Category Archives: mass communication project topics and materials for final year students

THE ROLE OF MASS MEDIA IN ANTI-CHILD ABUSE AND TRAFFICKING CAMPAIGN

THE ROLE OF MASS MEDIA IN ANTI-CHILD ABUSE AND TRAFFICKING CAMPAIGN

(A CASE STUDY OF OWERRI METRO-POLIS)

 

 

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TABLE OF CONTENT

 

CHAPTER ONE

  • Introduction

1.1     Statement of problem

1.2     Purpose of the study

1.3     Significance of study

1.4     Research Question

1.5     Delimitation / Limitation

1.6     Definition of terms and concept

 

CHAPTER TWO

  • Literature Review

2.1     The concept of Mass Media

2.2     Theoretical framework / The Nigerian Mass Media Interest in the Anti-child trafficking and abuse.

2.3     The Mass Media as an agent of socialization

2.4     Nigerian Mass Media in the campaign against child trafficking and abuse.

2.5     Barriers to the Mass Media anti-child trafficking and abuse camping in Nigeria.

2.6     Criminal nature and legal framework of child trafficking and abuse

2.7     The Mass Media effect

2.8     Communication and language

CHAPTER THREE

  • Research Methodology

3.1     Research design

3.2     Area of study

3.3     Population

3.4     Sample size

3.5     The sampling technique

3.6     Instrument of data collection

3.7     Validity of Instrument

 

CHAPTER FOUR

Data Presentation

Presentation and Analysis

 

CHAPTER FIVE

Summary of Findings Conclusive Recommendation

5.1     Summary of finding

Conclusion

Summary

Suggestion for further Research

References

Appendix

ABSTRACT

This study on the role of the mass media in anti-child abuse in Nigeria. A survey of Owerri metropolis. The study is aimed at addressing the role of the media on their campaign against child trafficking and abuse in Nigeria and to examine their effort being made as well, and also to have an overview of their encumbrances and their performance so far. A total of two hundred questionnaires we given out to the mass media audience and one hundred questionnaires were issued to the mass media practitioners. The response rate of the mass media audience was one hundred and ninety. While the mass media practitioner’s respondents were ninety. The data collected was analyzed to determine their responses. The response favourable and in support of the role of the media against child trafficking and abuse was analyzed and it was discovered that most of the victims of this ugly vices were from impoverished homes.

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The word “ROLE” according to the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary is “the function or position that somebody has or is expected to have in an organization, society or in a relationship. This will help in electing meaning to the role of Nigeria mass media in their anti-child trafficking and abuse campaign.

Harold lass well (1945) say; that the mass media performs three function viz; surveillance of the environment, correlation of parts of the society transmission of the social heritage from one generation to another, and Wright (1975) adds, fourth role as “entertainment” Okunna (1999, 274)child trafficking and abuse an emotional and contentious issue that has enormously eroded the societal values.

This in humanity of man to young persons has an age long history. In the last twelve years the crime has greatly increased as children are moss-led by deceit or forced to summit to servitude for economic purposes due to dissemination. This act is perpetrated both internally and externally, Nigeria happens to be one of the destination points for child abuse as the “crime harming a child physically, sexually and emotionally”. Maduewesi (1990) argues that there are no statistical records on how the media have churned out news on this menace. In the recent times, studies have shown that trafficking of children basically for house helps service is a global issue. Also Lutz (2002)  affirms that house help in different places were largely young, single girls of age 14 years and above. Ti is consistent with the findings of Gidoy (2002) who reported a study of the 100 children sampled in EL salvader working in domestic services most of them were between 12 and 17 years of age.

Nevertheless, the media’s role in creating awareness in child abuse and child trafficking by churning out programmes in a dramatized way, extensive reportage on child trafficking and abuse through films, print and broadcast media is a worth while venture. The mass media campaign coverage on information few people directly experience and unraveling happenings that relates to this scourge.

Therefore it is believed that the Nigerian mass media can through their campaign bring about a social change in child trafficking and abuse within Owerri municipality.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

I beat every sound minded Nigerians imagination why such act like child trafficking and abuse that is akin to slavery should continue after more than 200 years since slavery was stopped all over the world. Unfortunately, Nigeria has been indicted as a transit point irrespective of efforts of the media, government and non-governmental bodies towards finding a lasting solution to the change.

The exploitive and slave like conditions meted out on young persons under the age of seventeen is better described as cruelty to the Nigeria child. This indecent and ungodly act-should not strive. In Nigeria if the provision of the United Nation Conventions in 2000 and the Nigerian 1999 constitution is something to go by given the abuse emotional trauma and neglect the child in Nigeria undergoes, one can therefore agree that an average Nigerian is not much aware of the child right bill.

Several publication have been made by the Nigerian mass media concerning children that are continuously abuse and trafficked to foreign countries and within the nation in deceit for child labour, abuse and trafficking. Based on this premise, this research will further explain the danger the scourge portends and the need for all hands to be on deck for the mass media campaign on anti-child trafficking and abuse to be a success. Also we cannot continue to allow undesirable element to destroy the destinies of our children.

PURPOSE OF STUDY

The nefarious act of child abuse and trafficking is no longer news in the country. Also to say that Nigeria is a catchment ground and as well as dumping point for child traffickers can not in anyway raise eyebolt. No one can ever deny the fact that child abuse is on the increase in Nigeria. Based on these issues, government bodies and good spirited individuals are expected to take the bull by the horn to motivate, encourage and participate directly on the Nigerian mass media role in the anti0child abuse and trafficking campaigns.

Better still, the study calls for ways to address these under listed steps with a view to find lasting solution to this menace.

  1. To look inwardly as to discover the things that has impeded the Nigerian mass media anti-child trafficking and abuse campaign.
  2. To appreciate and explain the Nigerian mass media role in their anti child trafficking and abuse campaign as well as,
  3. Identifying and addressing the root cause of the scourge.
  4. The study should also ascertain the government and non-governmental bodies’ effort in this campaign.
  5. And to suggest some other measures that would be of help to the media in their quest to eradicate the scourge.
  6. To investigate the level of ignorance exhibited by some media claimants.

SIGNIFICANCES OF STUDY

The study tends to provide information on child trafficking and abuse in the country. Also the need to address the Nigerian mass media encumbrances in their bid to fight the menace.

The research will be of immense help to guardians, parents, and children the nation and the entire world. The causes and measures to tackle these mysterious vices will be treated.

The study will help people understand how ungodly the menace is and the bad image it has created to Nigerians especially at times like this when the country is leading a crusade on re-branding the image of the nation.

The work among other things will go a long way in protecting the destinies of our children and the research shall serve as a referential material to other researcher who would like to embark on similar research work in due course.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

  • What are the mass media roles?
  • If given the enabling apparati, can the Nigeria mass media effectively carry out their anti-child abuse and trafficking campaign?
  • Have the Nigerian mass media live up to expectation so far?
  • What are the factors adversely impeding their effort in their anti-child abuse and traffic king campaign.
  • Which other relevant institution and people can be of immense help in this campaign by the Nigerian mass media.

 

 

DELIMITATIONS / LIMITATION

The study will be restricted to the role of Nigerian mass media in the anti-child abuse and trafficking campaign in Nigeria. The study is limited to Imo state alone due to financial and time constraints. At any rate, the problem encountered in the cause of this research is getting of reports and materials on the Nigeria trafficking and abuse campaign and how to source out other relevant data.

Be that as it may, the research was able to obtain material from the press, books, and internet and media outlets.

DEFINITION OF TERMS AND CONCEPT

ROLE:  Function or part that one is expected to perform in an organization or society or in a relationship

MASS MEDIA: Sources of information and news such as newspaper, magazine, radio, television, internet, films that reach and influence the attitude and opinions of large people.

Anti: Something a person does not agree with or accept

Child Trafficking: The illegal sending away of children to foreign countries and within the country. Child abuse: It is a crime that harms a child in a physical, sexual or emotional way.

Campaign: A series of activities that is well articulated planned and organized to achieve or accomplish a particular goal.

 

 

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THE PLACE OF TRADITIONAL MODES OF COMMUNICATION IN THE ERA OF MODERN / NEW COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY

THE PLACE OF TRADITIONAL MODES OF COMMUNICATION IN THE ERA OF MODERN / NEW COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY

(A  STUDY OF   AWKA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ANAMBRA STATE)

 

 

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ABSTRACT

This study is geared towards exploring the place of traditional mode of communication in the era of modern / new communication technologies in Awka South Local Government Area of Anambra State. Modern technology has developed our society today through its beneficial impacts in transmission of information which enhances societal developmental change both cultural and moral values which Awka South is equally among. Traditional mode of communication through research shall be viewed as a major instrument that imbibed modern trend in communication. In other to show case its aid in community development through information dissemination and management, the traditional mode has greater in information dissemination in ensuring effective transmission of cultural values of Awka South into modern communication. The finding of the study are that various traditional modes of communication in town which are very important since they tend to unify modern communication with that of traditional mode. The method adopted in this research is random sample; systematic sampling was used to enable the three villages under case study to select at least 250 people needed for this research work.

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

CHAPTER ONE

  • Introduction ……………………………………………………..….1
  • Background of the study …………………………………….……9
  • Statement of the Problem …………………………………………10
  • Research Objectives ………………………………………………11
  • Research Questions ………………………………………….……12
  • Significance of Study ……………………………………………12
  • Scope of the Study …………………………………………………13
  • Limitations of Study ………………………………………………13

CHAPTER TWO

  • Literature Review …………………………………………………15
  • Norms and festivals in the Town…………………………………20
  • Traditional Mode of communication ……………….………….22
  • Location and Historical background of Awka South……….…22
  • Traditional system of Government…………………….………..23
  • Modern Technology ………………………………………………24

CHAPTER THREE

  • Research Methodology ……………………………………………27
  • Population of Study ………………………………………………27
  • Sample Size …………………………………………………..……27
  • Sampling Technique ………………………………………………28
  • Instrument of Data Collection …………………………..………28
  • Validity of instrument ……………………………………………28

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Data Presentation, Analysis ………………………………………29

CHAPTER FIVE

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations……………..….34

  • Summary …………. ………………..……………………………..34
  • Conclusions ………………………………………..………………35
  • Recommendation …………………………………………………36
  • Recommendations for further studies ………………………….37
  • References …………………………………………………………39

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.1     Introduction

          In this examination of communication and society, it is necessary to have an idea of what the two basic terms means by way of definition and explanation. Communication has been defined by the Oxford Advanced Learners’ Dictionary of current English as the process of imparting thought, knowledge or intelligence verbal or written form from a source to a receiver. Edward Sapir also recognized “communication as a fundamental social process”.

Another definition of communication is that communication is the passing on or transmission of message with the use of language to heterogeneous audience.

From the above definitions, it is seen that the two concepts have something in common; that holds them is the relationship that exist between them.

Communication generally is a fundamental social process which essentially has to do with any discipline or activity that is concerned with human society and behavior.

Therefore, it has been identified as “the basis of human existence, for it is at the heat of all society intercourse.

In our day-to-day life, we interact with one another by way of communication. This society cannot exist without communication for it is the only mechanism through which human interaction exists.

Living generally also depend on communication for even our body system cannot function without communication with one another through contact.

Communication also takes place when an individual talks to a follow individual, when an idea is made known to a group and when a concept is disclosed.

There is also a need for communication among human groups, as this is the Chief factor for creation of unity and continuity for the society and the vehicle for the conveyance of the culture. But it does not suffice to say that communication itself can be meaningful and effective without its association with other thing and other processes.

This is because, communication does not exist on its own in a vacuum, rather it exist in the society and function among persons.

It emanates from members of the society and assumes a social network. Going form one person to another and linking itself to means of its transmission through a channel, which is the mass media. This leads to a chain of process. Thus “through communication which exist between two persons or one person as the source to a group of person, ideas, needs information is conveyed through the channel. This message is decoded at the society who is the audience. By way of this life in the communication process, the channels of communication contributes tremendously to the propagation of information and the continued existence of the society.

It is pertinent to point out at this juncture, that every communication or message has its targeted audience to whom it is directed to. And when such a message gets to the audience an aim has been achieved. Also, when the audience is able to decode the encoded message as the effect compliance, another aim which is the ultimate aim is equally achieved in the face of these, what then is the essence of communication.

The aim of communication is to create awareness, education or enlightenment and through such awareness created, to elicit response, compliance, a change of attitude in respect or re-enforce them.

Traditional Communication in Igbo Land

Before the white man came in Igbo land, the oral communication was the system of interaction in the area. The town crier performed a very important function by collecting and spreading very important information among his people, he served as an intermediary between the heads of the people and report their feelings to them.

Most of the time, the town criers had to embellish whatever message they had for the villages with riddles, idioms and proverbs or may even code the message in order to drive home the news in the light of this, the town carier were and are very popular among the village-folks, who are always ready to listen to them so as to be abreast with current news and events even today. In spite of the numerous electronic, broadcast stations with their educative and informative program, most villages still enjoy the functions of the tradition town carriers which are often more effective.

The main instrument of communication used by the town caries in Igbo land is the gong and flute. In addition to this there are other instruments used in non-herbal communication in Igbo land. Among these are the metallic and wooden instruments, signs and symbols. Wooden gong (Ekwe) metallic gong and xylophone (ngelegwu) etc are metallic and wooden instrument used for communication while the palm fruit at its tender stage (omu) is also an instrument of communication.

The notes from this communication instrument signs and symbols are interpreted very well by the people, to whom they are directed. The sounding of the wooden gong (ekwe) and the valorous gong (ikoro) in the night normally depicts dangers in Ngwo. This could be that, thieves or armed robbers are around and they are used to keep everybody at alert.

Much importance is attached by the village folk to non-verbal means of communication. Achebe attested this in “Things fall Apart”, when he wrote that …Umohia was still swallowed up in sleep and silence when the Ekwe began to talk, men stirred on their bamboo beds and listen anxiously.

Equally writing on the important characteristics the place of traditional mode of communication, Ugboajah (1979) pointed that “communication in traditional Nigeria communicates is mainly a matter of human inter.-relationship so to accept action will effect established relationship that is what said is as important as who said it.

He referred to traditional mode of communication as “traditional Media” it is however to juxtapose the mode in terms of their effectiveness.

There is no gain saying that fact that the various mass media get to their targeted audience spontaneously within a twinkle of an eye, reading wider spectrum of human being of heterogeneous background and in a very sizeable number.

This ability of mass media to but across ethnic geographic and social background is really the strength of the mass media over the traditional mode of communication.

In other words, the traditional mode of communication is delimited in its scope of coverage as capable of reaching a wider size of the population at a time unlike the media which blast everything open to all sundry spontaneously. This delimitation also affected the traditional mates in the scene that it cannot be used to heterogeneous audience, consisting of various geographical ethics, social political and lingual backgrounds.

Despite the afore-stated differences, the traditional mode of communication could be ranked the same with the mass media in terms of its places to bring about desired results expected from the audience. In fact, in some cases where the mass media fail as a result of some inherent barriers, the traditional mode of communication is applied and the expected result is obtained. It is therefore logical to assert the traditional mode despite it shortcomings as mentioned above, are very effective as a means of communication. This assertion finds support in the facts of the ultimate in communication is the creation of awareness, to reinforce erode existing response (which the traditional mode do) they are therefore very effective on the other hand, if the traditional mode can be effective, where the mass media fails it follow that the traditional mode of communication are complementing or supplementing to mass media effective role.

However viewed from another perspective, the most communication that made use of the traditional mode are never intended to be so wide or limited in it scope, its targeted audience.

By their nature, traditional modes are often used within and about confined geographical location like a town or district. It therefore follows that message come through traditional mode of communication are intentionally traditional mode to be two persuasive and wide in scope, it became improper to fault it own that score or carry a comparative analysis on it in the same premises of coverage with mass media.

1.2     Background of the Study

In any given society that is developed, there must be a mode of communication in which they interact with each other example internet service, mobile phone, radio, television, email etc.

The traditional mode of communication in Awka South play a positive role in communication they are:

The town carriers and other signs and symbols, town carriers performs a very important function by collecting and spreading information among his people.

He serves as an intermediary between the heads of the communities and the villagers. This is because he conveyed the message of the community’s head to the people and reported their feeling to them. The main instrument of communication used by the town carrier in Awka South is the gong and flute.

Other signs and symbols are wooden gong, metallic gong, xylophone are metallic and wooden instruments of communication while the palm frond at its tender stage is also an instrument of communication.

The sounding of wooden gong and the various gong in the night normally depicts danger.

1.3     Statement of the Problem

The issue that inspired or motivated the researcher to carry out this study is to understand the place of traditional mode of communication in the era of modem / new communication technology in Awka South.

To know the benefits of communication also the traditional modes of communication in Awka South.

The second issue of the problem is to know whether modern communication has been able to influence the people of Awka South than traditional mode of communication. To also know if the people of Awka South prefer traditional mode of communication to modern communication.

1.4     Research Objectives

Generally, this research work is focused on traditional mode of communication and its aimed at examining its place in modern communication era at Awka South. This work intends to find out the followings.

  1. The relevance of traditional mode of communication.
  2. To find out whether Awka South people still make use of this traditional mode of communication.
  3. To find out if the people of Awka South are abreast with modern communication technology.
  4. To find out the extent at which the traditional modern of communication has effectively help in mobilizing the people into action.

1.5     Research Questions

  1. Is there any relevance of traditional mode of communication?
  2. Do people of Awka South still make use of this traditional mode of communication?
  3. Are people of Awka South abreast with modern communication technology?
  4. Is the traditional mode of communication effective in mobilizing the people?

1.6     Significance of the Study

The study has the following significance

  1. The traditional mode of communication help to transform the people’s way of life that is their custom and culture this extends to non-Awka South people.
  2. To enlighten the people of Awka South to know the benefits of traditional mode of communication.
  3. To promote and elevate the traditional mode of communication as well as its relevance to people residing in rural communities like Nibo.

1.7     Scope of Study

The scope of this study is delimitated to the place of traditional mode of communication in the era of modern / new communication technology in Awka South

1.8     Limitations of the Study

Throughout the research of this study the author encountered many difficulties in other to make this research a credible one.

Also, time factor was another challenges but be it as it may, the researcher took time to go into many places in the community to get the real fact in other to make this study a credible one as well.

In line was financial constraints this occurred during the time of gathering information for this project, also, it extended to the typing printing and binding but by God’s grace all these challenges were surmounted and the work was successfully produced to  the best.

Operational Definition of Terms

The under listed assertion signifies the general ideas on experimentation of this study general ideas on experimentation of the study.

  1. Traditional: The native belief and way of doing things according to ancestors.
  2. Mode: The process through which information is conveyed
  3. communication: The interactive transmission of a message from the source to the targeted audience.

4        Culture: The general belief or moral principle and laws of a native area.

5        Traditional Mode of Communication:– These various channel through which native or Africa institution or way of life is being transmitted.

6        Modern / New Communication Technologies: The new medium through which information is disseminated in a easier and faster channel.

 

 

 

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THE INFLUENCE OF WESTERN TELEVISION PROGRAMME ON THE CULTURAL VALUES OF NIGERIA YOUTHS.

THE INFLUENCE OF WESTERN TELEVISION PROGRAMME ON THE CULTURAL VALUES OF NIGERIA YOUTHS.

 

(A CASE STUDY OF CARITAS STUDENTS, ENUGU).

 

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background of the Study –       –       –       –       –       1

1.2   Statement of the Research Problem –       –       –       –       2

1.3   Objective of the Study –   –       –       –       –       –       3

1.4   Significance of the Study –       –       –       –       –       3

1.5   Research Question –        –       –       –       –       –       –       3

1.6   Research   Hypothesis –   –       –       –       –       –       4

1.7   Scope/Delimitation of the Study –   –       –       –       4

1.8   Assumption of the Study –       –       –       –       –       4

1.9   Limitation of the Study    –       –       –       –       –       5

1.10 Conceptional and Operational Definition –      –       –       5

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1   Sources of Literature –     –       –       –       –       –       6

2.2   Review of Relevant Literature – –       –       –       –       6

2.3   Theoretical Framework –  –       –       –       –       –       12

2.4   Summary of the Literature –     –       –       –       –       14

 

 

CHPATER THREE

METHODOLOGY

3.1   Research Design –    –       –       –       –       –       –       16

3.2   Area of the Study     –       –       –       –       –       –       16

3.3   Population of the Study – –       –       –       –       –       16

3.4   Research Sample and Sampling Technique –   –       17

3.5   Instrument used for Data Collection –      –       –       17

3.6   Validity of the Instrument –      –       –       –       –       18

3.7   Method of Collecting Data –     –       –       –       –       18

3.8   Method of Data Analysis –        –       –       –       –       –       18

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.1   Date Analysis and Presentation –     –       –       –       39

4.2   Hypotheses Testing –       –       –       –       —     –       –       47

4.3   Discussion of Findings –  –       –       –       –       –       52

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1   Summary –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       58

5.2   Recommendation –  –       –       –       –       –       –       59

6.3   Conclusion –    –       –       –       –       –       —     –       61

6.4   Suggestion for  further Studies –      –       –       –       63

 

ABSTRACT

This study probes the impact which Tv has on the cultural values of the Nigeria youths. It specifically tackles the impact of western Tv programes on Nigeria University students. The research posits that the current trends in cultural behaviour of youths in Nigeria as observed among Caritas student Enugu is significantly associated with their perception of western culture and exposure to western Tv programmes. The assumption that foreign media content has direct powerful effects is shared by optimistic modernization theory. Lerner (1962) Rogers (1964) Schramm (1964) and the later critical perspective of cultural and media imperialism. McPhail (1981), (1984) Gerbuer (1977). The research applies the theory of acculturation along with the culturation hypothesis. “Defluer and Dennis 1991, Garbner 1977, Morgan 1991” explains that acculturation of Nigeria youths take place as a result of exposure to western Tv which influence the perception of Tv reality and alters self-image. From the review of related literature, the following hypotheses emerged for testing HI: More exposure to Tv will tend to identification of western television stars as models. H2: The improvement of Local Tv movies industries will increase Nigerian youths’ preference for local Tv product. Research hypotheses 1 and 2 received statistical support from the analysis of collected data using the survey research method Recommendations to check the cultural genocide for further research were preferred.                   

 


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

This study is based on the influence of western television programmes on the cultural values Of Nigerian youths using Caritas University Students as a study. The term culture has been defined differently by different people. The different definitions attached to culture are based on the differences in the orientation of the people.

According to Ekeh (1989), culture is the construct used in an attempt to analyze and integrate events and ideas in broad spectrum of areas of society. Jekayinka (2002), states that from wider perspective, culture includes the total repertoire of human action which are socially transmitted from generation to generation. Obiora (2002), says the transformation of culture is gradual and not sudden. He (2002), contends that culture is a continuous process of change. It changes exactly the same way as the human being change. It is dynamic, learned, acquired and transmitted or diffused through contact or means of communication flow from generation to another. The Nigerian culture is observed to be fading out as a result of the acceptance and adaptation of the modernist’s solution on to underdevelopment. One of such theories which relates to this subtle method of assault international communication is given by Lerner (1956).

In his concept of “empathy”, Lerner states that the inhabitants of third world nations must learn to empathize with the West for modern transformation of their societies to be possible. Schramm (1964), on the other hand, developed an interesting model in which he equates the level of social development of communication to various nations. Access to these modern mass media (Radio, Television, films, telephone, and newspapers) is linked to individual modernity. Nigeria and other third world countries have reacted to these finding by inventing a substantial amount of their foreign exchange earnings to import radio and television transmitters and sets. The television programmes especially provides many powerful models for children and abundant opportunities for observational learning.

The television programmes include:

  1. Depiction of sex
  2. Violence
  3. Drug and Alcohol used
    1. Vulgar Language – behaviours. Etc. that most parents do not want their children to imitate.

Studies have been found by early adolescence that the average Nigerian children have watched thousands of dramatized murders and countless other acts of violence on television (www.encarta.com). For many years, psychologists have debated the question of whether watching violence on Tv have detrimental effects on children. A number of experiments both inside and outside the laboratory have found evidence that viewing Tv violence is relayed to increased aggression in children.

Nigerians as exemplified by trends in Enugu Metropolis where Western exports of television entertainment, information are shown in NTA Enugu, ESBS Television, Minaj Channel, Cartoon Network, ESPN –“Expanded Sports programmes Network” channel provided by various satellite transmission  operators as DSTV, Multi – Choice, Music television, Euro – sports, etc, have raised Nigerians eyebrows to such Western television programs. Thereby, making uss to behave like them, associate with them and even speaks like them. Even our generation that is shown on NTA Enugu and the youth perspective on ESBS are presented by youth and replete with music video of Western origin dominated by rape stars as (Late) Tupac, Beyonce, Ashanti, 50- Cent, Sean Paul, Kelly Rowland, Celine Dion, etc. It is the researcher’s believe that western television especially American television exports have an influencing “weapon” with aim to overpower the cultural values of Nigerian youths.  

 

 

  • STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM

The influence of Western television programmes on the cultural values of Nigerian youths have been said to be a serious problem facing Nigerians. Some of these problems are:

  1. Inadequate policy to guard the youths towards Western Tv programmes.
  2. There is an erosion of the cultural values.
  3. The imitation of Western cultures especially the American
  4. The Nigerian youths are faced with brain wash.

Therefore, if the above problems are not been taking care off, it will lead to a total destruction of the Nigerians culture.

  • OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The researcher’s objective is to conduct an in-depth research on the influence of Western television programmes on the cultural values of the Nigerian youths with an insight to determine its implication to the cultural values of Nigerian youths are:

  1. To show how the contents of Western television programme affects Nigerian University
  2. To examines its pervasive impact on the cultural values of Nigerian University
  3. To know how to isolate Western television programmes from Nigeria.

 

  • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This research will help to  bring back the  Nigerian culture which until the present has been characterized with good neighborliness, respect for elders, virtuousness, community orientation and collectivism.

  1. It will enable the government and policy makers to put adequate measures in place to checkmate the movement of Western television programmes into Nigeria.
  2. It will help remove the idea of imitating Western cultures or ways of life from Nigeria.
  3. The conduct of this research will enable the government to know what role the media can play in the development of a country and therefore, harness the mass media especially Tv in the democratic process and development process in general.

 

  • RESEARCH QUESTIONS

These research questions are constructive questions from the researcher to the receiver with feedback in order to proof the influence of western television programmes on the Nigerian youths  .

  1. Do Nigerian youths expose themselves more to Tv than other media?
  2. Do they prefer Western Tv programmes to locally produced ones and why if yes?
  3. Do Nigerian youths identify more with locally or foreign Tv stars as models?
  4. Will improvement of local Tv/movies industries improve Nigerian youths preference for local Tv product?

 

  • RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
  1. Hi: More exposure to Tv lead to identification of Western

Tv stars as models

Ho: More exposure to Tv do not lead to identification of

Western Tv stars as models.

  1. Hi: The improvement of local Tv /movies industries will

increase Nigerian youths preference for local Tv product.

Ho: The improvement of local Tv/ movies industries will not

increase Nigerian youths preference for local Tv product.

 

  • SCOPE/DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The scope of this study is to find out how the Western Television Programmes affect the Cultural Values of Nigerian Youths using Caritas University as a case study.

The institution is been noted for a constant influence of Western television programs on their cultural values. Hence, the need for choosing the institution as a study commenced.

In the cause of the research, oral interview were consulted on both staffs and students of the institution. But the research depends more on the questionnaire which were distributed to students and staffs and were completed and returned. The researcher also consulted some textbooks, Newspapers and journals which provided a lot of information pertaining to the study.

 

  • ASSUMPTIONS OF THE STUDY

The following were the assumption of this study:

  1. A greater number of Nigerian University Students watch Tv.
  2. Western Tv programmes have a greater appeal to Nigerian University Students than locally produced programmes.
  3. That the programmes contents of Western Tv project symbiotic forms of social reality.
  4. The Western Tv is having a greater acculturation on Nigerian University Students in particular and on Nigerian youths in general.
  5. That the improvement of local Tv/ movies industries will change Nigerian youths attitudes towards Western Tv programmes.

 

  • LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

Though this research work is on the infludence of Western television programmes on the cultural values of the Nigerian youths. It is limited to Caritas University Students Amorji-nike, Enugu, using five departments that were randomly selected from faculties and hundred and fifty questionnaires that were distributed to them. This is because of time and resource, had it been that time and resource were available similar studies would have been done in other private University/ schools in the country so as to ensure a more embracing result.

 

  • CONCEPTIONAL AND OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS OF THE TERMS.
  1. Youth:

Conceptual:      It means young men and women.

Operational: It is defined as students in various Universities in Nigeria and who fall between the ages of 15 -30

  1. Media:

Conceptual: The means of giving news and opinions to large number of people.

Operational: The media is known as television in which broadcast used to transmits or circulate information to the public.

  1. Cultural identify:

Conceptual: it is the self definition, self perception and self- image of a person as a member of a group exhibiting uniform culture that are consistent with the values of that group.

Operational: It is those commonly shares socio-political interpretation and meanings related to the beliefs, norms, values, attitudes and behaviors’ within Nigeria.

  1. Cultural dominance:

Conceptual: This refers to nations of neocolonialism that uses policy and practice that have effect to dominate the culture and affairs of less developed countries.

Operational: it means the conscious and unconscious domination by Western Tv media on the media system of Nigeria.

 

 

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background of Study

The development of telecommunication in Nigeria began in 1886 when a cable connection was established between Lagos and the colonial office in London by 1893, government office in Lagos were provided with telephone service, which was later extended to Ilorin and Jebbu in the hinterland. A slow but steady process of development in the years that followed led to the gradual formation of the nucleus of a national telecommunication network.

In 1923, the first commercial trunk telephone service between Itu and Calabar was established. Between 1946 and 1952, a Three-Channel – Line Carrier system was commissioned between Lagos  and Ibadan and was extended to Oshogbo, Kaduna, Kano, Benin, and Enugu; thus connecting the colonial office in London with Lagos and the commercial centre in the country with local authority offices. In 1960s the network system was expanded to meet growing needs of the fledging commercial and industrial communication network system.

In the 1980s, the telecommunication arm of the department of Post and Telecommunication was merged with the Nigerian External Telecommunication (NET) and in 1985 the Nigerian Telecommunication Ltd (NITEL), a Limited Liability Company that administers both internal and external telecommunication services in Nigeria was formed.

Currently, NITEL offers the following services, telephony, telex and telex delivery services, telegraph and registered telegraphic addresses, payphones, and public coin telephones, transmission and reception of real-time TV for network services etc, Nigeria embraced digital Technology since the 1980 with the ratio of Digital Switches and Transmission System (Radio and Optic Fibre), into the network since the beginning of the 90s, mobile Telephone Services offered by NITEL. NITEL now has an X 25 and X 40 Switching facilities in its network.

Today, however, to a population of one hundred million (100m) the figure of more than half a million on telephone lines in the country means in effect, a very low telephone density ratio, though the country has the largest number of telephones in any one country in Africa.

MTN Entrance into Nigerian Telecommunication Sector

The MTN Group Limited (MTN Group) is a leading provider of communication services offering cellular network access and business solutions, and is listed in South-Africa on the Johannesburge Securities exchange (JSE) under the Industrial Telecommunication Sector launched in 1994, MTN Group is a Multinational Telecommunication provider with its core operations in 21 countries in Africa and the Middle East.

MTN Nigeria began operations in Nigeria on May 16th, 2001. MTN Nigeria was the first GSM Network to make a call following the globally landed Nigerian GSM auction conducted by the Nigerian Communication Commission (NCC).

Therefore, the company launched full commercial operations beginning with Lagos, Abuja, and Port-Harcourt and since then it has spread their network to every State in Nigerian Federation (Uyo included).

1.2   Statement of Problem

In Nigeria today, consumers are faced with many competiting variables of telecommunication  network to choose from. In case of GSM Service providers, we have Airtel, Globacomm, MTN, Starcomm, Zoom, NITEL, Etisalat etc.

Meanwhile, advertisements are no longer geared towards sensitizing the public about the usefulness of the product or products so advertised; it is now been used as a tool for propaganda and extortion of the public / consumers. MTN was, in 2009 summoned by the House of Representative in Nigeria to defend itself against claims that it is extorting the Nigerian populace.

Matter of factly, advertisement ensures or does the following; enhances sales, creates awareness about a new product, satisfies the consumers need for quality, educates consumes about how a product can be used, influences consumer’s choices etc.

Therefore, it is against this backdrop that the researcher therefore, intends to find out or answer the question: Has MTN advertisement impacted its subscribers in Uyo Metropolis?

1.3   Objective of the study

In order to be guarded toward achieving the aims of the research efforts, the researcher, hereby makes the following outlines as the objectives of this study:

i        To find out if the residents of Uyo Metrpolis as exposed to MTN advertisement.

ii       To find out if MTN advertisement creates awareness about their services in Uyo Metropolis.

iii      To ascertain whether MTN advertisement generates or increases sales of their products and services in Uyo Metropolis.

iv      To find out whether customers are influenced by MTN advertisement.

v       To find out or ascertain whether MTN advertisement educates subscribers of Uyo Metropolis on the benefits of using their products and how they can use them.

vi      To find out whether MTN advertisement influences subscribers in Uyo Metropolis preference for their product over other telecommunication network.

 

Vi     To find out from the resident which Mobile service they would recommend for a close friend.

 

1.4   Research Questions

i        Are the respondents of Uyo Metropolis aware of MTN advertisement?

ii       Does MTN advertisement generate sales of their products and services among subscribers in Uyo Metropolis?

iii      Are subscribers in Uyo Metropolis influence by MTN advertisement?

iv      Does MTN advertisement educate subscribers on the benefits of their products and services and how ot use them?

v       How has MTN advertisement  impacted subscribers’ preference for their product and services over other telecommunication network in Uyo Metropolis?

vi      Which of the media enhances the impact of MTN advertisement on  Uyo Metropolis?

vii     Which mobile Services would subscribers recommend for prospective customers?

1.5   Scope of Study

The study was conducted in Uyo local Government Area. Since the Local Government Area comprises of numerous villages made of two clan, its vastness does not provide specification for eligibility for the study, the researcher, therefore, restricted herself to the selected villages from two clan which are; Afaha Oku, and Ilot Oku Ubo offot, and their reactions toward MTN advertisement in Nigeria. Also this work is limited to television advertisement only.

1.6   Limitation of Study

This research effort was militated against by several factors. These factors combined to make the process more rigorous Herculean for the researcher. Some of the challenging factors are; dearth of materials at the researchers’ disposal made the effort more challenging. For instance, it was not easy retrieving information on the first advertisement of the MTN in Uyo Metropolis.

Another is the unwillingness of respondents to fill the questionnaire. This to an extent constituted an impediment to the collation and collection of data for the study.

Also, the researcher studied the behaviour that is rational. This too, posed a great deal of challenge to the researcher because often, the respondents do not express their habitual practices, and their preferences cannot be assessed correctly or accurately.

 

1.7   Significance of the Study

A research effort of this magnitude is expected to serve as a reference material to both students and researchers who may embark on a research project in this area in future. It will add to the existing stock of knowledge in the related area or subject of interest.

Also, the work will also be of great benefit to advertising agencies and advertisers, other GSM service providers, media organizations, and the general public at large.

1.8   Definition of Terms

Below are the operational definitions of term;

Impact: This refers to the effect that MTN has on the subscribers in Uyo Metropolis.

MTN:                 Mobile Telecommunication Network. MTN is one of the major wireless telephone operators in Nigeria.

Advertisement:  It is an appeal that contains some aesthetic information concerning a product or service.

GSM                  Global System of Mobile Communication. It was fully approved in Nigeria on 27th August, 2000.

Subscribers       these are the people in Uyo Metropolis who pay to MTN in order to receive their services

Uyo Metropolis  Uyo Local Government is one of the 31 Local Government Areas in Akwa Ibom State. Uyo occupies a position between 5.050 North (Latitude) and 80 East (Longitude). This is within the equatorial rainforest, which are tropical zones that harbor vegetable of green forage of trees, shrubs and oil palm trees. These geographical environments are very conducive for cash crops couples with flat lead terrain shaping towards the South-East between the months of December to February of every year.

According to Otobong (2007, p. 115). Uyo Local Government Area being the capital of Akwa Ibom State has a total landmass of 1,250,000 square kilometers with a population of three hundred and nine thousand, five hundred and seventy three people. It comprises of two clans viz; Ikono Ibom and Oku clan and shares common boundaries with Etinan, Ibesikpo. Itu, Uruan, Nsit Atai and Nsit Ibom Local Government Local Government Area.

 

 

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Abstract

 

Our country, Nigeria is more of a capitalist state and everyone in his kind of business wants to maximize profit. By the way of negligence of the ethical standards, some advertisers, regardless of the decency, truthfulness and social values which advertising upholds stick to unethical advertising practice, thus, causing loss of lives, discomfort, and dissatisfaction to the consumers of some goods and services. In the words of Ifedayo Daramola (1999)

“a number of advertisements carried by Nigerian newspapers, radio and television are illegal and libelous; while some contain malice”

This work has been structured in five chapters to make an ideal project. Chapter one embodies background of the study, which deals on advertising in its entirely. The chapter two of this work, made an indepth review of related literatures. These literatures bother on enhancing social responsibility through advertising, the power of persuasive communication in advertising, factors affecting buying behaviour, the theoretical framework and measures to enhance ethical standards in advertising practice. The third chapter covers the methodology with which the study is carried on. In this regard, the sample survey technique was chosen. The technique evaluated the description of research population, sample and sampling techniques, instrument of data collection, techniques of data collection and limitations of the methodology. In chapter four, the presentation and interpretation of data collected is done. This is based on description of data according to its relevance to a given research question. Also, discussion and interpretation of results are carefully made.

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page:        =      =      =      =      =      =      =      =      =      i

Approval page: =      =      =      =      =      =      =      =      ii

Dedication:      =      =      =      =      =      =      =      =      =      iii

Acknowledgements: =      =      =      =      =      =      =      iv-v

Table of contents:    =      =      =      =      =      =      =

Abstract:  =      =      =      =      =      =      =      =      =

CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study: = =      =      =      =      1

1.2.  Statement of the Problems:      =      =      =      =      =      15

1.3.  Objectives of the study:    =      =      =      =      =     16

1.4.  Significance of the study: =      =      =      =      =      16

1.5.  Research questions: =      =      =      =      =      =      17

1.6.  Research hypotheses:      =      =      =      =      =      =      18

1.7.  Conceptually and operational definitions:       =      =      =      19

1.8.  Scope and limitations of the study: =      =      =      =      24

1.9.  Assumptions of the study:       =      =      =      =      =      26

References:       =      =      =      =      =      =      =      =      27

CHAPTER TWO – LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1.  Sources of related literature:    =      =      =      =      =      28

2.2.  The review:      =      =      =      =      =      =      =      29

2.2.1. Enhancing social responsibility through advertising:    =      29

2.2.2. The power of persuasive communication in advertising:  =     40

2.2.3. Factors affecting buying behaviour:       =      =      =      43

2.3.  Theoretical framework: social responsibility:   =      =      53

2.2.4. Measures to enhance ethical standards in advertising:         55

2.4.  Summary of the literature review:    =      =      =      =      64-66

References:      =      =      =      =      =      =      =      67-69

CHAPTER THREE – METHODOLOGY

3.1.  Description of the research population:   =      =      =      71

3.2.  Sample and sampling techniques:   =      =      =      =      71

3.3.  Instruments of data collection:        =      =      =      =      72

3.4.  Techniques of data analysis and presentation:        =      =      73

3.5.  Limitations of the methodology:       =      =      =      =      74

References:      =      =      =      =      =      =      =      75

CHAPTER FOUR –  PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

4.1.  Data analysis and presentation:      =      =      =      =      76

4.1.1. Why do some advertisers neglect the ethics of

advertising practice? : =      =      =      =      =      =      79

4.1.2.          What effects have unethical advertising practice caused?:=       83

4.1.3. Has APCON stipulated any measures to

curb illegal advertising?:  =      =      =      =      =      89

4.1.4. Does advertising lack professional application?:    =      91

4.1.5. Why are the media involved in promoting

unethical/illegal advertising?: =      =      =      =      =      92

4.2.  Discussion and interpretation of results: =      =      =    94-100

CHAPTER FIVE – SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1.  Summary:        =      =      =      =      =      =      =      =      101

5.2.  Conclusion:     =      =      =      =      =      =      =      =      103

5.3.  Recommendations, General recommendations, Recommendations for vitafoam company and Recommendations for future studies:  =      =      =    105-110

Bibliography:  =      =      =      =      =      =      =    111-114

Appendix:        =      =      =      =      =      =      =      =

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

  • BACKGROUND OF STUDY

 

Advertising as a concept, can be defined as a form of communication through the media about product, services, ideas, personalities or organizations, paid for by an identified sponsor writer Alide in Okunna (2002: 99).

Bovee and Arens (1985) gave a more widely accepted definition of advertising as the non-personal communication of information, usually paid for any usually persuasive in nature about products (goods and services) or ideas by an identified sponsor through various media. It is an exciting, dynamic, and challenging enterprise. Its often a persuasive communication in that it tries to persuade the reader, the listener or the viewer to take to the sponsor’s own point of view and also to take some appropriate action. It is not personal or face to face communication, rather it is directed to a group of people.

Advertising is also controlled, identifiable information and persuasion by means of mass communication media. Defined by Wright and Zeight (1982:10).

Gillran Dyer says that in its simplest sense, the word “advertising” means drawing attention to something or notifying or informing somebody of something.

According to the understanding of Advertising practitioners council of Nigeria (APCON) “advertising is a form of communication through the media about products, services or ideas, paid for by an identified sponsor”.

The terms advertising was coined from the Latin word “advertere” which mean literally means to draw attention. This is when you are getting the evidence mind in a product, notifying or informing somebody/people of something. There is no doubt that advertising has brought prosperity to different countries of the world through different means. It has helped in speeding up the introduction of new inventions and has most importantly widened markets for mass-produced goods and services. Consumers of industrial goods and service and all over the world today enjoy the choice of a wide variety of such goods and services.

 

Advertising has also been of immense benefit humanity and has contributed in no small measure rapid industrialization and expansion processes all over the world. Infact, advertising has contributed in making the world a better place to live in. Tracing the history of advertising however, it is evident that its practice is as old as man. Weppner (1979) in Okunna (2002: 85) reveals that advertising seems is be part of human nature evidenced since ancient times.

 

Groom in his own view stated that “advertising” was first century AD and has been employed ever since in one form or another”. It has no specific date, any way, but Groom further maintains it as an instrument of marketing in the past 4000 B.C.E. Highlighting its existence in a Nigeria advertising has been part of commercial activities even before the arrival of whitemen remarks Abayomi in Okunna (2002: 86) Quoting Ogbodo (1990), Abayomi in Okunna pointed out the common practices in our locality like town criers do, hawking and display of available waves were the earliest method of advertising in Nigeria. This is still obtainable in the free-market these days as sellers cry above their voices to draw the attention of buyers to their waves.

 

The introduction of modern advertising in Nigeria was made possible in 1859 by a newspaper called “Iwe Irohin”. It was owned by an English Reverend gentleman known as Henry Townsend. It was an eight page newspaper with four pages English version and four pages “Yoruba” version. This newspaper attracted a lot of readership, this creating space for advertisement on births, weddings and obituaries, vacances for houseboys and maids, church activities, ship schedules and other social events.

Abayomi in Okunna (2002: 86) records that other newspaper such as the logos observer, the Eagle, the Lagos critic and others joined the music. The business of advertising enjoyed a great boast in the 1920s as notable companies such as Releigh Bicycle, PZ, lever Brothers, Cadbury, Ovaltine and others sprang up to patronize the services of West African Publicity (WAP) who provided advertising services like radio and television there was a considerable advancement in Radio/TV advertisement for over four decades. This began with the establishment of Western Nigeria Broadcasting Services (WNBS) and Western Nigeria Television (WNTN) by the defunct Western Religion, Okunna.

 

At this point, it is pertinent to note that the practice of advertising in Nigeria has been legalized. The legalized was masterminded by APCON which was established by Decree 55 of 1988 amended by Decree 93 of 1992.

 

The APCON, as produced by the code of advertising practice is charged with the responsibility of among other things.

a).    Determining who are advertisers

b).    Conducting examinations in the profession and,

c).    Regulating and controlling advertising in all this aspects and ramifications.     

 

The strict adherence to the provisions of this, code has really made advertising an interest oriented, fascinating and fantastic professions.

 

The code of Advertising practice catalogued the essence of good advertising as outlined below. The codes provides that all advertisement in Nigeria should;

a).    Be legal, decent, honest, truthful and respectful of Nigeria’s culture.

b).    Be prepared with a high sense of social responsibility and should not show disregard for the interest of consumers and the wider Nigeria society.

c).    Conform to the principles of fair competition generally accepted in business and fair comment expected in human communication.

d).    Enhance public confidence in advertising.

 

Unfortunately advertisers have chosen the unethical means of practicing this profession, neglected the good sense of advertising which revolves around social responsibility.

 

In his words, Osunbiyi (1999:27) “advertising on the whole can be rumours, ie it can be deceptive and misleading. It can manipulate the “vulnerable psyche”.

 

No doubt, advertising can be ruinous when some illegal advertisers make claims that are untruce about a product of services.

As the consumers of such product testifies that the claims surrounding the product are not time, he automatically stops patronage.

A more chronic effects of unethical practice of advertising by F.M. ODUAH (2017:285) is “passing off’,

Passing off is a situation where a producer of a given product imitates, in a very close identify, the name, colour graphic design, size and shape of a product of that with a mark of quality, in order to enjoy plenty safes under the umbrella of the original product.

It is a also a form of fraud in which a company tries to sell its own product by deceiving buyers into thinking it is another product.

It is also making some false representation likely to induce a person to believe that the goods or service are those of another. Passing off-to misrepresent that one’s business is that of, or connected with another, in a way likely to cause damage. The implication of this ugly act is that is attracts loss of loyalty and patronage to the ‘main’ product. Hence, it affects the economic viability of such company and their product.

This is obtainable in almost all products in the market such ones are TURA medicated soap which has another imitation product called TULA. Most people, especially the less lettered, who had been enlightened about tura soap quickly buy the ‘TULA’ with the mind frame that is the same thing as the original one.

A product like Philip electric iron is not exempted in the passing off. It has imitators like Philip and Dhilip in radio. Other electronic gadgets like SONY products are plagued by such ones like sunny, sonic, sony-multi, sony prestige etc. In BYG products we now have GYC, BIC, VIC, BYG, all sounding almost the same, with the same design not qualitative, thus attracting bad name to the product. Talk of Bournvita food drink, Bomvita, Bovita, Bonveta etc have filled the market, making it difficult for customers to identify the real one.

In fact, the list is in exhaustible. Over the years, vitafoam has been noted as a long lasting, soft and qualify mattress. It has been enjoying good name, hence its sustain ability in the market vitafoam is not left out in the “Passing off problem and its effects.

In this work, the researcher has chosen VITAFOAM product of VITAFOAM NIGERIA PLC, Aba, for a case study.

BRIEF HISTORY OF VITAFOAM NIGERIA PLC

The foam company known as vitafoam Nigeria Plc today is an offshoot of Vita international limited, an internationally renowned products of all kinds of quality mattresses, cushions, pillows and upholstery sheetings.

Vitafoam is less tossing and turning by evenly distributing the body weight and it create better blood circulation. Vitafoam Nigeria Plc was incorporated in Nigeria as a private company on 4th August, 1962.

In 1963, the company opened its first factory at Ikeja, Lagos State for the production of latex form mattresses. The installation of its first urethane foam production plant in the Ikeja premises in 1966 paved way for the production of carpet underlay, fibre pillows, rigid urethane insulating materials and Vitabond Adhesive.

Beside the Ikeja factory which is vitafoam Nigeria became the first foam manufacturing company in Nigeria to win the much converted international quality award NIS ISO 9002 certificate for the manufacture and sale of flexible and rigid poly urethane foam, fibre pillows and adhesive.

Thus emphasizes their quality policy which states thus: Our policy at vitafoam Nigeria Plc is to continually provide goods and services and conform to international standard and surpass customers expectations at a price that represents value.

Vitafoam battles with identical mattresses with such brand names as vitafoam, vitafoam, vitafoam, mitafoam, mitafoam, vitafosfoam, vitalinefoam etc.

Worthy of note is that these imitators have contributed a lot to deceiving vitafoam customers to make wrong choices, thereby losing their loyalty to the company. As a parts of the provisions of APCON Code of Advertising Practice under medical products and treatments (4.7:12) “no advertisement should claim that the product, medicine or treatment advertised will promote sexual virility or be effective in treating sexual weakness, or habits associated with sexual excess or indulgence, or any ailment, illness or disease associated with these habits”. Even the pharmaceutical companies, these days make claims that a given drug can cure a member of diseases. But all are based on false claims.

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

In the bid to maximize profit in the prevalent get rich-quick syndrome of some fraudulent entrepreneurs, some indulge in ill-practice of advertising. These unethical practice thus, endangers the well-being of the society and the Nigeria culture in particular. Absolute social responsibility to the customers of advertised goods and service is not ensured due to the fact that buyers are often miss led by chronic imitators. As a result of a lot of people haven fallen victim of the unethical practice of advertising known as passing off. This has been a serious problem facing the Advertising Practitioners Council of Nigeria (APCON). The researcher in this, study, attempts to find in solution of these problems aforementioned and to particularly evaluate its effects to vitafoam, as a product and measures the company has put in place to correct the problem.

1.3.  OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY   

This research work aims at, 1. To bringing to limelight why illegal practice of advertising is on the increase.

  1. To evaluate why some advertisers neglect the laid down ethics of advertising to pass through the “backdoor”.
  2. To pin-point the set of advertisers who practice advertising unethically.
  3. To look into the extent of effects unethical practice of advertising has caused. 5. To finally review whether APCON has devised other strict measures to penalize illegal practitioners.

1.4   SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY

It is the belief of the researcher that this study would serve as immense useful purpose to its potential and prospective users. Students, scholars, consumers of goods and services policy makers, advertisers, advertising agencies and advertising researchers would stand to gain a lot from the facts contained in this work. This study upholds the high standard of an ideal advertising practice and therefore benefits the advertisers and feaming consumers of advertised goods and services. It serves as an eye opener to a good sense of advertising because the interest of the consumers is paramount. After close study of this research work, the evil effects of unethical practice of advertising will be drastically reduced, if not bought to an end.

 

1.5   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

To provide a framework for eliciting solution to the research problems, it is necessary that some research questions be formulated.

A number of research questions are hereby given below for this reason.

  1. Why do some advertisers neglect the ethics of advertising practice?
  2. What effects have unethical practice of advertising caused?
  3. Has APCON stipulated any measures to curb illegal advertising?
  4. Does advertising lack professional application?
  5. Why are the media involved in promoting illegal advertising?

H3:   APCON stipulated measures to curb illegal advertising.

H4:   Advertising lacks professional application.

H0:   Advertising does not lack professional application.

H5:   Media involves in promoting illegal advertising.

Ho:   Media do not involve in promoting illegal advertising.

 

 

1.6.  CONCEPTUALLY AND OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS

In the interest of the render, this writer wishes to outline and explain some key concepts used in this study. They are necessary to guide the reader to note the exact meaning of the words, expressions or phrases as used in the passage for easy understanding.

Possibly, a word might have more than one meaning and this study taken operationalized the concept as far as this project work is concerned.

Conceptually definition

EXPLORING: Means to seek for something or after someone, to examine or investigate something systematically.

UNETHICAL means not connected with beliefs and principles about what is right and wrong. It is not morally correct acceptable. It is means of promoting advertising.

PRATICE it means that it is a way of doing something that is usual or expected way in a particular organization or situation.

ADVERTISING it is a form of communication intend to persuade if viewers, readers or listeners to take some action. It is an exciting, dynamic, and challenging enterprise. Its often pervasive, fascinating and materialistic nature makes it an object of criticism and misunderstanding. Advertising is also a profession in which a body of experts in involved in the conceptualization, planning, creating, packaging and placing of advertisements on the media.

NIGERIA-Nigeria is a country in West Africa sub-region within the African continent which got their independent in 1960. The evolution of Nigeria state was the creative ingenuity of the British Colonial Masters, especially, lord Lugard, who in 1914 amalgamented the Northern and Southern protectorates in the Nigeria area and thus created one of the largest countries in Africa called Nigeria.

Nigerian is a geographical/entity area that contains many nations and state.

VITA FOAM is defined as a means of tossing and turning by evenly distributing the body weight. It is a foam that we lay down on when sleeping for a comfortable relaxation after work, activity or when we are tired even feeling sleeping.

 

 

 

Operational definition

EXPLORING: According to British Dictionary, exploring means to seek for something or look after someone. Here, am going to seek for unethical practices of advertising in Vita Form Plc.

UNETHICAL

This is obtainable when there is a deviation from what is supposed to be. That is to say that one may have exhibited an unacceptable behaviour against ones organization or society where the person finds himself.

Negative practice by vitafoam advertisers in Nigeria.

To this end, unethical here means paying no regard to the laid down principles of advertising.

PRACTICE

When we say practice, if entails the practicality of what is said, as in theory and practice. In football, for instance, there is a time when the players are told what to do with the football. And they yet to perfect in those lectures by practicing what is taught them.

ADVERTISING

Advertising, like other promotional techniques informs, persuades and reminds. It can change consumer’s, beliefs, attitudes, images, and behaviour. But for advertising to be effective on a national level, enormous expenditures are required. Advertising is a giant industry.

Advertising is an avenue of creating awareness of vitafoam in Nigeria.

NIGERIA

It is a geographical entity or area that we practice advertising. It is also a continent in African or a country in West Africa sub-region within the African continent were advertisers shows unethical practice.

VITA FOAM

It is a company which practices advertising of foam in Nigeria. A company under the Nigeria study of foam advert.

 

1.7   SCOPE AND LIMITATION

It is important to point out that the scope of this study is to the vitafoam Nigeria Plc to determine the effects of unethical practice of advertising in Nigeria.

 

The case study is a renowned company which produces quality mattresses, cushions, pillows and upholstery sheetings. The researcher’s choice of this area as her scope of study is for her generate data capable of representing the needs find answers to the research questions.

Also it is to use a company that has the same business and environmental characteristics with the within the target population. This is to a largest extent will lead to the validity and reliability of the instruments used for the study.

Despite all these opportunities, a lot of obstacles were encounted by the researcher during the process of putting the project together.

Among them are:

a).    Time Constraints: A limited time frame was allotted to the research for gathering of data and sourcing to research materials.

b).    Finance: Money was required at all stages of this study but could not gotten easily.

Effort was made by the research to ensure that the research was carried out under conditions that led to scientifically valid conclusion despite the financial problem.

1.8   ASSUMPTIONS OF THE STUDY

In this study, it is simply assumed that any study on the effects of unethical practice of advertising in Nigeria is a welcomed development. The assumptions of such effects are therefore based on a case study of Vitafoam Nigeria Plc.

Therefore the research study assumes that

i).     Some advertisers neglect the ethics of advertising practice.

ii).    APCON has stipulated some measures to curb illegal advertising.

iii).   Advertising lack professional application.

iv).   The media are involved in promoting illegal advertising.

v).    Unethical practice in advertising cause some effects.

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

 

2.1   SOURCE OF RELATED LITERATURE

 

 

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