigate whether such factors like gender and locality will affect altruistic behavior among adults.
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The aims of this study are as follows!
To determine whether gender will significantly influence altruistic behavior among Adults.
To determine whether locality will significantly influence altruistic behavior among Adults.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Often times, it perturbs me why we should not be our brothers keeper. However, I noticed that some individuals find it difficult to render help to others while very few see it as a way of life. Whenever I travel to the village, I noticed high degree of love from rural dwellers which I find difficult to see in the Urban areas. This gives me worry in addition to this, there is always an argument that males renders prosocial help more than female. In other to give answers to this opinion and also to know how much we help ourselves, the present study was born. It came to the pick when I asked why people find it difficult to help strangers, accident victims etc.
Therefore, the following problems would be addressed in this study.
Will gender significantly influence altruistic behavior among Adults?
Will locality significantly influence altruistic behavior among Adults.
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Altruistic behavior – An act of help in which the person doesn’t look for reward or the consequence. In this study participants who scores above 30 on altruistic behavior scale exhibits high altruistic behavior while score below 30 is a low altruistic behavior.
Gender: Being male or female.
Locality: Rural and Urban Areas.