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Effect of ICT on the academic performance of students in social studies education in Junior secondary

Effect of ICT on the academic performance of students in social studies education in Junior secondary

 

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ABSTRACT

This study investigated the Effect of ICT on Academic Performance of Students in Junior Secondary School (A Study of Sabon Gari L.G.A in Kaduna State). It was a descriptive survey research. A sample of eight Social Studies teachers and twenty four students from Sabon Gari L.G.A Kaduna were selected using simple random sampling technique. The study was guided by three research questions and a null hypothesis tested at 0.05 level of significance. A research instrument ICTUTLSS, which was a 12-item questionnaire was used to collect data for the study. The mean and standard deviation statistics were used to answer the research question, while t-test was used to test the hypothesis. The finding of the study showed that the ICT availability in secondary schools is very low and students have low competence on the application of ICT in learning of Social Studies. However, their prior knowledge on the subject and the treatment i.e. teaching social studies with ICT has a positive effect on their academic performance. Teaching social studies with ICT do not have any statistically significant effect on pupils’ attitudes toward social studies lesson. Thus, it is recommended that teachers and policy makers should find ways to formulate effective ICT integration applications for social studies. Equally, the findings showed that ICT raises the interest and performance of students in Social Studies. Based on these the researchers made recommendations that government and proprietors of public and private schools respectively should equip their school with the necessary ICT, ICT should be incorporated in Social Studies curriculum etc.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Objective of the Study
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Hypotheses
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Scope of the Study
1.8 Limitation of the Study
1.9 Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURES
2.1 Introduction
2.2 The Meaning of Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
2.3 ICT and Students Performance
2.4 ICT and Attitudes
2.5 Social Studies as a Curriculum Area in Junior Secondary Schools
2.6 Using ICT to Increase Efficiency in the Classroom
2.7 The Importance of Computer Education in Secondary School
2.8 The Need for a Change in Teaching Strategy in Social Studies

2.9 The Problem of Adoption of ICT in Teaching Social Studies in Nigeria
2.10 Types of ICT Materials Available For the Teaching of Social Studies
2.11 Prospects in the Use of ICT in Teaching

 

 

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In this 21st century, many factors bringing to bear on the adoption of ICT in education and contemporary trend suggest large scale changes in the way education is planned and delivered as a consequence of the opportunities and effect of ICT. The emergence of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has revolutionized the existence and activities of contemporary man especially in the milieu of globalization (Evey, Opera, Akiang, Udama Asinde, 2010). Attempts have been made to establish relationship between information communication technology and human behaviour.

ICT increase quality of education. One of the most vital contributions of ICT in the field of education is easy access to Learning (Sharma, S., Gandhar,K., Sharma, S., Seema, 2009). The role of ICT can be evaluated in many directions.

According to Becta 2003, five factor of influence the like hood that good ICT learning opportunities will develop in the schools: ICT resourcing, ICT leadership, ICT teaching, school leadership and general teaching. Becta (2003) also indicates that the success of the integration of new technology and information into education varies from curriculum to curriculum, place to place , and class to class, depending on the way is which it is applied in depended (Bingimla, 2009).
Ibe-Bassey (2000) and Inyang-Abia (2004) noted that media mediate in a continuum between stimulus response learning and cognitive learning to concretize ideas, concepts and facilitate learning.

This reveals that ICT is capable of facilitating the collection, preparation, presentation, storage, retrieval, conveyance and dissemination of information. Basset (2000) and Inyang-Abia (2004) also identified such ICT media to include radio, television, computer and internet facilities, computer game console, DVD player and recorder, digital camera, scanner and the rest of them. In recent times, there has been intense advocacy both nationally and internationally for the application of ICT in teaching and learning process.
Udo (2010) observed that the application of ICT in the school subjects is to make learners learn better and teacher to teach well, it is not a hindrances to teacher–student (pupils) relationship. It rather ensures transactional instructional communication where the teacher manages the human materials, time and space to make sure that instructional events (game attention stimulation recall present stimulus thinking elicit performance provide feedback provide generalizing experiences, assess performance) occur leading to change in behaviour of pupils. It has been noted that Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is an effective medium in contributing towards education in general and Social Studies in particular. The inherent cross-curricular nature of Information Communication Technology makes it ideal medium that can be used not only during Information Technology lessons but also in other subjects.

ICT can be an excellent medium for training young people in learning about and appreciating the cultural heritage in its diversity. With its power of interactivity, multimedia and communication, the computer proves an excellent tool for Social Studies education. The idea is that students will be active ―participants‖ rather than ―spectators‖ in teaching and learning process. Psychologists agree that the best feedback is that which comes immediately after the event. The cross-curricular approach in Social Studies education can find a common base here by using computers during the subject lessons.

Information Communication Technology according to Unagha(2006) encompasses computer and telecommunication. It is concerned with the technology used in handling, acquiring, processing, storing and dissemination of information. Thus Information Communication Technology is any technology used in producing, organizing and passing information through. Similarly, Oxford Advanced Learners’ Dictionary sees ICT as electronic media used in processing, analyzing, storing and sending out information.

Evey et al (2010) observed that ICT is innovative device that can carry out such functions as receiving, storing, computing, analyzing, transmitting and retrieving information presented to them and allowing for one-to-one or group communication among humans. Obashoro (2007) identified ICT infrastructure to include multi-media CD-ROMs, MP3 players, websites, discussion boards, emails, computer-aided assessments, learning management software, blogs, etc. In the same vein, Folorunso, Longe and Ijere (2003) identified ICT infrastructure to include internet, World Wide Web (www), Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), Local Area Network (LAN), Wide Area Networks (WAN), Protocols, Content Management and Meta Data Standard (MDS).

The use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in teaching and learning of social studies Social studies was adopted a core subject in Nigerian primary and secondary schools during Mombasa Conference of 1968 in Kenya, where African countries gathered and examined the vitality of teaching Social Studies in our schools. It is a course designed to inculcate in the learners right attitudes, values, knowledge and skills for effective citizenry and enable them understand the ways to manage their environmental resources for maximum utilization. This is why Chikwelu, (2007) defined Social Studies as an interdisciplinary study of man and his interaction with his environment and inculcation of right attitudes, values, knowledge and skills for developing effective citizens who contribute positively to the development of his society. It has been observed that there is sharp fall in interest and performance of students and pupils in Social Studies owing to an unbridled use of conventional lecture and storytelling method in teaching and learning of Social Studies (Okafor, 2006). This has resulted in high rate of moral bankruptcy, corruption and poor management of environmental resources.

Social Studies lessons are commonly carried out in the classroom during school hours but a time entails going for an excursion or field trip to an environment different from the usual school environment. This enables students under the guidance of their teachers to discover the riches of a particular situation, site, surrounding, historic and artistic features and the roles they serve. Visit to nearby areas may be easier but a trip to far place or another country to witness the heritage richness it possesses will be difficult. Multimedia is the embodiment of text, graphics, animation, pictures, sound and video clips and it can be easily used in Social Studies education. We know that graphics play an extreme important role in the learning process. A look at existing teaching methods will show the widespread use of graphic devices and sound, movement and interactively on a multi-media CD-ROM.

To go one step further into the future, students can be provided with realism by using virtual reality system that transport them into an environment created by the computer that generates three-dimensional realistic scenes with which the students can interact. Oche (2001) noted that the introduction of compact disc (CD-ROM) has revolutionalized the way information is stored, retrieved and disseminated. Similar is flash drive. CD-ROMs with Social Studies contents can equally be used in teaching and learning of Social Studies topics.

A Teacher can obtain educational software with Social Studies contents from major publishers of books, educational software developers, public domain, shareware packages, computer club, users group and educational institutions that have established ICT software production units. It has been strongly stressed here that software, as has mentioned above or any other educational software for that matter, needs to be evaluated for suitability in using it for Social Studies. The quality of these ICT infrastructures varies widely. Sound technical design does not guarantee educational value for Social Studies software – it may be a mistake if teachers choose software packages without actually trying them out. Olaniyi (2006) observed that internet system gives students access to wide range of information and knowledge about environment, socio-cultural, economic and other aspects of life of the people in various parts of the world.

Making use of the internet during Social Studies could result in breaking down boundaries, getting young people to know each other and to appreciate each others‘ views and cultural backgrounds. This will foster an interest in the heritage of other ethnic groups and countries. Sometimes, it is the exposure to the heritage of other places and that makes people realize that they also have a heritage of their own worth discovering, enjoying and preserving. With the use of internet in Social Studies classes, the role of the teacher changes from that of ―gatekeeper‖ of knowledge to that of ―facilitator‖ and ―manager‖ of the learning environment. The students will become selfdirected learners rather than a passive learner. Through the guidance of the teacher, each student/pupil sets priorities and achievable goals and assumes responsibility for reaching the goals. As internet enables the students engage in self-directed learning experiences and activities, that encourages selfexpression, co-operative learning and interaction not only with immediate environment but with outside world as well, the students are grounded in Social Studies contents.
Similarly, Inyang-Abia (2004) observed that television instruction appeals to two senses of sight and hearing, which means that two types of signals impinge on the brain of the learner while Social Studies lesson is in progress. Seeing and hearing at the same time have the positive effects of making deeper impression in the minds of Social Studies learners (Udo, 2010). The importance of ICT cannot be over emphasized, just as Udoh (2006) acknowledged that Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) unites all the capabilities of ICT innovations by its multi media approach to presenting Social Studies instruction stimuli to learners in various forms with full-colour impact at the same time. However, McLain and DiStefano (1995) advised teachers on using internet to do some researches before students are given a task on internet to make sure that the topics chosen is available and is suitable for students. The teachers should have a variety of sites they want their students to explore and should have thoroughly explored the sites themselves. This makes the teachers to be aware of sites that are useful to Social Studies teaching and learning to avoid entangling the students with tasks that do not help in the achievement of the lessons objectives.

 

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
The record from the Kaduna State Examination Development Centre, and the NECO annual reports of JSSCE in social studies between 2012 and 2016 revealed poor state in the Junior Secondary School students 24 results. The persistent poor academic performance of the students has been attributed by the approaches or methods of teaching in junior secondary school.
The approach, according to UNESCO (2002), requires adjustment of the educational institutions to embrace new technology and appreciate computer technology as a learning tool to transform the present isolated, teacher-centered and textbook bound classroom into student-centered interactive knowledge environment.
Teachers in junior secondary schools are facing serious instructional challenges as the diversity of students within each classroom continues to widen. Students with such academic range with different labels as gifted, fast, average, slow and below average learners all face their teachers daily with full hope that their needs will be met. Teachers with their efforts often need to carry several chats, equipment specimen and others in order to teach a single topic effectively.
Moreover, teachers do not have enough time between classes to procure and test these ICT materials; hence most lectures in junior secondary schools are limited to uninspiring and sometimes incomprehensive verbal lectures. The fact remains that the methods of teaching in junior secondary schools which have been investigated and found effective have not produced desired effect on students’ academic performance in Sabon Gari L.G.A in Kaduna State.
Henceforth, other problems facing the application of ICT in junior secondary schools include supply of substandard ICT facilities, high cost of standard ICT facilities, reluctance to adapt to use of ICT tools in teaching and learning, lack of constant power supply and lack of vision on the prospect of utilizing ICT facilities junior secondary schools is responsible for the academic performance in the study area.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of ICT on academic performance of Junior Secondary School Students in social studies.
• To identify the role of ICT in teaching and learning in junior secondary school students in Sabon Gari L.G.A in Kaduna State
• To identify the advantages and disadvantages of the use of ICT in teaching and learning in junior secondary school.
• To find out the main barriers of ICT application in curriculum development of learning in junior secondary schools.
• To recommend the ways by which the use of ICT facilities can improve the performance of students in junior secondary schools in the study area.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions are put forward:
1. Is there any positive effect created by the use of ICT in teaching and learning in junior secondary school in Sabon Gari L.G.A in Kaduna state?
2. What are the advantage and disadvantages of the use of ICT in teaching and learning junior secondary schools?
3. What are the barriers to the use of ICT application in Curriculum development of learning in junior secondary school students?

1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
Hypothesis 1
Ho: There is no positive effect created by the use of ICT in teaching and learning in junior secondary school in Sabon Gari L.G.A in Kaduna state.
H1: There are positive effects created by the use of ICT in teaching and learning in junior secondary school in Sabon Gari L.G.A in Kaduna state.
Hypothesis 2
Ho: There is no advantage and disadvantage of the use of ICT in teaching and learning junior secondary schools.
H1: There is advantages and disadvantages of the use of ICT in teaching and learning junior secondary schools.
Hypothesis 3
Ho: There is no barrier to the use of ICT application in Curriculum development of learning in junior secondary school students.
H1: There are barriers to the use of ICT application in Curriculum development of learning in junior secondary school students.

 

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The findings of this study will benefit junior secondary students, teachers, curriculum developers as well as the ministry of Education and future researchers. Junior secondary students will benefit from the findings of the study as the use of computers to study the subject will boost their performance and retention.

It will also help them to develop more interest and skill in the use of computers which will facilitate the acquisition learning skills such as sound societal values, norms and good attitude. The knowledge of their skill in computers will also help them to make proper career choice based on their capabilities on the use of CAI.
The findings will help teachers in choosing an appropriate instructional material capable of releasing students’ tension towards the subject. It will motivate teachers to develop interest towards utilizing modern instructional materials as CAI, and selecting suitable teaching methods that will be a possible means towards reducing failure in the teaching and learning in junior secondary school.

It will equally help teachers to develop suitable methods for assessing students’ academic performance in junior secondary examination. The findings will also sensitize the teachers on the benefits of the use of computer as a strategy for teaching and it will have greater effect on the academic performance and retention of the students. The research findings will as well form another dimension of innovations in the teaching and learning of in junior secondary schools.

Finally, curriculum planners will also benefit from the study, since, the results of the study will assist in curriculum planning such as giving information relating to the teaching and learning in junior secondary school, ICT can be utilized in appropriate strategies of curriculum planning, modification and revision.

1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study is based on the effect of ICT on the academic performance of junior secondary school Students of Sabon Gari L.G.A of Kaduna State.
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
In any type of research work, are many hindrances that the researcher must come across in the course of the assignment. The problem encounter in the course of this could be attributed to delays in gathering the relevant data needed for the research work and uncompromising attitude of the people to give the required information. Time is another major limitation as far as the research work in concern. The time needed to implement the work may not be sufficient for logistic reasons.
Financial resources may be lacking in carrying out the required work of the project.

 

1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
1. Effect: A change which is a result or consequence of an action or other cause.
2. ICT: Information and Communication Technology.
3. Academic Performance: Evaluation of students’ expected achievement on academic activities in the class.
4. Information system can be defined technically as a set of interrelated components that collect (or retrieve) process store and distribute information to support decision making coordination and control.
5. Information technology- Is the study or use of electronic equipment especially computers for storing analyzing and distributing information of all kinds which could be used in banking and so many other relevant field.

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 INTRODUCTION

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THE EFFECT OF GENDER INEQUALITY ON WOMEN EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY

THE EFFECT OF GENDER INEQUALITY ON WOMEN EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY

(A STUDY OF MONROVIA STREET, UNGUWAN RIMI – KADUNA)

 

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ABSTRACT

The issue of gender inequality is one which has been publicly reverberating through society for decades. The problem of inequality in employment being one of the most pressing issues today in order to examine this situation, one must try to get to the root of the problem and must understand the sociological factors that cause women to have much more difficult time getting the same benefits wages and job opportunities or their male counterparts therefore, this research work will examine the inequalities in policy, actual teaching situations, admission to post-secondary institution, hiring and job benefit and wages, it will also tackle what is being done to solve this problem and what can be done to remedy the situation.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        i

Declaration –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        ii

Approval page     –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iii

Dedication  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iv

Acknowledgment –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        v

Abstract      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        vi

Table of Contents –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        vii

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY  –        –        –        –        –        1

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM –        –        –        –        –        3

1.3     OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY      –        –        –        –        –        –        3

1.4     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY  –        –        –        –        –        4

1.5     RESEARCH QUESTIONS     –        –        –        –        –        –        5

1.6     SCOPE OF THE STUDY       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        5

 

CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.0     INTRODUCTION         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        6

2.1     THE CONCEPT OF GENDER INEQUALITY   –        –        –        8

2.2     TYPES OF GENDER INEQUALITIES               –        –        –        –        10

2.3     THE EFFECT OF GENDER INEQUALITY ON WOMEN EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        13

2.4     MEASURES TO SOLVE GENDER INEQUALITY     –        –        –        16

 

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.0     INTRODUCTION         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        17

3.1     POPULATION OF THE STUDY     –        –        –        –        –        18

3.2     METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION        –        –        –        –        –        19

3.3     TECHNIQUE OF DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS      –        19

3.4     DATA ANALYSIS        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        21

 

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.0     INTRODUCTION         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        22

4.1     CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS       –        –        –        –        22

 

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1     SUMMARY         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        30

5.2     CONCLUSION    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        30

5.3     RECOMMENDATION –        –        –        –        –        –        –        31

REFERENCES    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        33

APPENDIX          –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        34

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The issue of gender inequality is one which has been publicly reverberally through society for decades. The problem of inequality in employment being one of the most pressing issues today, in order to examine this situation, one must try to get to the root of the problem and must understand the sociological factors that cause women to have a much more difficult time getting the same benefit, wages and job opportunities as their male counterpart. The society in which we live has been shaped historically makes the policy makers have consistently been male and it is important to examine all facts of the problem, but in order to fully tackle the issue on most recognize that this inequality in the work force is rooted in what shape future employees and employers – education. The research work will examine the inequalities in policy, actual teaching situations, admission to post-secondary institution, hiring and job benefits and wages, the situation will also tackle was is being done to solve this problem and what can be done to remedy the situation.

 

Monrovia Street is an area situated in Ungwan Rimi Gabasawa ward under Kaduna North Local Government with a total of least populated area in Gabasawa ward which is more or less like a GRA consist of civil servants, students and businessmen and women etc. the population has made up different tribe such as Hausa, Yoruba, Gwari, Igbo, Nupe, Katab, etc.

Those living in Monrovia are predominantly civil servants that is 80% of people are said to have gainfully employed either by government or private sectors. And of 20% of them are engaged in commercial activities ranging from trading, tailoring, hair dressing, etc out of which 15% where engaged by men only 5% is engaged by women base on the research.

 

I found that women were left behind in time of gainful employment as well as commercial activities in the area. In view of above a lot is expected to be done to bridge the gap between the two genders.

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Men and Women are both equal and both play vital roles in the creation and development of their families in particular and the society in general indeed; the struggle for legal equality has been one of the major concerns of women movement all over the world. Therefore, the sense of insecurity, humiliation and helplessness always keep a woman mum our whole socialization in such that for any unsuccessful marriage which results the who is held responsible. Cultural beliefs and traditions that discriminate against women may be officially discredited but they continued to flourish at the grassroots level, this has been main of this research work.

 

1.3     OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

  1. To find out factors responsible for low employment opportunities of women.
  2. To find out the effort of Government towards reducing gender inequality.
  3. To examine the implication of gender inequality in the society.

 

1.4     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

A research of this nature has to do with gender issues must be of great significance. Gender inequality in terms of employment opportunities, home management and other issues are very critical. Therefore, this research will be of significance in the following areas:

  1. The project work is one of the basic requirements for the award of National Diploma in Social Development.
  2. It is expected to provide solutions to the problem of gender inequality generally and specifically in employment opportunities.
  3. Considering the roles played by human in home and nation building, if genders imbalances are corrected using the recommendation of this research, the nation would be greater, this is another significance.
  4. Researchers may find this work as a foundation for further research.
  5. Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) may find the research work and its recommendation very useful.

 

1.5     RESEARCH QUESTIONS

  1. What are the factors responsible for low employment opportunities of women?
  2. What are the efforts of government towards reducing gender inequality?
  3. What are the implications of gender inequality in the society?

1.6     SCOPE OF THE STUDY

In carrying out the research work, the researcher chose Monrovia Street as area of study and focused on gender inequality on women employment opportunities restricted the finding in the above area.

And most of whom he asked question were women because they are most hit by poverty and vitracy and dominated in terms of wages, salaries and other commercial activities.

In view of the above, the researcher promoted to focus more attention on women in order to find out why the inequality exist and look for a way to find solution and unless something various is done by the government to control the problem.

 

 

CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.0     INTRODUCTION

Gender is a set of characteristics that are seen to distinguish between male and female.

Depending on the context, the discriminating characteristics vary from sex to social role to gender identity (Microsoft Encarta 2009). In 1955, sexologist John Money introduced the terminology distinction between biological sex and gender as a role, before his work, it was uncommon to use gender to refer to anything but grammatical categories. However, Money’s meaning of the word did not become widespread until the 1970s when feminist theory embraced the distinction between biological sex and social construct of gender. Today, the distinction is strictly followed in some context, like feminist literature and in documents such as the World Health Organization (WHO), but in most contexts, even in social Science the meaning of gender  has expended to include sex or even to replace the word.

 

 

Although this bastardization of the meaning of gender occurred gradually since the 1980s, a small acceleration of the process in the scientific literature was observed when Food and Drug Administration started to use gender instead of sex in 1993. Gender is now commonly used even to refer to the physiology of non-human animals, without any implication of social gender roles.

In the English literature, trichotomy between biological sex, psychological gender, and social sex role first appeared in the feminist paper on transexualism in 1978. Some cultures have specific gender – related social roles that can be considered distinct from gender related social roles that can be considered distinct from male and female, such as the hijra of India and Pakistan.

While the Social Science sometimes approach gender as a social construct, and gender studies particularly do the natural sciences, regard biological and behavioural differences in male an females as influencing the development of gender in human, both inform date about how far biological differences influence gender identity formation.

According to Jacob (1995) “gender is constructed both society through interaction as well as biologically through chromosomes, brain structure and hormonal differences”.

“Gender systems are often dichotomous and literachica;’ binary gender system may reflect into the inequalities that manifest in numerous dimensions of daily life. Gender inequality stems from distinctions, whether empirically grounded or socially constructed” (Jerry, 2000).

 

2.1     THE CONCEPT OF GENDER INEQUALITY

According to Prof. S. Mahdi (1990 “Gender Inequalities refers to the obvious or hidden disparities among individuals based on the performance of gender”. This problem in simple term is known as Gender Bias which in simple terms meaning the gender stratification or making difference between a girl and a boy. In Nigeria (in the older time) this problem is mainly seen in the rural area because many rural people think that the girl child is burden on them. But now this is also being seen in the urban areas. That is, in offices, institutions, schools and societies. The afflicted world in which we live is characterized by deeply unequal sharing of this burden of adversities between women and men.

 

However, inequality between men and women can take very many different forms. Indeed, gender inequality is not one homogenous phenomenon, but a collection of disparate and interleaved problems. The issue of gender inequality is one which has been publicly reverberating through societies for decades. The problem of inequality in employment being of the most pressing issues today. In order to examine this situation, one must try to get to the root of the problem and must understand the sociological factors that cause women to have a much difficult time getting the same benefits, wages and job opportunities as their male counterpart. The society in which we live has been shaped historically be males.

 

However, in many part of the world women receive less attention and health care than men do and particularly girls often receive every much less than boys. As a result of this gender bias the mortality rates of females often exceed those of males in these countries. The concept of missing women was devised to give some idea of the enormity of the phenomenon of women’s adversity in mortality focusing on the women who care simply not there, due to unusually high mortality compared with male mortality rates.  In some regions in the world, inequality between women and men directly involves matters of life and death and takes the brutal form of unusually high morality rate of women and a consequent preponderance of women found in societies with little or no gender bias in health care and nutrition (Dr. Justice A.S. Anand, 2009).

 

2.2     TYPES OF GENDER INEQUALITIES

FACTORS MILITATING AGAINST THE INTRODUCTION OF COMPUTER EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

FACTORS MILITATING AGAINST THE INTRODUCTION OF COMPUTER EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS:

A CASE STUDY OF FIVE SCHOOLS IN CHIKUN LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KADUNA STATE

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                                         ABSTRACT

The current study was undertaken in order to establish the factors militating against the introduction of computer education in secondary schools in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna state. The study adopted the descriptive survey design for it was concerned with the gathering of people`s perceptions on the factors hindering the implementation of computer education. The population for the study was made up of 100 respondents from five different private secondary schools in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State. Out of these 100 respondents only 85 made it into the sample. Data were gathered through the use of questionnaires and interviews. The use of these two Instruments enabled data triangulation thus enhancing data validity and reliability. Major findings of the study reveal that there were no budgets for computer procurement in the majority of schools. Funds were inadequate for computer procurement as central government and the school management did not avail finances for computer procurement. However, stakeholders were willing to contribute towards the purchase of computers for computer education. Results also show that there were no teachers qualified to teach computers in schools. Those teachers who offered the subject were not willing to teach the subject mostly likely due to shortages in equipment and the unavailability of in-service computer training programmes. On a positive note, heads of schools and students had a positive attitude towards computer education. The study recommended that school management should source for computers from organizations such as banks. Schools through the school management should charge levies for computer education and government should make it compulsory for schools to offer computer education through policy statements. Teacher training institutions should incorporate computer education into their curriculum. Teachers should be offered administrative and technical support through in-service training programmes. Lastly, communities should be conscientised on the importance of computer education to inculcate in them a paradigm shift.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter one

1.0     Introduction         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        1

  • Background of the study – –        –        –        –        –        –        2
  • Statement of the problem –        –        —       –        –        –        4
  • Purpose of the study –        –        –        –        –        –        –        5
  • Significance of the study – –        –        –        –        –        –        6
  • Research questions –        –        –        –        –        –        –        6
  • Scope of the study – –        –        –        –        –        –        –        7

CHAPTER TWO:LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     Introductions         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        8

2.2     Brief History Computer Education in Nigeria           –        –        –        9

2.3     The Need for computer education in Nigerian Secondary schools         10

2.4     ICT Application in Nigerian Secondary Schools        –        –        –        12

2.5     Factors militating against the introduction of computer

education in secondary schools         –        –        –        –        –        16

2.5.1  The state and availability of resources in the schools       –        –        16

 

 

2.5.2  Budgetary and funding constraints militating against

computer education in schools  –        –        –        –        –        –        18

2.5.3  Availability of training manpower to teach the subject

in the schools        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        18

2.5.4  Attitudes of schools community towards the teaching and

learning of computers in schools        –        –        –        –        –        22

2.5.5  Availability of time           –        –        –        –        –        –        –        24

2.6     Remedies to make sure computer education is

fully implemented in schools –   –        –        –        –        –        –        25

2.7     Technical support  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        26

2.8     Teacher in-service –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        27

 

 

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOLOGY

3.1     Introduction          –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        29

3.2     Restatement of the research questions-       –        –        –        –        30

3.3     Research Design   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        30

3.4     Area of study         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        31

3.5     Population of the study   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        32

3.6     Instruments of data collection   –        –        –        –        –        –        32

3.7     Validation of instrument –        –        –        –        –        –        –        33

3.8     Reliability of the instrument      –        –        –        –        –        –        33

3.9     Procedure for data collection     –        –        –        –        –        –        33

3.10   Method of data analysis   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        34

 

 

CHAPTER FOUR: Data presentation and analysis

4.1     Introduction –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        36

4.2     Analysis on research question   –        –        –        –        –        –        36

4.3     Research Question 1       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        37

4.4     Research Question 2       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        38

4.4     Research Question 3       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        40

4.5     Research Question 4       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        42

4.6     Research Question 5       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        44

4.7     Research Question 6       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        45

 

CHAPTER FIVE: Summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations

5.0     Introduction –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        49

5.1     Re-statement of the Problem-   –        –        –        –        –        –        49

5.2     Summary of procedures   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        50

5.3     Summary of Major findings        –        –        –        –        –        –        50

5.4     Discussing of findings      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        52

5.4.1  Research Questions 1     –        –        –        –        –        –        –        52

5.4.2  Research question 2        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        52

5.4.3  Research Question 3       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        52

5.4.4 Research Question 4        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        55

5.4.5  Research Question 5       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        57

5.4.6  Research Question 6       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        57

5.5     Implication of the study for education and learning –        –        59

5.6     Conclusion   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        61

5.7     Recommendation   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        62

5.8     Suggestions for further study    –        –        –        –        –        –        63

References  –         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        64

Appendix      A –     –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        66

Appendix      B –     –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        67

 

 

 

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1           Distribution of respondents by status

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF TABLES

 

Table 1:           The state and availability of computer resources in  school  –           –           – –   37

Table 2:           Budgetary constraints militating against computer education in schools            38

Table 3:           Availability of trained manpower to teach computers in school-       –           –     40

Table 4:           Attitude of school community towards computer education in schools         –     44

Table 5:           Adequacy of time for the computer lessons on the timetable

Table 6:            Remedies to make sure computer education is fully implemented in school               45

                                                           

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


CHAPTER ONE

1.0     Introduction

In the globalised world, technology has become the in-thing as countries and/or organizations devise means of gaining a competitive edge over the others. In view of this, education systems in individual countries need to be tailor-made to suit this Endeavour. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has played a major role in linking business and individuals far apart in terms of geographical distance. Transactions are being carried out in or outside offices, twenty-four hours a day. In pursuit of the objectives to ensure that the country advances its technology base, Nigeria, through the Ministry of Education, has introduced computer Education in the school curriculum. However, the introduction of computer education has failed to take off in the majority of schools, primary and secondary, rural and urban. Given this scenario, it is necessary for this study to look into factors militating against the implementation of computer education in secondary schools.

In view of the fact that secondary schools are immediate sources of manpower for industry and commerce, it is hoped that ICT literacy could have been taught to students in preparation for employment. This however, has not been the case for the majority of secondary school graduates who have gone job seeking without any knowledge of computers despite their being a prerequisite for employment in many institutions.

  • Background to the Study

Computer education is of paramount importance to national development and it is on this premise that the government of Nigeria sought to introduce computer studies in the education system from primary through to tertiary institutions. The Ministry of Education stipulates that schools should offer technical and vocational subjects to students. At secondary school, a student should enroll for two a technical/vocational subject among which is Computer Studies. It against this background that the government went   about distributing computer equipment in schools across the country. Complementing these efforts, private companies donated and distributed computers to various schools in the state and the country. However, despite such efforts document analysis carried out shows that the majority of schools are not offering the subject. This has been the situation prevailing even in the schools which received the donations of computer packages, for free. This, therefore, has prompted this current research study to find out why computer studies are not being undertaken in the majority of schools despite the significance of the subject to national development and in the face of support from the political and corporate leadership. The study therefore aimed at unearthing those problems hindering the implementation of computer studies in the school curriculum in Secondary schools in Chikun Local Government area of Kaduna state.

 

According to the National Policy on Computer Education (NPCE, 1988), the main aims and objectives of computer literacy and education in schools are considered important bearing in mind the fact that computer studies aid in National Development. The objectives of computer studies in schools include:

  • The development of rudimentary knowledge about information system. Information process techniques and the role of computer in this regard.
  • To impart the knowledge about the use of computer and its applications in everyday life and to develop in the learner an appreciation of computer work.
  • To develop an understanding of the basic principles of operating a computer and expose learners to hands of experience using programmes packages which are relevant to the interest of the pupils on teaching aids to different subject.
  • Creating an understanding of the concept of programming language and their application through problems solving methods and techniques as they apply to the programme design, coding and documentation.
  • To develop reasonable level of competence in ICT applications that will engender entrepreneurial skills.

As a result of the above listed aims and objectives, there is need for the full implementation of computer studies in all levels of Education, most especially at Secondary school level.

Despite the tremendous importance of computer studies, government, schools, pupils and teachers attitude have shown that much is expected to be done to position it well. Most pupils believe that computer study is not a core subject and so do not bother to give it keen attention. Many schools do not place computer studies within the favorable perception, interest and vocational choice of majority of learners as most of them tend to consider it as unnecessary and less important.

There is an increasing demand for a work force in Nigeria in area of technological development and self-reliance; this demand cannot be met without full implementation of Computer Education in schools.

  • Statement of the problem

Due to the fact that computer education has failed to take off in the majority of schools, fears are that Technological development may be a pipe dream for the country. Given this scenario, it is necessary for this Study to look into factors militating against the introduction of computer education in secondary schools in Chikun Local Government area of Kaduna state. The question to be answered by this current study is: What factors have impeded the implementation of computer Education in schools?

  • Purpose of the Study

Through this study, Factors militating against the introduction of computer Education in secondary schools in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna state would be identified, specifically the study will:

  1. Identity the state and availability of computer resources in the Secondary schools in Chikun Local Government Area.
  2. Identify if there any budgetary and funding constraints militating against computer education in Secondary schools in Chikun Government Area.
  3. Identify if there are trained manpower to teach the subject in the Secondary schools in Chikun Local Government Area.
  4. Identify the attitude of the school community towards the teaching and learning of computers in the Secondary schools in Chikun Local Government Area.
  5. Identify the time adequate for the computer lessons to be incorporated on the timetable?
  6. Identify the remedies that can be put in place to make sure computer education is fully implemented in schools?
  • Significance of the Study

When the Factors militating against the introduction of computer Education in secondary schools in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna state are identified and  the remedies that can be put in place to make sure computer education is fully implemented in schools are suggested, the  Chikun Local Government Authority may adopt and integrate such remedies for the  full implementation of computer Education in all the schools under its control. The private secondary schools in Kaduna South Local Government Area could also adopt the remedies suggested.

Teachers in Secondary schools in Kaduna State may be trained in the right direction so as to use the remedies suggested to make sure Computer Education is fully implemented in schools.

  • Research questions
  1. In an attempt to answer the major research question, the following sub problems stood as research questions.
  2. What is the state and availability of computer resources in the Secondary schools in Chikun Local Government Area?
  3. Are there any budgetary and funding constraints militating against computer education in Secondary schools in Chikun Local Government Area?
  4. Are there trained manpower to teach the subject in the Secondary schools in Chikun Local Government Area?
  5. What is the attitude of the school community towards the teaching and learning of computers in Secondary schools in Chikun Local Government Area?
  6. Is time adequate for the computer lessons to be incorporated on the timetable in Secondary schools in Chikun Local Government Area?
  7. What remedies can be put in place to make sure computer education is fully implemented in Secondary schools in Chikun Local Government Area?
  • Scope of the study

The study would identify the Factors militating against the introduction of computer Education in secondary schools in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna state and also enumerate the remedies that can be put in place to make sure computer education is fully implemented in Secondary schools in Chikun Local Government Area.

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1    Introduction

FACTORS MILITATING AGAINST EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF MATHEMATICS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

FACTORS MILITATING AGAINST EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF MATHEMATICS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN UZO-UWANI LOCAL     GOVERNMENT AREA OF ENUGU STATE

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                                                                ABSTRACT

This study was carried out to find out the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of mathematics in secondary schools in Uzo-Uwani local government area of Enugu state. There are five (5) research questions formulated to guide this study. There are eighteen (18) secondary schools in Uzo-Uwani local government area of Enugu state. Out of these secondary schools, ten (10) schools were randomly selected through ballot method. In each of the ten (10) schools selected for the study, two (2) classes of SSII were randomly selected using ballot method; this implies that 440 students were selected for the study. Also six (6) mathematics teachers were randomly selected in each schools used for the study through ballot method, this implies that sixty (60) mathematics teachers were used for the study. The questionnaire was used to collect and analyze the data.

 

The instrument were validated by three (3) experienced mathematics lecturers and two (2) experts in measurement and evaluation all from the department of science and computer education of Enugu State of Science and technology (ESUT), and the test-retest method was used to determine the reliability of the instrument. The data collected from the students were analyzed using the mean respondents’ scores. The result showed that the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of mathematics in secondary schools are as follows; students have negative attitude towards the learning of mathematics, students in mathematics have very poor background, parents have negative attitude towards the learning of mathematics, the learning environment are not well conducive for learning, most of the mathematics teachers are not qualified. It also discussed the implication of the findings and finally recommendations were made to enhance students’ achievement in mathematics.

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction                                                                                                           1

Background of the Study                                                                                     1

Statement of the Problem                                                                                   6

Purpose of the Study                                                                                            7

Significance of the Study                                                                                     8

Scope of the Study                                                                                                            9

Research Question                                                                                                 10

 

CHAPTER TWO

Literature Review                                                                                                            11

2.1      Mathematics Education                                                                           11

2.2      Academic Performance                                                                            14

2.3      Factors that Contributes to Poor Academic Performance             15

2.4      Quality of Mathematics Teachers                                                          15

2.5      Negative Attitude of Students of Mathematics                                 20

2.6      Effective Use of Instructional Materials                                               22

2.7      Provision of Mathematics Laboratory                                                 23

2.8      Recruitment of Qualified Mathematics Teachers                              24

2.9      Lack of Adequate Funding from Government                                   25

2.10   Poor Students’ Background in Mathematics                                      27

2.11   Parental Related Factors                                                                          29

2.12   Unconducive School Environment                                                        30

2.13   Mathemaphobia                                                                                        32

 

 

CHAPTER THREE               

3.0      Research Method                                                                                       34

3.1      Research Design                                                                                         34

3.2      Area of the Study                                                                                       35

3.3      Population of the Study                                                                           35

3.4      Sample and Sampling Techniques                                                         36

3.5      Instrument for Data Collection                                                              36

3.6      Validation of the Instrument                                                                  37

3.7      Reliability of the Instrument                                                                   37

3.8      Method of Data Collection                                                                      38

3.9      Method of Data Analysis                                                                          38

3.10   Decision Rule                                                                                               39

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0      Presentation and Analysis of Data                                                        40

4.1      Research Question 1                                                                                 40

4.2      Research Question 2                                                                                 42

4.3      Research Question 3                                                                                 44

4.4      Research Question 4                                                                                 46

4.5      Research Question 5                                                                                 48

 

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0      Discussion of Findings, Conclusion, Implications

and Recommendations                                                                                        50

5.1      Discussion of Findings                                                                               50

5.2      Conclusion                                                                                                   52

5.3      Recommendations                                                                                     54

5.4      Limitation of the Study                                                                             55

5.5      Summary of the Study                                                                             55

5.6      Suggestion for Further Study                                                                 57

REFERENCES                                                                                                            58

APPENDIX I                                                                                                  63

APPENDIX II                                                                                                 64

QUESTIONNAIRE                                                                                        65

APPENDIX III                                                                                                            70

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1      BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The focus of this study is secondary school education. Secondary education is the stage following primary education. It is generally the final stage of compulsory education. In some country, it is a period of compulsory and a period of non-compulsory education. Secondary education is characterized by transition from the typically compulsory education to selective education for adult.

The content and philosophy of Nigeria education must reflect the past, present and drive into the future of Nigeria society in term of the role the individual is expected to play in the present national building process (Vision 20:2020)

Education is the best legacy given to a child; it is the producer of human capital. It is the truth of existence and centre of life. Every human-being depends on education for truthful, peaceful and wise co-existence. It has witnessed active participation by non-governmental agencies, communities and individual as well as government parastatals in order to bring education to the country. Education is an instrument for national development, it fosters on the worth and development of individual to be self-reliant, just and building egalitarian society (Federal Republic of Nigeria [FRN] 2004).

 

 

Mathematics is all embracing and all encompassing. In virtually all spheres of human endeavor, mathematics was used as an aid in commerce farming and control of environment. Mathematics also proved it usefulness in areas of medicine, engineering, administration and aviation just mention but a few. This was when people felt incomplete without the basic knowledge of arithmetic.

Mathematics calls for adequate concentration and adequate practices. As learners are involved in these activities they develop interest and get motivated, which are well oriented, they enjoy and concentrate there on, no matter how complicated and involving activities maybe.

According to statistics, academic performance in mathematics among secondary school students has bees on the decline since the end of civil war in 1970. The decline is mostly affecting secondary schools in Uzo-Uwani Local Government Area.

 

 

The efforts of the Nigerian government in highlighting the importance of mathematics study in schools by making it compulsory for all students and in addition to the efforts of Mathematics Association of Nigeria (MAN) towards the development of mathematics, student still perform poorly in this subject in both internal and external examination.

Obodo (2004:18) highlighted on this by saying that “A teacher achieves this concentration by beginning the lesson in an officious manner with respect to awaking the interest of students and sustaining if through skillful instructional management. In most cases, teachers fall to observe this skillful instructional management and the obvious result is that the more the teacher teaches, the more confused the student will be and the deeper the aversion and fear for the subject”.

Children need to understand spoken and written expression which involves mathematical concepts and number relationship. They must be able to solve problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.

 

 

Consequently and currently in Nigeria, students are allowed to study some course on gaining admission into universities because of their poor performance in West African School Certificate Examination (WASCE) or National Examination Council (NECO). In consonance, this study will look into the lapses to the government, curriculum develops, textbooks, publisher, teachers and students, families and their members at large and others involved in the education sectors. The constraints in poor achievement in mathematics, as an adage has it “A problem identified is halfway solved” it implies that knowing the constraints will be of immense help in solving it.

According to Leeichi (2007:41), “Learning is the human activity which least needs manipulation by others” this means that everybody is endowed with the ability to learn but an expert (a qualified teacher has to manipulate the endowment, otherwise it becomes disused). Teaching and learning of mathematics is not exceptional.

 

Without effective teaching and learning of mathematics there will be poor performance in mathematics work. Considering the recovery and terrible failure of secondary school students in SSCE, the researcher was forced to ask; what are the factors militating against effective teaching and learning? Some of the pertinent questions often ask are: How widespread is the incident of poor external result among Nigerian students? What is the role of the notation special center in the whole problem? And to what extent have the parent and teacher contributed to the factors militating against effective teaching and learning to student in public examination especially the one being conducted by WAEC and NECO?

Obodo (2004:14) opined that “A shortage of qualified mathematics teachers will result to poor teaching and learning of mathematics and consequently poor achievement and performance of students, which invariably will lead to the production of another generation of poor student achievers who will eventually turn-out to teach mathematics poorly tomorrow”.

 

This illustrates that any student who develops phobia for mathematics cannot learn well. Mathematics is a language of size and order. This explains why some students develop sudden fever whenever it is time for mathematics lesson in a school.

According to National Policy on Education, stated by Obodo (2004), the aims and objectives of secondary education should be as follows:-

  • To provide necessary mathematical background for further education
  • To stimulate and encourage creativity
  • To develop the ability to recognize problems and to solve them with related mathematical knowledge
  • To develop precise, logical and abstract thinking
  • To develop computational skill
  • To generates interest in mathematics and to provide a solid foundation for everyday living
  • To foster the desire and ability to be accurate to degree relevant to the problem at hand

From the above objectives of mathematics, it became quite obvious that even the entire world

race depends on the knowledge of mathematics to achieve it aim and objective. But with recurring and terrible failure among secondary school students in SSCE, how can this aim be achieved.

The focus of this study, the researcher wants to know the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of mathematics in secondary schools.

 

1.2      STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Okpara (2010) stated that over the years students have shown high rate of mass failure in mathematics. He further stated that the problem of mass failure could be attributed on the quality of teaching in schools, saying that unless there was improvement in the teaching and learning in schools, there is little the examination body could do to salvage the already bad situation.

The government, parent, policy makers, mathematics educators, mathematics and different professional organization are bothered about what could be responsible for this factor militating against effective teaching and learning of mathematics.

The researcher is worried about this unfortunate development and he asked, “What are the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of mathematics in secondary schools”?

 

1.3      PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The general purpose of this study is to determine the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of mathematics in secondary schools in Uzo-Uwani local government area of Enugu State.

Specifically, the study intends to find out the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of mathematics in secondary schools from:-

  • The attitude of students towards mathematics
  • Poor foundation from primary mathematics as inherited, affects students’ proficiency in secondary school mathematics
  • Parent attitude
  • Learning environment
  • Quality of mathematics teachers

 

1.4      SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY

The result of this study will be beneficial to students, curriculum planners and developers, parents, textbook publishers, government, teachers.

The result will help students to re-direct their psychological feelings towards mathematics. Also, education planners and policy makers will use the result of this study to proffer possible way for improving the academic factors militating against effective teaching and learning of mathematics in secondary schools.

The result of this study will help the parent in providing the necessary materials needed for effective teaching and learning of mathematics for their children so that they can develop interest in it.

The result of this study will help the government to provide instructional materials to secondary school students’ better performance.

The result of this study will aid mathematics teachers to evaluate themselves and in turn improve upon their teaching method.

 

1.5      SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This study is limited to identifying the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of mathematics in secondary schools in Uzo-Uwani Local Government Area of Enugu State.

This study is limited to the attitude of students, poor foundation in primary mathematics as inherited affects students’ proficiency in secondary school mathematics, parent attitude, environment factors and qualities of mathematics teachers.

 

1.6      RESEARCH QUESTION

The following research questions were formulated to guide the study:

  • What are the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of mathematics in secondary schools “from the attitude of students towards mathematics”
  • What are the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of mathematics in secondary schools “from the foundation of mathematics”
  • What are the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of mathematics in secondary schools “from the attitude of parents”
  • What are the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of mathematics in secondary schools “from the learning environment”
  • What are the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of mathematics in secondary schools “from the mathematics teachers”

 

CHAPTER TWO

 

2.0      LITERATURE REVIEW

The review of literature is presented under the following sub-headings:

AN ASSESSMENT OF METHODS OF TEACHING ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN SELECTED NIGERIAN POLYTECHNICS

AN ASSESSMENT OF METHODS OF  TEACHING ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN SELECTED  NIGERIAN POLYTECHNICS

 

 

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ABSTRACT

 

This study was carried out to find out An assessment of methods of

Teaching English language in selected Nigerian polytechnics. There are five (5) research questions formulated to guide this study. There are eighteen (18) secondary schools in Uzo-Uwani local government area of Enugu state. Out of these secondary schools, ten (10) schools were randomly selected through ballot method. In each of the ten (10) schools selected for the study, two (2) classes of SSII were randomly selected using ballot method; this implies that 440 students were selected for the study. Also six (6) English teachers were randomly selected in each schools used for the study through ballot method, this implies that sixty (60) English teachers were used for the study.

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The questionnaire was used to collect and analyze the data. The instrument were validated by three (3) experienced English lecturers and two (2) experts in measurement and evaluation all from the department of science and English education of Enugu State of Science and technology (ESUT), and the test-retest method was used to determine the reliability of the instrument. The data collected from the students were analyzed using the mean respondents’ scores.

 

The result showed that the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of English in secondary schools are as follows; students have negative attitude towards the learning of English, students in English have very poor background, parents have negative attitude towards the learning of English, the learning environment are not well conducive for learning, most of the English teachers are not qualified. It also discussed the implication of the findings and finally recommendations were made to enhance students’ achievement in English.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction                                                                                     1

Background of the Study                                                                            1

Statement of the Problem                                                                  6

Purpose of the Study                                                                        7

Significance of the Study                                                                            8

Scope of the Study                                                                                     9

Research Question                                                                                      10

 

CHAPTER TWO

Literature Review                                                                                      11

2.1     English Education                                                                   11

2.2     Academic Performance                                                            14

2.3     Factors that Contributes to Poor Academic Performance                 15

2.4     Quality of English Teachers                                                    15

2.5     Negative Attitude of Students of English                       20

2.6     Effective Use of Instructional Materials                                  22

2.7     Provision of English Laboratory                                             23

2.8     Recruitment of Qualified English Teachers                    24

2.9     Lack of Adequate Funding from Government                         25

2.10   Poor Students’ Background in English                                             27

2.11   Parental Related Factors                                                                   29

2.12   Unconducive School Environment                                          30

2.13   English Terminology                                                                         32

 

 

CHAPTER THREE              

3.0     Research Method                                                                     34

3.1     Research Design                                                                      34

3.2     Area of the Study                                                                    35

3.3     Population of the Study                                                          35

3.4     Sample and Sampling Techniques                                           36

3.5     Instrument for Data Collection                                                         36

3.6     Validation of the Instrument                                                   37

3.7     Reliability of the Instrument                                                    37

3.8     Method of Data Collection                                                      38

3.9     Method of Data Analysis                                                                  38

3.10   Decision Rule                                                                          39

 

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CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     Presentation and Analysis of Data                                          40

4.1     Research Question 1                                                                40

4.2     Research Question 2                                                                42

4.3     Research Question 3                                                                44

4.4     Research Question 4                                                                46

4.5     Research Question 5                                                                48

 

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     Discussion of Findings, Conclusion, Implications

and Recommendations                                                                      50

5.1     Discussion of Findings                                                            50

5.2     Conclusion                                                                              52

5.3     Recommendations                                                                             54

5.4     Limitation of the Study                                                           55

5.5     Summary of the Study                                                            55

5.6     Suggestion for Further Study                                                  57

 

REFERENCES                                                                                 58

APPENDIX I                                                                                    63

APPENDIX II                                                                                   64

QUESTIONNAIRE                                                                          65

APPENDIX III                                                                                  70


 

CHAPTER ONE

                                         

  • INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Education is an important sector which cannot be fun with any serious country, state, organization or individual and that is why an individual, organization or government uses every means to make sure a good education is provided for her citizens (Adibe, 2001)

 

 

The focus of this study is secondary school education. Secondary education is the stage following primary education. It is generally the final stage of compulsory education. In some country, it is a period of compulsory and a period of non-compulsory education. Secondary education is characterized by transition from the typically compulsory education to selective education for adult.

The content and philosophy of Nigeria education must reflect the past, present and drive into the future of Nigeria society in term of the role the individual is expected to play in the present national building process (Vision 20:2020)

 

 

Education is the best legacy given to a child; it is the producer of human capital. It is the truth of existence and centre of life. Every human-being depends on education for truthful, peaceful and wise co-existence. It has witnessed active participation by non-governmental agencies, communities and individual as well as government parastatals in order to bring education to the country. Education is an instrument for national development, it fosters on the worth and development of individual to be self-reliant, just and building egalitarian society (Federal Republic of Nigeria [FRN] 2004).

 

English is all embracing and all encompassing. In virtually all spheres of human endeavor, English was used as an aid in commerce farming and control of environment. English also proved it usefulness in areas of medicine, engineering, administration and aviation just mention but a few. This was when people felt incomplete without the basic knowledge of arithmetic.

English calls for adequate concentration and adequate practices. As learners are involved in these activities they develop interest and get motivated, which are well oriented, they enjoy and concentrate there on, no matter how complicated and involving activities maybe.

 

 

According to statistics, academic performance in English among secondary school students has bees on the decline since the end of civil war in 1970. The decline is mostly affecting secondary schools in Uzo-Uwani Local Government Area.

The efforts of the Nigerian government in highlighting the importance of English study in schools by making it compulsory for all students and in addition to the efforts of English Association of Nigeria (MAN) towards the development of English, student still perform poorly in this subject in both internal and external examination.

 

 

Obodo (2004:18) highlighted on this by saying that “A teacher achieves this concentration by beginning the lesson in an officious manner with respect to awaking the interest of students and sustaining if through skillful instructional management. In most cases, teachers fall to observe this skillful instructional management and the obvious result is that the more the teacher teaches, the more confused the student will be and the deeper the aversion and fear for the subject”.

Children need to understand spoken and written expression which involves English and its communication means. They must be able to solve problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.

 

Consequently and currently in Nigeria, students are allowed to study some course on gaining admission into universities because of their poor performance in West African School Certificate Examination (WASCE) or National Examination Council (NECO). In consonance, this study will look into the lapses to the government, curriculum develops, textbooks, publisher, teachers and students, families and their members at large and others involved in the education sectors. The constraints in poor achievement in English, as an adage has it “A problem identified is halfway solved” it implies that knowing the constraints will be of immense help in solving it.

According to Leeichi (2007:41), “Learning is the human activity which least needs manipulation by others” this means that everybody is endowed with the ability to learn but an expert (a qualified teacher has to manipulate the endowment, otherwise it becomes disused). Teaching and learning of English is not exceptional.

 

 

Without effective teaching and learning of English there will be poor performance in English work. Considering the recovery and terrible failure of secondary school students in SSCE, the researcher was forced to ask; what are the factors militating against effective teaching and learning? Some of the pertinent questions often ask are: How widespread is the incident of poor external result among Nigerian students?

 

What is the role of the notation special center in the whole problem? And to what extent have the parent and teacher contributed to the factors militating against effective teaching and learning to student in public examination especially the one being conducted by WAEC and NECO?

 

Obodo (2004:14) opined that “A shortage of qualified English teachers will result to poor teaching and learning of English and consequently poor achievement and performance of students, which invariably will lead to the production of another generation of poor student achievers who will eventually turn-out to teach English poorly tomorrow”.

 

This illustrates that any student who develops phobia for English cannot learn well. English is a language of size and order. This explains why some students develop sudden fever whenever it is time for English lesson in a school.

According to National Policy on Education, stated by Obodo (2004), the aims and objectives of secondary education should be as follows:-

  • To provide necessary English background for further education
  • To stimulate and encourage creativity
  • To develop the ability to recognize problems and to solve them with related English knowledge
  • To develop precise, logical and abstract thinking
  • To develop computational skill
  • To generates interest in English and to provide a solid foundation for everyday living
  • To foster the desire and ability to be accurate to degree relevant to the problem at hand

From the above objectives of English, it became quite obvious that even the entire world

 

 

race depends on the knowledge of English to achieve it aim and objective. But with recurring and terrible failure among secondary school students in SSCE, how can this aim be achieved.

The focus of this study, the researcher wants to know the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of English in secondary schools.

 

 

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Okpara (2010) stated that over the years students have shown high rate of mass failure in English. He further stated that the problem of mass failure could be attributed on the quality of teaching in schools, saying that unless there was improvement in the teaching and learning in schools, there is little the examination body could do to salvage the already bad situation.

The government, parent, policy makers, English educators, English and different professional organization are bothered about what could be responsible for this factor militating against effective teaching and learning of English.

The researcher is worried about this unfortunate development and he asked, “What are the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of English in secondary schools”?

 

 

1.3     PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The general purpose of this study is to determine the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of English in secondary schools in Uzo-Uwani local government area of Enugu State.

Specifically, the study intends to find out the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of English in secondary schools from:-

 

  • The attitude of students towards English
  • Poor foundation from primary English as inherited, affects students’ proficiency in secondary school English
  • Parent attitude
  • Learning environment
  • Quality of English teachers

 

1.4     SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY

The result of this study will be beneficial to students, curriculum planners and developers, parents, textbook publishers, government, teachers.

The result will help students to re-direct their psychological feelings towards English. Also, education planners and policy makers will use the result of this study to proffer possible way for improving the academic factors militating against effective teaching and learning of English in secondary schools.

 

The result of this study will help the parent in providing the necessary materials needed for effective teaching and learning of English for their children so that they can develop interest in it.

The result of this study will help the government to provide instructional materials to secondary school students’ better performance.

The result of this study will aid English teachers to evaluate themselves and in turn improve upon their teaching method.

 

 

1.5     SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This study is limited to identifying the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of English in secondary schools in Uzo-Uwani Local Government Area of Enugu State.

This study is limited to the attitude of students, poor foundation in primary English as inherited affects students’ proficiency in secondary school English, parent attitude, environment factors and qualities of English teachers.

 

 

1.6     RESEARCH QUESTION

The following research questions were formulated to guide the study:

  • What are the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of English in secondary schools “from the attitude of students towards English”
  • What are the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of English in secondary schools “from the foundation of English”
  • What are the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of English in secondary schools “from the attitude of parents”
  • What are the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of English in secondary schools “from the learning environment”
  • What are the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of English in secondary schools “from the English teachers”

 

AN ASSESSMENT OF METHODS OF  TEACHING ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN SELECTED  NIGERIAN POLYTECHNICS