Category Archives: SCIENCE LAB TECH

PRODUCTION OF MOSQUITO REPELLENT USING ORANGE PEELS

PRODUCTION OF  MOSQUITO  REPELLENT USING ORANGE PEELS

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER  ONE

  • Introduction ………………………………………………..…..……1

1.1     Background of the study…………………………………..…………1

1.2     Statement of the problem…………………………………..…..……4

1.3     Objective of the study…………………………………..……………5

1.4     Significance of the study…………………………………..…………5

1.5     Scope of the study………………………………………….…..……6

1.6     Research question ………………………………………….…..……7

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     Literature Review…………………………………………..…..……8

2.1     Sources of vitamin c ……………………………………..…..……12

2.2     Functions of Ascorbic Acid ………………………..…………….…15

2.3     Factors affecting ascorbic acid utilization ………………..………..21

2.4     Ascorbic acid determination ………………………….….…..……25

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     Materials and method……………………………………..….…..…28

3.1     Apparatus…….…………………………………….……..….…..…28

3.2     Preparation of  Reagents. ………………………………..….…….…29

3.5     Procedure ……………………………….……..…..…..….…………29

Reference ……………………………….……..…..…..….…………31

 

 

 CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Nearly, all insecticides have the potential to significantly affect ecosystem, many are toxic to human and others are concentrated in food chains. It is necessary to balance agricultural needs with environmental and health issues when using insecticides. It is crucially important that all the rural derive in Nigeria are  educated on the need to eradicate insects especially mosquitoes that might breed  in their environment and transmit malaria to people living within the enclave.

If insects becomes a problem despite the measures that must have been taken, Integrated Pest Management (IPM) seeks to control them using the safest possible methods targeting the approach to the particular pest. Years now, effort are geared towards controlling malaria infestation both in urban and rural areas a lot of measures are being take to reduce the number of death as a result of malaria.

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

1

Recent studies showed that the smoke generated form burning mosquitoes coil is of certain health concerns. A person being exposed to the smoke coming from the coil may suffer severe headache, nausea and vomiting, the condition will be severe among asthmatic patients. The emission from one burning coil can be as high as that released from 51 burning cigarettes. This is because of the chemicals found in mosquito coils out of natural ingredients may remove these problems.

1.3     OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The purpose of this work is to produce mosquitoes repellent using orange peels (cestrum) wastes perse, which will save the cost of production and purchase, thereby increasing it’s availability especially in the rural areas.

If the work is successful, production of mosquitoes repellents using orange peels will provide source of employment to our teaming youths.

Also make mosquito repellent within the reach of every body.

Thereby reducing the number of death due to malaria caused by mosquito bite.

1.4     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The importance of my project work is the producing of a mosquito coil that is not harmful to our health and killing mosquito that are vector carriers of malaria sickness and is environmental friendly.

2

 

 

1.5     SCOPE OF THE STUDY

Orange peels (cestrum) will be collected and used for the production of mosquito coil. The produced coil will be tested for effectiveness performance and cost analysis should also be carried out to know if mass production will be encouraged.

 

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EXAMINE THE PRESENCE AND CONCENTRATION OF SOME PHYTOCHEMICALS IN AVOCADO PEAR

EXAMINE THE PRESENCE AND CONCENTRATION OF SOME PHYTOCHEMICALS IN AVOCADO PEAR (PERSEA AMERICANA MILL) SEED

 

 

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ABSTRACT

Phytochemical screening to determine the presence of tannins, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids,sterols and cardiac glycosides in PerseaAmericana will be carried out. The sample will be prepared by cutting the seed into small pieces, drying and grinding with Thomas Willey milling machine. The ground sample will be stored in an airtight container for analysis. The presence of alkaloid will be determined by Wagner’s test, flavonoid and tannin by ferric chloride test, saponin by emulsion test and cardiac glycoside by glacial acetic acid test. The quantitative determination of alkaloid was carried out by the method of Harborne,(1993)and Obadoni and Ochuko,(2001). Flavonoid will be determined by the method of Boham and Kocipai,(1994). Tannin will be determined by the method of Pearson, while cordial glycoside will be determined by wang and filled method.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Phytochemicals are a large group of plant derived compound hypothesized to be responsible for much of the disease protection conferred from diets high in fruits, vegetables, beans, cereals and plant-based beverages such as tea and wine (Hollman, 2005). They are biologically naturally occurring chemical compounds found in plants . They protect plants from disease and damage and contribute to the plants colour, aroma and flavor. They also protect plants from environmental hazards such as pollution, stress, drought, uv exposure and pathogenic attack. These Phytochemicals are known as secondary metabolities .

Recently it is clearly known that phytochemicals have roles in the protection of human health when their dietary intake is significant.

A wide range of dietary Phytochemicals are found in fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grains, nuts, seeds, fungi, herbs and spices (Mathai, 2000). it is well known that plants produce these chemicals to protect                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            themselves, but recent research demonstrate that many phytochemicals can also protect humans against diseases (Narasinga, 2003). The most important of these bioactive constituents of plants are alkaloids, tannins, steroids, terpenoids and phenolic compounds. In recent years secondary plant metabolites previously with unknown pharmacological activities have been extensively investigated as a source of medicinal agents. Thus it is anticipated that phyto-antimicrobial efficacy will be used for the treatment of bacterial infection (Balandrin et al., 2005).

Perseaamericana is one of the 150 varieties of avocado pear. The seeds of Perseaamericana has a diverse application in ethnomedicine, ranging from treatment for diarrhea, dysentery, toothache, intestinal parasites to the area of skin treatment and beautification (Pamplona and Roger, 1999). P. americana leaves have been reported to posses anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities (Adeyemi et al., 2002). The seeds are rich in tannins and carotenoids and tocopherols from the fruit were shown to inhibit the in-vitro growth of prostate cancer cell lines (lu et al, 2005) and “persin” from avocado leaves was shown to have antifungal properties and to be toxic to silkworms (oelrichs et al., 1995). The effect of P.americana extract was evaluated on in-vitro rat lymphocyte proliferation (Gomezflores et al., 2008). Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of seeds of avocado pear was found to be greater than 70% (Soong and Barlow 2004).

Objective of the study

  • To screenPerseaamericana seeds for the presence of some phytochemicals such as flavonoids, alkaloids, sterols, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides etc.
  • To carry out quantitative determination of some of these phytochemicals

Scope of the study

The study will cover the general description ofPerseaamericana, phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables and nutritional physiology of phytochemicals. The study will also cover the nutritional contents of P.americana fruit and its medicinal uses. Effects ofP.americana on the body and the phytochemicalsto be determined will be discussed. Qualitative and quantitative determination of some phytochemicals will also be carried out.

Significance of the study

The significance of this study is thatP.americana plays a vital role in contributing to a healthy and balanced diet, reduced mental depression prevents coronary heart diseases, diabetes and prostate cancer in the body tissue and heal the scalp.

P.americana if consumed by individual can fight beriberi, cause a reduction in body weight and are used as antihypertensive drug for individuals with hypertension.

 

 

 

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DETERMINATION OF THE PRESENCE AND CONCENTRATION OF SOME PHYTOCHEMICALS IN AVOCADO PEAR

DETERMINATION OF THE PRESENCE AND CONCENTRATION OF SOME PHYTOCHEMICALS IN AVOCADO PEAR

(PERSEA AMERICANA MILL) SEED

 

 

COMPLETE PROJECT  MATERIAL COST 3000 NAIRA

 

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Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
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Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

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ABSTRACT

Phytochemical screening to determine the presence and concentration of tannins, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, sterols and cardiac glycosides in Persea americana was carried out. The sample was prepared by cutting the seed into small pieces, drying and grinding with Thomas Willey milling machine. The ground sample was stored in an airtight container for analysis. The presence of alkaloid was determined by Wagner’s test, flavonoid by ferric chloride test, tannin by acid test, saponin by emulsion test and cardiac glycoside by glacial acetic acid test. Quantitative determination of some of the phytochemicals was also carried out using standard methods. Result for qualitative analysis shows that alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins and cardiac  glycosides were present in P.american and sterols were absent . The quantitative result  shows that alkaloid has the highest percentage of concentration (21.54%), followed by saponin (8.10%),  flavonoid (6.97%), cardiac glycoside (6.94%)  and tannin has the least percentage concentration (1.45%) .

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

CHAPTER  ONE

Introduction ………………………………………………………..…..……1

Background of the study…………………………………..……………………1

Objective of the …………………………………..…………………….……4

Scope of the study…………………………………..………………………..4

Significance of the study …………………………………..…………………5

CHAPTER TWO

Literature Review…………………………………………..…..……………6

General description of Persea americana…………………..…..……………6

Phytochemicals in fruit and vegetables……………………..…..……………8

Nutritional physiology of phytochemicals ……………………..…..…..….10

Medicinal uses of P.americana fruit……………………..……………….11

Constituents of P.americana fruit……………………..………………….13

Effect of P.americana on the body……………………..…………….….14

Wight……………………..………………………………………………….14

Hypertension / high blood pressure ……………………..………………….14

Wound healing activity ……………………..…………………………..….15

Natural products from plants that promote health………………….……….16

Alkaloid………………………………………………………………….….16

Sterols……………………..……………………………………………..….16

Flavonoids……………………..……………………………………………..….17

Tannins……………………..………………………………………………….….19

Saponins……………………..…………………………………………..….19

Cardiac glycoside……………………..……………………………………….20

CHAPTER THREE

Materials and method……………………..……………………………….….21

Materials ……………………..………………………………………………..….21

Preparation of sample……………………..………………………………….21

Qualitative analysis of phytochemicals ……………………….……………22

Test for alkaloids ……………………..……………………………………….22

Test for flavonoids……………………..………………………………….….23

Test for tannins ……………………..………………………………………….24

Test for saponins……………………..…………………………………….….25

 

 

 

vii

Test for cardiac glycosides……………………..…………………………..….25

Test for steroids……………………..………………………………………….….26

Qualitative determination of the

Chemical constituent in P.americana………………………………………….….26

Allialoids determination……………………..………………………………….26

Flavonoids determination……………………..…………………………….….27

Saponin determination……………………..…………………………..……….28

Tannin determination by titration……………………..…………………….29

Cardiac glycosides determination ……………………..……………….….30

 

CHAPTER FOUR

Result…….……………………..……………………………………….….32

CHAPTER FIVE

Discussion……………………..……………….…………………………..35

Conclusion……………………..……………….…………………………..37

Recommendation……………………..……………….……………………37

References……………………..……………….…………………………..39

Appendix……………………..……………….……………………………43

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the study

Phytochemicals are a large group of plant derived compound hypothesized to be responsible for much of the disease protection conferred from diets high in fruits, vegetables, beans, cereals and plant-based beverages such as tea and wine (Hollman, 2005). They are biologically naturally occurring chemical compounds found in plants . They protect plants from disease and damage and contribute to the plants colour, aroma and flavor. They also protect plants from environmental hazards such as pollution, stress, drought, uv exposure and pathogenic attack. These Phytochemicals are known as secondary metabolities .

Recently it is clearly known that phytochemicals have roles in the protection of human health when their dietary intake is significant.

A wide range of dietary Phytochemicals are found in fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grains, nuts, seeds, fungi, herbs and spices (Mathai, 2000). It is well known that plants produce these chemicals to protect themselves, but recent research demonstrate that many phytochemicals can also protect humans against diseases (Narasinga, 2003). The most important of these bioactive constituents of plants are alkaloids, tannins, steroids, terpenoids and phenolic compounds. In recent years secondary plant metabolites previously with unknown pharmacological activities have been extensively investigated as a source of medicinal agents. Thus it is anticipated that phyto-antimicrobial efficacy will be used for the treatment of bacterial infection (Balandrin et al., 2005).

Perseaamericana is one of the 150 varieties of avocado pear. The seeds of Perseaamericana has a diverse application in ethnomedicine, ranging from treatment for diarrhea, dysentery, toothache, intestinal parasites to the area of skin treatment and beautification (Pamplona and Roger, 1999). P. americana leaves have been reported to posses anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities (Adeyemi et al., 2002). The seeds are rich in tannins and carotenoids and tocopherols from the fruit were shown to inhibit the in-vitro growth of prostate cancer cell lines (lu et al, 2005) and “persin” from avocado leaves was shown to have antifungal properties and to be toxic to silkworms (oelrichs et al., 1995). The effect of P.americana extract was evaluated on in-vitro rat lymphocyte proliferation (Gomezflores et al., 2008). Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of seeds of avocado pear was found to be greater than 70% (Soong and Barlow 2004).

 

Objective of the study

  • To screenPerseaamericana seeds for the presence of some phytochemicals such as flavonoids, alkaloids, sterols, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides etc.
  • To carry out quantitative determination of some of these phytochemicals

Scope of the study

The study will cover the general description ofPerseaamericana, phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables and nutritional physiology of phytochemicals. The study will also cover the nutritional contents of P.americana fruit and its medicinal uses. Effects ofP.americana on the body and the phytochemicalsto be determined will be discussed. Qualitative and quantitative determination of some phytochemicals will also be carried out.

Significance of the study

The significance of this study is thatP.americana plays a vital role in contributing to a healthy and balanced diet, reduced mental depression prevents coronary heart diseases, diabetes and prostate cancer in the body tissue and heal the scalp.

P.americana if consumed by individual can fight beriberi, cause a reduction in body weight and are used as antihypertensive drug for individuals with hypertension.

 

 

 

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Continue reading DETERMINATION OF THE PRESENCE AND CONCENTRATION OF SOME PHYTOCHEMICALS IN AVOCADO PEAR

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF AN ELECTRONIC DIGITAL DISPLAY SYSTEM

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF AN ELECTRONIC DIGITAL DISPLAY SYSTEM

 (MOVING MESSAGE DISPLAY)

 

 

COMPLETE PROJECT  MATERIAL COST 3000 NAIRA

 

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MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
 GTBANK
Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

We also accept :   ATM transfer , online money  transfer 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

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Call Help Desk Line :  08074466939,08063386834.

After Payment Send Your Payment Details To

08074466939 Or 08063386834,   The Project Title  You  Selected On Our Website , Amount Paid, Depositor Name, Your Email Address, Payment Date. You Will Receive Your Material In Less Than 1 Hour Once We Confirm Your Payment.

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Abstract

 

The aim of this project work is to design and construct an electronic digital display system, based on light-emitting diodes connected in an array that forms the information to be displayed i.e. “GREAT NIGERIAN STUDENTS”. This project is useful for creating attention – getting messages, presentations, advertisements and location identifiers. The system consists of power supply unit, oscillator unit, counter unit, driver unit and output unit. The power supply unit uses alternating current (AC) from the mains which will be stepped down to 12V using a step-down transformer, rectified with bridge rectifier, filtered with the actual capacitor and regulated to 9 volt using an IC regulator. The oscillator unit contains a 555 timer IC set as astable multivibrator used to produce clock pulses for the counter unit which contains 4017 decade counter IC. The 4017 counter enables the information to be displayed sequentially as desired. The driver unit uses transistor to amplify the signal strength of the counter’s output. The output unit enables the information to be displayed using light emitting diodes (LEDs).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table of Contents

Title page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Table of contents

List of plate

List of table

List of figures

Abstract

 

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the problem
  • Statement of the problem
  • Objectives of the study
  • Significance of the study
  • Scope of the study
  • Research questions

 

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

  • Component description

 

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS

  • Power supply unit
  • Oscillator unit
  • Counter unit
  • Driver unit
  • Output unit
  • Description of Electronic Digital Display System

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     Results

 

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

  • Discussion
  • Conclusion
  • Recommendations

Cost of Construction

REFERENCES

 

List of figures

 

Fig. 2.1:      Symbol of a transformer

Fig. 2.2:      Circuit symbol of bridge rectifier

Fig. 2.3:      Symbol of a polarized and non-polarised capacitors

Fig. 2.4:      Symbol of a diode

Fig. 2.5:      Symbol of a LED

Fig. 2.6:      Circuit diagram of rectifier diode and LED connected in

parallel.

Fig. 2.7:      Pinout connection of 7809IC

Fig. 2.8:      Symbols of fixed and variable resistors

Fig. 2.9:      Symbols of transistor

Fig.2.10:     Pinout diagram of 555 timer

Fig.2.11:     Pin connection of 4017 decade counter

Fig.2.12:     Diagram of a veroboard

Fig. 3.1:      Block diagram of electronic digital display system

Fig. 3.2:      Circuit diagram of full wave rectification

Fig.3.3:       Circuit diagram of a 9 volt regulated power supply

Fig.3.4:       Circuit diagram of astable multivibrator

Fig.3.5:       Complete circuit diagram of electronic digital display

System.

 

Chapter one

 

INTRODUCTION

 

1.1     Background of the study

 

Electronic digital display system as used in this reports refers to a sign that uses electronic hardware and software to display its copy, messages or images. Also, a sign utilizing a fixed light source to provide a message  in text, images pictures, and / or symbols that may appear to move or may appear as on/off messages. This is contrast to traditional non-electronic signs where the copy displayed is physically applied to the sign surface by printing, painting or otherwise attaching it onto the sign. The materials or substrate to which the copy is applied is typically paper, wood, plastic or the wall of a building.

In this modern time, solid materials have helped man to show that he really exists by doing wonders in the world of electronics. One major development, made possible by the enormous advances in solid state technology, is the “digital revolution”. Circuits are designed to implement the basic digital logic functions fundamental to all digital systems. Digital electronics therefore comprises the design, manufacture and use of circuits for processing information in digital form (Simpson, 1978).

An information display is a way of providing information and it is also used as an object for promotion. It can be seen in a form of cardboard or tarpaulin at stores / shops, sign posts, placards, notice boards and electronic display boards. But the advent of new technologies has made the information in the form of an electronic display in the world of advertisements and promotions (Gupta, Shukla and Nagwekar, 2013). The ability to display a short message can be useful application to be available for any business. Electronic digital display system is perfect for this application. It can be used for both indoor and outdoor which makes it universal fit for any business or event. Electronic digital display system is very efficient and cost effective way to spread messages to thousands of people, without any personal contact or door to door sales. Light-Emitting Diode (LED) is a solid state light source with several attractive properties for display application. LED is a diode that gives off visible light when forward biased (Mehta and Mehta, 2014). It is chosen as the main component for displaying messages because, today LED is the most energy efficiency example and other useful systems.

The birth of signs and display can be said to be as old as the existence of man on the planet earth. From the beginning of the world, different types of displays have been in use, each mode to serve the purpose of invention efficiently. Signs are any kind of visual graphics created to display information to a particular audience (David, 2013). In 1389, King Richard II of England compelled landlords to erect signs outside their premises (Manton, 2008). In ancient Rome, signboards were usually made from stone or terracotta (Chris, 1995).

With the advancement in technology, man started carving woods and trees. The use of special dyes on wood as a means of identifying special locations. With the discovery of Bronze and iron, man started using the materials to display sign, thus the advent of metal sign boards were born, which are mostly used in developing countries. On semiconductors and vacuum tubes technology, light displays and sign boards were built to add more beauty in the old system and as a way to increase visibility. LED technology is frequently used in signs now instead of Neon signs, introduced in 1910 at the Paris Motor show (Bellu, 2006). The use of electronic is now  becoming very important. It is extensively applied in almost our day to day activities.

Electronic digital display system is also used for outdoor advertisement. Before, outdoor advertising was mainly characterized by the use of paper. Every bus stop and billboard had a paper advertisement inside. The reason for this was simple paper was easy to use and extremely cheap. It had some draw backs as  well. Before an image is actually on the street, it first has to be printed, pasted and placed. The journey from design to placement is quite long. Another disadvantages is the considerable amount waste generated by the use of paper. Finally, many people ignore a paper advertisement and there attention is drawn to the vibrant environment around them and not  to a still image.

The extent of development in information dissemination has made it possible that the well known method of displaying information using sign posts, notice boards, etc has to be modified by using electronic digital display system. In today’s rapidly advancing technology market, most conventional digital display system are not being implemented using individual logic gates and integrated circuits (ICs) such have been used in the past instead, programmable devices such as microprocessor and microcontroller chips which contain the circuitry necessary to create logic functions are being used to implement digital systems. The use of 555 timer as a stable multivibrator and decade counter (CD4017) can be used to build less expensive electronic display system. The use of these two major ICs will bring about less board space, less power consumptions and overall, low cost in manufacturing.

This project however; emphasizes mainly on the display of information using two major integrated circuits (ICs) namely NE555 timer (ICI) and CD4017 (IC2) to control the lighting of LEDs. This message display circuit is built around readily available, low cost components. It is easy to fabricate. A total of 250 LEDs will be used to display the message “GREAT NIGERIAN STUDENTS”

1.2     Statement of the Problem

Due to limitation of the sign board or local sign board which could not display clearly at night expect light shines on it, it is then necessary that electronic display system is employed to counter the limits of the local sign board. The information displayed on the local sign board is less attractive compared to the information displayed using electronic digital display system.

Thus, researchers are prompted to tirelessly hold up to these challenges by initiating some means of improving the above among which is the design and construction of an electronic digital display system.

1.3     Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to design and construct an electronic digital display system. Specifically this study will achieve the following:

i        To display “Great Nigerian students”

ii       To use the electronic digital display system constructed as a sign post for federal polytechnic, Oko.

iii      To have more knowledge on what electronic digital display system is all about.

v       To know the benefits of electronic digital display system.

v       To design and realize the moving message display panel.

1.4     Significance of the Study

In all field of human endeavour, electronic digital display system plays very vital role, such as means of advertisement, means of communication, presentations, exhibitions, identification and direction. It is also used in giving warning or safety instructions, such as warning signs, traffic signs, exit signs or signs conveying rules and regulations. This project write-up will be a guide to future designing in a related work.

1.5     Scope of the Study

This project covers the use of peripheral solid state electronic components alongside with two major integrated circuits (ICs) namely NESSS timer and CD4017 decade counter to solve above stated problems. It is limited to display GREAT NIGERIAN STUDENTS

1.6     Research Questions

This research will try to provide answers to the following research questions:

1)      What is electronic digital display system?

2)      How can electronic digital display system be constructed?

3)      What are the users of electronic digital display system?

4)      What are the benefits of electronic digital display system?

5)      What kind of content that can be shown on electronic digital display system?

 

 

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CONSTRUCTION OF A SIMPLE DYNAMO

CONSTRUCTION OF A SIMPLE DYNAMO

 

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ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
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Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

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08074466939 Or 08063386834,   The Project Title  You  Selected On Our Website , Amount Paid, Depositor Name, Your Email Address, Payment Date. You Will Receive Your Material In Less Than 1 Hour Once We Confirm Your Payment.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Certification                                                                                      i

Dedication                                                                               ii

Acknowledgment                                                                     iii

Table of content                                                                      iv

Chapter one

Introduction                                                                                      1

Background of the study                                                                   1

Statement of the problem                                                                  5

Aims and objectives                                                                6

Significance of the study                                                                   7

Scope of the study                                                                            7

Chapter Two                                            

Literature review                                                                     8

A brief history of dynamo                                                       8

Commutator (Electric)                                                            13

Chapter three

Materials and methods                                                            15

Sources of materials                                                                16

Description of a dynamo                                                                  16

Circuit diagram                                                               18

Block diagram                                                          20

Reference                                                                         30

 

 

ABSTRACT

Dynamo is the name given to D.C generators. In the past, alternating current generators are not common. Voltages are generated using dynamo where the voltage generated are later converts to A.C. The dynamo I constructed had a permanent magnet. This magnet in the form of circular disc which revolves around turns of coil that is wound on a u-shaped former. When the disc is rotated the magnetic field North / South pole cuts lines of force and e.m.f is generated.

 

  

INTRODUCTION

1.0  BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The word Dynamo from “(from the Greek word dynamics: meaning power) was originally another name for an electrical generator and still has some regional usage as a replacement for the word generator. After the discovery of the AC generator and that alternating current can be used as a power supply. The word dynamo became associated exclusively with the communicated direct current electric generator while on AC electrical generator using either ship rings or rotor magnet would become known as an alternator.

A dynamo is an electrical generator that produces direct current with the use of a commutator. Dynamos were the first electrical generators capable of delivering power for industry and the foundation upon which many other later electric power conversion devices were based including the electric motor, the alternating current alternator and the rotary converter. Today the simple alternator dominates large scale power generation for efficiency, reliability and cost reasons.

A dynamo has the disadvantages of a mechanical commutator besides; converting alternating current to direct current using power rectification devices (vacuum tube or more recently solid state.) is effective and usually economical.

 

The faraday disk was the first electric generator. the horseshoe shape magnet (A) created a magnetic field through the disk (D) when the disk centers toward the rim. The current flowed out through the sliding  spring contact m, through the external circuit and back into the centre of the disk through the axle. The operating principle of electromagnetic generators was later called Faraday’s law, is that an electromotive force is generated in an electrical conductor which encircles a varying magnetic flux. He also built the first electromagnetic generator, called the Faraday- disk, a type of homopolar generator, using a copper disk rotating between the poles of a horseshoe magnetic. It produced a small DV voltage. This was not a dynamo in the current sense, because it did not use a commutator. This design was inefficient, due to self counseling counter flows of current in regions that were not under the influence of the magnetic field. While current was induced directly underneath the magnet, the current would circulate backwards in regions that were outside the influence of the magnetic field. This counter flow limited the power output to the pickup wires and induced waste heating the copper disk later, homopolar generators would solve the problem by using an array of magnets arranged around the disk perimeter to maintain a steady field effect in one current flow direction.

Another disadvantage was the output voltage was very low, due to the single current path through the magnetic flux. Faraday and others found that higher, more useful voltages could be produced by winding multiple turns of wire into coil. Wire windings can conveniently produce any voltage desired by changing the number of turns? So they have commutator to produce direct current. Independently of Faraday, (The Hungarian) Anyas Jedlik started experimenting in (1827) with the electromagnetic rotating devices which he called electromagnetic self-rotors. In the prototype of the single pole electric starter, both the stationary and the revolving parts were electromagnetic.

About 1856 he formulated the concept of the dynamo about six years before Siemens and Wheatstone but did not patent it as he thought he was not the first to realize this. His dynamo used, instead of permanent magnets, two electromagnets placed opposite to each other to induce the magnetic field around the rotor, it was also the discovery of the principle of dynamo self excitation.

 

1.2  STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Before the connection between magnetism and electricity was discovered, electrostatic generators were used. They operated on electrostatic principles such generator generated very high voltage and low current. They operated by using moving electrically charged belts. The charge was generated using either of two mechanisms. Electrostatic induction and the turboelectric effect. Because of their inefficiency and the difficulty of insulating machines that produced very high voltages, electrostatic generators had low power ratings and were never used for generation of commercially significant quantities of electric power.

Currently, the negative impact of fossil fuel to our environment and the increasing rate of global warming and green house gases has made our environment unsafe and these is need to look for an alternative source of energy from natural source that can be environmentally friendly and yet still solve the energy need to our population. Also the epileptic power supply in developing countries has necessitated for another power source that will be constant and readily available.

 

 

1.3  AIM AND OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The principle of operation and the technical know-how of simple dynamo helped a lot in the application an construction of wind turbine and the larger hydro-electric that has contributed immensely to the generation of very huge electrical power source to the national grid source.  The objective of this project was to design and construct a simple dynamo using as far as possible locally available materials which would provide cheap means of generating energy to power source of our electronics. The objectives of the project therefore are to design and construct a simple dynamo from electromagnetic induction mechanism.

 

 

1.4  SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The work will help solve the energy need of our society as it will generate alternative energy source. Specifically, many people benefit from this work as it provide simple, mobile and alternative sources of power to cyclist, part of camps at any given time or place.

Finally, this work has help to enlighten the society on how to utilize locally available electronics in construction of dynamos for the production of light.

 

1.5  SCOPE OF STUDY

This work will try to design and construct a simple dynamo using simple electronic components readily available in our local markets.

 

 

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