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ANALYSIS OF CRUDE PALM OIL

ANALYSIS OF CRUDE PALM OIL

 

 

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ABSTRACT

 

This project was carried out to ascertain whether the local palm oil met the required standard.  The analytical test carried out include the free fatty acid test the acid value, iodine value moisture, content, specification value, peroxide value, specific gravity, colour and viscosity.

 

The specific gravity of the oil sample was determined by comparing its weight when filled with the sample and that of water, while its moisture content was analyzed by oven drying the sample for a particular period time.  Titration process was used in the analysis of the saponification value, acid, free fatty aid test, iodine value acid the peroxide value.  The procedure were the same except different indicator that was used for some test e.g starch solution was for peroxide and iodine value while acid/ free fatty acid and saponification test uses phenolphthalein as their titration process.  The viscosity was also determined by allowing the oil sample to flow down at a particular time in the upper section of a viscometer, while its colour was analysis using the titanium plate disc of the colourineter to material it.

Form the test analysis, the result show that the palm oil sample under consideration has a value of specific gravity-0.915g, moisture content-1.729%, saponification value-196.35mg, acid-4769%, free fatty acid-23.97%,iondine value-49.17mg, peroxide value-26mg, colour-1125tianium disc and ciscosity-165.7 centipoises.

However, the obtained result shows hat the oil sample meets the required standard but only needed a little purification process on the moisture content as compared with the international requirement.

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

1.1     Objectives/Scope of Study

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE SURVEY

2.1     Historical Background

2.2     Composition of Crude Palm Oil

2.3     Production of Crude Palm Oil
2.3.1  Local Method of Production Pf Palm Oil
2.3.2  Industrial Method of Production Of palm Oil

2.3.3  Summary of Unit Operations

2.3.4  The General Flow Diagram

2.4    Characterizing/ Properties of Crude Palm Oil

2.5     Redlining Of Crude Palm Oil Physical & Chemical Refining

2.5.1   Physical Refinery Process Description:

2.5.2 Chemical Refining Process

2.6    Uses of Crude Palm Oil

2.7    General Characteristic of Crude Palm Oil

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS

EXPERIMENT 1

  • Determination Of Specific Gravity of Crude Palm Oil Sample
  • Determination For Moisture And Other Volatile Matter Present In The Crude Palm Oil Sample

CHAPTER FOUR

 RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

4.1 Discussion

Reference

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0     INTRODUCTION

Palm tree (Elaeis guineensis) is one plant which grows best in tropical regions.  Palm oil fruit is a drupe consisting of a hard seed surrounded by a soft semi fibrous and semi fleshy pulp. In the center of this stone or nut lies the seed.  The fleshy part of the fruit (the pulp) is at first black in colour, but as it ripens becomes bright red.  Palm fruit common name for member is palm a large fairly of chiefly tropic all trees shmbs and vines, most spies are traces characterized by a crown of compound teases called fronds terminal tall woody, in branched  stem.

 

Also oil palm being a nature of equatorial west Africa and preferring high rainfall and a more open kind a long river banks grow in bunches weighing up to ten kilograms and containing hundreds of fruitless like small plums.  The flesh is oily and the oil ran be recovered by very simple means so that it is probable that palm oil has been recovered and used for human food for tens of thousand of years.  The primitive extraction procedure are still in use in the village today.  A typical method consists of cutting the bunches, usually after climbing the tree and allowing them to ferment in a heap for six to seven days then production takes place.

 

Vegetable as it is generally called is an important product and raw material for most agro allied industries. More emphasis had been placed on vegetable oil from groundnut source in recent time, this had been attainted to its local usages most especially in domestic activities like cooking and as well as its cheap and local method of production but with the new trend in technology, vegetable oil is how being produced from both palm oil and palm kernel fruit.

 

 

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EFFECTS OF PENSION SCHEMES ON THE NIGERIAN WORKERS

EFFECTS OF PENSION SCHEMES ON THE NIGERIAN WORKERS

(A CASE STUDY OF ENUGU STATE)

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Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
 Account Number:  0117780667. 
Swift Code: GTBINGLA 
Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANKER SECURITY GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

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form>DELIVERY PERIOD FOR BANK PAYMENT IS  LESS THAN 2 HOURS

How to transfer from your bank account to All  Nigeriabanks

1. Access Bank:
—-*901#

2. EcoBank:
—-*326#

3. Fidelity Bank:
—-*770#

4. FCMB:
—-*389*214#

5. First Bank
—-*894#

6. GTB:
—-*737#

7. Heritage Bank:
—-*322*030#

8. Keystone Bank:
—-*322*082#

9. Sky Bank:
—-*389*076*1#

10. Stanbic IBTC:
—-*909#

11. Sterling Bank:
—-*822#

12. UBA:
—-*389*033*1#

13. Unity Bank:
—-*322*215#

14. Zenith Bank:
—-*966#

15. Diamond Bank
—-*710*555#

To know your BVN, dial
—-*565*0#.

E.g for First bank…   *894 *Amount *Acct. No. #

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of Study

1.2     Statement of Problem

1.3     Objectives of Problem

1.4     Significance of Study

1.5     Scope and Study Limitation

1.6     Research Questions

1.7     Definitions of Terms

Reference

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     Concept of Retirement

2.2     Retirement Benefits

2.3     Methods of Providing Benefits

2.4     Establishing Retirement Benefit Scheme

2.4.1  Creation of the Legal Frame Work

2.4.2  Informing the Employees

2.5     Qualifications for Membership

2.51   Circumstance in which Gratuity and Pension may be        granted

2.5.2  Computation of Pension and Gratuity

2.5.3  Non-Reckonable Services

2.6     Types of Benefits

2.7     Problems Associated with Scheme Administration

2.7.1  Public/ Civil Service Scheme

2.7.2  Self Administration Scheme

2.7.3  Insured Scheme

References

 

 CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1     Sources of Data

3.2     Research Instrument Used

3.2     Research Population

3.4     Data Analysis Technique

References

 

CHAPTER FOUR

PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

4.1     Analysis of Data Collected from Employees in Active       Service

4.2     Analyses of Data Collected from Retired Employees

4.3     Analysis of Data Interview Conducted.

CHAPTER FIVE

FINDING, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1     Findings

5.2     Recommendations

5.3     Conclusion

Bibliography

Appendix

Appendix

Appendix

Questionnaire


ABSTRACT

 

No man is an island; collectively we have been able to make a thorough research on how effective pension scheme in both the civil and public sectors of the Nigerian economy has been beneficial or just a mirage to the Nigerian workers; thus a case study of Enugu state.

In the first case, the purpose of the stuffy shall be looked at. As an overview, the aim of this study as to look at the impact of pension schemes on a sector of Nigerian workers of this public servants and how effectively this pension arrangement would be made so as to cover every sphere of there problem in relation to this. So, the purpose stretches from the important of a proper pension arrangement and how best it shall be implemented to affect a proper working of the plan.

The method of study is purely on both qualitative and quantitative basis. But in particularity, the table analysis was used for the analysis of the data collection.

The third part of the project, death on method of data collection which was purely on interview; so the response from the interview as used a data per analysis for the research work.

The last part deals with basically the major pounding. This shall be merit viewed as follows the factors which militate against the effective administration of pension scheme in the country which may include: irregular payment of benefits lack of enlightment programme etc. in our findings, the following recommendation could ensure a need for regular review of prisoners the manpower needed making the scheme to be contributory etc.

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

1.0     BACKGROUND OF STUDY

          In the traditional Nigerian society, aged parents look up to their children for support and this is one reason that the average numbers of children in Nigeria home are usually more than those of their counterparts in more developed countries. The home is therefore the bedrock of provision for the old. This arrangement therefore instates the role of a pension scheme on a less final setting.

It would be appropriate at this junctures to briefly give the meaning of a pension.

A pension can be defined as a series of regular payments provided by government or former employer for a person who has come to the end of his normal working life. It is an income during retirement at it’s most basic level. Such an income will assist the retired person to survive and depending on the amount and on any other means he may have, it may also enable him continue to enjoy some of the luxuries which he could afford during his working life. As earlier indicated, it is evident now that the Nigerian traditional society simply substitutes the large extended family as a pension scheme. Members of the family collectively make every provision required by the retired for his/her upkeep until death.

This method of course is crude and not very effective one which can be illustrated as thus: Assuming the retired has an infirmity this would mean double trouble for the supporting family and where the loss by accidental means one can retire only imagine the plight of such a retiree and dependents.

In order not to dabble much into that aspect, we will now examine the background of the pension scheme itself. Accordingly, pension dates back to the twelfth century and in those time, it was only through local manors or boroughs that protection was obtained from hardship and also within the confines of the community that guilds distributed relief. At that time though it was only regarded as relief for the old and poor and not necessary as a benefit for service rendered during one’s working days. These guilds were founded on religious or charitable basis and as time want on, merchants and craft guild were also founded. Gradually as strong central government emerged, caring of the poor because a national issue rather than a local responsibility so legislature concerning the poor because common.

As time wants on, the occupational pension scheme which established a right to a pension as a result of previous employment was also introduced and this is where, we are most concerned with in this research work.

In Nigeria generally, pension scheme does not import much meaning to the workers, not to mention it’s usefulness. It still has not rested it’s full weight on the Nigerian populace because all they see and know about is that it is some sort of income which one is supposed to be entitled to after retirement but never gets.

This is the present position of what the average Nigerian worker feels and knows of pension, which is pathetic.

What is the cause of this situation? How do we go about correcting the system? All these and other questions will enable us straighten out the present position of pension schemes in Nigeria using Enugu state as a case study.

Many Nigerian workers after retirement from active service whether voluntary or otherwise are not aware of what entitlements they are entitled to as pension or where there is awareness, those in authority seen to be up to one thing or the other in order to delay the commencement and safe of the retiring employee’s pension.

Experts in Nigeria agree that due to the fact that most workers become dejected and worn-out after retirement, not a few of them (workers) look up to their retirement period with optimism.

While the retired civil servants could be slightly better if as they are entitled to monthly stipends in the firm of pensions their counterparts in the private sector are not so lucky. They receive theirs en-bulk at the initial time of retirement and no more. Therefore it becomes difficult for them to plan and carry out their obligations which they still carry along with them regardless of their fresh status, as retried workers.

Another area where this research would tend to examine are the reasons being given for the delay in payments of gratuities and pensions which range from structural defects in payment arrangement in relation to bureaucracy, fraud and mismanagement of pension funds, though the Nigerian constitution on the protection of pensioners safe “The right of a pension in all the public service of the federation to receive pension or gratuity shall be regulated by law. Any benefit to which a person is entitled shall not be withheld to his disadvantage it however, is salient on when payments should be made and penalties for delay.

It is against this background that this research work will be established and recommendation made curb the present disheartening situation as regards pension schemes in Nigeria.

 

1.2     STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

          This study will aim at examining the problems associated with pension scheme effectiveness and efficiency, the administration of pension funds and criteria for setting up such schemes in Nigeria. It intends to finds out why it is near impossible for retirees to receive their pensions, the employees’ role in pension’s arrangement and the administration of the

 

COMMUNICATION AS A MAJOR TOOL IN DIRECTING FUNCTION OF MANAGEMENT

COMMUNICATION AS A MAJOR TOOL IN DIRECTING FUNCTION OF MANAGEMENT

(A CASE STUDY OF NIPOST ORGANIZATION, ENUGU)

 

 

COMPLETE PROJECT  MATERIAL COST 5000 NAIRA OR $10 , 

. A FRESH TOPIC NOT LISTED ON OUR WEBSITE COST 50,000 NAIRA ( UNDERGRADUATE) OR 100,000 FOR SECOND DEGREE STUDENTS. $500. PLUS  FREE SUPPORT UNTIL YOU FINISH YOUR PROJECT WORK. CONTACT US TODAY, WE MAKE A DIFFERENT. DESIGN AND WRITING IS OUR SKILLED.  DESIGN AND WRITING IS OUR SKILLED.

Note: our case study can be change to suit your desire location . we are here for your success.

                                   ORDER NOW

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
 GTBANK
Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment :
Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
 Account Number:  0117780667. 
Swift Code: GTBINGLA 
Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANKER SECURITY GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>DELIVERY PERIOD FOR BANK PAYMENT IS  LESS THAN 2 HOURS

How to transfer from your bank account to All  Nigeriabanks

1. Access Bank:
—-*901#

2. EcoBank:
—-*326#

3. Fidelity Bank:
—-*770#

4. FCMB:
—-*389*214#

5. First Bank
—-*894#

6. GTB:
—-*737#

7. Heritage Bank:
—-*322*030#

8. Keystone Bank:
—-*322*082#

9. Sky Bank:
—-*389*076*1#

10. Stanbic IBTC:
—-*909#

11. Sterling Bank:
—-*822#

12. UBA:
—-*389*033*1#

13. Unity Bank:
—-*322*215#

14. Zenith Bank:
—-*966#

15. Diamond Bank
—-*710*555#

To know your BVN, dial
—-*565*0#.

E.g for First bank…   *894 *Amount *Acct. No. #

Please dail d code from d number u used to register d account from the bank

CALL OKEKE CHIDI C ON :  08074466939,08063386834.

AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO

08074466939 or 08063386834, YOUR PROJECT TITLE  YOU WANT US TO SEND TO YOU, AMOUNT PAID, DEPOSITOR NAME, UR EMAIL ADDRESS,PAYMENT DATE. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR MATERIAL IN LESS THAN 2 HOURS ONCE WILL CONFIRM YOUR PAYMENT.

WE HAVE SECURITY IN OUR BUSINESS.   

MONEY BACK GUARANTEE

 

 

ABSTRACT

 

The purpose of this research project is to reveal communication as a major tool in directing Functions of management, both primary and secondary data were used to elicit information from the sample studied the primary source of data were response from questionnaire and personal interview, while secondary source were form text-books on communication and periodicals.

One hundred questionnaires were distributed to the sample of the staff and management of the organization. There were ninety percent returned and 10% unreturned.

The study revealed that there is no effective channel of communication in the organization.

The investigation reviled that also that the organization takes grapevine information very important.

The researcher finally made a far researching recommendation which includes that there should be an effective channel of communication in the organization.

The researcher also recommends that the junior staff should be given chance to communicate face to face to discuss their problems.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE:

INTRODUCTION

  • General Background to the Subject Matter
  • Problems Associated with the Subject Matter
  • Problems that the Study will be Concerned with
  • The importance of Studying the Area
  • Definition of Important Terms
  • Reference

 

 

CHAPTER TWO:      

    LITERATURE REVIEW

 

  • The origin of the Subject Matter
  • Schools of Thought Within the Subject Area
  • The School of Thought Relevant to the Problem of Study
  • Different Methods of Studying the Problem
  • Summary
  • References

 

CHAPTER THREE:      CONCLUSION

  • Data Presentation
  • Analysis of the Data
  • Recommendation
  • Conclusions

CHAPTER ON

INTRODUCTION

Communication is basic to the existence and survival of any human organization.

As a fundamental tool in management, it has been a primary concern to administrators in all-human institutions, be it business, military, government, education, hospital, research and so on. Whenever there are two or more persons working towards the achievement of set objectives or goals, success will naturally not to achieve if the importance of communication is neglected.

Danyer, (1972) defined management as “being concerned with the direction and control of an enterprises and involves planning and directing of the work of others”. These managerial function cannot be successfully carried out in the absence of a good communication network.

Peter 1955 (pg.112) in his book entitled “The practice of management” pointed out that “ a manager can only make his objective effective by communicating then to the subordinates whose performances required to attain then. He further emphasized that not do decisions have to be made, but they have to be communicated to whom it is meant to know what is expected of then.

In his own contribution, Chese (1984:p.78) postulated that “there is an increasing need for effective employee communication system if the firm is to achieve success?  He explained that” management is realizing that in order to maintain output for the firm, communication channels in the firm must be modern, effective and as humanly personal as possible”

The impact of communication in business organization and or on human being is very enorious. Communication consists for more than telling people things or what to do until a manager learns to understand and becomes skilled in the basic process of transmitting and receiving information he cannot possibly lead or motivate the work in the manner required to set the work done more effectively.

We often communicate unknowingly as others observe our actions and facial experience and drive inferences or conclusions from. “Expert have shown that the percentage of time allocated to communicate is very high ranging from 75% of our warring hours. Five percent of this time is spent in writing 10% increasing, 35% in talking are 50% in listening.

It is therefore not surprising to note that poor communication breeds, spreads and is always the root of organisational problems.

Decision-making is possible without communication effectiveness of communication in any organization breed’s motivation and high moral on employees with its attendant increase in productivity and profitability which is always the major objective of many business.

From all indications, communication is of paramount important in dealing with the human factors throughout his stay in the organization from recruitments to retirement.

Communication integrates the management function and relates it to both internal and external environment. Every system must have interaction and cohesiveness between its sub- system if the to the complex is to accomplish its objectives.

 

  • THE GENERAL BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY:

The Nigeria Postal Services (NIPOST), Started as the postal branch of the posts and Telecommunications Department in 1851, when it was established in Lagos on an arm of the British Post Office.

The primary aim was to organize- well co- ordinate correspondent and remittance between the British Armed forces and consulted in Lagos, Benin Delta areas, the home government and people in Britain. Internal aim conveyance of mails started in 1931 when the Royal Air force conveyed mails by air from Lagos to Port Harcourt and Warri  “Nigeria was admitted into the universal postal union (UPU) on the 10th July 1961.

“The posts and Telecommunication Department was later split into two in 1985. This gave birth to Nigeria Telecommunication limited (NITEL)”,

Nipost became a statutory department in the ministry of communications the same year within this period the department was largely a social service oriented organization. Its services were labour- intensive but with low revenue yielding capacity.  These it was dependent on government for it’s funding in order meet up with its current and capital expenditure.

Today, Nipost has adopted a new structure and in therefore a fully autonomous corporation. Its policy control has been completely served or removed from the parent ministry of communication. The a acronyms  “Nipost” now means “Nigerian Postal service” as against “Nigerian Postal Service Department” that it was before the autonomous status.

This development was eshunicated by decree No. 41 of 1992. The social service implication of the organization to barely m5%.

 

PRIMARY RESPONSIBILITY OF NIPOST

“The primary responsibility of Nipost is established by the decree No. 18 of 1989” were to deal with postal professional and policy issues as:-

  1. Exploration of additional sources for postal revenue
  2. Review of postal tariff.
  3. Strategy to promote development and maintenance of efficient, co-ordinates and economic postal services.
  4. World –wide provision of highly dependable postal link between and among manager’s nations of the universal postal union without discrimination to race.
  5. Provision of efficient counter and remittance services in the state of postage stamps, sales of money and postal orders, sales of international postal pay, coupon and post office registered envelope.

 

 

ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURAL OF NIPOST

The Nigerian postal services is headed by post master- General of the federation who is assisted by five Deputy post master General as follows:-

  • DPMG =  Corporate Services
  • DPMG =  Operations Planning
  • DPMG =  Finance and Investment
  • DPMG =  Engineering and Technical Services
  • DPMG =  Territorial Administration.

There are also units Heads called the senior Assistant Postmaster General (SAPMG), who also report direct to the postmaster General. These are as follows:-

  • SAPMG =    In-charge of internal Audit.
  • SAPMG =  In-charge of investigation and  security
  • SAPMG =   In-charge of commercial

units/public Relation.

  • SAPMG =  In-charge of Legal unit
  • SAPMG =  In-charge of Data processing
  • SAPMG =  In-charge of corporate Planning.

We equally have some Assistant Postmaster- General in-charge within the organization structure.

At the territorial level, the chief Executive is known by the functional title of area Postal manager (APM). He is assisted by Branch/unit Heads. The Branch/unit Heads includes-Domestic operation, personnel Administration, Investigation and securing, Accounts, Internal Audit, Stores, Project Execution/workshop, Commercial unit/Public Relations etc.

At the Districts level, the functional heads are know as the Head Postmasters, report direct to the Area Postal Manager of their various territories.

 

  • PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE SUBJECT MATTER

This research work will try to find answers to following questions:

  1. a) How effective is communication channels in NIPOST organization?

b)         Do subordinates atimes fail to communicate to managers/supervisors

Political leadership and underdevelopment in nigeria.

Political leadership and underdevelopment in nigeria.

(a study of babangida’s  administration)

 

Table of Contents

Chapter one                                                

1.0    introduction                                                         1

1.1    background of study                                    1

1.2    statement of the problem                                     6

1.3    purpose of the study                                    7

1.4    significance of the study                                       8

1.5    research questions                                      9

1.6    scope of the study                                                10

1.7    limitation of the study                                          10

1.8    definition of terms                                                12

 

Chapter two

Literature review

  • Historical background                              14
  • Character of the leadership 23
  • Structure of military government 36
  • Achievement of military government          37
  • Reason for military intervention 39
  • Process of return to civil rule 40
  • Summary of literature review 41

 

Chapter three

3.0    research design and methodology                        44

3.1    design of the study                                      44

3.2    area of the study                                          45

3.3    population of the study                               45

3.4    sample size and sampling techniques                  46

3.5    instrument for data collection                              47

3.6    reliability and validation of instrument                48

3.7 distribution and retrieval of the instrument             48

  • Method of data analysis                      49

 

Chapter four

4.0    data presentation and analysis                            50

4.1    data presentation                                                 50

4.2    data analysis                                                        50

4.3    discussion/analysis of findings

 

Chapter five                                                  

5.1    summary of finding, conclusion and recommendation                                                     58

  • Conclusion                                          59
  • Recommendations                                             61

References                                                            64

Appendix a                                                           66

Appendix a                                                           67

        questionnaire                                                69

 

Abstract

A cursory glance at the economic conditions of nigeria will reveal that underdevelopment has persisted in spite of independence and abundant resources available in the contrary. The cardinal question is why has nigeria not developed given years in independence and abundant human and material resources especially during gowon through babangida’s regime. This work examines underdevelopment in nigeria vis-à-vis political leaders focusing on ibrahim babangida’s administration. Considering the crucial position of leadership in any nation. The researcher persists that the problem of nigeria underdevelopment cannot be understood, or development attained without a redical change in the parasitic and exploitative character of political leadership in nigeria. The persistence of underdevelopment can be attribute to the character of nigeria political leads. The solution of which is by implementation of different kind of underdevelopment, the researcher also focused on the babangida’s administration. 210 which is 20% of total population of 240 copies was used. Data collected using questionnaire and the analysis of data was done by the use of simple percentage. The findings proved that babangida’s administration were not properly motivated and understood the political leadership.

 


Chapter one

  • Introduction

1.1  background of the study

this work examines underdevelopment in juxtaposi with political leadership focusing on general ibrahim babangida’s administration with a view to x-raying the impact of political leadership in the underdevelopment of nigeria.

this project will be centered on two variable underdevelopment and political leadership, underdevelopment as used in this project does not imply absence of development but as uncomparative term as a means of comparing levels of development (ofiong 1980:10). According to aja akpaura (1998:48) under-development means: a relative condition in which a society lacks autonomous capacity to control and mobilize socio-economic formation for a sustainable economic growth and development necessary to effect physical mental, material and technological fulfillment without dependence on external stimuli.

abali (2001:30), in his scholastic ingenuity view under-development as a situation in which the institution of a country in the periphery of international capitalism dependent relations with other countries at the centre of the internal economy. It is the subsidization of internal economy and political forces from the centre.

Underdevelopment implies lack of autonomy and its meaning characterized by poverty by some scholars for a country to be underdeveloped means that the economic potentials of the country or regime has not been fully develop. Desire for independent were socio-economically underdeveloped, because of imperial documentation and control of our governmental, economic and which by implication means expectation that we would become develop with independent (aka 1981:88). Before the arrival of ibrahim badamosi babangida’s administration nigeria has witness five military government and one civilian government which is alhaji shehu shagari’s government. Babangida’s administration came as a result of when he overthrown the government of major gen, mohammed buhari on 27th august 1985. This young man assume office without wasting time he adopted the title “president” instead of the usual head of state, when babangida ushered in  as a president of nigeria people thought that the messiah the need has come not knowing that the administration will record little or no achievement. The researcher is not trying to say that babangida’s government did not record any achievement so far, but for we to evaluate the long stay of this very government you discover that the people of the country witnessed more underdeveloped period than development. Because babangida assumed office as the 6th military head of state on 27th august 1985 stepped aside 29th august 1993.

the reason why the researcher is trying to use babangida’s administration in nigeria because this administration neglected the agricultural sector

Which was the main stay of our economy and faced the (oil well). Babangida’s administration usher in and forget what was her mission and face the so called oil, babangida accused the former government of negligence in agricultural section detaining politician news men and women whom criticize   the government and not creation of job opportunities to the people of the country. So this administration came and forgets what brought him to seat and face the money from oil. Babangida’s administrations leave the country to poor socio-economic development and left the masses in an untold hardship, frustration and anger. Irrespective of long stay on  seat as the president. His deceptive attempts to hand over power from 1990 to 1992 and then 1993, he was forced to step aside. Then failure to hand over to chief mko abiola these was seen as an abuse of people’s mandate.

 

1.2  statement of problem

The nigeria nation is beclouded by the menace of under-development. This has resulted to economic hardship and social miscarriages on the citizenry. “nigeria are having rough time, there is uncontrollable inflation, there is retrenchment, unemployment, factory closure caused by drastic deform in investment and divestments. Moreso, there is a sharp decline in the purchasing power and value of the naira, coupes of social service, low capacity utilization of industries and jobs security nigerians are leaving below poverty line. Nigeria’s position as an under-developed nation has not changed even with flow of money from oil (ikejani clark 1995:132)

the above have become a bone of contention. The researcher hence intends to find out why under-development has persisted so many years after un-dependence in the presence of abundant human and material resources available to the government. Also with standing that nigeria has series of leaders and leadership positions both civilian.

 

1.3  purpose of study

  1. To examine the ways political leadership contributed to the under-development of nigeria amidst the abundant natural and human resources available.

Ii.     To ascertain if there is any way underdevelopment would be ameliorated considering the nigerian situation presently.

Iii.    To find out the problems militating against the leadership in nigeria in their efforts to shun the underdevelopment which is in its persistence.

 

1.4  significance of study

The researcher through this project intends to put forwards the contribution of political leadership to the under-development of nigeria. It stands to prove the importance and the indispensable of the political leadership on proffering solution to under-development of nigeria. It will then equip us with the machinery of taking these short comings and providing solutions to its problems.

The relevance of this study will not be over-emphasized as it serves as a tools for further researches and students of this field.

1.5  research questions

Having seen that there is no way the under-development of nigeria will be discussed or viewed without taking cognizance or understanding the issue of political leadership which is one of the distracting factors in the system. The researcher haven divide into this is now posing the following questions.

  1. In what way has the political leadership contributed to the under-development of nigeria amidst the abundant natural and human resources available?
  2. Is there any way under-development could be ameliorated considering the nigeria situation presently?
  3. What are the problems militating against the leadership in nigerian in their efforts to curb the under-development which is in its persistence.

 

1.6  scope of the study

Any study or problems embark on is targeted on giving or extracting information from a particular environment and administration.

this study is expected, if handled well to cover the administrative apparatus or babangida’s administration and over view of underdevelopment and political leadership. Not all the administration will be covered to have a focus of our study.

 

1.7  limitation of the study

        for effective and efficient exploration of any course there must be potentials set back. If the course of carrying out the study the researcher was faced with a lot limitations. The identifiable ones are as follows; time: time is one of the limitation in the study of this work.

in the first place, as this research work was carried out at student’s level the researcher has to apportion his time such that the demand for other courses could be met.

availability of research materials, there was no sufficient materials in the library to bring up facts, that will be useful in the course of the study. Again the library accommodation was so small that it only contains few students.

Cost:

the cost of transportation was one of the impediments. It was not of place you know about it that transporting myself from one location to another in a bid to collecting materials for the project was one of the hindrance and limitation.

Respondents:

the respondent did not help matters at the initial stage, my respondent were afraid to fill the questionnaire items. It becomes a difficult task for the researcher to convince them with enough reasons why it is necessary for them to fill in the gaps.

 

1.8  definition of terms

Scholastic: it’s connected with schools and education

Characterized: to describe or show the qualities or features of some thing.

Administration: the activities that are done in order to plan, organize and run a business school or other institution.

Oil well: a hole made in the ground to obtain oil.

Socio-economic: this is the use of economics in the study of the society.

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form>DELIVERY PERIOD FOR BANK PAYMENT IS  LESS THAN 2 HOURS

How to transfer from your bank account to All  Nigeriabanks

1. Access Bank:
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2. EcoBank:
—-*326#

3. Fidelity Bank:
—-*770#

4. FCMB:
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5. First Bank
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6. GTB:
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7. Heritage Bank:
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8. Keystone Bank:
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To know your BVN, dial
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E.g for First bank…   *894 *Amount *Acct. No. #

Please dail d code from d number u used to register d account from the bank

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The Effect of Financial and Non Financial Incentives on staff productivity

The Effect of Financial and Non Financial Incentives on staff productivity

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. A FRESH TOPIC NOT LISTED ON OUR WEBSITE COST 50,000 NAIRA ( UNDERGRADUATE) OR 100,000 FOR SECOND DEGREE STUDENTS. $500. PLUS  FREE SUPPORT UNTIL YOU FINISH YOUR PROJECT WORK. CONTACT US TODAY, WE MAKE A DIFFERENT. DESIGN AND WRITING IS OUR SKILLED.  DESIGN AND WRITING IS OUR SKILLED.

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MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
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ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment :
Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
 Account Number:  0117780667. 
Swift Code: GTBINGLA 
Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANKER SECURITY GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>DELIVERY PERIOD FOR BANK PAYMENT IS  LESS THAN 2 HOURS

How to transfer from your bank account to All  Nigeriabanks

1. Access Bank:
—-*901#

2. EcoBank:
—-*326#

3. Fidelity Bank:
—-*770#

4. FCMB:
—-*389*214#

5. First Bank
—-*894#

6. GTB:
—-*737#

7. Heritage Bank:
—-*322*030#

8. Keystone Bank:
—-*322*082#

 

 

9. Sky Bank:
—-*389*076*1#

10. Stanbic IBTC:
—-*909#

11. Sterling Bank:
—-*822#

12. UBA:
—-*389*033*1#

13. Unity Bank:
—-*322*215#

14. Zenith Bank:
—-*966#

15. Diamond Bank
—-*710*555#

To know your BVN, dial
—-*565*0#.

E.g for First bank…   *894 *Amount *Acct. No. #

Please dail d code from d number u used to register d account from the bank

CALL OKEKE CHIDI C ON :  08074466939,08063386834.

AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO

08074466939 or 08063386834, YOUR PROJECT TITLE  YOU WANT US TO SEND TO YOU, AMOUNT PAID, DEPOSITOR NAME, UR EMAIL ADDRESS,PAYMENT DATE. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR MATERIAL IN LESS THAN 2 HOURS ONCE WILL CONFIRM YOUR PAYMENT.

 

 

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study

All organizations are concerned with what should be done to achieve high level of productivity through staff motivation using the right kind of incentive. Consequently the effect of financial and non financial incentive becomes a burning issue in human resource management.

 

As such a lot of theoretical concept, principles and techniques of management have evolved in response to these challenges/ but most scholars suggest that more conceptual and empirical work is required to show the link between financial and non financial incentive and staff productivity is still vague but some studies have documented in their work that financial incentive is readily perceived as having a high instrumental value that makes putting forth extra effort worthwhile and its has a long term effect in terms of labour turnover rate because of comparative value for alternative employment while non financial incentive has less initial impact as the pragmatics of financial gain, they seem to have a steady, sustainable impact.

 

Despite the growing body of literature and empirical study on the effect of financial and non financial incentive on workers productivity, the subject matter still remains complex. Hence, the need to undertake a survey on the effect of financial and non financial incentives on staff productivity in Nigeria Postal Services Kaduna.

 

 

1.2     Statement of problem

Nigeria Postal Services (NIPOST) like other public enterprise is constraint with the problem of using non performance based element like salaries to compensate it staff as against performance-related pay structure which has hamper productivity because it does not make worker put in extra effort in their work. This is so because their compensation is not based on incentive schemes that elicit additional effort of workers sequel to unfriendly government legislation on wages clause and bureaucratic inefficiency. Hence the need to examine the

The relevance of population census to economic development of rural areas in nigeria.

The relevance of population census to economic development of rural areas in nigeria.

(a case study of orumba north local government in anambra state)

 

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ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447

First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

We also accept :   ATM transfer , online money  transfer 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>

Call Help Desk Line :  08074466939,08063386834.

After Payment Send Your Payment Details To

08074466939 Or 08063386834,   The Project Title  You  Selected On Our Website , Amount Paid, Depositor Name, Your Email Address, Payment Date. You Will Receive Your Material In Less Than 1 Hour Once We Confirm Your Payment.

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Chapter one

  • Introduction 1
    • Background of the study 1
    • Statement of the problem 5
    • Purpose of the study 7
    • Significance of the study 8
    • Research questions 9
    • Scope of the study 10

Chapter two

  • Literature review 12

2.1    population issues                                         12

2.2    population. Development and employment in rural areas                    16

2.3 contribution of population to economic   development of rural ares.         18

 

 

Chapter three

  • Methodology 20
    • Brief outline of the study 20
    • Design of the study 21
    • Area of the study                  21
    • Population of the study 22
    • Sample of the study 23
    • Instrument for data collection 25
    • Validation of the instrument 25
    • Distribution and retrieval of the instrument                          25
    • Method of data analysis 26

 

Business management project topics and material in nigeria

 

Chapter four

4.0    data presentation and analysis           28

4.1    findings                                                                 33

 

Chapter five

5.0    summary of findings                                    34

5.1    recommendations                                                   35

5.2    conclusion                                                            37

5.3    limitation of the study                                 39

5.4    suggestion for further research 40

reference                                                 41

appendix a                                                  44

appendix b                                                  45

questionnaire                                              46

 

 

 

 

 

Abstract

The project is on the relevance of population census to economic development of rural areas in nigeria (a case study of orumba north local government of anambra state) the zone comprises of 16 rural communities namely; ajalli, ufuma, ndike, ndiowu, omogho, oko, amaokpala, awa, amaetiti, awgbu, ndiukwuenu, ndiokolo, okpeze, ndiokpalaeze, nanka and ndiokpalaeke these formed the area of the study:

 

In this research work, a sample population was selected and administered with questionnaire and their responses were analysed using percentage method, after the analysis, the researcher find out that adequate population census data is thus a sine qua non for economic development of rural areas and also adequate population census data will help in effective planning of these rural area in order to improve their standard of living. The researcher is of the view that population data required in planning process should be plan by the government which include employment situations based on the findings, youths were encouraged to participate on the society’s development and government should use skilled professionals in census data to eradicate unreliable census date, with this regard, some conclusion was drawn and recommendation were made bearing in mind that rural areas were faced with high population because of high birth rate


 

 

Chapter one

1.0  introduction

1.1 background of the study

at the center of every planning exercise is a population and there is no meaningful development planning activities without population census.

population census   in the work of the united nation organization (u.n.o) is the   total   process of collection compiling, evaluating analyzing and publishing or disseminating demographic economic and social data pertaining as a specific time to all persons in a country or in well delimited parts of the country. Usually done in every then years.

 

 

This definition implies that population census is purely a statistical exercise.

population of a country or other areas is the total number of people who live in it. Population changes as a result of migration.

The word “natural increase” is the different between births and death. In nigeria now, it is the poorest country in the third world, they have more birthrate than death especially in their rural areas, so their population increase unless a net loss resulting from  migration and effort  at self reliant growth must proceed  at a very rapid pace if the  welfare of Nigerians especially rural  areas to be improved.

 

 

 

yet, the basic ingredients for planning for development is that population and its composition according to age, six and residence among  others remain  largely  unknown. Available estimates of the total population in the country in each state and also in local government areas are mere guess.

 

the 1991 census places the population of Nigeria to be about 120 million people. This dramatically increased over the year for a multitude of reasons.  Most of which are social political and economic. One of the decisions to bring governance closer to the people was through the creation and recreation of states and local governance. They also lack economic and social amenities such as roads, pipe borne water. The rural communities are   poorly and economically down therefore referred to as economically underdeveloped.

 

 

 

adequately planning is thus very important for the development of the rural area. Planning is define as “attempt to guide and control the process of changes”. (brass 1990:430 relies heavily on census data. Currently, lack of population census data in sufficient quantity and quality has been generally accepted as one of the major factor militating against efficient and efficient planning  and administration of development plan in Nigeria and some other rural areas.

 

1.2 statement of the problem

successive Nigeria government during both colonial and post colonial periods understood the importance of accurate population census as the basic tool for good development planning in a country. An accurate and adequate knowledge of the population characteristics and trends   of a country are therefore, a sine qua non for meaningful development in the country. This is so, because development which involves optimum utilization of the nation’s human and natural resources to improve the conditions of living cannot take place without planning.

Lack of population census data in sufficient quality and quality has been generally accepted as one of major factor militating against efficient planning and administration of development plan in Nigeria and also in rural areas.

the importance of population census in rural development derives from the fact that a population census provides he main ingredient for planning. The basic population data required in planning processes should be plan by the government which include employment situation and sex. In every planning exercise, is a population and there is no meaningful development without planning, government is responsible for the planning of rural economic development and this is because efficient and effective planning will help the government to aim towards improving the standard of living of the rural dwellers. Another central problem, is data on socio economic variable. (a) employment situation: this is one of the major problem of population in rural areas.

 

 

CO-OPERATIVE PROJECT TOPICS AND  MATERIAL WITH ABSTRACT

1.3 purpose of the study

as a researcher, i hope to study why people are having this problem of population in rural area. And if there will be possible way by which these condition can be drastically be reduced. Furthermore, the purpose of this study is fund out the relevance of population census to rural development and i can now narrow down the question to general and specific issues on what can be accomplished by the study. The purpose of my study is based on this: –

  1. Employment situation: there should be industries, workshop should be organized and it effect by helping people to adjust to the rapid economic growth in the rural areas.
  2. Accurate and reliable census data, which is the major reason for population census.

 

 

1.4 significant of the study

practically, the result of this study will be useful to researcher. The study may arouse criticism and stimulate further researcher on the topic and also contribute to further knowledge and understanding of administrating considering the socio-economic and population data.

lack of population data in quantity and quality has been generally accepted as one of the factor militating against efficient planning. For instance education, employment should be provide for the rural people so that it can help in decreasing the sex and age of the rural areas because lack of unemployment can cause increase in population.

 

 

1.5 research question

  1. How relevance is population census to economic development of rural areas?
  2. What caliber of people are needed in population census?
  3. Do the personnel undergoes training exercise?
  4. Of what relevance is occupational distribution on agricultural zone to economic development of orumba north l.g.?
  5. Is educational background a pre-requisite for economic development of rural areas?
  6. Is it advisable to use skillful professionals in population census?

 

 

 

1.6  scope of the study 

the scope of this study is the relevance of population census to economic development of rural areas in nigeria. This work did not touch on other area except the one mentioned above. This work covers orumba north local government only and the local government comprises of 16 rural communities. This work has demanded visiting population information and management due to lack of fund, the researcher was forced to limit for questionnaire and some research was made.

 

 

 

Continue reading The relevance of population census to economic development of rural areas in nigeria.

PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF OPERATING A SMALL SCALE BUSINESS IN ENUGU METROPOLIS

PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF OPERATING A SMALL SCALE BUSINESS IN ENUGU METROPOLIS

(A CASE STUDY OF GRAND METROPOLES HOTEL, ENUGU)

 

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Account Name: 3059320631

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ABSTRACT

 

This research work is a very crucial study for the managers and prospective owners of Small Scale Hotel.  The study has motivated by the diminishing state of the hotels and also the prospects.

To solve the research problem, both the primary and secondary data were collected.  The research instrument used in collecting the data were questionnaire, oral interview and field visits.  The respondents comprises of the owners, managers and workers Small Scale Hotels in Enugu.

In organizing and presenting data collected, tables and percentages were used.  The various hypothesis were tested using the chi-square.

  1. Most of the respondents rated the performance of hotels as being below standard and easily sheet down.
  2. Most of the respondents rated the hotels and yielding profits with bright future.
  3. Most of the respondents between most operators of the hotel are illiterates, has little money and keep no records of business.
  4. Base on findings, the researcher recommend that:
  • All hotels and prospects ones should study the proposed sight of their business before location. i.e proper financial records should be kept e.g the cash book

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE:

INTRODUCTION

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
  • PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
  • SCOPE OF THE STUDY
  • RESEARCH QUESTIONS
  • RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
  • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
  • LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS

 

CHAPTER TWO:         

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

  • DEFINITION OF SMALL SCALE BUSINESS
  • WHY PEOPLE WANT TO GO INTO BUSINESS OWNERSHIP
  • SCOPE OF SMALL SCALE BUSINESS
  • TOLE OF SMALL
  • SOURCES OF FUND FOR SMALL SCALE BUSINESS
  • GOVERNMENT COMMITMENT TO ENCOURAGES THE SMALL SCALE BUSINESS ENTERPRISES
  • FEASIBILITY STUDY
  • PROBLEMS OF SMALL SCALE ENTERPRISES

REFERENCES

 

 

 

CHAPTER THREE:     

RESEARCH DESIGN

  • AREA OF THE STUDY
  • POPULATION OF THE STUDY
  • SAMPLE AND SAMPLING PROCEDURE TECHNIQUES
  • INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION
  • VALIDATION OF THE INSTRUMENT
  • RELIABILITY OF THE INSTRUMENT
  • METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION
  • METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS

 

CHAPTER FOUR:       

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

  • PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
  • TESTING OF HYPOTHESIS
  • SUMMARY OF RESULT

 

 

CHAPTER FIVE:         

DISCUSSION, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION

  • DISCUSSION OF RESULT/FINDINGS
  • CONCLUSION
  • IMPLICATIONS OF THE RESEARCH FINDINGS
  • RECOMMENDATIONS
  • SUGGESTIONS

BIBLIOGRAPHY

APPENDIX:   QUESTIONNAIRES

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The Hotel business of what could be described as small scale hotel business started as a result of movement of people from one place or town to another.  These movement are categorized in:-

  1. Movement which one locality or town for example going to work from one’s house within the same city or from one’s city to another.
  2. Movement from one town to another like in the case of Ogui migration where there is an exodus of the people from rural area to the developed Ogui area. In this case, people concerned to go out for greener pasture like looking for better jobs and business.
  3. Movement from one country to another for wither business, study or search for better jobs.
  4. Movement to places of interest like – the Olumo Rocks in Abeokuta or Yoruba game reserve.

 

In 7course of these movement, it has not been easy for people to carry along the required quantity of food and drinks that would last them the length of time they would stay outside their homes.  The instructive desire to help in feeding of these group of travelers brought about the business of hotels.

 

Before the 15th century, what used to be called inns existed in Europe.  These were place where travelers called spend a night or two or even more and were served food and drinks at a cost.  The inns were merely remedy by inn-keepers between 1750-1850, the year of industrial revolution, the business of hotels became a common thing all over Europe.

 

In Nigeria, the business is beleected to have started with the arrival of Europeans into the country.  Before the Europeans, all travelers woe only cafered for by their hoppetabeo natures.  Travelers who come to peace mission were virtually carried for by their hosts.  These Europeans or their guide had to make do with the local food which brought about some kind of exchange process.

 

As this process continued, it dawned on the local people that food could be prepared and sold to these travelers who moved from one place to another.  This was the early shape of hotels unfit it grew to its present standard which was made possible by the attendant development of the country by the presence of the Europeans.

 

However, the small scale business may not be said to have attained its height in hotel management and its operations due to the difference in tradition and cactane in Nigeria.  The different ethnic groups or race have their favante dishes some of these dishes are beginning to gain national acceptances, while others are steel confined to their local use by the people concerned.  For instance garri is more or less a national food because majority of Nigerian do eat it.  One the other hand, “Tuoo” for instance still remain the food for the Northern part of the country.

 

Hotels plays very important role in the economic activities of the country because almost all business endeavour depends on hotel foundation eats across feeding the work force of the economy.

Besides the fact remains that a good number of hotels in Nigeria needs better operations and management.  These observation daily considers the cactaral background and ethnic difference in the country, the problems and prospects of operating and managing hotels in Nigeria therefore are what this research is all about.  In order to accomplish this study some hotel in Ogui Enugu has been selected as a case study.

 

  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Government of Federal State and Local levels have set agencies that are specifically changed with providing funds and other services for the small scale business people.  The purpose of establishing these support agencies by government is to encourage the rapid development of small or medium scale industries in the country for government want to encourage school levels to establish their own small business or unemployment and for economic development.

These support agencies are National Directorate of Employment (NDE), Funds for Small Scale Industries (FSSI) and National Economic Reconstruction Funds (NERFUND)

 

 

 

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