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PRODUCTION OF BIOGAS USING COW DUNG

PRODUCTION OF BIOGAS USING COW DUNG

FROM NKANU IN ENUGU EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, ENUGU STATE

 

 

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ABSTRACT

Biogas originates from bacteria in the process of biological breakdown of organic material under anaerobic conditions. The demand, high costs and health implications of using energy derived from hydrocarbon compound have necessitated the continuous search for alternative source of energy. Cow dung as a renewable source of energy supply has been proven to be very efficient. This study investigated the production of biogas using cow dung from Nkanu in Enugu East Local Government Area, Enugu state. A 2ml/g of the cow dung was used in this study. The digestion was carried out in a 10 L anaerobic digester at a temperature of 250C to 300 C and uncontrolled pH for a period of 3 weeks. About 23cm3 of biogas was produced on the 22nd day. Thus biogas production from cow dung is a good and cheap alternative source of energy. The use of biogas will not only serve as a source of fuel but will also help in the management of waste. The biomass generated after digestion can be used both as animal feed and to improve soil fertility. It is therefore recommended that large scale production of biogas from wastes should be undertaken by all as the wastes around you today can become your wealth tomorrow.

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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Fossil fuel provides the bulk of the world’s primary source of energy. Since they are non-renewable natural resources with little to conserve the earth’s supply, supplies of fossil fuel (especially oil and gas) may soon get completely depleted. Additionally, the rising cost of petroleum and allied products most especially in Nigeria has triggered a need to develop alternate sources of energy, one of which is biogas production. In Nigeria, majority of the population are rural dwellers without access to gas or electricity and therefore depend on firewood for cooking and lightening. Unfortunately, this has contributed immensely to the rapid rate of deforestation and desert encroachment. The establishment of biogas plants in these communities would greatly ameliorate these problems and help preserve the environment.
Biogas is distinct from other renewable energy source such as solar energy, wind energy, thermal and hydro sources of energy because of its characteristics of using controlling and collecting organic waste and at the same time producing fertilizer and water for use in agricultural irrigation. Anaerobic digestion process produces a higher biogas yield when running on a mixture of animal manure and vegetable/crop waste rather than animal manure alone, and biogas production is considered the most suitable bio energy technology in china (Wu CZ et al 2009). The slurry and residues from the biogas process can also be used as an organic fertilizer to replace the use of chemical fertilizer on the farm (HUGO 2008; Zhou Cx et al 2004; Liu y et al 2008 and chem. RJ 2007).
The composition of biogas is typically methane (50-70%), carbon-dioxide (30-40%) and the rest is made up of traces of elements of hydrogen sulphide. Biogas can be used in gas engine to convert the energy in the gas into electricity and heat. Biogas is characterized based on its chemical composition and the physical characteristics which result from it. It is primarily a mixture of methane (CH4) and inert carbonic gas (CO2). However the name ‘biogas’ gathers a large variety of gases resulting from specific treatment processes, starting from various organic waste-industries, animals or domestic organic waste etc.

 

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Different sources of production lead to different specific compositions. The presence of H2S or CO2 and water make biogas very corrosive and require the use of adapted materials. The composition of a gas issue from a digester depends on the substrate, of its organic matter load, and the feeding rate of the digester. According to its composition, biogas presents characteristics for comparison with natural gas propane. Biogas is a gas appreciably lighter than air, it produces twice as less calories by combustion with equal volume of natural gas.
The use of fossil fuels as primary energy source has led to global climate change, environmental degradation and human health problems. Also, improper waste management is one of the major problems confronting every development. This is because increase in industrial, commercial, agricultural and environmental activities has resulted in the generation of large quantities of wastes. These wastes, when not properly managed contribute to unhygienic environmental conditions that breed pathogenic microorganisms. Apart from the health implications, wastes make an environment unpleasant and unattractive. However, these wastes can be managed properly by conversion into useful and more environment friendly forms called biogases. Biogas typically refers to a gas produced by the breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. It is a renewable energy source, like solar and wind energy. Furthermore, biogas can be produced from regionally available raw materials and recycled waste and it is environment friendly and carbon IV oxide (CO2) neutral. Biogas is produced by the anaerobic digestion or fermentation of biodegradable materials such as manure, sewage, municipal waste, green waste, plant material, and crops.

Recently, large volume of cow dung generated from feedlot farming increases annually, most of which are disposed into landfills or are applied to the land without treatment. Anaerobic digestion provides an alternative option for energy recovery and waste treatment. In this paper, cow dung was assessed for the use of anaerobic digestion with the objectives of treating the dung waste to decrease disposal costs and to generate biogas. The biogas produced contains mainly methane and carbon dioxide, and can be used as a source of renewable energy. The aim of this paper was to investigate the effectiveness and the performance characteristics of anaerobic digestion of cow dung for biogas production in batch and semi-continuous operation.

Renewable energy resources appear to be one of the efficient solutions to the problems resulting from the use of fossil fuels. Livestock waste management in many parts of the world is a big challenge which if not properly taken care of can cause a lot of health/environmental problems. Large volumes of cow dung generated from feed lot farming is on the increase, most of which are disposed into landfills or applied to the land without treatment. Animal wastes are abundant all over the world with Nigeria producing about 227,500 tons of fresh waste each day, that 1kg of fresh animal waste produce about 0.03m3 of gas per day. This shows theoretically that Nigeria can produce 6.8 million M3 of biogas daily, which in terms of energy is equivalent to about 3.9 million liters of petroleum. The use of biogas is capable of providing a special impetus in both rural and urban areas. Biogas plant can be built by using materials which are locally available in most developing countries like Nigeria. Nigeria is tremendously blessed with a variety of energy resources (both conventional and non-conventional). The reserves for animal waste alone which is a viable source for biogas production as at 2005 was estimated to be 61.00 million tonnes/yr and crop residue was put at 83.00 million tonnes/yr. However, 50 and 400 MW of electricity is targeted to be generated from biomass by 2015 and 2025 respectively.

Biogas is a renewable, alternative and sustainable form of energy. Not only does biogas technology help to produce an alternative energy source, but it also helps in maintaining the environment and improving health conditions. The energy in plant vegetation, animals, industrial and domestic waste matter can be released in terms of a useful gas when fermented anaerobically, that is, in the absence of oxygen. The biogas formed after the decomposition of organic wastes is channeled or transported to homes for use for cooking, running engines, electrical power generation and heating, with virtually little or no pollution at all. This gas is now used in large scale in many countries. The use of anaerobic digestion as waste-to-energy technology has been employed in the treatment of different organic wastes. This method when used on organic material produces compound like methane, CO2, ammonia, traces of gases, and organic acid of low molecular weight. Ignorance about this technology has made majority of people in the developing countries mainly depend on solid fuel like wood, to meet their cooking and light needs.

Nowadays fossils-based fuel is becoming scarce and more expensive, thus the need to resort to the use of biogas as a more efficient supplement. In this study, biogas production was investigated using cow dung. There was a significant yield of biogas observed in this study.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In Nigeria, the use of wastes from organic matter, though important, has been relegated to the background. There are abundant agricultural residues and municipal solid wastes, whose potentials are yet to be fully tapped for energy generation. The possibility of using such wastes for biogas production should be explored. The raw materials used in commercial methane generation include plant residues, animal waste like cow dung and various urban wastes which are available in Nigeria.

Against this background, this paper appraises insights on environmental and public health implications arising from improper disposal of animal wastes and a comprehensive description of anaerobic digestion of these animal wastes as a means of resolving the ills; with emphasis on types of bio-digesters, microbial communities engaged in the process and techniques for their identification as well as factors affecting the digestion process.
The two enormous problems that are increasingly threatening the good life of many nations include the task of waste management and inadequacy of energy supply. A nation’s inability to dispose waste and to find enough energy greatly affects living conditions. The problem of fuel scarcity and sewage disposal in Nigeria and many developing countries is alarming. Energy generated from waste is therefore needful as it will serve the dual purpose of cleaning the environment and providing a cheaper source of energy. The aim of this research was to investigate the possibility of biogas production from a cheap raw material (cow dung) using a laboratory scale digester.

Without any further argument, the current disposal system for agricultural waste has created a negative effect through disease and pollution problems. The search for alternative sources of energy such as biogas from waste materials like kitchen waste, when increased would help in the elimination and control of deforestation and soil erosion. It should be noted that the development of biogas does not eliminate waste but it makes them easier to manage.

1.3 AIM OF THE STUDY

The importance of biogas as alternative source of energy cannot be over emphasised. It is a sustainable, more environmentally friendly and cheaper source of energy. Henceforth, the researcher want do determine the anaerobic digestion of cow dung for the synthesis of biogas.

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The most important initial issue when considering the application of anaerobic digestion systems is the feedstock to the process. Almost any organic material can be processed with anaerobic digestion; however, if biogas production is the aim, the level of putrescibility is the key factor in its successful application. The more putrescible (digestible) the material, the higher the gas yields possible from the system.

1.5 DEFINITION OF TERMS

Anaerobic digestion: Anaerobic digestion is a biological process making it possible to degrade organic matter by producing biogas which is a renewable energy source and a sludge used as fertilizer. The production of biogas is carried out in the environment in a natural way (e.g. gas of marshes – vegetable and animal matter decomposition where the formation of bubbles at water surface can be observed).
Anaerobic: life of activity in an airless environment.

Anaerobic Bacteria: microbes whose metabolisms require the absence of free oxygen.
Biogas: a gaseous product of anearobic digestion that primarily consists of methane and carbon dioxide.
Biomethane: This is virtually identical to natural gas, the main difference being that it is produced in days, rather than taking millions of years, billions of years ago.
Digester: the sealed tank or container in which the biological requirements of anaerobic digestion are controlled to hasten digestion and optimize biogas production.
Manure: Animal feces and urine, wasted feed, bedding, and anti-slip material from the barn and yard.

PRODUCTION OF BIOGAS USING COW DUNG

ANALYSIS OF CONTAMINATION OF ALASA RIVER IN BURUTU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF DELTA

ANALYSIS OF CONTAMINATION OF ALASA RIVER

IN BURUTU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF DELTA

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ABSTRACT

Water sample were collected along these river at various location, and were studied. The parameters determined were P4, temperature, conductivity, total hardness, alkalinity, ca hardness, maghardwen Cation (Pb2+ Fe2+ Cu2+) were also determined using atomic absorption spectrometry (DDS).
From the analysis showed that PH ranges from 6.10 – 6.80 temperature from 63.10 us/cm – – 63.90 us/cm-1 while were hardness 6.00mgk – 6.60mgk alkalinity rages from 7.00 – 9.00 Ph2+ ranges from 0.2mgk – 0.16mgk CU2+ ranges from 0.01mgk – 0.03mgk Fe2+ ranges from 0023mgk – 0.23mgk Nl2+ ranges from 0.11mgk – 0.70mgk.
The result of the analysis revealed that the sample are soft and would leather easily with water.

CHAPTER OF CONTENTS

Title Page ii
Dedication iii
Acknowledgement iv
Abstract v
Table of Contents vi
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Statement of problem 2
1.2 Objective 2
1.3 Limitation 2
1.4 Hypothesis 2
CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Literature Review 3
2.1 Effluent 6
2.2 Effluent Quality 7
2.3 Type of Pollution 8
2.4 Classification of Water Pollution 9
2.5 Effects of Water Pollution 11
2.6 Quality Criteria 15
2.7 Portable Water Standard 16
2.8 Storage and Preservation of Water Sample 18
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Materials and Method 23
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Results 28
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 Conclusion/Recommendation 33
Reference 34
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
Water is one the most abundant substance in nature. It was previously considered to be an element, not until Canvendish proved it to be a compound consisting of hydrogen and oxygen in the ratio of 2:1 by volume.
Water covers approximately three quarters of the entire surface, but in spite of this apparent abundance, several factors have limited the amount of water available for human use.
It is of fundamental importance to all kinds of plants and animals and therefore to man. It is of equal importance with the air we breath in maintaining the vital process necessary for life and growth. But since it is not every available, its provision has form the earliest part of villages and town to the places where water supply exist.
Water is a vital commodity to industries for process field stock (reacting raw materials) solvent compound and cooling process. It is distributed in many forms such as rain water, spring water, sea water and water.

1.1 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The oil industries along this river discharge their waste sample into the Aleasa river, this effluent posses environmental hazards when disposed by the industries into water bodies, thereby causing effect on the life of the people.

 

 

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THE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF CULINARY HERBS AND LOCAL SPIES PIPE GUIEENSE (UZIZA) XYLPIA AETHPICA (UDA) MONODORA MYRISTICA (EHURU) TETRAPELURA TETRAPTERA (OSHOSHO)

THE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF CULINARY HERBS AND LOCAL SPIES
PIPE GUIEENSE (UZIZA)
XYLPIA AETHPICA (UDA)
MONODORA MYRISTICA (EHURU)
TETRAPELURA TETRAPTERA (OSHOSHO)

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CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Objective of the Project 6
CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Literature Review 7
2.1 The Natural Heal Perspective of Culinary Herbs and Spice 8
2.2 Morphology and Description of Some
Particular Culinary Herbs and Spices 11
2.3 Chemical Constituents of Culinary Herbs and Spices 16
2.4 The Essential Roles of Culinary Herbs and Spices 25
2.5 Essential Oils 28
2.6 Oleoresins 30
2.7 Advantages of Oleoresins Over Convectional Spices and Herbs 31
2.8 Oleoresin Manufacture 34
2.9 Relative Flavour Strength of Some Spices 34
2.10 Autoxidation 35
2.11 Lipid Deterioration 36
2.12 Control of Oxidation 39
2.13 Mechanisms of Antioxidant 40
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Materials and Methods 42
3.1 Sample Collection and Storage Prior to use 42
3.2 The Equipments Used 42
3.3 The Reagents Used 43
3.4 Methods of Materials Preparation 44
3.5 Proximate Analysis 45
3.6 Extraction of Oleoresins 51
3.7 Samples Preparation 52
3.8 Peroxide Value Determination 53
3. Thiobarturic Acid Value Determinations 54
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Results and Discussion on the Spices 56
4.1 Result of Proximate Analysis on the Spices 56
4.2 Result of Peroxide Value and Thiobarbituric Acid Value 57
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation 61
5.1 Conclusion 61
5.2 Recommendation 62
References 63
Appendix I 65
Appendix ii 71

 

ABSTRACT
A comparative study was done on the physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of some culinary herbs and local spices. Piper Guiness (Uziza), Xylopia aethopica (Uda), Monodora Myristica (Ehuru) and Trtraleura Tetraopera (Oshsho). The proximate analysis of these spices were done to determine their moisture content, ash content, crude fat crude fibre and protein content. Extraction of the Oleorasin from the spices and soybean oil were done using soxhlet extraction unit with hexane as solvent. Imi of each of the Oleorasin samples of the spices was pipette into 100ml of soybean oil into four different test tubes labeled A,B, C and D. sample E contains 100ml of soybean oil with 150ppm of Butylated Hydroxyl toluene while the untreated soybean oil (sample F) was used as the control. The test-tube were shaked, plugged with cottonwood and kept at room temperature in a rack. The peroxide value of the sample were monitored for tightly for eight weeks, the thiobarbituric acid 9TBA) value were also determined on the tenth and twelfth weeks respectively. The peroxide value of the sample for the eighth week were recorded as follows: A (10), B (8) C (8), D (11), E (10) and F (22) respectively. From these results, it shows that all the spices were below the range of detectable rancidity. (i.e. between 20 to 40m Eg/kg). the thiobarbituric aid (TBA) value were recorded, for the twelfth week as follows: A (0.033), B (0.005), C (0.004), D (0.046), E (0.776) and F (2.503) respectively. Sample C Monodora Myristica (Ehuru) had the lowest Pv and TBA value, thus the best species with antioxidant property. When compared with other spices and even the artificial antioxidant, followed by sample B Xylopia aethiopica.

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION
Herbs and spices have long been used by ancient civilsations for culinary, medicinal and cosmetic uses. With modernization and the development of patent medicines, the use of natural cures and elixirs decrease in popularity.
Nowadays, disillusionment with synthetic drugs, artificial additives and their possible sides effects has given great rise in popularity to many natural products, be it for culinary, medical or cosmetics purposes. In line with the world wide trend for eco-consciousness, the popularity of natural cosmetic purposes. In line with the world wide trend for eco-consciousness, the popularity of natural cosmetic products, such as those sold in red earth and the body shop, attests to the current trend (Broadhurt CL, 2000).

Spices are defined as those aromatic plants and their parts, fresh or dried, whole or ground, that are primarily used to impart flavour and fragrances to foods and drink (Prosea 1986). The term is used in a wide sense and includes the culinary herbs. Spices are indispensable in the culinary art, used to create dishes that reflect the history, the culture and the geography of a country. Well-known examples are curry powder, housing live five spices powder) Pizza herbs and fines herbs (Polansky mm, 2000) spices oils and spice oleoresins are also indispensable in the food and beverages manufacturing industry, the perfumery and cosmetic industry and the pharmaceutical industry. Some spices and derivative possess antioxidant and antibiotic properties, which has increased interest in the commercial exploitation of aromatic plants for food preservation and crop protection with the growing demand natural and organic products and the increasing clamour to dispense with synthetic flavours and artificial food colouring, the future for spices seems bright.
According to Pearson 1976 herbs and spices consist of the dried leaves, flowers, buds fruits, seeds, bark or rhizomes of various plants. They are incorporated in foods only in small amounts but they make important contributions towards the odour and flavour due to the presence of the volatile oil 9essentail oil) and fixed oil, local examples include Piper guineense (Uzuza), Xylopia gethiopica (uda), Mondora myristica (Ehuru, Tretaphleura tetraptra (Oshsho) and capsicum frutescens (Ose Nsukka).

An antioxidant is defined as any substance which is capable of delaying, retarding or preventing the development in food of rancidity or other flavour deterioration due to oxidation,. Antioxidant are only one means of fending packing or there are others such as vacuum packaging or packing under an inert gas to exclude oxygen and refrigeration, freezing, both of which greatly reduce the rate of authorization.

Furthermore, it is seldom realized how little oxygen is need to initiate and maintain the oxidation process or how difficult and expensive it can be to remove the last traces of air from a product. For these reasons it is quite common to combine the use of antioxidants with inert gas packing using an antioxidant should be seen as one of several measures available, but used properly, it is generally effective, easily applied and inexpensive.
The prime justification for using an antioxidant is one of need an antioxidant can extend the shelf-life of a food, reducing wastage and complaints, it can reduce nutritional losses (oil soluble vitamins, such as vitamin A, are prone to oxidation)) and a very important point for the food technologist, it can widen the range of fat which can be used. Using an antioxidant enables the food manufacturer to smooth out differences in the stability of fats/oils and renders the food product less specific in terms of ingredient requirements. This offers more scope for cost control without jeopardizing the product quality of shelf-life, without an effective antioxidant, lard for instance, would find far fewer uses.

Antioxidants serve two principle functions.
1. They break the oxidation chain by containing the free radicals or acting as hydrogen donor.
2. They direct the breakdown of peroxides into stable substances that do not promote further oxidation (Ihekornye and Ngoddy 1985).
An ideal antioxidant meets the following demands:
1. Safe in use.
2. Should impart no odour, flavour or colour.
3. Effective of low concentration.
4. Should be easy to incorporate
5. Should survive cooking process.
6. Should be available at now cost-in-use.
(Allen and Haninlton, 1989), John and Peterson, (1974), summarized the general used and properties of herbs and spices as the ability to:-
1. Give flavour to a flavourable base.
2. Impart a different flavour character to the basic product.
3. Disguise objectionable intrinsic flavour and boost intrinsic flavour which would otherwise be too…

 

 

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BACTERIAL CONTAMINATS ASSOCIATED WITH COMMERCIAL POULTRY FEED FROM THREE DIFFERENT COMPANIES

BACTERIAL CONTAMINATS ASSOCIATED WITH COMMERCIAL POULTRY FEED FROM THREE DIFFERENT COMPANIES

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ABSTRACT

The bacterial contaminants associated with commercial poultry feeds from three companies in Nigeria (vital, Guinea and Top) were studied using streak plate techniques. The culture media used were Nutrient agar and Mac Cokey agar. The aim/ objective of the study is: To ascertain the microbial safety of commercial poultry feeds produced by companies. To isolate microorgaisms that are contaminants of poultry feeds, to identify the bacterial types and to determine the microbial load of poultry feed. The microbial mean count was highest in vital feed as 166 per ml with pH 7.80, followed by Guinea feed having mean count of 153 per ml with pH 6-46 and the least microbial mean count was got in Top feed, having 105 per ml withpH 6.00. The study revealed Staphylococcus aureus as the msot predominant bacterial organism with 52cfn (33%) followed by salmonella typhin with 48cfu (30%), The next bacterial organism isolated was Bacillus cereus with 40cfn (25%) and the least was Pseudomonas aeruginosa with 18cfu (12%). Also vital feed had the highest isolation of stapohylococcus aureus, as 60cfu per ml followed by Guinea feed having 57 cfu per ml and least isolation was obtained from top feed as 40cfu per ml. While the highest isolation of salmonella tipphi was obtained also from vital feed as 57cfu per ml, followed by Guinea feed with 50cfu per ml. The highest6 isolation of Bacillus cereus was still from vital feed as 50 cfu per ml, followed by Guinea feed as 43cfu per ml and least in Top feed with 28cfu per ml. The highest isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was from vital feed with 25cfu per ml, followed by Guinea feed with 19cfu per ml while least isolation was from top feed as 10 cfu per ml. The results showed that the poultry feeds in general had bacterial contaminants. But the microbial load was minimal increasing with decrease in acidity (i.e. high pH).

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE
Introduction
CHAPTER TWO
Literature review

CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Materials and method
3.1 Materials
3.2 Methods
3.2.1 Sterilization
3.2.2 Source of samples
3.2.3 Preparation of culture media
3.2.4 Determination of pH
3.2.5 Plating Technique
3.2.6 Bacteria count, Gram staining and Microsoft work
3.2.7 Biochemical test for identification
i. Indole test
ii. Methyle Red Test
iii. Voges – Proskaver test
iv. Oxidase test
v. Citrate utilization test
vi. Hydrogen sulphate production/sugar fermentation
vii. Motility test

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 RESULTS
4.1 Table 1
4.2 Table 2
4.3 Table 3
4.4 Table 4
4.5 Table 5
4.6 Table 6
4.7 Table 7

CHAPTER FIVE
Discussion

CHAPTER SIX
Conclusion and Recommendations
Reference
Appendix

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
Poultry are collection of birds raised commercially or domestically for meat, egg and feathers. Chickens, ducks turkeys and geese are of primary importance while guinea fowl and squabs (pigeons) are chiefly of local interest. These birds are source of income and food to the rarer. In the past only hens that could no longer produce eggs were killed and sold for meat but by the mid-20th century, meat production had outstripped egg. Production as a specialized industry (Encycloparredia Britaimca, 1988). Heavy breed poultry animals are used for meat white light bread chickens are primarily for the production of eggs (Mc Graw Hill encydopaedia 1992).

The meat and eggs produced from poultry are important sources of dietary portion. In Africa, animal protein foods from all sources contribute between 7g and 15g daily per person to the total food intake (Oyenyga, 1974). Today, Poultry production in the country is increasing at a tremendous rate and yet cannot meet the demand because of population growth and the awareness created by the campaigns for the need of animal protein in the diet.

The growth and well-being of organisms are to a large extent dependent on the mount and type of food they receive and the manner or rate at which they receive it. The food should contain nutrients such as water, carbohydrates, fats, protein, minerals, vitamins and added growth factors improper balance. Each of these nutrients has a major role to play concerning growth, maintenance and productivity of the poultry. According to Leonard 91981), nutritional deficiency or inbalance.

These diseases may include rickets, perosis, and nutritional roup, curly the paralysis etc. These diseases could result due to deficiency in vitamins D, Manganese, vitamin A, vitamin E and riboflavin. Improper sanitation and inadequate management play major roles in disease. Outbreak and productivity of the desired products. In developing countries like Nigeria, the cost of feeding, especially the monogastries continues to escalate primarily in response the soaring cost of the conventional feed ingredients. This phenomenon is precipitated by under production and importation of some food stuff coupled with the competition between man and farm animal for energy and protein concentrates.

The use of agro-industrial by-products towards reducing food cost has been widely recognized (EshieH and Ademosun, 1981; Atteh and Oloagbenla, 1993). Chicken and turkeys satisfy their energy needs provided the ration a allows them to do so (Church, 1988). The are of course exceptional to this rule particularly where heavy breed layers are concerned, when birds have a tendency to over-eat. Where this is a problem, it is general practice to subject the birds to some degree of food restriction during the growing and production periods.

The major ingredients that are integral parts of poultry rations at the present time in the USA are corn, as the primary source of energy and soybean meal as the major protein supplement (Roland et al 1972), while in Nigeria, Udedibie et al (1988) and Nwokon (1993) produced poultry offal meal (P.O.M) and chicken offal meal (COM) respectively from waste product similar to poultry visceral Offal (PVO) according to these authors POM has been used to replace ground nut cake in layer and broiler finisher diets and COM has been used along with fish meat and blood meat as sources of methodize and lysine in the starter diets of lockerels. These major ingredients, usually available in plentiful supply, allow rapid growth or high egg production with very efficient conversion.

However, corn-soy rations are deficient in some nutrients for chickens and these nutrients are normally supplied by other poultry meal.
There are different types of feeds given to poultry brids depending on the purpose. These different types of feeds given to poultry birds depending on the purpose. These different types are the breeders’ starters, growers’ and layer’ feeds. The percentage of each ingredient in the feed varies depending on the type of feed. The ingredient include ground yellow corn, ground oats or barley, Alfata meat, Fish meal, Oystershell, managised salt, vitamin A, vitamin D, and coccidiostat (which is given in form and at the level recommended by the manufacturer).

The different percentage of each ingredient varies depending on the kind of feed for example, ground yellow corn in starter and grower feed is 25% and 22% in breeder and layer feeds. There could be the same percentage of a particular ingredient in different feeds as in the case of a alfafa meal which constitutes 10% inall the feed types. Some ingredients could be absent in a particular feed but present in the others as in the case of riboflavin supplement which is absent in starter feed and present at the levels of 2 and 5% in rower, layer and breeder feeds respectively.

To maintain healthy birds, the feeds are kept fresh as much as possible at all times. The amount of feed in feeders are limited to the extent necessary to avoid wastage. It is a good practice to fill hanging feeders – only three quarter full, and trough feeders only two third full (Graham, 1977). Checking the weight of the birds and its feed consumption is very necessary. A drop in feed intake usually is the first indication of trouble, a disease outbreak, molt, stress or poor management (Graham, 1977).

Most poultry feed are prepared in dehydrated forms and because of this, there is the need to store them properly to avoid moisture uptake and damage by heat. In this way,. They can remain safe for a considerable period of time without loosing their safeness and value. The feed should be stored in a suitable place where it will not be attacked by microorganisms, insects, rodents, etc. Air tight storage is not advisable because offensive odour might result when there is obstruction of out flow and inflow of air (Leonard, 1981). High temperature and oxidation destroy certain vitamins, therefore, care must be taken in the preservation and storage of feeds to protect the vitamins they contain (Mc Graw – Hill encyclopaedia 1992).

The condition of feed storage and handling could be a source of contamination. When feeds are unhysgenically handled and stored, there could be a buildup of microbial contaminants.
Poultry have been found to be susceptible to infection due to certain microorganisms and man may be secondarily infected through heavy contaminated food such as poultry meat and eggs (Gorden and Tucker, 1965, Hall, 1977, and Barrell, 1982). Micro-organism that may contaminate feed include the following general another disease caused by salmonella infections is paratyphoid. Paratyphoid is an infection disease of chi, Entherobacter, Escherichia, Protens, Pseudomonas, staphylococcus, salmonella, shigella, providencia, serratia, Klebsiella, streptococcus, clostridium, Aspergillus and Erysiphelothrie (Leonard, 1981). Typically, in some countries, about 50% of all outbreaks of salmonellosis in man are caused by infections derived from these sources and the incidence of salmonella in poultry carcasses has, in certain cases been found to be 7% or more (Van schothorst Notermans, 1980). Okongi (1984) examined poultry feed and found that salmonella was present in the sample. Another disease caused by salmonella infections is paratyphoid, Paratyphoid is an infections disease of chicken, turkeys, ducks and…

 

 

 

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COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MICRO-ORGANISM ASSOCIATED WITH THE SPOILAGE OF BANANA

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MICRO-ORGANISM ASSOCIATED WITH THE SPOILAGE OF BANANA

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ABSTRACT

The comparative study of microorganisms associated with the spoilage of banana. “Banana is a general term embracing a number of species or hybrid in the genus musa, family bacteria organisms, small pieces of decayed tissue from the leading edge of the lesion was transferred, by means of sterile techniques, to the SDA contained in covered dishes and incubated at room temperature (28-370c). The fungal and bacterial growth visible within 2-7 days. Each observed fungal and bacterial growth based on their morphological and cultural microscopic examination and this microscopic examination was done using the lactophenol staining technique. Some organisms like Erwinia species has been incriminated as pathogen, saprophyte or constituent of epiphyic flora of plants.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE
1.1 INTRODUCTION
1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVE
1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF STDY
1.4 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
1.5 LIMITATION
1.6 HYPOTHESIS

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.2 MOLDS
2.3 YEAST
2.4 BACTERIA
2.5 BACTERIAL SPOILAGE OF BANANA
2.6 FUNGAL SPOILAGE OF BANANA
2.7 OTHER FUNGAL SPOILAGE OF BANANA
2.8 CONTROL OF BACTERIAL AND FUNGAL DISEASES

CHAPTER THREE
3.0 MATERIALS AND METHOD
3.1 STERILIZATION OF MATERIALS AND MEDIA USED
3.2 PREPARATION OF SABORAUD DEXTTROS AGAR (SDA)
3.3 PREPARATION OF NUTRIENT AGAR
3.4 BACTERIAL/FUNGAL ISOLATION BANANA FRUIT
3.5 BACTERIAL ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION
3.6 FUNGAL ISOLAATION AND IDENTIFICATION
3.7 STAININMG TECHNIQUE FOR BACTERIAL ISOLATES
3.8 ISOLATION OF YEATS AND MOLD

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 RESULTS
4.1 BACTERIAL EXAMINATION
4.2 FUNGI EXAMINATION

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 DISCUSSION
CONCLUSION
RECOMMENDATION
REFERENCES

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE I: BIOCHEMICAL ISOLATES FOR BACTERIAL
TABLE II: FUNGI ISOLATE
TABLE III: BIOCHEMICAL TEST FOR YEAST ISOLATED
TABLE IV: SOURCES OF COLLECTION OF THE FRUITS
TABLE V: ORGANISMS ISOLATED AND THEIR FREQUENCIES

LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE I: HOW ERWINIA SPECIE IS THE HIGHEST OCCURRENCE

FIGURE II: HOW ASPERFILLUS SPECIE IS THE HIGHEST OCCURRENCE

FIGURE III: THE LEAST OCCURRENCE IS CHROMOBACTERIUM SPECIE

FIGURE IV: THE HIGHEST AND ATHE LEAST OCCURENCES WERE ASPERGILLUS SPECIE AND RHODOTORULA SPECXIE

FIGURE V: THE GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF THE FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE OF THE MICROORGANISM FOUND IN THE TESTED BANANA.

FIGURE VI: SHOWS THE FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE OF THE MICRO-ORGANISM FOUND IN THE SPOILT BANANA FRUITS.

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 INTRODUCTION
Banana may be defined as a personal seed plant that produces an edible fruits, usually seedless, belong to the species M. acuminata, or are hybrids M. acuminata, M. balbisnna. They are perennial herbs with long, the bases of these leaves (petioles) remain tightyly fused and form the trunk (Pseudostem) of a plant 2-9m (6-30-ft) in height (Ploetz, 1994),
“Banana” is a general term embracing a number of species or hybrids in the genus musa, family musceae. In some areas of the world bananas are grown only as ornamental plants or for fiber.
It is found in tropical regions. The banana is monocarpic, flowering and setting fruit once before sit dies. The inflorescence protective flag leaf. The flower stalk of most banana varieties is positively geotropic and bends from the vertical until its stip points towards vertical flower stalks are from 30 – 90 cm (1-3ft) along, tapered and covered in a sheath of over- lapparing bracks the flower are parthenogenic (self-fertile). And occur in group of 12-20 beneath the bracks.
At first, individual fruiots called fingers, make up the groups (hands) which are arranged in a spiral around the flower stalk, forming a bunch.
At fruit set, a healthy banana plant will have 8-12 leaves, fruits mature in 60-100 days after flowers first appears depending on the season and cultivan. New banana plants arise as suckers from an underground rhizone. As old planted die and new sucher are formed the rhizome expands and is called a mat. Banana are propagated by suckens, pieces of the Bluzome and by tissue culture (Ploetz 1994)
USES
Bananas contain about 74% waterm 23% carbohydrate, 1% protein and 0.5 %. A 4 – ounce banana without the peel is a good source of vitamin Bb, Potassium, and fiber.
Banana fruit may be eaten raw or as a cooked vegetable. The fruit can also be processed for a number of food products.
Ripe fruits can be pulped for puree for in a variety of products including ice cream, yoghurt, cake, bread, nectar, and baby food. Ripe banabas can be dried and eaten, or sliced canned with syrup, and used in bakery products, fruits salads and stoppings. Green (unripened) bananas can be sliced and fried as chips. Whole green fruits can also be dried and ground into flour. Vinegar and alcoholic beverages can be made from fermented ripe bananas. Other parts of the banana plant are consumed besides the fruits. The heart of the growing pseudostem is eaten in India. In Southeast Asia, the male bud is eaten as a boiled vegetable.

The banana leaves are not eaten but may be used for wrapping food in cooling. The banana foliage and pseudostems are used as cattle feed during dry periods in some banana producing areas. Culled bananas are used sto feed cattle and hogs. Bananas are a good energy source but need to be supplemented with protein. But not all micro-organisms associateeed with fruits are harmless”. This includes the lactic acid bacteria, coryne forms, pseudomonads, xanthomonads micrococci, amny fungi and coliforms.

These microorganisms do play an important role in the spoilage of food and dictate the shelf life of fresh fruits. Most healthy raw produce will have on them anywhere from a few thousand to millions of miucroorganisms per gram. The presence of many of these microorganisms is a concern for causing product spoilage.
Food spoilage is a major problems in all societies especially fruits, because they provide nutrients for us, also are excellent environment for the growth of micro-organisms.

Microbial growth as well as spoilage is controlled by factor related to the food itself or intrinsic factor and also to theenvironment where the food is being stored or what are described as extrinsic factors. Food composition is critical intrinsic factor that influences microbial growth, if a food consider primarily of carbohydrates, spoilage does not result in major odours. Thus, foods such as some fruits e.g. banana show spoilage by fungal growth. Also, PH of a food also is critical because a low PH a food also is critical because a low PH favours the growth of yeasts and mold.

 

 

 

 

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INCIDENCE OF VAGINAL CANDIDACIES AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN AN PARK-LANE, HOSPITAL, A CASE STUDY OF PREGNANT WOMEN ATTENDING ANTENATAL CLINK AT PARK-LINE ENUGU

INCIDENCE OF VAGINAL CANDIDACIES AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN AN PARK-LANE, HOSPITAL,

A CASE STUDY OF PREGNANT WOMEN ATTENDING ANTENATAL CLINK AT PARK-LINE ENUGU

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ABSTRACT

This project attempts to determine the frequency rate of candidiasis among pregnant women in Abakpa Nike Enugu. One hundred and ten samples of high vaginal swabs were collected and examined wet in the microscope. The sample were donated by pregnant women attending ante-natal clinics at park-lane hospital Enugu.
Eighty-five samples out of the one hundred and ten samples collected from the pregnant women were candida positive. The candida specie implicated were classified as follows: sixty pregnant women had Candida Albicans, ten had candida torulopsis, seran had Candida Kmse and eight had Candida Stellordea.
The samples were collected as follows. They were asked to open up their legs wide enough and the swab stick was inserted into the vagina and turned once. Normal saline was added to the sample solution and examined. The samples was examined wet under the microscope, budding yeast-like cells were observed.
The results indicated that the frequency rate is high as a result of illiteracy and poor hygienic state of most pregnant women within the study area. Improved hygiene and health education are stronghy recommended for the generality of people and women preparing for marriage particularly Park-Lane Enugu.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENT
CHAPTER ONE
Introduction 1
1.1 Hypothesis 7
1.2 Statement of problem 8
1.3 Limitations 8
1.4 Justification 8
CHAPTER TWO
Literature Review 9
CHAPTER THREE
Materials and Methods 16
3.1 Sources of Collection 17
CHAPTER FOUR
Results and Analysis 20
CHAPTER FIVE
Discussion 24
CHAPTER SIX
Conclusion and Recommendation 28
References 29
Appendix 32

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
Candidiasis is a systemic disease result from the presence of yeast like fungi in the urinary track of a pregnant women (Derek 1982). Candidiasis is most often sexually transmitted though there are some other predisposing gander like poor hygiene in the genial areas, use of oral contraceptive pill, diabetes mellitus etc. it is an acute or chronic mycotic infusion usually affecting the skin, narks or mucons membares of the mouth and gentles but capable at times of producing lesions gastrointestinal tracks, meringues and endocandun it is also an opportumstic furgus that canses candiadiasis in compromised patients candidiasis has a world wide distribution but its frequency and severity increases with warm weather, which indices excessive perspiration. It occurs in poor nutrient media, especially those deficient in protein (Lodder at al 1958).
Candidiasis is accompanied by a number of symptoms such as server itching in and around the vulva, thick pumdent discharge yellowroish in colour and a cheese consistercy discharge ete. An excess of vaginal discharge from any cause may lead to vulva privates. In candidiasis, there may be vulvitis with redness of the vagina, with masses of whose, cheesy material.

 

The infection candidiasis manifest as follows:
1. Candidia Vagintis and Vulva Vaginits: The incidence of candida vaginitis and vulvoaginits averages more in pregnant women than in non pregnant women. This is characterized by a low-grade inflammation of the vagina with whitish patches on the mucosa and yellowish, milky discharge. This infection may extend to the vulva and upper inner aspect of the thighs, causing a pronounced genit privities, which leads to removal of scar tissues. Chronic infection occurs in women with immuno deficiency virus (Rhoads et al 1987) this infection is treated with nystahn vaginal tablets used once daily for two weeks, or clotrima role vaginal cream applied nightly also for two weeks.

2. Candidia Paronydia And Onychia:. This is the candidias of the nail bed and nails. It is chromic condition favoured by immension of hands in lot, suapy water. This is seen mainly in individual engaged in net work or handling food. Even mentions and young children may develop candida paronychia, usually in association with oral candidiasis as a result of thumb – sugary. The paronychial area is swollen, red and gesturing with gaping.

3. Candidial Intertrigo: This infection is the superficial inflammation occurring in most skin folds. It affects the genital areas and the legs, ear folds and inter digital spaces of the hands and feet sub-mammary intertrigo is common in elderly women with pendulous breasts. The first usable signs are skin slitters, which enlarge, and rupture, sofking the skin lager and stilly.

This infecting responds to Amphotericin B. in patients with intertrigo of the groin, oral Nystatin, 500,000 units trice daily, should be gun in addition for tendegs several species of candida have been implicated as pathogenic to man. Some of these include-candida albicars, candida quasi candida tropically, candida parasols and candida pseudohopicals.

The most frequent cause of superficial and systemic candidiasis is candida albcars. This organism is highly virulent for laboratory anneals and fowls. Candidiasis can be controlled if pregnant mothers improve their standard of living and avoid weaning or the use of highs materals at all times e.g nylonparts etc.

4. Oral Candidiasis: Infection of the oral mucosa by candidia alblicars is relatively common in newborn infants, appealing about the seventh day of life and affecting 4-6 percent of imparts. It may also be seen in patients requiring intensive antibiotic therapy. The tongue, soft palate, guns and at times the pharynx may be involved. It is characterized by greyisn – white or creamy patches with a small halopatients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), often show profuse oral candidiasis. This infection responds to oral suspension of Nystahn 4-6ml four times daily, 10mg of clotimazole buccal troches, five times daily for two weeks.

5. Enteric candidiasis: This occurs during the prenatal where the infection may develop as oral trust. In older persons if may complicate primary debility disease, weather primary or secondary in value, enteric candidiasis may cause death if it remains untreated.
This infection responds to Nystetion taken by mouth for five to seven days.

6. Periaral Candidiasis: Candidiasis Alabicans is only one of a great variety of know factors that may be involved in the tiding. Apart from intense, normally nocturnal itching and burring, perennial candidiasis characteristically presents softening of the skin layer by morsel and death of tissues of the perennial area.
The infection responds to clotimazoleciean applied mighty for two-three weeks.

Candida infection are contagious and may be haramitted from person to person, therefore climatic condition, heat and humility which induce increased perspiration, prolonged immersion of hands or body in water leaching to maceration debilitating diseases, the administration of broad spectrum antiseptics pregnancy, high chapose one to the infection.

The affected areas are red, raw and beefy in appearance, but may have wilitish, and like deposits in their suyeces. There may be mild burring sensation present, but itching is much more likely to be hnorable some.

It is therefore vital before leaching candida infection to identify the cricum stances that allowed its establishment if all the condition that predispose one of the infections are properly conceited, the infection will not mangiest.

In the treatment of candida infection gendarme violet (or brilliant green) in 0.5 – 1% argents solution is still the most effective ready. This treatment is messy but it is gladly accepted by patients who have failed to respond to deaner and more elegant medications.
Other drugs that are used include Nystertm (mycostatin) in cream, ointment or powder, and amphoterian – B (effective zone) in cream or lohon. These are often effective and less messy. They should be applied three times daily for at least ten days.

Aqueous suspensions are preferable . after applies hons the area should be sprinked with talcium powder or Nystatin powder. Thet oral administration of Nystatin tablets three times daily or vaginal medication twice daily help to eliminate a source of infection in the vagina or gastrointeshrel treat.

Amphoterian B. is another during of chroice in the treatment of candida infection. The initial close is 0.25mglkg administered inhavenoraly daily.

Flucytosine are oral antifingal during has been successfully used in the treatment of systemic candidiasis. The dosage is 60 to 150mg 1kg1day given in four divided closes after food for a minimum of four weeks.

Clorhimazole, an oral antifuingal during has been successful in the treatment of generalized candidiasis clommazole (canester) pessanes also are effective. But it appears that mconazole where is nearest the ideal during for vaginal candidiasis. It has a broad spectrum anti mycolic and anti-bacterial achinly. The cream is applied daily preferably last thing at night.

Candidiasis is a debilitate armlet, which appears to cause discomfit and embarrassment mostly to pregnant women.
This project attempts to examine the frequency rate of candidiasis among pregnant woman at park lane. It seeks to identify such cases with a view to finding a more permanent manicure or solution as well as propose possible preventive measure when this is done, pregnant mothers will have…

 

 

 

 

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MICROOBIAL EVALUATION OF RAM MILK FROM A DIARY FARM

MICROOBIAL EVALUATION OF RAM MILK FROM A DIARY FARM

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ABSTRACT

Microbial evaluation of twenty samples of raw milk from a diary farm (Emene fulani cattle rearers) was carried out using five method: viz direct microcopies count nutrient agar count, Blood agar count, Mac conkey agar count (celiforms only) and Acid fast bacilli staring was done to assay for the presence of the Tubercle bacillus. The bacterial was were as follows: direct microscopic counts ranged from 9.0x 105 to 9.5 x 107 counts on Nutrient agar ranged from 9.0 x 104 to 8.0x 105 counts on blood agar ranged from 7.0x 104 to 9.8×10 while counts on Mac country agar ranged between 5.0x 102 to 5 . 0 x 10. The Acid fast bacilli staring did not show a single bacillus, an indication of tubercle free. The gram staring result indicate single chains clusters gram positive bacilli and gram negative bacilli which are characteristics of staphylococcus spp streptococcus spp lactobacillus spp and coliform. it is suggested that milk maids and milk processors should endeavor to wash the udder of the con, sterols their equipment and containers as well as improving their personal hygiene during milk collection . these will contribute to the quality of products in our milk industries as well as the good health of man especially the fulani cattle rearers that drink without pasteurization.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 introduction
1.1 Background information
1.2 Statement on problem
1.3 Aim and objective of the study
1.4 Hypethesis
1.5 Justification of the study
1.6 Limitation of the study
CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Literature Review
2.1 sources of raw Milk
2.2 . composition of raw milk
2.3 Raw Milk as a growth medium
2.4 Sources of contamination of raw Milk.
2.5 Contaminant of raw Milk

CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Methodology
3.1 material and apparatus
3.2 collection of sample
3.3 preparation of culture media
3.4 Quantitative analysis of total bacteria.
3.4.1 Direct Microscopy
3.4.2 Viable plate count
3.4.3 Gram sating
3.4.4 Acid fast Bacilli stain
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Results and Discussion
4.1 results
4.2 discussion

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation
5.1 Conclusion
5.2 Recommendation
Reference
Appendix

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND INFORMATION
Milk is defined as a secretion of mammary gland of female animals. It is an exceptionally good source of protein which is of a high biological value in promoting the growth of children (ihekorany and Ngoddy, 1985). Milk is decribed as a good of outstanding interest, which is designed by nature to be complete good for very young mammals (fox and Cameron, 1980).

Milk contains a wide variety of constituents and contains most of the food factors associated with bacterial nutrition. Milk as a single food is of high nutritional value and is associated with spoilage microorganisms.

At the time milk leaves the udder of the healthy cow, it contains few bacteria these stem from milk ducts and cistern. During the milking process, bacteria are usually added from various sources. In hand milking the sources are air the hair of the animal manure, the milkers equipment such as pails, feed and machine, most of these environmental factors are less important. However, the milking equipment may serve as an important source of contamination if it is not carefully cleaned and sanitized (ihekoronye and Ngoddy, 1985) .

After milk has been drawn it is rapidly cooled to 45 of prevent contaminants from multiplying. To eliminate pathogens from milk the process of pasteurization is applied. This involves application of heat below the boily point (fraizer and westhoff, 1978).

 

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Mike as a food of high nutritional value is highly associated with microorganisms. As a result of this contamination of raw milk, it not sterilized and taken directly or used for production of milk products, causes disease to man and also contribute to the spoilage of milk and…

 

 

 

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