Category Archives: FOOD SCIENCE PROJECT TOPICS AND MATERIALS PREVIEW

PRODUCING AND SENSORY EXAMINE THE BISCUIT USING WHEAT FLOUR, CASSAVA FLOUR AND AFRICAN YAM BEAN FLOUR

PRODUCING AND SENSORY EXAMINE THE BISCUIT USING WHEAT FLOUR, CASSAVA FLOUR AND AFRICAN YAM BEAN FLOUR

 

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Abstract

This work reviewed the types, uses and effects of junk foods on human health (advantages and disadvantages). The different types of junk foods include. Drinks, snacks, and phytochemicals. Their advantages includes lowering the blood lipid levels, improving arterial compliance, scavenging free radicals and inhibiting platelet aggregation.  Disadvantages include the fact that the presence of phytochemicals in food may send confusing signals about how to plan healthful diet. Thus, linking the consumption of junk food with human claims should be based on scientific evidence.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I wish to express my profound gratitude to the almighty God for his strength, mercies and kindness throughout my stay in school.

My sincere thanks goes to my amiable and hardworking HOD Mrs Nzelu L.U and this research would have been nothing if not the strict supervision of my seminar supervisor Mrs Obarisiagbon I.C, who through her close supervision, endurance, guidance and correction kept me on the right track in the cause of writing this work and all the lecturers of food science & Technology dept.

My profound thanks goes to my beloved mother Mrs Bessy Madueke and my siblings especially my elder brother Mr. Emeka-Mary for his care and my friends are not left out.

My warmest regard goes to my friends: Christian, Emeka, Abuchi, Uche, Ikechukwu and host of others. May God Almighty bless you richly.

 

 

 

 

 

Abstract

Production of biscuit using composite wheat / Abacha / African yam bean flour was investigated. Cassava root from one year old was used for the production of Abacha flour. Thin slices of boiled peeled tubers were soaked in water for 12 hours before drying and milling into Abacha flour. African Yam Bean was sorted and soaked in water 12 hours and milled into flour. Biscuit was baked with quantities of wheat, Abacha and African Yam Bean flours blended into the ratio of 100%, 90%:5%:5%, 80%: 10%:10%, 70%:15%:15% respectively. The biscuit samples were evaluated for sensory evaluation attributes. Sensory evaluation shows that the composite biscuit of 90%:5%:5%, & 80%:10%:10% were mostly preferred than that of 70%:15%:15% substitution in terms of taste, colour, texture & general acceptability.

 

 

 

iv

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       INTRODUCTION

1.1       SCOPE / LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

1.2       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

1.3       OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

CHAPTER TWO

2.0       LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1       USE OF COMPOSITE FLOUR IN BISCUIT MAKING

2.2       THE ROLE OF BISCUIT IN SUPPLEMENTARY AND EMERGENCY FEEDING

2.3       WHEAT FLOUR IN BISCUIT MAKING (DEFINITION)

2.4       NUTRITIVE VALUE OF WHEAT FLOUR

2.5       CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF WHEAT FLOUR

2.6       ORIGIN OF WHEAT

2.7       HEALTH BENEFIT OF WHEAT

2.8       USE OF WHEAT

2.9       LIMITATIONS OF WHEAT

2.10     ORIGIN OF AFRICAN YAM BEAN

2.11     NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF AFRICAN YAM BEAN

2.12     HEALTH BENEFITS OF AFRICAN YAM BEAN

2.13     USES OF AFRICAN YAM BEAN

2.14     LIMITATIONS OF AFRICAN YAM BEAN

2.15     PROXIMATE COMPOSITION OF AFRICAN YAM BEAN

2.16     ORIGIN OF CASSAVA

2.17     ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF CASSAVA

2.18     USES OF CASSAVA

2.19     NUTRITIONAL IMPORTANCE OF CASSAVA

2.20     HEALTH BENEFITS OF CASSAVA

2.21     LIMITATION OF CASSAVA

2.22     RAW MATERIALS FOR BISCUIT MAKING

2.23     NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF BISCUIT

CHAPTER THREE

3.0       MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1       RECIPES FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BISCUITS

3.2       FORMULATION OF FLOUR BLENDS

3.3       BISCUIT PRODUCTION

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0       RESULT AND DISCUSSION

4.1       RESULT OF SENSORY EVALUATION

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0       CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

REFERENCES

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

Urbanization is charging the food habits and preferences of the populace towards convenient foods, which influence their nutritional intake. Most of the snacks consumed are high in carbohydrate. The use of composite flour has been encouraged since it reduces the importation of wheat.

Biscuits, which are usually produced from cereal flours (mainly wheat) are consumed extensively all over the world, including the developing counties, where protein and caloric malnutrition is prevalent particularly among women and children. The increasing phenomenon of urbanization coupled with the growing number of working mothers, have contributed greatly to the popularity and increased consumption of snack foods (Singh et al; 1989). However, this increasing importance of snack foods such as biscuit in today’s eating habits has not been fully exploited in the developing countries. This is probably as a result of the prohibitive cost of baked products (Tsen et al; 1973). Since this crops is not currently cultivated in the tropics, there is need to look inwards for local raw materials with optimum nutritive value and good processing characteristics, to substitute wheat in baked products.

Cassava (Manihot esculenta L) is the staple food of the poorer section of the population of many tropical counties rich in carbohydrate and has minute quantities of protein, vitamins and minerals (Ihekoronye and Ngoddy, 1985) which can result in malnutrition in some areas where it is the main item of diet (Kay, 1987). Although supplementation is necessary, it is not the solution of the elimination of micro nutrient deficiency disorder but rather the simple and most sustainable approach is fortification of staple food with limiting micronutrient (Ihekoronye and Ngoddy, 1985). Therefore the nutritional value of cassava root and its products such as cassava flour can be improved through food composites and fortification with other protein-rich crops with a reasonable amount of fats, vitamins and minerals (Enwere, 1998). One of such crops is the African yam bean.

The African yam bean known as Odudu, Azama or Okpodudu by the Igbo’s belongs to the family Febaceae, which was formally classified under the sub-family Papillionoides (Anon, 1979). As a legume, it has an excellent supply of B-vitamins (Apata & Ologhobo, 1990). African yam beam will result in a more nutritious diet / snacks.

1.1     SCOPE / LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

It is anticipated that in carrying out a study of this nature, there are limitations involved in the study. The writer encouraged a lot of unforeseen problem due to limited time given, the writer was unable to gather enough and sufficient facts which are relevant to the study.

Secondly, there was financial problem. The writer was not able to buy some of the materials like Bakery pastry booklets, get in touch with Bakery industry managers, travel for some researches etc. the polytechnic library was not fully equipped of most relevant materials that would have assisted the writer.

 

1.2     SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY

Production of biscuit form wheat flour, cassava flour and African yam bean composite flour is used in every production sector of Bakery industry that specialized in Biscuit making.

The government ahs estimated that the average Nigeria that consumed biscuit everyday is approximately 5,500 millions in different location in the country. Biscuit is named as often, the fastest and cheapest food that sustains hungry easily, with increased technological capabilities. Bakery industry has extremely similar production and services that is characteristically without distinguishing the name of the product food substance.

In a nutshell, the study is important in the following areas: To the Researcher:

i         It enables the researcher acquire knowledge on how biscuit can be produced from composite flour

ii        It enables the researcher acquire knowledge on different ways of using wheat, cassava and African yam bean flour in production of major pasting floured.

1.3     OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The objective of this study is therefore, to produce biscuit from various blends of wheat flour, cassava flour and African yam bean flour and to determine the sensory properties of the biscuit. Meanwhile, the acceptability of biscuit baked from the flours with a view to increasing the level of the wheat flour, cassava flour and African yam bean composite flour for biscuit production as this will lead to higher utilization of cassava thereby reducing post harvest losses.

 

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NUTRIENT COMPOSITION, FUNCTIONAL AND ORGANOLEPTIC PROPERTIES OF COMPLEMENTARY FOODS FROM SORGHUM

NUTRIENT COMPOSITION, FUNCTIONAL AND ORGANOLEPTIC  PROPERTIES OF COMPLEMENTARY FOODS FROM SORGHUM, ROASTED AFRICAN YAM BEAN AND CRAYFISH

 

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction———————————————————————————-1

CHAPTER TWO

Literature Review—————————————————————————4

CHAPTER THREE

Materials and Methods——————————————————————25

CHAPTER FOUR

Results and Discussion——————————————————————-36

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CHAPTER FIVE

Conclusion———————————————————————————-40

Recommendations————————————————————————40

References———————————————————————————-41

Appendix————————————————————————————47

 

LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES

Fig. 1: flow diagram for the production of formulated complementary

Food————————————————————————————— 25

Table 1:———————————————————————————        36

Table 2:———————————————————————————        36

Table 3:———————————————————————————        37

 

ABSTRACT

Complementary foods were formulated using sorghum, African yam bean and crayfish. The nutrient composition, functional properties and organoleptic attributes of the formulated complementary foods were investigated. The different flours were combined in the ratios of; 70:20:5, 80:15:5, 75:20:5, of sorghum, African yam bean and crayfish respectively. Cerelac, a commercial sample served as control. Porridges were prepared from the composite blends for organoleptic evaluation. Standard methods were used to analyze the composite flours. The protein content of African yam bean and crayfish flours complemented the sorghum protein and improved the nutritional quality of the formulated food. The result of the functional properties showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) in both bulk density and viscosity.

 

Sensory evaluation revealed that the porridge from the control was preferred over the others. Among the blends, the porridge made from 70:20:5 sorghum / African yam bean / crayfish was preferred over the others. The study showed that composite blends from sorghum, African yam bean and crayfish are nutritionally adequate and possess good functional properties which are required for the preparation of complementary foods for infants.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

In developing countries like Nigeria, complementary foods are mainly based on starch tubers like cocoyam, sweet potato or on cereals like maize, millet and sorghum. Children are normally given these staples in the form of gruels that is either mixed with boiled water (Igyor et al., 2011).

 

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Sorghum is an important food crop grown on a subsistence level by farmers in the semi arid tropics of Africa and Asia. It is the principal food crop grown in Northern Nigeria (Zakari and Inyang, 2008). Sorghum like other cereals is predominantly starchy and remains a principal source of energy, protein, vitamins and minerals. Sorghum grows in harsh environments where other crops do not grow well, just like other staple foods, such as cassava, that are common in impoverished regions of the world. It is usually grown without application of any fertilizers or other inputs by a multitude of small _holder farmers in many countries FAO (1999).

African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) is an underutilized legume crop that is predominantly cultivated in Western Africa. It produces nutritious pods, highly portentous seeds and capable of growth in marginal areas where other pulses fail to thrive (Enwere, 1998). It has the potential to meet the ever increasing protein demands of the people in this region.

 

Crayfish, also known as crawfish, freshwater lobsters, to which they are related; taxonomically, they are members of the super families Astacoidea and parastacoidea (Hart 1994). The greatest diversity of crayfish species is found in Southeastern North America, with over 330 species in nine genera, all in the family Cambraridae (Tennessee Aquatic Nuisance 2007). A further genus of astacid crayfish is found in the Pacific Northwest and the headwaters of some rivers east of the continental Divide. Many crayfish are found in lowland areas where the water is abundant in calcium, and oxygen rises from underground springs (Thompson et al., 2007).

Since many African mothers use gruels made from sorghum as complementary foods, for their infants, due to their inability to afford the cost of nutritional superior commercial meaning foods, this work was conducted to evaluate the nutrient composition, functional and organoleptic properties of complementary foods from sorghum, roasted African yam bean and crayfish locally formulated into flour blends.

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AIM AND OBJECTIVE

To determine the nutrient composition, functional and organoleptic properties of complementary foods from sorghum, roasted African yam bean and crayfish.

 

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THE EFFECT OF INORGANIC FERTILIZER TREATMENT ON THE MINERAL AND VITAMIN CONTENT OF THE LEAVES OF O. GMUNS GRATISSIMUM

THE EFFECT OF INORGANIC FERTILIZER TREATMENT ON THE MINERAL AND VITAMIN CONTENT OF THE LEAVES OF O. GMUNS GRATISSIMUM

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ABSTRACT

The effect of inorganic fertilizer treatment on the mineral and vitamin contents of the leaves of O. gratissmimum (1) was investigated cultivatd O. gratissimum in plastic planting buckets were applied with NPK (15:15:15) fertilizer and 500kg/ha treatment levels determined using the furrow slice methods two months after seed germination, only one application was carried out. The levels of the plants were harvested for analysis one month after treatment. Fertilizer treatment caused significant increase P. (0.05) in the potassium, sodium, magnesium, phosphorous and nitrogen contents of the leaves of O gratissimum.

However, fertilizer treatment led to significant reduction (P 0.05) in the calcium content of the leaves of O. gratissimum. Although fertilizer treatment generally caused increased concentration of ascorbic acid, such increases were not significant. Generally the concentration of minerals and vitamins tended to increase as the level of treatment increased.

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CHEMICAL, FUNCTIONAL PASTING PROPERTIES OF STARCHES FORM BROWN AND YELLOW TIGERNUTS (CYPETUS, ESCULENTUS)

 

Abstract

Starch was extracted form brown and yellow varieties of tigernuts, starch samples from both varieties were defatted and analysed for their functional, chemical and pasting properties using standard analytical methods. The conventional cassava starch served as the control. There were significant differences in chemical (moisture) ash, fat, protein, amycose and starch yield) and functional properties oil absorption capacity, bulk density and starch gel charity) between starch samples. Most pasting properties, oil absorption such as trough, peak viscosity breakdown, final viscosity, set back viscosity of tigernut starch samples were higher than those of cassava starch.

 

EVALUATION OF NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF SOYBEAN – ACHA COMPOSITE  BISCUITS

 

ABSTRACT

Biscuits were prepared from – soy bean composite flour based on preliminary works, the nutritional qualities of the products (biscuits) were evaluated using wistar-strain albino rat feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency Ratio (FEB) Protein efficiency Ration (PER) and proximate composition of the faces.

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IMPACT OF BREAKFAST ON DAILY ENERGY INTAKE-ANALYSIS OF ABSOLUTE VERSIS RELATIVE REAKFAST CALORIES

 

ABSTRACT

The role of breakfast energy in total daily energy intake is a matter of debate. Acute feeding experiments demonstrated that high breakfast energy leads to greater overall intake supported by cross sectional data of a free-living population. On the other hand, a large intra individual analysis has indicated that a high proportion of breakfast to overall intake is associated with lower daily energy intake. To evaluate these apparently contradictory results in greater detail both ways of analysis were applied to the same data set of dietary records.

 

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IMPORTANCE OF UTAZI (GONGRONEMA LATIFOLIUM) AND NCHUANWU (OCIMUM GRATISSIUM)

IMPORTANCE OF UTAZI (GONGRONEMA LATIFOLIUM) AND NCHUANWU (OCIMUM GRATISSIUMIN HUMAN BODY

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ABSTRACT

The research work was focused on the possible vitamin composition of Utazi (Gongronema  latifolium) and Nchuanwu (Ocimum gratissimum) leaf juice. Here, it was only the vitamin A and C that were scientifically tested for. Where upon, it was discovered that Utazi had 1.14mglml of vitamin A and 34:61mg1 100m1 of vitamin C, while Nchuanwu had 2.14mglm1 of vitamin A and 30.76mg1 100m1 of vitamin C. From the result gotten, it shows that Utazi and Nchanwu are good sources of vitamin A and C, with high industrial and medicinal prospects.

 

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

Aim and objective

CHAPTER TWO

Literature Reviews

Origin of Utazi and Nchuanwu

Uses of gongronema latifoliumandocimum gratissmum.

Production and international trade (Utazi and Nchuanwu)

Description of utazi and Nchuanwu

Growth and development of Utazi and Nchuanwu

Propagation and planting (utazi and Nchuanwu).

Harvesting (utazi and Nchuanwu).

Handling after harvest (utazi and Nchuanwu)

Genetic resources and breeding (utazi and Nchuanwu)

Proximate and minerqal omposition of Utazi

Amino Acid composition of utazi

fatty acid composition of Utazi

Anti bacterial activity of utazi

Prospect of Utazi

Prospect of Nchuanwu

CHAPTER TWO

Materials and methods

Sample collection and preparation.

Determination of vitamin A (Utazi and Nchuanwu).

Materials

Preparation of reagent

Isopropanol in the both sample (Utazi and Nchuanwu)

Determination of vitamin C (Utazi and Nchuanwu)

MATERIALS

Preparation of Reagent

Indophenols solution titration in the both sample.

CHAPTER FOUR

Results

Discussion

CHAPTER FIVE

Conclusion

Recommendation

Appendix

Reference

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

1.0.1  Utazi (Gongronema  latifolium/ Bush buck), leaf vegetable and belong to the group of plants known as spices. It is of the family of ASCLEPIADACEA genus GONGRONEMA and species of LATIFOLIUM, and the vernacular name is BUSH BUCK while the botanical name GONGRONEMA lATIFOLIUM. Utazi is a climber with woody hollow glaborous stems below and characterized by greenish yellow flowers (Okolo 1987).

Gongronema  latifolium, commonly called ‘utazi’ by the Igbo’s, the efik / ibibo people in South-eastern Nigeria call the leave ‘utasi’ and the Yoruba people ‘arokeke’ or ‘madumaro’ (Ugochukwu and Babady, 2002). In Ghana, the akan-asantes knows it as ‘kurutu nsurogya’. The serer in Senegal call it ‘gasub’ while the kissis, mende and temnes in sierra leone call it ‘ndondo-polole, ‘tawabembe’ and ‘ra-bilong’ respectively (Dalziel et at, 1961). They are sharp bitter and sweet and widely used as a leafy vegetable and as a spice for sauce, soups and salad (Okolo 1987, Anaso and Onochie 1999). Utazi is used in small quantity in preparing soups like Nsala soup, ugba sauce, and yam and also in garnishing dish like Abacha, Ncha, Isiewu, Nkwobi etc. The leaves are used to spice locally brewed beer. In Sierra Leone the pliable stems are used as chew sticks. The bark contains much latex and has been tasted for exploitation (Morebise et  al., 2002).

Reports by various authors showed that it essential oils, saponins and pregnanes among others (Schneider et al; 1993, Morebise and Fafunso 1998, morebise et al; 202). The plant has been widely used in folk medicine for maintaining healthy blood glucose level (Okafor 1987, 1989). The plant leaves have been found very efficacious as an anti-diarrhea, and anti-tussive (Sofoware 1982, Iwu, 1993).

1.0.2  Nchuanwu (ocimum gratissimum / clove Basil), leafy vegetable and belong to the group of plant known as spices. It is of family of LAMIACEAC genus OCIMUM and species O.GRATISSIMUM and the vernacular name is CLOVE BASIL while the botanical name OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM. Nchuanwu is widely distributed in the tropics of Africa and Asia. It is a perennial plant that is woody at the base. It has average height of 1-3m high. The leaves are broad and narrowly ovate, usually 5-13cm long and 3-9cm wide. It is a scented shrub with lime-green fuzzy leaves (Wagner et al; 1999).

In Southern part of Nigeria, the plant is called “effinrin-nia” by the Yoruba,”Nchuanwu” in Igbo, while in the Southern part of Nigeria, the Hausa call it “Daidoya”. (Effraim et al; 2002).

Nutritional importance of this plant centers on it’s usefulness as a seasoning because of its aromatic flavor (C.N. Ezekwesili et at; 2004).

Nchuanwu in folk medicine, ocimum gratissimum is extensively used throughout West Africa as a febrifuge, anti-malaria and anti-convulsant. The leaf juice is used in the treatment of stomach pain and catarrh. Oil from leaves have been found to posses antiseptics, anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activities (Ezekwesile et al; 2004).

In the coastal area of Nigeria, the plant is used in the treatment of epilepsy (Osifo, 1992) high fever (Oliver 1980) and diarrhea (Oliver 1980 and Sofoware 1993). While in the savannah areas decoctions of the leaves are used to treat mental illness (Abdulrahman, 1992).

Nchuanwu is used by the Ibos of Southern Nigeria in the management of the baby cord. It is believed to keep the baby’s cord and wound surface sterile. It is used in the treatment of fungal infections, fever, cold and catarrh (Iwu, 1986).

They play quite significant role in our diets of the population because they are major sources of essential macro nutrients, micro nutrients and vitamins.

Due to their seasonal nature and high moisture content, there is need therefore to develop an appropriate technology for their preservation so as to guarantee their availability all year round (Eze and Chibuzor 2008).

 

1.1     AIM AND OBJECTIVE

The aim of this project work is to determine the vitamin composition of Utazi and Nchuanwu leaf juice (vitamin A and C).

 

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EXAMINE THE PRESENCE AND CONCENTRATION OF SOME PHYTOCHEMICALS IN AVOCADO PEAR

EXAMINE  THE PRESENCE AND CONCENTRATION OF SOME PHYTOCHEMICALS IN AVOCADO PEAR (PERSEA AMERICANA MILL) SEED

 

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ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
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Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

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08074466939 Or 08063386834,   The Project Title  You  Selected On Our Website , Amount Paid, Depositor Name, Your Email Address, Payment Date. You Will Receive Your Material In Less Than 1 Hour Once We Confirm Your Payment.

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ABSTRACT

Phytochemical screening to determine the presence of tannins, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids,sterols and cardiac glycosides in PerseaAmericana will be carried out. The sample will be prepared by cutting the seed into small pieces, drying and grinding with Thomas Willey milling machine. The ground sample will be stored in an airtight container for analysis. The presence of alkaloid will be determined by Wagner’s test, flavonoid and tannin by ferric chloride test, saponin by emulsion test and cardiac glycoside by glacial acetic acid test. The quantitative determination of alkaloid was carried out by the method of Harborne,(1993)and Obadoni and Ochuko,(2001). Flavonoid will be determined by the method of Boham and Kocipai,(1994). Tannin will be determined by the method of Pearson, while cordial glycoside will be determined by wang and filled method.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Phytochemicals are a large group of plant derived compound hypothesized to be responsible for much of the disease protection conferred from diets high in fruits, vegetables, beans, cereals and plant-based beverages such as tea and wine (Hollman, 2005). They are biologically naturally occurring chemical compounds found in plants . They protect plants from disease and damage and contribute to the plants colour, aroma and flavor. They also protect plants from environmental hazards such as pollution, stress, drought, uv exposure and pathogenic attack. These Phytochemicals are known as secondary metabolities .

Recently it is clearly known that phytochemicals have roles in the protection of human health when their dietary intake is significant.

A wide range of dietary Phytochemicals are found in fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grains, nuts, seeds, fungi, herbs and spices (Mathai, 2000). it is well known that plants produce these chemicals to protect                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            themselves, but recent research demonstrate that many phytochemicals can also protect humans against diseases (Narasinga, 2003). The most important of these bioactive constituents of plants are alkaloids, tannins, steroids, terpenoids and phenolic compounds. In recent years secondary plant metabolites previously with unknown pharmacological activities have been extensively investigated as a source of medicinal agents. Thus it is anticipated that phyto-antimicrobial efficacy will be used for the treatment of bacterial infection (Balandrin et al., 2005).

 

Perseaamericana is one of the 150 varieties of avocado pear. The seeds of Perseaamericana has a diverse application in ethnomedicine, ranging from treatment for diarrhea, dysentery, toothache, intestinal parasites to the area of skin treatment and beautification (Pamplona and Roger, 1999). P. americana leaves have been reported to posses anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities (Adeyemi et al., 2002). The seeds are rich in tannins and carotenoids and tocopherols from the fruit were shown to inhibit the in-vitro growth of prostate cancer cell lines (lu et al, 2005) and “persin” from avocado leaves was shown to have antifungal properties and to be toxic to silkworms (oelrichs et al., 1995). The effect of P.americana extract was evaluated on in-vitro rat lymphocyte proliferation (Gomezflores et al., 2008). Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of seeds of avocado pear was found to be greater than 70% (Soong and Barlow 2004).

Objective of the study

  • To screenPerseaamericana seeds for the presence of some phytochemicals such as flavonoids, alkaloids, sterols, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides etc.
  • To carry out quantitative determination of some of these phytochemicals

Scope of the study

The study will cover the general description ofPerseaamericana, phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables and nutritional physiology of phytochemicals. The study will also cover the nutritional contents of P.americana fruit and its medicinal uses. Effects ofP.americana on the body and the phytochemicalsto be determined will be discussed. Qualitative and quantitative determination of some phytochemicals will also be carried out.

Significance of the study

The significance of this study is thatP.americana plays a vital role in contributing to a healthy and balanced diet, reduced mental depression prevents coronary heart diseases, diabetes and prostate cancer in the body tissue and heal the scalp.

P.americana if consumed by individual can fight beriberi, cause a reduction in body weight and are used as antihypertensive drug for individuals with hypertension.

 

CHAPTERTWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

General description of Perseaamericana