Category Archives: FOOD SCIENCE PROJECT MATERIALS SAMPLES

THE EFFECT OF INORGANIC FERTILIZER TREATMENT ON THE MINERAL AND VITAMIN CONTENT OF THE LEAVES OF O. GMUNS GRATISSIMUM

THE EFFECT OF INORGANIC FERTILIZER TREATMENT ON THE MINERAL AND VITAMIN CONTENT OF THE LEAVES OF O. GMUNS GRATISSIMUM

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ABSTRACT

The effect of inorganic fertilizer treatment on the mineral and vitamin contents of the leaves of O. gratissmimum (1) was investigated cultivatd O. gratissimum in plastic planting buckets were applied with NPK (15:15:15) fertilizer and 500kg/ha treatment levels determined using the furrow slice methods two months after seed germination, only one application was carried out. The levels of the plants were harvested for analysis one month after treatment. Fertilizer treatment caused significant increase P. (0.05) in the potassium, sodium, magnesium, phosphorous and nitrogen contents of the leaves of O gratissimum.

However, fertilizer treatment led to significant reduction (P 0.05) in the calcium content of the leaves of O. gratissimum. Although fertilizer treatment generally caused increased concentration of ascorbic acid, such increases were not significant. Generally the concentration of minerals and vitamins tended to increase as the level of treatment increased.

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CHEMICAL, FUNCTIONAL PASTING PROPERTIES OF STARCHES FORM BROWN AND YELLOW TIGERNUTS (CYPETUS, ESCULENTUS)

 

Abstract

Starch was extracted form brown and yellow varieties of tigernuts, starch samples from both varieties were defatted and analysed for their functional, chemical and pasting properties using standard analytical methods. The conventional cassava starch served as the control. There were significant differences in chemical (moisture) ash, fat, protein, amycose and starch yield) and functional properties oil absorption capacity, bulk density and starch gel charity) between starch samples. Most pasting properties, oil absorption such as trough, peak viscosity breakdown, final viscosity, set back viscosity of tigernut starch samples were higher than those of cassava starch.

 

EVALUATION OF NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF SOYBEAN – ACHA COMPOSITE  BISCUITS

 

ABSTRACT

Biscuits were prepared from – soy bean composite flour based on preliminary works, the nutritional qualities of the products (biscuits) were evaluated using wistar-strain albino rat feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency Ratio (FEB) Protein efficiency Ration (PER) and proximate composition of the faces.

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IMPACT OF BREAKFAST ON DAILY ENERGY INTAKE-ANALYSIS OF ABSOLUTE VERSIS RELATIVE REAKFAST CALORIES

 

ABSTRACT

The role of breakfast energy in total daily energy intake is a matter of debate. Acute feeding experiments demonstrated that high breakfast energy leads to greater overall intake supported by cross sectional data of a free-living population. On the other hand, a large intra individual analysis has indicated that a high proportion of breakfast to overall intake is associated with lower daily energy intake. To evaluate these apparently contradictory results in greater detail both ways of analysis were applied to the same data set of dietary records.

 

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IMPORTANCE OF UTAZI (GONGRONEMA LATIFOLIUM) AND NCHUANWU (OCIMUM GRATISSIUM)

IMPORTANCE OF UTAZI (GONGRONEMA LATIFOLIUM) AND NCHUANWU (OCIMUM GRATISSIUMIN HUMAN BODY

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ABSTRACT

The research work was focused on the possible vitamin composition of Utazi (Gongronema  latifolium) and Nchuanwu (Ocimum gratissimum) leaf juice. Here, it was only the vitamin A and C that were scientifically tested for. Where upon, it was discovered that Utazi had 1.14mglml of vitamin A and 34:61mg1 100m1 of vitamin C, while Nchuanwu had 2.14mglm1 of vitamin A and 30.76mg1 100m1 of vitamin C. From the result gotten, it shows that Utazi and Nchanwu are good sources of vitamin A and C, with high industrial and medicinal prospects.

 

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

Aim and objective

CHAPTER TWO

Literature Reviews

Origin of Utazi and Nchuanwu

Uses of gongronema latifoliumandocimum gratissmum.

Production and international trade (Utazi and Nchuanwu)

Description of utazi and Nchuanwu

Growth and development of Utazi and Nchuanwu

Propagation and planting (utazi and Nchuanwu).

Harvesting (utazi and Nchuanwu).

Handling after harvest (utazi and Nchuanwu)

Genetic resources and breeding (utazi and Nchuanwu)

Proximate and minerqal omposition of Utazi

Amino Acid composition of utazi

fatty acid composition of Utazi

Anti bacterial activity of utazi

Prospect of Utazi

Prospect of Nchuanwu

CHAPTER TWO

Materials and methods

Sample collection and preparation.

Determination of vitamin A (Utazi and Nchuanwu).

Materials

Preparation of reagent

Isopropanol in the both sample (Utazi and Nchuanwu)

Determination of vitamin C (Utazi and Nchuanwu)

MATERIALS

Preparation of Reagent

Indophenols solution titration in the both sample.

CHAPTER FOUR

Results

Discussion

CHAPTER FIVE

Conclusion

Recommendation

Appendix

Reference

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

1.0.1  Utazi (Gongronema  latifolium/ Bush buck), leaf vegetable and belong to the group of plants known as spices. It is of the family of ASCLEPIADACEA genus GONGRONEMA and species of LATIFOLIUM, and the vernacular name is BUSH BUCK while the botanical name GONGRONEMA lATIFOLIUM. Utazi is a climber with woody hollow glaborous stems below and characterized by greenish yellow flowers (Okolo 1987).

Gongronema  latifolium, commonly called ‘utazi’ by the Igbo’s, the efik / ibibo people in South-eastern Nigeria call the leave ‘utasi’ and the Yoruba people ‘arokeke’ or ‘madumaro’ (Ugochukwu and Babady, 2002). In Ghana, the akan-asantes knows it as ‘kurutu nsurogya’. The serer in Senegal call it ‘gasub’ while the kissis, mende and temnes in sierra leone call it ‘ndondo-polole, ‘tawabembe’ and ‘ra-bilong’ respectively (Dalziel et at, 1961). They are sharp bitter and sweet and widely used as a leafy vegetable and as a spice for sauce, soups and salad (Okolo 1987, Anaso and Onochie 1999). Utazi is used in small quantity in preparing soups like Nsala soup, ugba sauce, and yam and also in garnishing dish like Abacha, Ncha, Isiewu, Nkwobi etc. The leaves are used to spice locally brewed beer. In Sierra Leone the pliable stems are used as chew sticks. The bark contains much latex and has been tasted for exploitation (Morebise et  al., 2002).

Reports by various authors showed that it essential oils, saponins and pregnanes among others (Schneider et al; 1993, Morebise and Fafunso 1998, morebise et al; 202). The plant has been widely used in folk medicine for maintaining healthy blood glucose level (Okafor 1987, 1989). The plant leaves have been found very efficacious as an anti-diarrhea, and anti-tussive (Sofoware 1982, Iwu, 1993).

1.0.2  Nchuanwu (ocimum gratissimum / clove Basil), leafy vegetable and belong to the group of plant known as spices. It is of family of LAMIACEAC genus OCIMUM and species O.GRATISSIMUM and the vernacular name is CLOVE BASIL while the botanical name OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM. Nchuanwu is widely distributed in the tropics of Africa and Asia. It is a perennial plant that is woody at the base. It has average height of 1-3m high. The leaves are broad and narrowly ovate, usually 5-13cm long and 3-9cm wide. It is a scented shrub with lime-green fuzzy leaves (Wagner et al; 1999).

In Southern part of Nigeria, the plant is called “effinrin-nia” by the Yoruba,”Nchuanwu” in Igbo, while in the Southern part of Nigeria, the Hausa call it “Daidoya”. (Effraim et al; 2002).

Nutritional importance of this plant centers on it’s usefulness as a seasoning because of its aromatic flavor (C.N. Ezekwesili et at; 2004).

Nchuanwu in folk medicine, ocimum gratissimum is extensively used throughout West Africa as a febrifuge, anti-malaria and anti-convulsant. The leaf juice is used in the treatment of stomach pain and catarrh. Oil from leaves have been found to posses antiseptics, anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activities (Ezekwesile et al; 2004).

In the coastal area of Nigeria, the plant is used in the treatment of epilepsy (Osifo, 1992) high fever (Oliver 1980) and diarrhea (Oliver 1980 and Sofoware 1993). While in the savannah areas decoctions of the leaves are used to treat mental illness (Abdulrahman, 1992).

Nchuanwu is used by the Ibos of Southern Nigeria in the management of the baby cord. It is believed to keep the baby’s cord and wound surface sterile. It is used in the treatment of fungal infections, fever, cold and catarrh (Iwu, 1986).

They play quite significant role in our diets of the population because they are major sources of essential macro nutrients, micro nutrients and vitamins.

Due to their seasonal nature and high moisture content, there is need therefore to develop an appropriate technology for their preservation so as to guarantee their availability all year round (Eze and Chibuzor 2008).

 

1.1     AIM AND OBJECTIVE

The aim of this project work is to determine the vitamin composition of Utazi and Nchuanwu leaf juice (vitamin A and C).

 

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EXAMINE THE PRESENCE AND CONCENTRATION OF SOME PHYTOCHEMICALS IN AVOCADO PEAR

EXAMINE  THE PRESENCE AND CONCENTRATION OF SOME PHYTOCHEMICALS IN AVOCADO PEAR (PERSEA AMERICANA MILL) SEED

 

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ABSTRACT

Phytochemical screening to determine the presence of tannins, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids,sterols and cardiac glycosides in PerseaAmericana will be carried out. The sample will be prepared by cutting the seed into small pieces, drying and grinding with Thomas Willey milling machine. The ground sample will be stored in an airtight container for analysis. The presence of alkaloid will be determined by Wagner’s test, flavonoid and tannin by ferric chloride test, saponin by emulsion test and cardiac glycoside by glacial acetic acid test. The quantitative determination of alkaloid was carried out by the method of Harborne,(1993)and Obadoni and Ochuko,(2001). Flavonoid will be determined by the method of Boham and Kocipai,(1994). Tannin will be determined by the method of Pearson, while cordial glycoside will be determined by wang and filled method.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Phytochemicals are a large group of plant derived compound hypothesized to be responsible for much of the disease protection conferred from diets high in fruits, vegetables, beans, cereals and plant-based beverages such as tea and wine (Hollman, 2005). They are biologically naturally occurring chemical compounds found in plants . They protect plants from disease and damage and contribute to the plants colour, aroma and flavor. They also protect plants from environmental hazards such as pollution, stress, drought, uv exposure and pathogenic attack. These Phytochemicals are known as secondary metabolities .

Recently it is clearly known that phytochemicals have roles in the protection of human health when their dietary intake is significant.

A wide range of dietary Phytochemicals are found in fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grains, nuts, seeds, fungi, herbs and spices (Mathai, 2000). it is well known that plants produce these chemicals to protect                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            themselves, but recent research demonstrate that many phytochemicals can also protect humans against diseases (Narasinga, 2003). The most important of these bioactive constituents of plants are alkaloids, tannins, steroids, terpenoids and phenolic compounds. In recent years secondary plant metabolites previously with unknown pharmacological activities have been extensively investigated as a source of medicinal agents. Thus it is anticipated that phyto-antimicrobial efficacy will be used for the treatment of bacterial infection (Balandrin et al., 2005).

 

Perseaamericana is one of the 150 varieties of avocado pear. The seeds of Perseaamericana has a diverse application in ethnomedicine, ranging from treatment for diarrhea, dysentery, toothache, intestinal parasites to the area of skin treatment and beautification (Pamplona and Roger, 1999). P. americana leaves have been reported to posses anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities (Adeyemi et al., 2002). The seeds are rich in tannins and carotenoids and tocopherols from the fruit were shown to inhibit the in-vitro growth of prostate cancer cell lines (lu et al, 2005) and “persin” from avocado leaves was shown to have antifungal properties and to be toxic to silkworms (oelrichs et al., 1995). The effect of P.americana extract was evaluated on in-vitro rat lymphocyte proliferation (Gomezflores et al., 2008). Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of seeds of avocado pear was found to be greater than 70% (Soong and Barlow 2004).

Objective of the study

  • To screenPerseaamericana seeds for the presence of some phytochemicals such as flavonoids, alkaloids, sterols, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides etc.
  • To carry out quantitative determination of some of these phytochemicals

Scope of the study

The study will cover the general description ofPerseaamericana, phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables and nutritional physiology of phytochemicals. The study will also cover the nutritional contents of P.americana fruit and its medicinal uses. Effects ofP.americana on the body and the phytochemicalsto be determined will be discussed. Qualitative and quantitative determination of some phytochemicals will also be carried out.

Significance of the study

The significance of this study is thatP.americana plays a vital role in contributing to a healthy and balanced diet, reduced mental depression prevents coronary heart diseases, diabetes and prostate cancer in the body tissue and heal the scalp.

P.americana if consumed by individual can fight beriberi, cause a reduction in body weight and are used as antihypertensive drug for individuals with hypertension.

 

CHAPTERTWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

General description of Perseaamericana

DETERMINATION OF THE PRESENCE AND CONCENTRATION OF SOME PHYTOCHEMICALS IN AVOCADO PEAR

DETERMINATION OF THE PRESENCE AND CONCENTRATION OF SOME PHYTOCHEMICALS IN AVOCADO PEAR (PERSEA AMERICANA MILL) SEED

 

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ABSTRACT

Phytochemical screening to determine the presence and concentration of tannins, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, sterols and cardiac glycosides in Persea americana was carried out. The sample was prepared by cutting the seed into small pieces, drying and grinding with Thomas Willey milling machine. The ground sample was stored in an airtight container for analysis. The presence of alkaloid was determined by Wagner’s test, flavonoid by ferric chloride test, tannin by acid test, saponin by emulsion test and cardiac glycoside by glacial acetic acid test. Quantitative determination of some of the phytochemicals was also carried out using standard methods. Result for qualitative analysis shows that alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins and cardiac  glycosides were present in P.american and sterols were absent . The quantitative result  shows that alkaloid has the highest percentage of concentration (21.54%), followed by saponin (8.10%),  flavonoid (6.97%), cardiac glycoside (6.94%)  and tannin has the least percentage concentration (1.45%) .

 

CHAPTER  ONE

Introduction ………………………………………………………..…..……1

Background of the study…………………………………..……………………1

Objective of the …………………………………..…………………….……4

Scope of the study…………………………………..………………………..4

Significance of the study …………………………………..…………………5

CHAPTER TWO

Literature Review…………………………………………..…..……………6

General description of Persea americana…………………..…..……………6

Phytochemicals in fruit and vegetables……………………..…..……………8

Nutritional physiology of phytochemicals ……………………..…..…..….10

Medicinal uses of P.americana fruit……………………..……………….11

Constituents of P.americana fruit……………………..………………….13

Effect of P.americana on the body……………………..…………….….14

Wight……………………..………………………………………………….14

Hypertension / high blood pressure ……………………..………………….14

Wound healing activity ……………………..…………………………..….15

Natural products from plants that promote health………………….……….16

Alkaloid………………………………………………………………….….16

Sterols……………………..……………………………………………..….16

Flavonoids……………………..……………………………………………..….17

Tannins……………………..………………………………………………….….19

Saponins……………………..…………………………………………..….19

Cardiac glycoside……………………..……………………………………….20

CHAPTER THREE

Materials and method……………………..……………………………….….21

Materials ……………………..………………………………………………..….21

Preparation of sample……………………..………………………………….21

Qualitative analysis of phytochemicals ……………………….……………22

Test for alkaloids ……………………..……………………………………….22

Test for flavonoids……………………..………………………………….….23

Test for tannins ……………………..………………………………………….24

Test for saponins……………………..…………………………………….….25

 

 

 

vii

Test for cardiac glycosides……………………..…………………………..….25

Test for steroids……………………..………………………………………….….26

Qualitative determination of the

Chemical constituent in P.americana………………………………………….….26

Allialoids determination……………………..………………………………….26

Flavonoids determination……………………..…………………………….….27

Saponin determination……………………..…………………………..……….28

Tannin determination by titration……………………..…………………….29

Cardiac glycosides determination ……………………..……………….….30

 

CHAPTER FOUR

Result…….……………………..……………………………………….….32

CHAPTER FIVE

Discussion……………………..……………….…………………………..35

Conclusion……………………..……………….…………………………..37

Recommendation……………………..……………….……………………37

References……………………..……………….…………………………..39

Appendix……………………..……………….……………………………43

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the study

Phytochemicals are a large group of plant derived compound hypothesized to be responsible for much of the disease protection conferred from diets high in fruits, vegetables, beans, cereals and plant-based beverages such as tea and wine (Hollman, 2005). They are biologically naturally occurring chemical compounds found in plants . They protect plants from disease and damage and contribute to the plants colour, aroma and flavor. They also protect plants from environmental hazards such as pollution, stress, drought, uv exposure and pathogenic attack. These Phytochemicals are known as secondary metabolities .

Recently it is clearly known that phytochemicals have roles in the protection of human health when their dietary intake is significant.

A wide range of dietary Phytochemicals are found in fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grains, nuts, seeds, fungi, herbs and spices (Mathai, 2000). It is well known that plants produce these chemicals to protect themselves, but recent research demonstrate that many phytochemicals can also protect humans against diseases (Narasinga, 2003). The most important of these bioactive constituents of plants are alkaloids, tannins, steroids, terpenoids and phenolic compounds. In recent years secondary plant metabolites previously with unknown pharmacological activities have been extensively investigated as a source of medicinal agents. Thus it is anticipated that phyto-antimicrobial efficacy will be used for the treatment of bacterial infection (Balandrin et al., 2005).

Perseaamericana is one of the 150 varieties of avocado pear. The seeds of Perseaamericana has a diverse application in ethnomedicine, ranging from treatment for diarrhea, dysentery, toothache, intestinal parasites to the area of skin treatment and beautification (Pamplona and Roger, 1999). P. americana leaves have been reported to posses anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities (Adeyemi et al., 2002). The seeds are rich in tannins and carotenoids and tocopherols from the fruit were shown to inhibit the in-vitro growth of prostate cancer cell lines (lu et al, 2005) and “persin” from avocado leaves was shown to have antifungal properties and to be toxic to silkworms (oelrichs et al., 1995). The effect of P.americana extract was evaluated on in-vitro rat lymphocyte proliferation (Gomezflores et al., 2008). Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of seeds of avocado pear was found to be greater than 70% (Soong and Barlow 2004).

 

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Objective of the study

  • To screenPerseaamericana seeds for the presence of some phytochemicals such as flavonoids, alkaloids, sterols, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides etc.
  • To carry out quantitative determination of some of these phytochemicals

Scope of the study

The study will cover the general description ofPerseaamericana, phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables and nutritional physiology of phytochemicals. The study will also cover the nutritional contents of P.americana fruit and its medicinal uses. Effects ofP.americana on the body and the phytochemicalsto be determined will be discussed. Qualitative and quantitative determination of some phytochemicals will also be carried out.

Significance of the study

The significance of this study is thatP.americana plays a vital role in contributing to a healthy and balanced diet, reduced mental depression prevents coronary heart diseases, diabetes and prostate cancer in the body tissue and heal the scalp.

P.americana if consumed by individual can fight beriberi, cause a reduction in body weight and are used as antihypertensive drug for individuals with hypertension.

 

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CHAPTERTWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

General description of Perseaamericana

The avocado (Perseaamericana) is a tree native to Mexico and central America (Chen et al., 2008) classified in the flowering plant family lauraceae along with cinnamon, camphor and bay laurel.Avocado or alligator pear also refers, to the fruit, botanically a large berry that contains a single seed (Storey 1973).

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DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF AN ELECTRONIC DIGITAL DISPLAY SYSTEM

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION  OF AN ELECTRONIC DIGITAL DISPLAY SYSTEM  (MOVING MESSAGE DISPLAY)

 

 

COMPLETE PROJECT  MATERIAL COST 3000 NAIRA

 

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MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
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Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

We also accept :   ATM transfer , online money  transfer 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>

Call Help Desk Line :  08074466939,08063386834.

After Payment Send Your Payment Details To

08074466939 Or 08063386834,   The Project Title  You  Selected On Our Website , Amount Paid, Depositor Name, Your Email Address, Payment Date. You Will Receive Your Material In Less Than 1 Hour Once We Confirm Your Payment.

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Abstract

The aim of this project work is to design and construct an electronic digital display system, based on light-emitting diodes connected in an array that forms the information to be displayed i.e. “GREAT NIGERIAN STUDENTS”. This project is useful for creating attention – getting messages, presentations, advertisements and location identifiers. The system consists of power supply unit, oscillator unit, counter unit, driver unit and output unit. The power supply unit uses alternating current (AC) from the mains which will be stepped down to 12V using a step-down transformer, rectified with bridge rectifier, filtered with the actual capacitor and regulated to 9 volt using an IC regulator. The oscillator unit contains a 555 timer IC set as astable multivibrator used to produce clock pulses for the counter unit which contains 4017 decade counter IC. The 4017 counter enables the information to be displayed sequentially as desired. The driver unit uses transistor to amplify the signal strength of the counter’s output. The output unit enables the information to be displayed using light emitting diodes (LEDs).

 

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the problem
  • Statement of the problem
  • Objectives of the study
  • Significance of the study
  • Scope of the study
  • Research questions

 

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

  • Component description

 

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS

  • Power supply unit
  • Oscillator unit
  • Counter unit
  • Driver unit
  • Output unit
  • Description of Electronic Digital Display System

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     Results

 

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

  • Discussion
  • Conclusion
  • Recommendations

Cost of Construction

REFERENCES

 

List of figures

 

Fig. 2.1:      Symbol of a transformer

Fig. 2.2:      Circuit symbol of bridge rectifier

Fig. 2.3:      Symbol of a polarized and non-polarised capacitors

Fig. 2.4:      Symbol of a diode

Fig. 2.5:      Symbol of a LED

Fig. 2.6:      Circuit diagram of rectifier diode and LED connected in

parallel.

Fig. 2.7:      Pinout connection of 7809IC

Fig. 2.8:      Symbols of fixed and variable resistors

Fig. 2.9:      Symbols of transistor

Fig.2.10:     Pinout diagram of 555 timer

Fig.2.11:     Pin connection of 4017 decade counter

Fig.2.12:     Diagram of a veroboard

Fig. 3.1:      Block diagram of electronic digital display system

Fig. 3.2:      Circuit diagram of full wave rectification

Fig.3.3:       Circuit diagram of a 9 volt regulated power supply

Fig.3.4:       Circuit diagram of astable multivibrator

Fig.3.5:       Complete circuit diagram of electronic digital display

System.

 

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Chapter one

 

INTRODUCTION

 

1.1     Background of the study

 

Electronic digital display system as used in this reports refers to a sign that uses electronic hardware and software to display its copy, messages or images. Also, a sign utilizing a fixed light source to provide a message  in text, images pictures, and / or symbols that may appear to move or may appear as on/off messages. This is contrast to traditional non-electronic signs where the copy displayed is physically applied to the sign surface by printing, painting or otherwise attaching it onto the sign. The materials or substrate to which the copy is applied is typically paper, wood, plastic or the wall of a building.

In this modern time, solid materials have helped man to show that he really exists by doing wonders in the world of electronics. One major development, made possible by the enormous advances in solid state technology, is the “digital revolution”. Circuits are designed to implement the basic digital logic functions fundamental to all digital systems. Digital electronics therefore comprises the design, manufacture and use of circuits for processing information in digital form (Simpson, 1978).

An information display is a way of providing information and it is also used as an object for promotion. It can be seen in a form of cardboard or tarpaulin at stores / shops, sign posts, placards, notice boards and electronic display boards. But the advent of new technologies has made the information in the form of an electronic display in the world of advertisements and promotions (Gupta, Shukla and Nagwekar, 2013). The ability to display a short message can be useful application to be available for any business. Electronic digital display system is perfect for this application. It can be used for both indoor and outdoor which makes it universal fit for any business or event. Electronic digital display system is very efficient and cost effective way to spread messages to thousands of people, without any personal contact or door to door sales. Light-Emitting Diode (LED) is a solid state light source with several attractive properties for display application. LED is a diode that gives off visible light when forward biased (Mehta and Mehta, 2014). It is chosen as the main component for displaying messages because, today LED is the most energy efficiency example and other useful systems.

 

The birth of signs and display can be said to be as old as the existence of man on the planet earth. From the beginning of the world, different types of displays have been in use, each mode to serve the purpose of invention efficiently. Signs are any kind of visual graphics created to display information to a particular audience (David, 2013). In 1389, King Richard II of England compelled landlords to erect signs outside their premises (Manton, 2008). In ancient Rome, signboards were usually made from stone or terracotta (Chris, 1995).

With the advancement in technology, man started carving woods and trees. The use of special dyes on wood as a means of identifying special locations. With the discovery of Bronze and iron, man started using the materials to display sign, thus the advent of metal sign boards were born, which are mostly used in developing countries. On semiconductors and vacuum tubes technology, light displays and sign boards were built to add more beauty in the old system and as a way to increase visibility. LED technology is frequently used in signs now instead of Neon signs, introduced in 1910 at the Paris Motor show (Bellu, 2006). The use of electronic is now  becoming very important. It is extensively applied in almost our day to day activities.

Electronic digital display system is also used for outdoor advertisement. Before, outdoor advertising was mainly characterized by the use of paper. Every bus stop and billboard had a paper advertisement inside. The reason for this was simple paper was easy to use and extremely cheap. It had some draw backs as  well. Before an image is actually on the street, it first has to be printed, pasted and placed. The journey from design to placement is quite long. Another disadvantages is the considerable amount waste generated by the use of paper. Finally, many people ignore a paper advertisement and there attention is drawn to the vibrant environment around them and not  to a still image.

 

The extent of development in information dissemination has made it possible that the well known method of displaying information using sign posts, notice boards, etc has to be modified by using electronic digital display system. In today’s rapidly advancing technology market, most conventional digital display system are not being implemented using individual logic gates and integrated circuits (ICs) such have been used in the past instead, programmable devices such as microprocessor and microcontroller chips which contain the circuitry necessary to create logic functions are being used to implement digital systems. The use of 555 timer as a stable multivibrator and decade counter (CD4017) can be used to build less expensive electronic display system. The use of these two major ICs will bring about less board space, less power consumptions and overall, low cost in manufacturing.

 

This project however; emphasizes mainly on the display of information using two major integrated circuits (ICs) namely NE555 timer (ICI) and CD4017 (IC2) to control the lighting of LEDs. This message display circuit is built around readily available, low cost components. It is easy to fabricate. A total of 250 LEDs will be used to display the message “GREAT NIGERIAN STUDENTS”

1.2     Statement of the Problem

Due to limitation of the sign board or local sign board which could not display clearly at night expect light shines on it, it is then necessary that electronic display system is employed to counter the limits of the local sign board. The information displayed on the local sign board is less attractive compared to the information displayed using electronic digital display system.

Thus, researchers are prompted to tirelessly hold up to these challenges by initiating some means of improving the above among which is the design and construction of an electronic digital display system.

Computer Science Project Topics and Materials in Nigeria

 

1.3     Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to design and construct an electronic digital display system. Specifically this study will achieve the following:

i        To display “Great Nigerian students”

ii       To use the electronic digital display system constructed as a sign post for federal polytechnic, Oko.

iii      To have more knowledge on what electronic digital display system is all about.

v       To know the benefits of electronic digital display system.

v       To design and realize the moving message display panel.

 

Recent COMPUTER SCIENCE Project Topics and Materials in Nigeria

1.4     Significance of the Study

In all field of human endeavour, electronic digital display system plays very vital role, such as means of advertisement, means of communication, presentations, exhibitions, identification and direction. It is also used in giving warning or safety instructions, such as warning signs, traffic signs, exit signs or signs conveying rules and regulations. This project write-up will be a guide to future designing in a related work.

1.5     Scope of the Study

This project covers the use of peripheral solid state electronic components alongside with two major integrated circuits (ICs) namely NESSS timer and CD4017 decade counter to solve above stated problems. It is limited to display GREAT NIGERIAN STUDENTS

1.6     Research Questions

This research will try to provide answers to the following research questions:

1)      What is electronic digital display system?

2)      How can electronic digital display system be constructed?

3)      What are the users of electronic digital display system?

4)      What are the benefits of electronic digital display system?

5)      What kind of content that can be shown on electronic digital display system?