Cooperative Education/Training and Effective Management of Co-Operative Business Enterprises

Cooperative Education/Training and Effective Management of Co-Operative Business Enterprises”, with a special focus on the cooperative societies in Udi LGA.

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CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Cooperative Education/Training is one of the cooperative principles which seek to provide Education/Training for cooperative members, elected representatives, managers and employees, so that they can contribute effectively to the development of their cooperative.  Its importance cannot be overemphasized in cooperative development.  Cooperative education/training stands in the centre of the cooperative movement.

From the inception of the early cooperative of Rochadale, the pioneers of the world cooperatives movement, one of the unique tasks embarked upon was philosophy and practice of cooperative.  Even in the recent review of cooperative principles in 1966, the International Cooperative Alliance “ICA” re-stated Cooperative Education/Training as one of the cardinal principles of cooperation.  The cooperative rules laws and bye-laws of respective cooperative societies and the 1993 cooperative decree stipulated that some percentage of the cooperative society surplus should be appropriated as a provision for education, training and information of the members, management committee and other cooperative officials.  The management of cooperative business enterprises is a body of elected members in a cooperative society who handles the affairs and the day to day running of the cooperative business enterprise.  The importance of management in any organization is axiomatic.  The success or failure of an organization depends to a great extent on the quality of the management committee.

 

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Therefore officers and management of cooperative business enterprise required a more technical education/training to be able to control the management.  Moreover, in order to alleviate the problems of illiteracy, ignorance of members, misconduct and poor management. Cooperative education/training and management of cooperative business enterprises must be tenaciously pursued.

 

  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

          Generally, history of cooperatives education in the developing countries of the world reveals that the main cause of rickety foundation of cooperation has been the lack of cooperative education/training.

Lack of cooperative education/training is disloyalty of members, high incidence of over-due and unpaid loans, low attendance at meetings, ignorance of members’ proposals, poor member relations, bad management, low productivity resulting in little or no surplus, poor public image, inability to change with the times and other harmful result.

Lack of education/training and business inexperienced limits the effectiveness of managers, president, secretaries, treasurers and other management committee members.  Quite often, some people come together as members pool their resources together and form a cooperative society without the proper cooperative ideology.  They enter into cooperative business for political or personal interests, without adequate cooperative education/training to equip them for an effective task…

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THE IMPORTANCE OF STUDYING PRINCIPLES AND ECONOMICS OF CO-OPERATIVE AS A QUALIFYING SUBJECT FOR THE AWARD OF OND IN BUSINESS STUDIES (BUS 123)

THE IMPORTANCE OF STUDYING PRINCIPLES AND ECONOMICS OF CO-OPERATIVE AS A QUALIFYING SUBJECT FOR THE AWARD OF OND IN BUSINESS STUDIES

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PREFACE

 

The problems faced by co-operatives and students studying co-operative Economics stems from their lack of understanding of the co-operative principles and the uniqueness of the co-operative Business Enterprise.

 

In this project the principles of co-operative were reviewed to enable readers understand the basic concept underlying the co-operative principles.  It analyzed the basic steps to be taken in the organization of a viable co-operative society, since it possess  a major problem in the co-operative movement.

 

I hope that co-operators who read this project will be able to at least be able to organize a successful co-operative society.

Chapter One

Meaning of Co-operative

Co-operative Value

 

Chapter Two

Principles of Co-operative Business

I.C.A Principles of 1937

Voluntary and Open Membership

Democratic Member Control

Member economic participation

Autonomy and Independence

Education, Training and Information

Co-operation among Co-operatives

Concern for Community

 

Chapter Three

The Rochdale Pioneers I.C.A

Aim of the I.C.A

I.C.A Membership

Types of membership

  1. Collective membership
  2. Individual membership
  3. Ordinary membership

Rights of members.

Duties of members

Past I.C. A Congresses

 

Chapter Four

Introduction

Reasons for joining co-operatives

  1. Economic motive
  2. Sociological motive
  • External pressure

Classification and Types of co-operatives

Producer co-operative society/movement.

 

Chapter Five

  1. Findings
  2. Recommendations

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

MEANING OF CO-OPERATIVE

The co-operative institution will tell us that the co-operative institution is about people. It’s about a business.  It is in line with these assertion that various definitions of this subject have been postulated by some school of thoughts.  Whereas some scholars see co-operative or define co-operative as an association of person usually of limited means who have voluntarily joined together to achieve a common Economic goals through the formation of a democratically  controlled business organization, making equitable contribution to the capital required and accepting a fair share of the risk and benefits of the undertaking in which the members actively participate.

 

Other International Co-operative Alliance (I.C.A) compliments with the view that co-operative is an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly owned and democratically controlled enterprise.

 

Furthermore, a co-operative society can be defined as an enterprise formed and directed by association of users applying within itself the rules of democracy and directly intended to save both its own members and the community as a whole.

 

Finally, according to (Bob-Igwe, 1993:15), he defined Co-operative as a voluntary, evolutionary democratic process resulting from initiative and enterprise at the “grassroots” by individuals motivated by the principle of self -help and mutual aid.

 

From the above definition we can infer that the co-operative society is basically:-

  1. An association of persons
  2. A union of capital
  3. A common need to solve a mutual problem (self help.)

Co-operative Value.

Values are basic conceptions of what is good or bad, a standard for behaviour and quicker for action when properly inculcated.  The I.C.A in 1995 amended the 1966 principles of co-operatives, the principles were derived from co-operative values which clearly states the co-operative attitude to social and economic life which distinguishes them from other forms of business.

 

When we understand the co-operative values, then we can understand the nature of co-operatives.  Co-operative values are stated by the I.C.A in 1995.

  1. Self-help
  2. Democracy
  3. Equality
  4. Equity
  5. Solidarity
  6. Honesty
  7. Openness
  8. Social responsibility
  9. Caring for others.

These values can be divided into two parts namely:

  1. Organization related values.
  2. Moral behaviour related values.

 

The first set of values deal with the happenings inside the co-operative complex, which relates to the effectivity and efficiency in the co-operative society.  While the second group of values are concerned with what is good and what is bad.

 

Self-Help:-  Basically a co-operative is an association of persons who come together to solve a common problem which they cannot solve on their own.  The idea of self-help springs to mind immediately, the need for them to assist one another in solving an immediate problem and not rallying on the government or other external bodies to come to their aid.  These doesn’t take out the possibility of it getting external assistance.  They can of course enjoy that through their joint effort – a self-help.

 

Democracy:-  In the co-operative society each member has only one vote irrespective of his contribution to the organization in capital and effort.  This originated from the Rochdale Pioneers and was an attempt at safeguarding the organization from their multiple share holders who may tend to dictate the tune for running the co-operative business enterprise.

 

Equality:-  Without any discrimination of sex, race, religion, politics, creed, social status and economic class, men are equal.  In the conduct of the affairs of a society, members are regarded as equals and treated as such.  In simple analysis, equality entails same right to participation, right to be informed, right to be heard, right to be involved in decision making and executive work.  The value of equality recognizes the importance of all members not minding their social status or economic contribution to the society.

 

Equity:-  While the society tends to recognize all their members as being equal, it would also be unfair not to acknowledge the fact that some members may have played very active role for the success of the co-operative business through high patronage, higher capital contribution.  According to Onuoha, equity means proportional equality.  This is usually represented in percentages for instance, 10 percent of shareholding of patronage, etc..  what is being emphasized here is that all will not benefit equally but one should benefit to the extent of his/her involvement in the society.

 

Furthermore, equity also relates to how their parties are treated.  By this I mean how employees, suppliers, creditors and other non-member customers are handled by the society.  The rule of equity means that each of these receives a fair share of their industry.  Co-operative wealth or earnings must be distributed on the basis of one’s contribution.

 

Solidarity:-  The most important co-operative value is self help while the second most important is solidarity.  Solidarity simply stated means unity, interdependency and mutual support.  They need to stand together to be able to carry out decisions which have been jointly taken by the members of co-operative.  Alone members would be unable to stand but united they stand strong.

 

Honesty:-  Honesty has always been applied in the running of the co-operative enterprise.  The Rochdale Pioneers made it one of the rules when they insisted on sales of pure and unadulterated goods.  The value states that members of the co-operative and their officers should be honest in their transactions with the co-operative business enterprise clearly stating all their transactions for members accordingly.

 

Openness:-  Co-operative society is a social group, not a secret society or a cult.  It is also a public organization.  Therefore openness states that the members of the co-operative should give clear statement of their transaction, which should be recorded and made it available to all members on demand to inspect, commend or criticize.

 

For many co-operatives in Nigeria, one major problem has always been mismanagement  characterized by abuse of office by officers, embezzlement of funds, fraudulent conversion of associations property to personal use, etc.  if the c…

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The Role Of Voluntary And Open Membership In Increasing The Efficiency Of Cooperative Societies

The Role Of Voluntary And Open Membership In Increasing The Efficiency Of Cooperative Societies

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Abstract

This study examines the role of Voluntary and Open Membership Principle in societies. A survey method was used for the study. They were members of NNPC-KRPC Staff Multipurpose Cooperative Society. A 5-item questionnaire was used for the study. The questionnaire was based on liker scale. Four (4) research questions were developed to guide the study. Frequencies and mean scores were used as statistical analysis. Research findings show that Voluntary and Open Membership Principle is well followed can improve societies which can adequately promote the socio economic standard of members. It was recommended that good orientation should be given to members so as to make them abide by the principle.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the Study

Cooperative is a voluntary organization that is established within the people with common interest in cooperative there are some principles that guided the operation of cooperative business as stated by (ICA 1995). The first among the seven (7) principle is voluntary and open membership which is the area of consideration in this study. The principle require that membership of any cooperative society should be left open to new intending members without any artificial restriction it means that cooperative societies are non exclusive clubs of a few person or as private companies.

 

 

 

The spirit behind this principle means that in cooperative societies, members have to view properly and business enterprises of the society not in the selfish, egocentric spirit of capitalism but in the cooperative spirit of solidarity and universal brotherhood. The society must be prepared to admit new members, it is like a work of social service to mankind, new members may come in and enjoy the fruits of the society built up by the old and past members.

 

 

Chukwu (1990) says advantage of cooperative openness is that open door policy of the cooperative not only makes good philosophy. It also makes cooperative movement to spread throughout the whole nation/world, thud making the benefits of membership good because of the process of integration.

 

 

Again, Amahalu (2006) says voluntary and open membership makes the business to increase volume by volume. The more people join the cooperative business, the greater the chance of the group achieving its objectives in terms of skills, capital volume of production and sales.

In cooperative practice voluntary and open membership is not absolute because there is need for selection, what we have in cooperative is “qualified openness” not everybody that apply has the automatic right to be admitted. Dishonest men, non Conformist, those whose purpose would detrimental to the aims of the society, or who will not obey the rules of the society, such people obviously would not be admitted.

 

Obodoechi (2002), explain that cooperative societies are not complete welfare organization with business entity there is need for selection because not everybody can meet the financial requirements like minimum share holding. Entrance fees monthly savings etc. Although cooperative law made the financial requirement to be small (minimum) but yet some may not afford it.

 

 

 

Further more, there is the need for selection in membership of cooperative organization because of the need for a limited degree of homogeneity e.g Farmers Marketing Cooperative Society cannot accept somebody who is not a farmer, a cooperative society that is for a particular church, mosque, school cannot accept one who is a member of the above mentioned groups.

Again cooperative voluntary and open membership is not absolute because cooperative law specified the minimum age for membership except infant cooperative organization. But the age specification differs from country to country and region to region.

 

Finally, the membership openness is not absolute in cooperative organization because the guidelines for membership are always clearly stated in the cooperative law and bye-law of individual societies. Any intending member must abide with the guideline before he/she is admitted and the society has the right to admit or not to admit but the right not to admit must be exercised rationally and not arbitrarily.

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  • Statement of the Problem

The nature of cooperative is to be free for any qualified individual to joint without any gender, social racial, political or religious discrimination. This was clearly expressed in the principle of voluntary and open membership, for instance Chuckwu 1990; Amahala, 2006 agrees that voluntary and open membership make cooperative business to increase volume by volume, the more people joint the cooperative business the greater the chance of the group achieving its objectives in terms of skills, capital volume of production and…

 

 

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PROBLEMS OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT IN GOVERNMENT OWNED ESTABLISHMENT

PROBLEMS OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT IN GOVERNMENT OWNED ESTABLISHMENT

(A CASE STUDY OF ENUGU STATE BOARD OF INTERNAL REVENUE)

 

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ABSTRACT

 

This work fries to find out the problems of personnel management in government owned establishment a case study of Enugu state board of internal revenue.

As very Nigerian literally depressed over the ineffective ad inefficient performance of most government owned establishment such a situation makes null of the good intentions of government in setting up such organization. From the work of earlier researches and seminars and talks delivered by eminent scholars it is widely believed that the reason why government owned establishment have remained insoluble hangs on management more especially personnel management. The work set out unravel these seeming mysteries, the administration of Enugu state Board of internal revenue which have caused so much groaning pains, agony and frustration to their staff and even larger society has been responsible for improper  taxation in Enugu state. To ascertain these problems, these problems, a questionnaire was drawn in which the preliminary question sought to identify the person of the respondent ie her personal data. The rest of the question was on the various aspects of what could be responsible for the problem hindering the smooth and efficient running of the establishment. It was gathered that the main reason for problem of personnel management are as follows:

Lack of motivational policies for employees.

Enugu state board of internal revenue had not articulated a meaningful training programme for their workers the board of internal revenue had not being to promote their staff as and when packages of the board were not promising and are not comparable to other in similar establishments.

                                TABLE OF CONTENT

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.1     Background of the study

1.2     Statement of problem

1.3     Objective of the study

1.4     Scope of the study

1.5     Research Questions

1.6     Significance of the study

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVEIEW

2.1     Theoretical Framework

2.2     Motivation in Work-Needs and Their Satisfaction

 

CHAPTER THREE

METHODOLOGY                                                     

3.1     Design of study

3.2     Population of study

3.2.1. Sample Technique

3.3     Instrument for data collection

3.4     Validity of instrument

3.5     Reliability of the instrument

3.6     Method of data collection

3.7     Method of data analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

Data presentation and analysis

Distribution and collection of questionnaire

CHAPTER FIVE

Summary and conclusion

5.1     Discussion of results

5.2     Conclusion

5.3     Recommendation

5.4     Limitation of study

Bibliography

Questionnaire

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Before its establishment, the then Anambra State Board of Internal Revenue, was established under the Anambra state of  Nigeria Civil Service edict with its Headquarters at Enugu Secretariat.  The Board had its four zonal offices (Enugu zone, Fegge zone, Nsukka zone and Abakaliki zone).

Enugu state Board of Internal Revenue came into being after creation of state from old Anambra state in August 27th 1991.  The Board had its first Director in the person of Chief H.O. Attama with over one thousand, two hundred staff.

It was left with three zonal offices (Enugu, Nsukka and Abakaliki zones) Today Enugu State Boad of Internal Revenue exists with only two zonal offices (Enugu and Nsukka zones) after carving out Abakaliki from Enugu state in 1996.

The state Board of internal Revenue still has its head office at the state secretariate opposite Enugu state Criminal Investigation Divisional (CID) office.

Its statutory services is collecting and accounting for Taxes due to the state.

The Enugu state Board of internal Revenue today has staff Board of internal Revenue today has staff strength of  Nine hundred and fifty with the following departments:

1.       The policy section (chairman office)

2.       Public Relations office

The Internal Audit

HOD collection

HOD Assessment

HOD Personnel

HOD Capital Gain Tax (other taxes)

HOD statistics

 

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The problems that hindered the smooth and efficient

Running of this establishment included the following:

Enugu state Board of Internal Revenue has diversed and varied personnel management problem which includes lack of motivation policies for their employee.

Enugu state Board of Internal Revenue had not articulated a meaningful training or retaining programmes for their workers

The state Board of Internal Revenue had not been promoting their staff as and when due.

The welfare packages of the state Board of Internal Revenue were not promoting and cannot be compared to other similar establishments.

 

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

There are numerous reasons why government set up this establishment.  The establishment is in public sector with the emphasis on revenue generation.  It is expected that as revenue organization that it can constitute a binder to the public and the government that formed it and this may include:

To investigate the motivational policies of the Enugu State Board of Internal Revenue.  Revenue to enhance revenue generation in the state.

To examine the training programmes of the Board with a view to evolving one tail to meet the needs of the employee.

To find out why Enugu State Board of Internal Revenue are not promoting their workers as and when due.

To appraise the welfare packages of the Board and compare it with those of  other establishment.

 

SCOPE OF STUDY

The scope of this study covers:

The activities of personnel management in government owned establishment as represented by Enugu State Board of Internal Revenue.

The activities of personnel management in government owned corporations as represented by Enugu State water Corporation

 

15.          RESEARCH QUESTIONS

To what extent does personnel management meet what is required from it to Enugu State Board of Internal Revenue?

To what extent does Enugu State Board of Internal Revenue consider experience in engaging worker?

To what extent does the Enugu State Board in Internal Revenue sponsor Personnel management training both internal and external?

What kind of leadership style does the Board of Internal Revenue applies in their operations?

 

 

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HOW TO IMPROVE AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION THROUGH CO-OPERATIVE

HOW TO IMPROVE AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION THROUGH CO-OPERATIVE   (A CASE STUDY OF NDOKWA WEST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF DELTA STATE)

 

COMPLETE PROJECT  MATERIAL COST 3000 NAIRA

 

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ABSTRACT

 

The research work on the topic “How to improve Agricultural production through co-operative (A case study of  Ndokwa West L. G. A Delta State Co-operative as was carried out to survey the past programmes and polities constituted by government to mobilize peasant farmers into agricultural co-operative and functional ones more productive as a way of facilitating the attainment of self-sufficiency in agricultural productivity in the country.

 

The general constrains that affect the achievement of the objectives in Ndokwa West local government area was identified.  These include ill conceived and inefficient extension services, inadequate farm storage facilities and organized marketing outlets, use of crude farming implements.  Complex land tenure system, non-restriction of membership which might bring in people of questionable characters whose membership may lead to the down fall of the society among others.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

CHAPTER ONE

  • Introduction

 

 

1.1  Background of the study

  • Statement of Problems
  • Objective of the study
  • Importance of the study
  • Scope and Limitation of the Study
  • Research Questions
  • Definition of terms

CHAPTER TWO

  • Literature review

2.1  Importance of Improving Agric Production

  • Co-operative as a means of improving Agricultural Production.
  • Problem imposed by co-operative on agricultural programme
  • Agricultural co-operative
  • Function of marketing co-operative in improving agricultural production.
  • Production promotion co-operative societies.
  • Method of investigation
  • Method of Data analysis.

CHAPTER TH REE

  • Research Methodology

3.1  Population of the study

3.2. Sources of data

  • Primary Sources
  • Secondary sources
  • Method of Investigation
  • Method of data analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Data Presentation

 

CHAPTER FIVE

  • Summary of Findings

5.1  Recommendations

  • Conclusion

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Every student requires a particular institutional framework.  One of such framework of the student is the co-operative.  The word co-operative can have different interpretation.  In a layman’s language, it means working together on working mutually.  The second interpretation , which is where the emphasis means a special type of co-operative.  The co-operative has been defined by different schools of thought but the various in the degree of emphasis on one aspect or the other.

 

The school of thought describes co-operative as business undertaking owned and operated by voluntary associations in order to provide themselves with work and wages or with goods and services.

 

But the International Co-operative Alliance (I C A) defined co-operative as an autonomous association of persons, limited voluntarily to meet their common economic, social and cultural needs aspirations through a jointly owned and democratically controlled enterprises.  The role of co-operative in agricultural is an important topic of study but already much has been done by co-operators to justify its prime role of score securing economic and political development particularly in developed countries like England known for consumer co-operatives.  France known for industrial co-operative and Germany known for credit co-operative.  Co-operative movement is world wide phenomenon.  It has developed from simple traditional form(s) of mutual institution  of modern formally organized institution.

 

This institution gained world wide acceptance because of the grate role.  It has been playing in the economic development of various countries particularly in the developing countries.  The improvement of agricultural production through co-operative inevitable has social effects.  Co-operative management bring better yield which in turn yields better living standard, better housing, better  education for members and their families.  This economic success of co-operative society has been witnessed invaluably in co-operative studies.

 

In Delta State, most inhabitants survive through and the main occupation is substantial farming, which attracted interest many co-operative societies, both existing ones and new initiated ones.  Improving the agricultural production was their main target and interest and at the same time lifting the level of its individuals.  Improvement target was both in size and qualities were poor and could not be marketed most of the crops having pest scales and most couldn’t grow well in other to produce as expected.  The product that were severely affected were yam tubers, cassava stems and tubers, cocoa yams, vegetables.

 

  • STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Nigeria had embarked on various programmes and  policies  costing hundreds of millions of naira aimed at reviving the depressed agricultural sector.

In view of this, agricultural co-operative was instituted so as to organize the small scale farmers who are still involved in manual labour type of farming in co-operative and had failed to produce enough food for our teeming population thereby the country to be involved in importation of large quantity of food with a huge percentage decline in agricultural exports.

 

All those governmental effort have not actually had much significant improvement in this sector as much emphasis now being placed on agriculture.  The call for urgent re-examination of the role of these agricultural production sure it’s aim of facilitating the attainment of self-sufficiency in agriculture and making agriculture to take its prime position in the national economy of this country in danger.

 

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