Effect of ICT on the academic performance of students in social studies education in Junior secondary
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This study investigated the Effect of ICT on Academic Performance of Students in Junior Secondary School (A Study of Sabon Gari L.G.A in Kaduna State). It was a descriptive survey research. A sample of eight Social Studies teachers and twenty four students from Sabon Gari L.G.A Kaduna were selected using simple random sampling technique. The study was guided by three research questions and a null hypothesis tested at 0.05 level of significance. A research instrument ICTUTLSS, which was a 12-item questionnaire was used to collect data for the study. The mean and standard deviation statistics were used to answer the research question, while t-test was used to test the hypothesis. The finding of the study showed that the ICT availability in secondary schools is very low and students have low competence on the application of ICT in learning of Social Studies. However, their prior knowledge on the subject and the treatment i.e. teaching social studies with ICT has a positive effect on their academic performance. Teaching social studies with ICT do not have any statistically significant effect on pupils’ attitudes toward social studies lesson. Thus, it is recommended that teachers and policy makers should find ways to formulate effective ICT integration applications for social studies. Equally, the findings showed that ICT raises the interest and performance of students in Social Studies. Based on these the researchers made recommendations that government and proprietors of public and private schools respectively should equip their school with the necessary ICT, ICT should be incorporated in Social Studies curriculum etc.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Objective of the Study
1.4 Research Questions
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Scope of the Study
1.8 Limitation of the Study
1.9 Definition of Terms
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURES
2.2 The Meaning of Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
2.3 ICT and Students Performance
2.4 ICT and Attitudes
2.5 Social Studies as a Curriculum Area in Junior Secondary Schools
2.6 Using ICT to Increase Efficiency in the Classroom
2.7 The Importance of Computer Education in Secondary School
2.8 The Need for a Change in Teaching Strategy in Social Studies
2.9 The Problem of Adoption of ICT in Teaching Social Studies in Nigeria
2.10 Types of ICT Materials Available For the Teaching of Social Studies
2.11 Prospects in the Use of ICT in Teaching
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In this 21st century, many factors bringing to bear on the adoption of ICT in education and contemporary trend suggest large scale changes in the way education is planned and delivered as a consequence of the opportunities and effect of ICT. The emergence of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has revolutionized the existence and activities of contemporary man especially in the milieu of globalization (Evey, Opera, Akiang, Udama Asinde, 2010). Attempts have been made to establish relationship between information communication technology and human behaviour.
ICT increase quality of education. One of the most vital contributions of ICT in the field of education is easy access to Learning (Sharma, S., Gandhar,K., Sharma, S., Seema, 2009). The role of ICT can be evaluated in many directions.
According to Becta 2003, five factor of influence the like hood that good ICT learning opportunities will develop in the schools: ICT resourcing, ICT leadership, ICT teaching, school leadership and general teaching. Becta (2003) also indicates that the success of the integration of new technology and information into education varies from curriculum to curriculum, place to place , and class to class, depending on the way is which it is applied in depended (Bingimla, 2009).
Ibe-Bassey (2000) and Inyang-Abia (2004) noted that media mediate in a continuum between stimulus response learning and cognitive learning to concretize ideas, concepts and facilitate learning.
This reveals that ICT is capable of facilitating the collection, preparation, presentation, storage, retrieval, conveyance and dissemination of information. Basset (2000) and Inyang-Abia (2004) also identified such ICT media to include radio, television, computer and internet facilities, computer game console, DVD player and recorder, digital camera, scanner and the rest of them. In recent times, there has been intense advocacy both nationally and internationally for the application of ICT in teaching and learning process.
Udo (2010) observed that the application of ICT in the school subjects is to make learners learn better and teacher to teach well, it is not a hindrances to teacher–student (pupils) relationship. It rather ensures transactional instructional communication where the teacher manages the human materials, time and space to make sure that instructional events (game attention stimulation recall present stimulus thinking elicit performance provide feedback provide generalizing experiences, assess performance) occur leading to change in behaviour of pupils. It has been noted that Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is an effective medium in contributing towards education in general and Social Studies in particular. The inherent cross-curricular nature of Information Communication Technology makes it ideal medium that can be used not only during Information Technology lessons but also in other subjects.
ICT can be an excellent medium for training young people in learning about and appreciating the cultural heritage in its diversity. With its power of interactivity, multimedia and communication, the computer proves an excellent tool for Social Studies education. The idea is that students will be active ―participants‖ rather than ―spectators‖ in teaching and learning process. Psychologists agree that the best feedback is that which comes immediately after the event. The cross-curricular approach in Social Studies education can find a common base here by using computers during the subject lessons.
Information Communication Technology according to Unagha(2006) encompasses computer and telecommunication. It is concerned with the technology used in handling, acquiring, processing, storing and dissemination of information. Thus Information Communication Technology is any technology used in producing, organizing and passing information through. Similarly, Oxford Advanced Learners’ Dictionary sees ICT as electronic media used in processing, analyzing, storing and sending out information.
Evey et al (2010) observed that ICT is innovative device that can carry out such functions as receiving, storing, computing, analyzing, transmitting and retrieving information presented to them and allowing for one-to-one or group communication among humans. Obashoro (2007) identified ICT infrastructure to include multi-media CD-ROMs, MP3 players, websites, discussion boards, emails, computer-aided assessments, learning management software, blogs, etc. In the same vein, Folorunso, Longe and Ijere (2003) identified ICT infrastructure to include internet, World Wide Web (www), Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), Local Area Network (LAN), Wide Area Networks (WAN), Protocols, Content Management and Meta Data Standard (MDS).
The use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in teaching and learning of social studies Social studies was adopted a core subject in Nigerian primary and secondary schools during Mombasa Conference of 1968 in Kenya, where African countries gathered and examined the vitality of teaching Social Studies in our schools. It is a course designed to inculcate in the learners right attitudes, values, knowledge and skills for effective citizenry and enable them understand the ways to manage their environmental resources for maximum utilization. This is why Chikwelu, (2007) defined Social Studies as an interdisciplinary study of man and his interaction with his environment and inculcation of right attitudes, values, knowledge and skills for developing effective citizens who contribute positively to the development of his society. It has been observed that there is sharp fall in interest and performance of students and pupils in Social Studies owing to an unbridled use of conventional lecture and storytelling method in teaching and learning of Social Studies (Okafor, 2006). This has resulted in high rate of moral bankruptcy, corruption and poor management of environmental resources.
Social Studies lessons are commonly carried out in the classroom during school hours but a time entails going for an excursion or field trip to an environment different from the usual school environment. This enables students under the guidance of their teachers to discover the riches of a particular situation, site, surrounding, historic and artistic features and the roles they serve. Visit to nearby areas may be easier but a trip to far place or another country to witness the heritage richness it possesses will be difficult. Multimedia is the embodiment of text, graphics, animation, pictures, sound and video clips and it can be easily used in Social Studies education. We know that graphics play an extreme important role in the learning process. A look at existing teaching methods will show the widespread use of graphic devices and sound, movement and interactively on a multi-media CD-ROM.
To go one step further into the future, students can be provided with realism by using virtual reality system that transport them into an environment created by the computer that generates three-dimensional realistic scenes with which the students can interact. Oche (2001) noted that the introduction of compact disc (CD-ROM) has revolutionalized the way information is stored, retrieved and disseminated. Similar is flash drive. CD-ROMs with Social Studies contents can equally be used in teaching and learning of Social Studies topics.
A Teacher can obtain educational software with Social Studies contents from major publishers of books, educational software developers, public domain, shareware packages, computer club, users group and educational institutions that have established ICT software production units. It has been strongly stressed here that software, as has mentioned above or any other educational software for that matter, needs to be evaluated for suitability in using it for Social Studies. The quality of these ICT infrastructures varies widely. Sound technical design does not guarantee educational value for Social Studies software – it may be a mistake if teachers choose software packages without actually trying them out. Olaniyi (2006) observed that internet system gives students access to wide range of information and knowledge about environment, socio-cultural, economic and other aspects of life of the people in various parts of the world.
Making use of the internet during Social Studies could result in breaking down boundaries, getting young people to know each other and to appreciate each others‘ views and cultural backgrounds. This will foster an interest in the heritage of other ethnic groups and countries. Sometimes, it is the exposure to the heritage of other places and that makes people realize that they also have a heritage of their own worth discovering, enjoying and preserving. With the use of internet in Social Studies classes, the role of the teacher changes from that of ―gatekeeper‖ of knowledge to that of ―facilitator‖ and ―manager‖ of the learning environment. The students will become selfdirected learners rather than a passive learner. Through the guidance of the teacher, each student/pupil sets priorities and achievable goals and assumes responsibility for reaching the goals. As internet enables the students engage in self-directed learning experiences and activities, that encourages selfexpression, co-operative learning and interaction not only with immediate environment but with outside world as well, the students are grounded in Social Studies contents.
Similarly, Inyang-Abia (2004) observed that television instruction appeals to two senses of sight and hearing, which means that two types of signals impinge on the brain of the learner while Social Studies lesson is in progress. Seeing and hearing at the same time have the positive effects of making deeper impression in the minds of Social Studies learners (Udo, 2010). The importance of ICT cannot be over emphasized, just as Udoh (2006) acknowledged that Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) unites all the capabilities of ICT innovations by its multi media approach to presenting Social Studies instruction stimuli to learners in various forms with full-colour impact at the same time. However, McLain and DiStefano (1995) advised teachers on using internet to do some researches before students are given a task on internet to make sure that the topics chosen is available and is suitable for students. The teachers should have a variety of sites they want their students to explore and should have thoroughly explored the sites themselves. This makes the teachers to be aware of sites that are useful to Social Studies teaching and learning to avoid entangling the students with tasks that do not help in the achievement of the lessons objectives.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
The record from the Kaduna State Examination Development Centre, and the NECO annual reports of JSSCE in social studies between 2012 and 2016 revealed poor state in the Junior Secondary School students 24 results. The persistent poor academic performance of the students has been attributed by the approaches or methods of teaching in junior secondary school.
The approach, according to UNESCO (2002), requires adjustment of the educational institutions to embrace new technology and appreciate computer technology as a learning tool to transform the present isolated, teacher-centered and textbook bound classroom into student-centered interactive knowledge environment.
Teachers in junior secondary schools are facing serious instructional challenges as the diversity of students within each classroom continues to widen. Students with such academic range with different labels as gifted, fast, average, slow and below average learners all face their teachers daily with full hope that their needs will be met. Teachers with their efforts often need to carry several chats, equipment specimen and others in order to teach a single topic effectively.
Moreover, teachers do not have enough time between classes to procure and test these ICT materials; hence most lectures in junior secondary schools are limited to uninspiring and sometimes incomprehensive verbal lectures. The fact remains that the methods of teaching in junior secondary schools which have been investigated and found effective have not produced desired effect on students’ academic performance in Sabon Gari L.G.A in Kaduna State.
Henceforth, other problems facing the application of ICT in junior secondary schools include supply of substandard ICT facilities, high cost of standard ICT facilities, reluctance to adapt to use of ICT tools in teaching and learning, lack of constant power supply and lack of vision on the prospect of utilizing ICT facilities junior secondary schools is responsible for the academic performance in the study area.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of ICT on academic performance of Junior Secondary School Students in social studies.
• To identify the role of ICT in teaching and learning in junior secondary school students in Sabon Gari L.G.A in Kaduna State
• To identify the advantages and disadvantages of the use of ICT in teaching and learning in junior secondary school.
• To find out the main barriers of ICT application in curriculum development of learning in junior secondary schools.
• To recommend the ways by which the use of ICT facilities can improve the performance of students in junior secondary schools in the study area.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions are put forward:
1. Is there any positive effect created by the use of ICT in teaching and learning in junior secondary school in Sabon Gari L.G.A in Kaduna state?
2. What are the advantage and disadvantages of the use of ICT in teaching and learning junior secondary schools?
3. What are the barriers to the use of ICT application in Curriculum development of learning in junior secondary school students?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
Ho: There is no positive effect created by the use of ICT in teaching and learning in junior secondary school in Sabon Gari L.G.A in Kaduna state.
H1: There are positive effects created by the use of ICT in teaching and learning in junior secondary school in Sabon Gari L.G.A in Kaduna state.
Ho: There is no advantage and disadvantage of the use of ICT in teaching and learning junior secondary schools.
H1: There is advantages and disadvantages of the use of ICT in teaching and learning junior secondary schools.
Ho: There is no barrier to the use of ICT application in Curriculum development of learning in junior secondary school students.
H1: There are barriers to the use of ICT application in Curriculum development of learning in junior secondary school students.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The findings of this study will benefit junior secondary students, teachers, curriculum developers as well as the ministry of Education and future researchers. Junior secondary students will benefit from the findings of the study as the use of computers to study the subject will boost their performance and retention.
It will also help them to develop more interest and skill in the use of computers which will facilitate the acquisition learning skills such as sound societal values, norms and good attitude. The knowledge of their skill in computers will also help them to make proper career choice based on their capabilities on the use of CAI.
The findings will help teachers in choosing an appropriate instructional material capable of releasing students’ tension towards the subject. It will motivate teachers to develop interest towards utilizing modern instructional materials as CAI, and selecting suitable teaching methods that will be a possible means towards reducing failure in the teaching and learning in junior secondary school.
It will equally help teachers to develop suitable methods for assessing students’ academic performance in junior secondary examination. The findings will also sensitize the teachers on the benefits of the use of computer as a strategy for teaching and it will have greater effect on the academic performance and retention of the students. The research findings will as well form another dimension of innovations in the teaching and learning of in junior secondary schools.
Finally, curriculum planners will also benefit from the study, since, the results of the study will assist in curriculum planning such as giving information relating to the teaching and learning in junior secondary school, ICT can be utilized in appropriate strategies of curriculum planning, modification and revision.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study is based on the effect of ICT on the academic performance of junior secondary school Students of Sabon Gari L.G.A of Kaduna State.
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
In any type of research work, are many hindrances that the researcher must come across in the course of the assignment. The problem encounter in the course of this could be attributed to delays in gathering the relevant data needed for the research work and uncompromising attitude of the people to give the required information. Time is another major limitation as far as the research work in concern. The time needed to implement the work may not be sufficient for logistic reasons.
Financial resources may be lacking in carrying out the required work of the project.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
1. Effect: A change which is a result or consequence of an action or other cause.
2. ICT: Information and Communication Technology.
3. Academic Performance: Evaluation of students’ expected achievement on academic activities in the class.
4. Information system can be defined technically as a set of interrelated components that collect (or retrieve) process store and distribute information to support decision making coordination and control.
5. Information technology- Is the study or use of electronic equipment especially computers for storing analyzing and distributing information of all kinds which could be used in banking and so many other relevant field.