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ECONOMICS OF CONTROL METHODS FOR WITCHWEED, STRIGA HERMONTHICA IN THE NORTHERN GUINEA SAVANNA OF NIGERIA

ECONOMICS OF CONTROL METHODS FOR WITCHWEED, STRIGA HERMONTHICA IN THE NORTHERN GUINEA SAVANNA OF NIGERIA

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ABSTRACT

 

Witchweed, Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth is a major threat to the realization of yield potentials of cereal crops especially maize. Yield losses due to Striga in the Northern Guinea savanna of Nigeria have also impacted negatively on the livelihood of over 60% of the farming population. Various control methods have been developed but the level of use or adoption by farmers has been constrained by inadequate information on the economic performance of these methods. This study was therefore designed to compare resource use levels, grain yield, effectiveness (Striga counts) and the economic performance of five Striga control methods. The methods were: the cultivation of a Striga tolerant maize variety (Acr 97 TZL COMP.1–W) followed by Striga tolerant maize variety in the second year (T1), cultivation of an improved soyabean variety (TGX 1448-2E)

 

followed by Striga tolerant maize variety in the second year (T2 ), cultivation of improved

 

soyabean variety followed by a local maize cultivar in year two (T3), cultivation of a local maize

 

cultivar with a high level of Nitrogen fertilization for two consecutive years (T4) and farmers

 

practice for Striga control (T5). The study also determined the optimum Striga control plan and the

 

impact of simulating the scarcity of improved maize and soyabean seed varieties, farm land and NPK fertilizer on the optimum plan. Data were obtained from an on-farm trial conducted on 12 farmers’ fields with uniform infestations of Striga hermonthica at Kugu and Dambo villages in the Northern Guinea savanna of Nigeria, during the 2005/2006 and 2006/2007 cropping seasons. The tools of analyses employed for the study included Analysis of Variance for a randomized complete block design, Partial Budgeting, Marginal Rate of Return, Benefiit-Cost Ratio, Dominance

 

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Analysis, Linear Programming (LP) Model and five variant models of the basic LP model. A Pair Wise Matrix Ranking Technique was also used to identify the constraints to the use of the Striga control methods.

 

The results obtained revealed that the seed use levels for plots T1 and T2 were significantly lower

 

(p<0.01) than that of the other treatments plots. Furthermore there was no significant difference (p<0.01) between the fertilizer use levels for treatments plots T1, T2, T3 and T5 with the exception

 

of T4. Striga control was significantly higher (lower Striga counts) in T2 and T3 plots compared to

 

other treatments plots. This was followed by the Striga counts for T1  plots. However, Striga

 

control was significantly lower (higher Striga counts) in T5 plots compared to plots T1 and T4. The

 

maize grain yields were significantly higher (p<0.01) in treatments plots T1 and T2 compared to

 

other plots. Further analysis showed that T1 had a higher cumulative gross margin per hectare

 

(N76, 884.61) followed by T2 (N36, 287.00). The cost-benefit ratio was higher for T1  (2.27)

followed by T2 (1.58). The marginal rate of return was also higher for T1 (N885.00) followed by T2

(N8.90). These results and the dominance analysis clearly revealed the economic superiority of T1

and T2 over the other treatments.

 

The LP result suggests that cultivation of Striga tolerant maize variety followed by a Striga tolerant maize variety in the second year (T1) was the optimum Striga control method. The result

 

of variant model ‘A’ which simulated the scarcity of Striga tolerant maize variety suggests that improved soyabean variety followed by a local maize cultivar (T3) was the optimum Striga control

 

method. In the case of variant model ‘B’ which simulated the scarcity of improved soyabean

variety, treatment T1 re-emerged as the optimal control method. The optimal control method for

 

variant model ‘C’ which simulated the combined scarcity of both Striga tolerant maize and improved soyabean varieties was T5 (farmers practice). The result of variant model ‘D’ which

 

simulated land abandonment as a result of Striga infestation, revealed that treatment T1 was the

 

optimum Striga control method but with a 43% reduction in the amount of capital invested in maize production. The result of Variant model ‘E’ which simulated the scarcity of NPK fertilizer revealed that none of the treatments was competitive enough to be an optimal control method for

 

Striga. High costs of fertilizer and scarcity of improved maize and soyabean varieties were identified as the major constraints to the use of the Striga control methods by farmers. In conclusion, Striga infested maize fields can be put to profitable use with the continuous cultivation of Striga tolerant maize variety or improved soyabean variety followed by a Striga tolerant maize variety in the second year. The study suggests that policies that will ensure timely and sufficient supply of Striga tolerant maize and soyabean varieties, fertilizers and agricultural credit to farmers should be addressed by government in order to achieve a long run Striga control in the study area and the country at large.

 

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Economic importance of Striga 2
1.3 Statement of the Problem 5
1.4 Objectives of the Study 8
1.5 Justification for the Study 8
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Description and Occurrence of Striga 10
2.1.1 Seed Production and Germination Requirements 10
9

 

2.1.2 Seed Longetivity 10
2.1.3 Seed Dispersal 10
2.1.4 Striga Infestation 11

 

  • Empirical Studies on Striga Infestation, Control and Adoption of Control

 

Measures 13
2.2.1 Effects of Nitrogenous Fertilizers on Striga Infestation and Control 14
2.2.2 Effects of Hand Pulling on Striga Infestation and Control 15
2.2.3 Effects of Chemicals on Striga Infestation and Control 17
2.2.4 Empirical Studies on Integrated Striga Control Methods 21
2.2.5 Empirical studies on the adoption of Striga control methods 22
2.3 Definition of ‘New’ Technology and their Evaluation at the Farm Level 23
2.4 Methods of Evaluation 26
2.4.1 Partial Budgets 27
2.4.2 Gross Margin Analysis and Budgeting 28
2.4.3 Dominance Analysis 28
2.4.4 Marginal Rate of Return 29
2.4.5 Cost- Benefit Ratio 30
2.4.6 Linear Programming 30
2.5 Aids to Weed Management Decisions 35
2.6 Empirical Studies on the Economics of Weed Control 37

 

 

 

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2.7 Review of Studies on the Use of Linear Programming 39
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1 Description of the Study Area 42
3.2 Selection of Participating Farmers and Data Collection 43
3.3 Analytical Techniques 45
3.4 Description of Activities and Constraints in the LP Model 51
3.4.1 Activities in the LP Model 51
3.4.2 Restrictions in the LP Model 52
3.5 Limitations of the Study 55
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
4.1 Input-Output Levels of Alternative Striga Control Methods 57
4.1.1 Input-Output Levels of Alternative Striga Control Methods (2005) 57
4.1.2 Striga Counts for Alternative Striga Control Methods (2005) 59
4.1.3 Input-Output Levels for Alternative Striga Control Methods (2006) 60
4.1.4 Striga Counts for Alternative Striga Control Methods (2006) 61
4.2 Costs and Returns of Alternative Striga Control Methods 62
4.2.1 Partial Budgeting, Cost-Benefit Ratio, Marginal and Dominance Analyses 62
4.3 Results of the Linear Programming Analysis 67
4.3.1 The Optimum Striga Control Method of the Basic Model 71
4.3.2 Variant Model A: Optimum Striga Control Method when the buying

 

 

 

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activity for Improved Maize Seed is excluded from the Basic model 74
4.3.3 Variant Model B: Optimum Striga Control Method when Buying Activity
for TGX 1448 is Eliminated from the Basic Model 77
4.3.4 Variant Model C: Optimum Striga Control Method when the Buying
Activities for ACR 97 and TGX 1448 are Eliminated from the Basic
Model 79
4.3.5 Variant Model D: Optimum Solution when there is a reduction in the
average Farm Size of the Basic Model 82
4.3.6 Variant Model E: Optimum Farm Plan when the Buying Activity for NPK
Fertilizer is Eliminated from the Basic Model. 84
4.4  Constraints to the Use of Striga Control Methods 86

 

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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5.1 Summary of Major Findings 89

 

 

 

71

 

5.1 Summary

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

71
5.2 Conclusions 90
5.3 Recommendations 91
5.4 Suggestions for Further Studies 92
REFERENCES 94
APPENDICES 108

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1 Lay Out of Farmer’s Fields 45
Table 2 Household Composition and Derived Labour 53

 

 

 

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Table 3 Derivation of Household Consumption Unit 55
Table 4 Input-Output Levels and Striga Counts for Striga Control Methods
kg/25m2 (2005) 58
Table 5 Input-Output Levels and Striga Counts for Striga Control Methods
kg/25m2 (2006) 60
Table 6 Cummulative Partial Budgeting Analysis (2005/2006) 64
Table 7 Benefit-Cost Analysis for Striga Control Methods 65
Table 8 Marginal analysis for Striga Control Methods 65
Table 9 Dominance Analysis for Striga Control Methods 66
Table 10 The Basic Model of the Linear Programming Analysis 68
Table 11 Summary of the Optimal Farm Plan/ Existing Activity Level for the 72
Basic Model
Table 12 Resource Use Levels in the Optimum Plan of the Basic Model 74
Table 13 Summary of the Optimal Farm Plan/ Existing activity Level for Variant
Model A 75
Table 14Resource Use Levels in the Optimum Plan of Variant Model A 77
Table 15 Summary of the Optimal Farm Plan/ Existing activity Level for the
Variant Model B 78
Table 16 Resource Use Levels in the Optimum Plan of Variant Model B 79

 

 

 

Table 17 Summary of the Optimal Farm Plan/ Existing activity Level for the
Variant Model C 80

 

 

 

 

 

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Table 18 Resource use Levels in the Optimum Plan of Variant Model C 81
Table 19 Summary of the Optimal Farm Plan/ Existing Activity Level for the
Variant Model D 83
Table 20 Resource Use Levels in the Optimum Plan of Variant Model D 84

 

Table 21 Summary of the Optimal Farm Plan/ Existing Activity Level for the Variant Model E 85

Table 22 Pair Wise Matrix Comparison of Constraints to the Use of Striga

 

Control Methods 86

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1 Life Cycle of Striga hermonthica 13
Figure 2 A Shift in the Supply Curve brought about by Adoption of a New
Technology 25

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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LIST OF APPENDICES
Appendix 1 Log Book 108
Appendix 2 Genstat Output 114

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

  • Background to the Study

 

The control of weeds has always been one of the greatest resource-consuming operations in crop production. In addition to requiring effective control measures, weeds rob crop plants of nutrients and water, often serve as hosts to insects and other pests, and create problems in harvesting and processing. The use of herbicides has enabled farmers to control weeds with greater ease and to free crops from competition with weeds for nutrients, light and water at critical periods of their growth cycle (Abu-Hamdeh, 2003). There has however been a growing apprehension among ecologists/ environmentalists about the use of chemicals in general and herbicides, in particular, as it is feared that such use poses a serious

 

 

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hazards to human health and that they pollute and poison soils and ground water (Stonehouse et al., 1996).

Striga is one of the very few flowering plants that are parasitic on other plants, dodder and mistletoe being other examples. Striga has been given the common name of “witchweed” because it attaches itself to the roots of the host plant thus depriving it (the host) of water and nutrients. Two species of Striga, Striga hermonthica and Striga asiatica attack sorghum, millet, and maize while another species, Striga gesneroides, is specific to cowpea (Ramaiah, et al., 1983). Depending upon the extent of infestation, reductions in grain yield of 30-60% are common. Practical control methods consist of a combination of crop rotation with non-hosts, weeding, and use of resistant varieties. It produces a large number of seeds which can remain dormant but viable for many years, therefore once Striga becomes established in a field, eradication is very difficult (Kim 1991; AATF 2006). De Groote et al. (2005) opined that Striga is a particular problem in areas with low moisture and where soil fertility is being eroded through increased population pressure, decreased use of fallow and minimal use of organic or inorganic fertilizer. Most importantly, it mostly affects the livelihoods of poor subsistence farmers in cereal-based agricultural systems in Africa (Weed Busters 2003).

 

 

 

 

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1.2 Economic Importance of Striga

 

Striga species have taken root throughout the continents of Africa and Asia, imparting extensive damage to staple cereal crops. Mboob (1989) reported that an annual loss of between US$28 million and US$12.4 billion in crop revenue is caused by Striga in West Africa. Two thirds of the 73 million hectares of cropland planted to cereal crops in Africa is also said to be threatened by Striga species (Lagoke et al., 1991). A study by Sauerborn (1991) estimated that Striga, causes an annual grain yield loss of 4.1 million metric tonnes and infests 21 million hectares of cereal cropland in Africa. The greatest damage from Striga infestation occurs in the sahelian and savanna zones of Africa, where nearly 100 million inhabitants depend on maize, sorghum, millet, and cowpea as staple foods (Lagoke et al., 1991). Under artificial infestation at different levels, in Nigeria, yield loss for the tolerant varieties varied between 27% (at 2250 Striga seeds/hill) to 35% (at 4500 seeds/hill), for the susceptible varieties yield loss ranged from 43% (at 750 seeds/hill) to 74% (at 3750 seeds/hill) (Kim and Adetimirin 1997).

 

Studies in West Africa compared maize yields of susceptible and tolerant varieties in fields under natural Striga infestation with yields of the same varieties in non-infested fields (Kim et al., 2002). In the savannahs of Nigeria, yield reduction in the tolerant varieties of 31% was found, in the susceptible varieties 62% (1985 trials). Trials in Cameroon in the same year produced lower estimates: 21% for the tolerant

 

 

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varieties, and 41% for the susceptible varieties. Estimated yield losses due to Striga from on-farm studies and conservative estimates are reported to be 40% of total maize production for all of Africa (US $7 billion), ranging from 20-95% in East Africa, 20-35% in Gambia, 10-90% with an average of 35% in Nigeria (US$5-6 million). Kroschel (1999) opined that Striga also causes indirect production losses when farmers change production strategies to respond to heavy infestations. For example, farms in Striga endemic areas have often been subjected to long fallow periods of up to 15 years. Some have been totally abandoned while in extreme cases human migrations out of heavily infested areas have occurred.

 

Similarly Siegfried (1994) reported that Striga infestation is also of concern to farmers because of its direct effects on the labour supply patterns of their households. When Striga attacks millet-cowpea, sorghum-cowpea or other crops for which women have direct responsibility for example, the Striga-specific weeding adds an additional burden to those of water collection, food preparation and other chores traditionally reserved for women in the West African sub region. Weed Busters (2003) also reported that Striga has impacted negatively on the livelihood of about 60% of the farming population as over 70% of the farmlands usually put to maize production in Northern Nigeria have also been abandoned or substituted with non host crops such as cowpea, soyabean and groundnut. The situation is more serious in the semi-arid regions where crops are already under moisture and nutrient

 

 

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stress. Striga has also infested over 2.5 million hectares of land. This biological invasion is a leading cause of food insecurity and rural stagnation in Africa (AATF, 2006). Striga hermonthica the most important parasitic weed species on a world scale is thus an economically important constraint to cereal production in much of Africa (Mullen, 1999).

 

 

 

1.3 Statement of the Problem

 

Cereal crops, especially maize, are the most important food crops cultivated in Nigeria, with a high yield potential in the savannas (Lagoke et al., 1991) and is consumed by more than 70% of the population (IITA, 2004). Due to dwindling land resources, soil fertility problems and weed build up, the horizontal increase in crop output is becoming difficult day by day. In these circumstances, the only way to have more production is vertical increase i.e. in output per unit of land area (Khan et al., 2000). However, there are many constraints that i

Technical Efficiency and Factor Productivity in Upland and Lowland Rice Production Systems in Kwara State, Nigeria

Technical Efficiency and Factor Productivity in Upland and Lowland Rice Production Systems in Kwara State, Nigeria

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MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
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ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment :
Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
 Account Number:  0117780667. 
Swift Code: GTBINGLA 
Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANKER SECURITY GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

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5. First Bank
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—-*737#

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9. Sky Bank:
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12. UBA:
—-*389*033*1#

13. Unity Bank:
—-*322*215#

14. Zenith Bank:
—-*966#

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—-*710*555#

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—-*565*0#.

E.g for First bank…   *894 *Amount *Acct. No. #

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ABSTRACT

 

The issue of low productivity of the Nigerian farm-firms is topical. This is more so for the rice commodity in Nigeria. Though over 1.3 million hectares of land is devoted annually to paddy rice cultivation, average yield of upland and lowland rice in Nigeria is 1.8 tonnes/ha compared to 3.0 tonnes/ha of upland and lowland rice and 7.0 tonnes/ha of irrigated rice in neighbouring West African countries. It is therefore necessary to identify ways of increasing rice output from existing hectarages. This study therefore compared the structure of costs and returns, technical efficiency and factor productivity, and constraints that confront upland and lowland rice farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria.

 

 

 

A three-stage random sampling procedure was used to collect primary data for the study. Pre-tests and data collection proper were carried out between April 2007 and May 2008.The first stage involved a selection of three major rice producing zones from the four Kwara State Agricultural Development (KWADP) zones. The second stage involved a random selection of ten villages (5 percent) from zone B, eight villages (17 percent) from zone C while four (10 percent) were selected from zone D. A total of twenty two major rice-producing villages were therefore selected, out of the two hundred and ninety nine rice-producing villages in the selected zones. The final stage involved the random selection of two hundred and sixty four (168 Lowland rice-producing households and 96 Upland rice-producing households) rice-producing households from the villages selected. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, partial farm budget, Cobb-Douglas stochastic frontier production function, OLS regression, Chow-test, Total Factor Productivity (TFP) and the Likert-type scale analyses.

 

 

The descriptive statistics analysis results showed that farming tools and equipment used by the rice farmers are generally of the crude types. Farm budget analysis of costs and returns analysis results indicated that lowland rice farms have higher returns to labour and management (RLM) of N53,326.0 per hectare while the RLM estimate for upland rice was N34,101.4 per hectare.

 

 

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The Cobb-Douglas stochastic frontier production function indicated that the lowland rice production system is at a higher level of technical efficiency of 60.08 percent, while the upland farms average was 40.10 percent. Farmer’s farming experience, household size and type of rice variety planted were found to significantly (P< 0.05) affect technical efficiency of the lowland farms. Farmer’s farming experience and household size of the farmers were found to significantly affect (P< 0.05) technical efficiency of the upland farms. Chow-test comparison between the technical efficiency for the upland and lowland rice farms showed significant differences (P< 0.05) between the technical efficiency levels of the two rice farms. The analysis of factor productivity of rice farms indicated that lowland rice farms were operated at a higher total factor productivity (TFP) level of 4.3 on average. For upland rice farms, mean TFP estimate was 3.4. The Likert-type scale analysis of farmers’ constraints revealed inadequate funds as the main problems confronting both upland and lowland rice farmers. This is followed by expensive agro-chemicals, pest and diseases and inadequate labour supply respectively. Flood problem was reported only under the lowland rice production systems.

 

 

In conclusion, the lowland rice system has higher profitability, technical efficiency and TFP compared to the upland rice system. The study therefore suggests intensive efforts at expanding the present scope of lowland rice farming, given the estimated technical efficiency and productivity estimates for the production system. The use of improved tools and equipment in rice farming and processing should be encouraged as this would help to reduce the debris and stones that accompany the final consumable rice commodity. Farmers should also be availed the opportunities of being able to access loanable funds. Efforts should be geared towards organizing farmers into cooperatives, as this will enhance the delivery of agricultural extension services to farmers and also help mobilize rural resources for agriculture. Farm extension in terms of personnel, educational and the material needs of the farmers should also be strengthened.

1.0 CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Rice Production in Nigeria: The Place of Upland and Lowland Rice Production Systems 6
1.3 Problem Statement 8
1.4 Objectives of the Study 10
1.5 Justification 11
1.6 Plan of Thesis 13
2.0 CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

 

2.1 Literature Review 14
2.1.1 The Rice Production Scenario in Nigeria 14
2.1.2 Rice Processing in Nigeria 16
2.1.3 The Competitiveness of the Nigerian Local Rice 17
2.1.4 The Presidential Initiative on Rice Production, Processing and Export in Nigeria 19
2.2 Definition of Concepts 21
2.2.1 Productivity Concepts 21
2.2.2 Production Efficiency: Technical Efficiency, Allocative Efficiency and Economic
Efficiency 25
2.2.3 Productivity and Technical Efficiency 25

 

 

 

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2.2.4 Empirical Applications of Stochastic Frontier Production Functions 32
2.2.5 Determinants of Technical Efficiency 36
2.2.6  Empirical Applications of the Total Factor Productivity (TFP) Analysis 38
2.2.7 Use of Productivity Measures 39
2.2.8 Determinants of Agricultural Productivity 41
2.3 Theoretical Conceptual Framework 44
2.3.1 Approaches to the Measurement of Productive Efficiency in Agriculture: the
Frontier Models 44
2.3.1.1 Parametric Frontiers 44
2.3.1.2 Non- Parametric Frontiers 49
2.3.2 Farm Productivity Analysis 52
2.3.3 Approaches to Farm Productivity Measurement 53.
2.3.3.1 The Index Number Approach 52
2.3.3.2 The Parametric Approach 53
2.3.4 Partial Productivity Measures 56
2.3.6 The chow test 57
3.0 CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1 Study Area 60
3.2 Sampling Technique and Sample Size 65
3.3 Method of Data Collection 68
3.4 Analytical Techniques 68
3.4.1 Estimation of Technical Efficiency in Upland and Lowland Rice Production
Systems 69
3.4.1.2 Determinants of Efficiency 74

 

 

 

 

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3.4.2 Technical Efficiency Comparison 75
3.4.3  Total Factor Productivity (TFP) Estimation 78
3.4.4 Determinants of Agricultural Productivity 78
3.4.5 Farm budget Analysis 82
3.4.6 Likert Scale Analysis 83
4.0 CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Socio-economic Characteristics of Rice Farm Households 88
4.2 Production Resources of Rice Farmers 92
4.2.1 Land Resource 92
4.2.1.1 Mode of Land Acquisition. 92
4.2.1.2 Farm Size 93
4.2.2 Type of Non-family Labour Employed 94
4.3 Rice Seeds Variety Planted 94
4.4 Agro-Chemicals 95
4.4.1 Types of Agrochemicals Used 95
4.4.2 Sources of Agro-Chemicals 96
4.5 Amount of Loan 96
4.6 Tools and Equipments 97
4.6.1 Tools and Equipment Ownership 97
4.6.2 Sources of Tools and Equipments 98
4.7 Costs and Returns 98
4.8 Technical Efficiency Estimates 103
4.9.1 OLS Regression Estimates for Lowland TE Determinants 111
4.9.2 OLS Regression Estimates for the Upland Rice Farm TE Determinants 112
4.10 Chow Test Comparison between Lowland and Upland Rice Farms Technical
Efficiency 113

 

 

 

 

9

 

4.11.1 Total Factor Productivity TFP Estimates 116
4.11.2 Determinants of Total Factor Productivity 117
4.12 Estimates of the Partial Factor Productivity 121
4.13 Constraints to Rice Production 123
5.0 CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary of Findings 124
5.2 Conclusion 126
5.3 Recommendations 127

 

5.4 Suggestions for Further study 130
REFERENCES 132
APPENDIX
Survey Questionnaire 145

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10

 

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Comparison between Nigeria and the rest of West Africa 3
Table 2; Features of Rice Production in Nigeria 11
Table 3: Trend in Rice Imports (‘000 tonnes) 14
Table 4: International (indicative) Prices for Rice by Grade and Quality 18
Table 5: International Prices Relative to Domestic Rice Prices in Nigeria from 1999-2001 18
Table 6: Kwara State Rice Production Area and Output: 1991-2006 62
Table 7: Sample Design Outlay for the Study 67
Table 8: Socio-economic Characteristics of Rice Farmers 88
Table 9: Mode of Farmland Acquisition by Respondents 92
Table 10: Farm Size Distribution of Respondents 93
Table 11: Types of Non Farming Labour Used by Respondents 94
Table 12: Rice Variety Planted by Respondents 95
Table 13: Distribution of Rice Farmers based on the Type of Agro-Chemical Used on
their Rice Farms 96
Table 14: Sources of Agrochemicals Used by Respondents 97
Table 15: Tools and Equipments Ownership Distribution of Respondents 97
Table 16: Summary of Costs and Return Structure to Rice Production (N /Ha) 99
Table 17: “t” test Comparison of Gross Margin and Returns to Farmers’ Labour
and Management between Lowland and Upland rice farmers 102
Table 18: Maximum Likelihood Estimates (MLE) of Cobb-Douglas Based Stochastic
Production Frontier for Lowland Farms 103
Table 19: Elasticity of Production and Returns to Scale for Lowland Farms 105
Table 20: Frequency Distribution of Technical Efficiency Indices of lowland Rice Farms 106
Table 21: Maximum Likelihood Estimates (MLE) of Cobb-Douglas based Stochastic
Production Frontier for Upland Farms 107
Table 22: Elasticity of Production and Returns to Scale for Upland Farms 109

 

 

 

 

11

 

Table 23: Frequency Distribution of Technical Efficiency Indices of Upland Rice Farms 110
Table 24: OLS Regression Estimates for Determinants of Technical Efficiency of
Lowland Farms 112
Table 25: OLS Regression Estimates for Determinants of Technical Efficiency of
Upland Farms 112
Table 26: Result of Chow Test Comparison between determinants of TE across upland
and Lowland Rice Farms 114
Table 27: Result of Chow Test Comparison between Lowland and Upland Rice Farms
Technical Efficiency Regressions 115
Table 28: Frequency Distribution of Total Factor Productivity TFP Indices of Rice Farms 116
Table 29: OLS Regression estimates for Determinants of Total Factor Productivity TFP
of Lowland Farm 119
Table 30: OLS Regression estimates for Determinants of Total Factor Productivity TFP
of Upland Farms 120
Table 31: Partial Factor Productivity Estimates of Rice Farmers. 121
Table 35: Likert Scale Ranking of Constraints to Rice Production 123

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

12

 

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1: Production Frontiers and Technical Efficiency 27
Figure 2: Productivity, Technical Efficiency and Scale Economies 29
Figure 3: Productivity, Technically Efficient and Scale Economics 31
Figure 4: Stochastic Frontier Production Function 48
Figure 5: Map of Kwara State 64

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

13

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

1.1  Background to the Study

 

Rice is an annual crop and the most important staple food crop in the tropical countries. Commercially, the crop is the most important cereal after wheat. It is widely consumed and there is hardly any country in the world where it is not utilized in one form or the other. In Nigeria, rice is one of the few food items whose consumption has no cultural, religious, ethnic or geographical boundary. It is available in five-star hotels in the big cities and towns, as well as in the “most local” of the eating places in the remotest villages throughout the country. It is highly priced and widely accepted for festivity. In some rural areas, it is so adored that it is eaten only on Sundays and sometimes on market days (Omofonmwan and Kadiri,2007).

 

 

Rice is one of the major staples, whose production if encouraged can provide the population with the nationally required food security minimum of 2400 calories per person per day (FAO, 2000). The crop is commonly consumed even as a food crop for household food security. The average Nigerian consumes about 24.8 kg of rice annually, representing 9 per cent of the total annual calories intake and 23 per cent of total annual cereal consumption. Since the mid-1980s, rice consumption has increased at an average annual rate of 11 per cent of which only 3 per cent can be explained by population growth. The remainder represents a shift in diet towards rice at the expense of the coarse grains (millet and sorghum) and wheat. Nigeria’s demand for rice is

 

 

14

 

roughly four million tonnes annually. Rice imports account for close to a third of Nigeria’s total rice supplies (GAIN Report, 2005).

 

 

Due to its increasing contribution to per capita calorie consumption of Nigerians, the demand for rice has been increasing at a much faster rate than domestic production and more than in any other African countries since mid 1970s (FAO, 2001). For instance, during the 1960s, Nigeria had the lowest per capita annual consumption of rice in the West African sub-region with an annual average of 3kg. Since then, Nigeria’s per capita consumption levels have grown significantly at 7.3 per cent per annum. Consequently, per capita consumption during the 1980s increased to an annual average of 18kg and reached 33kg in 2000-2005 (See Table 1).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

15

 

Table 1: Comparison between Nigeria and the Rest of West Africa

 

Indicator
Yearly Averages 1961-1970 1971-1980 1981-1990 1991-2000 2001-2005
Nigeria
Production (t) 264,100 533,200 1,758,132 3,111,700 3,833,400
Import (t) 1,187 205,907 390,489 471,254 17,084,000
Total Consumption (t) 138,353 468,413 1,324,916 2,260,779 5,087,000
Per Capita Consumption 2.76 7.08 15.83 22.38 33
(Kg per year) West Africa without Nigeria
Production (t) 1900746 2,735,414 4,285,379 6,810,660 2520,000
Import (t) 375,637 851,070 2,468,998 3,729,891 n.a
Total Consumption (t) 1,340,202 2,261,066 4,156,247 6,244,283 6550000
Per Capita Consumption 13.07 16.99 24.01 28.49 n.a
Kg per year

n.a = data is not available

 

Computed from West African Rice Development Association (WARDA) Data (2005) and FAOSTAT, (2007)

 

The 2005 national rice production of 4.50 million tonnes of paddy cultivated on an area of 2 million hectares implied a yield estimate of 2.25 metric tonnes per hectare. The total milled production of rice is 2.7 million tonnes which indicates a milling recovery rate of 60 per cent while total national demand of milled rice is estimated at 4.920 million tonnes per annum. There is therefore a deficit of 0.42million tonnes of rice (USDA.2007). Estimates indicate that rice imports represent more than 25 per cent of the nation’s agricultural imports and over 40 per cent of domestic consumption. Between 1999 and 2001, the value of rice imports rose steadily from

 

 

 

 

16

 

US $259 million to US $655 million. By 2002, the value had risen to US $756million (CBN, 2006).

 

 

Over the years, the cultivation and production of this highly priced and very important food crop is dwindling, the price

 

 

THE IMPACT OF PUBLIC SPENDING ON POVERTY REDUCTION IN NIGERIA [1980-2011]

THE IMPACT OF PUBLIC SPENDING ON POVERTY
REDUCTION IN NIGERIA [1980-2011]

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CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study – – – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of the problem – – – – – – – 4
1.3 Research question – – – – – – – – 4
1.4 Objective of the study – – – – – – – 5
1.5 Research hypotheses – – – – – – – – 5
1.6 Significance of the study – – – – – – – 5
1.7 Scope and limitation of the study – – – – – – 6
CHAPTER TWO
2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW – – – – – – – 8
2.2.1 Theoretical literature – – – – – – – 10
2.2.2 Causes of Poverty – – – – – – – – 10
2.2.3 Poverty situation in Nigeria – – – – – – 11
2.2.4 The effects of poverty in Nigeria – – – – – 13
2.3 Empirical literature – – – – – – – – 15
2.3.1 Approaches to poverty alleviation in Nigeria – – – – 16
2.3.2 Poverty reduction strategies in Nigeria – – – – – 20
2.3.3 Causes of poverty reduction in Nigeria – – – – 25
2.3.4 Achievement of poverty reduction in Nigeria – – – 27
6
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY – – – – – 30
3.1 Methodology – – – – – – – – – 30
3.2 Model specification – – – – – – – – 30
3.3 Method of evaluation- – – – – – – – 32
3.3.1 Statistical Test – – – – – – – – 32
3.3.2 Econometric Criteria (Second-Order Test) – – – – 33
3.3.3 Economic A Priori Test – – – – – – – 34
3.4 Source of data – – – – – – – – 34
CHAPTER FOUR
RESULT PRESENTATION, INTERPRETATION AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Result presentation – – – – – – – – – 35
4.2 Result interpretation – – – – – – – – 36
4.2.1 Analysis of the Regression Coefficients – – – – 36
4.2.2 Analysis of the Evaluation Methods – – – – – 37
4.2.2.1 Evaluation Based on Economic Criteria – – – – 37
4.2.2.2 Evaluation Based on Statistical Criteria – – – – 38
4.2.2.3 Evaluation Based on Econometric Criteria – – – – 40
4.3 Hypothesis Testing – – – – – – – 43
Conclusion – – – – – – – – – 43
CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary of Findings – – – – – – – 45
5.2 Recommendation – – – – – – – – 46
5.3 Conclusion – – – – – – – – – 48
References – – – – – – – – – 49
Journals – – – – – – – – – 50
Appendix I
7
ABSTRACT
This work was done to analyze the impact of public spending on poverty eradication in Nigeria from (1980-2011). In this research work, multiple regression analysis was used and five variables were used in the empirical analysis. They are government expenditure on agriculture and water resources (AGWR), health (HTH) education (EDU) transportation and communication (TRCM) and Housing and environment. The data used in this research was collected from secondary data obtained from National Bureau of Statistics (2008) (MBS), and CBN statistical bulletin. The major findings shows that government expenditure on health, education and transport and communication are insignificant and a unit increase of government expenditure in these sectors will reduce poverty level. While that of agriculture and water resources, and housing and environment are significant and a unit increase will increase poverty level. Recommendation were proffered based on the findings of this research. That the government at all level should ensure that its expenditure are channeled towards projects that will reduce poverty level in Nigeria.
CHAPTER ONE
8
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Public spending represents the annual expenditure by the federal government to achieve some macro-economic objectives which may include poverty reduction, increase in national productivity and macro-economic stability in the system.
Since the late 1980’s, an increase in public spending has become a major instrument in Nigeria. This was attributed to the following reasons as the major causes of an increase in government expenditure in Nigeria. First is the dominant role of public sector in major economic activities in Nigeria. This could be attributed to several factors among them are oil boom of the early 1970’s, the need for reconstruction of war affected areas after Nigerian civil war in 1970, the industrialization strategy adopted at that time by the federal government (import substitution strategy) and the need to raise gross domestic product (GDP).
On the other hand, the collapse of oil prices in and general mismanagement of the economy in 1980’s brought the issue of poverty eradication in Nigeria. Furthermore, the recent flood disaster in Nigeria has re-awakened the fight against poverty in Nigeria. In the mid 1980s, it was observed that the private sectors were declining in economic activities as measured by aggregate output, industrial production, non oil exports etc. were all showing
9
decreasing signs. Above all, there widespread evidence of massive poverty in the economy despite of the growing public expenditure and fiscal deficit in the economy (library of congress country studies 1980’s).
In 1986, all major socio-economic indicators were showing downwards which brought high rate of unemployment and decreased in purchasing power. Poverty was spending among Nigerians especially the low income earners and economic growth was downward sloping.
Poverty in Nigeria did not become an issue of great concern until after the oil boom when the international oil price crashed and there was an international economic slump. The continuous downward trend in the oil prices in the international market increased the poverty level in Nigeria. The over-dependency on oil revenue and inadequate efforts to mobilize funds from non oil sources led to a serious decline in government revenue. External reserve deteriorated, and cause huge accumulated trade arrears and thereby limiting government effort in provision of basic amenities and social facilities.
Thus the poverty level in Nigeria continues to be on the increased over the past few decades. The 1991 world development report (WDR) showed that Nigeria the most populous country in Africa has a significant number of her population categorized as poor people.
In recognition of the adverse effect of poverty in Nigeria, federal government set up Structural Adjustment Program (SAP) to reduce over
10
dependency on oil and to provide food to all Nigerians. This had been followed by the introduction of other policies such as national FADAMA programs. Furthermore, the federal government made poverty reduction the core objectives of its annual budget and also initiated various policies measures aimed at promoting people’s welfare and reducing poverty in the economy.
Poverty become an issue of global dimension with nations striving either to reduce or outright poverty in there economy. The complexity of the phenomenon and its impacts on national economics has attracted the attention of international organizations and agencies with government in different nations embarking on policies aimed at reducing poverty. Consequently, Nigerian fiscal policies especially as regard expenses in the areas that have positive impact on the well being of the poor, have progressively being on the increase over the years. Recently, the Imo State government took a bold step towards poverty reduction by introducing free education to all the indigenes of the state up to the tertiary level.
Finally, the extent to which government spending have impacted on the well being of the people prompted this study.
11
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In Nigeria, poverty has been on the increase which can be attributed to inequality existing in the economy such as corruption, macro-economic instability and inconsistency in government policies. In an ordinary framework, poverty is concern with absolute, modulate or relatively standard of living or inability to attain a minimal standard of living. Poverty is found to be at the worst in the rural areas. Which is characterized by malnutrition lack of standard education, low life expectancy and sub-standard housing? In attempt to alleviate these problems, three actors are observed in the literature as being involved in any giving country. Namely; the three ties of government (federal, state and local government), international organizations and nongovernmental

THE IMPACT OF INDUSTRIAL OUTPUT ON THE ECONOMY OF NIGERIA (1980-2010)

THE IMPACT OF INDUSTRIAL OUTPUT ON THE ECONOMY OF NIGERIA (1980-2010)

 

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13. Unity Bank:
—-*322*215#

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—-*710*555#

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ABSTRACT
This research work is on the “Impact of Industrial Output on the Economy of Nigeria” between the period of thirty years (30) covered from 1980-2010. Impact of industrial output on the economy of Nigeria is a continuous discussion to every economy especially developing economics which will give rise to economic growth and development of a nation. Secondary data was used on PC Give 8.00 version package to regress the model with GDP as the dependent variable, and industrial output, savings, net foreign capital flow, and inflation as independent variables. The model explain that the influence of industrial output on economic growth is not statistically significant, though the sign obtained from its à priori expectation is positively related to GDP but does not hold strong enough. Savings has a positive relationship and also significant impact on the economy. Inflation has a negative relationship while net foreign capital flow is positively significant on the impact of economic growth. R-squared shows a 76% increase on the GDP. Based on the findings, it is therefore recommended that some policies is to be made in ways to improve the establishment of industries especially the manufacturing industries to encourage industrialisation of the Nigerian economy so as to contribute to the strengthening of economic growth in the nation’s economy. Tax incentives through subsidies and government expenditure relate to increase in output and positive impact on economic growth. Increase in savings will make money available for the economy through high interest rate and income adjustments from the monetary policy.

TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page – – – – – – – – – -i
Approval page – – – – – – – – – -ii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – -iii
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – – -iv
Abstract – – – – – – – – – – -vi
Table of content – – – – – – – – -vii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of study – – – – – – – -1
1.2 Statement of research problem – – – – – – -3
1.3 Objective of the study – – – – – – – -4
1.4 Statement of research hypothesis – – – – – -4
1.5 Significance of the study – – – – – – -5
1.6 Scope and limitation of the study – – – – – – 5
1.7 Methodology and sources of data – – – – – -5
1.8 Limitation of the study- – – – – – – – -6
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Theoretical literature – – – – – – – -7
2.1.1 Sources of industrial growth and industrial Policies in

Nigeria — – – – – – – – – -10
2.1.2 Characteristics of Nigeria industries – – – – -12
2.1.3 Manufacturing in Nigeria- – – – – – -13
2.1.4 The era of manufacturing in Nigeria – – – – -14
2.1.5 Structure and performance of Nigerian Manufacturing
Sector – – – – – – – – – -16
2.1.6 The roles of manufacturing industries in then Development
Of the Nigerian economy – – – – – – -21
2.1.7 Problems of industrial development in Nigeria – – – -25
2.2. Empirical review – – – – – – – – -28
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.0 Methodology – – – – – – – – -33
3.1 Model specification – – – – – – – -33
3.2 Model Estimation /procedure – – – – – – -35
3.3 Sources of Data- – – – – – – – -37
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF
REGRESSION RESULT.
4.1 Presentation of result and analysis- – – – – -38
4.1.2 Interpretation of result – – – – – – – -39
4.2 Evaluation of result – – – – – – – -40
4.2.1 Evaluation based on economic a priori expectation- – -40

4.2.2 Evaluation based on statistical criteria – – – – -41
4.2.2.1 Statistical test of significant of parameter estimated
(T-statistics) – – – – – – – – -42
4.2.2.2 Adequacy of regression equation (F-Test) – – – -43
4.2.2.3 Goodness of fit test (R2) – – – – – – -44
4.2.3 Evaluation based on economic criteria – – – – -45
4.2.3.1 Test for auto-correlation – – – – – – -45
4.2.3.2 Test for Heteroscedasticity – – – – – – -46
4.2.3.3 Test for normality – – – – – – – -48
4.2.3.4 Test for multicollinearity – – – – – – -48
4.3 Evaluation research hypothesis – – – – – -50
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, POLICIES
RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION.
5.1 Summary of findings – – – – – – – -51
5.2 Policy recommendation – – – – – – – -52
5.3 Conclusion – – – – – – – – – -53
Bibliography – – – – – – – – -54
Journal – – – – – – – – – -56
Appendices

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background Of Study
The oil boom of the 1970s made Nigeria neglected its agricultural and light manufacturing bases in favour of an unhealthy dependence on crude oil. In 2000, oil and gas export accounted for more than 98% of export earning and about 83% of federal government revenue. New oil wealth, the concurrent decline of other economic model fuelled massive migration to the cities and led to increasingly wide spread poverty especially in rural areas. A collapse of basic infrastructures and social services since the early 1980s accompanied this trend, (CIA, 2010).
By 2000, Nigeria‟s per capita income had plunged to about one quarter of its mid 1970s high, below the level at independence. Along with the endemic malaise of Nigeria‟s non-oil sector, the economy continues to witness massive growth of „informal sector‟ economic activities estimated by some to be as high as 75% of the total economy. The U.S United State remains Nigeria‟s customer for crude oil accounting for 40% of the country‟s total oil export, Nigeria provides about 10% of overall U.S oil import and ranks as the fifth-largest source for U.S imported oil and ranked 44th worldwide and third in Africa in factor output. (Adeolu B Anyawale,

Nigeria economy is struggling to leverage the country‟s vast wealth in fossil fuels in other to displace the crushing poverty that affects about 57% of its population. Economics refers to the consistence of vast wealth in national resources and extreme poverty in developing countries like Nigeria as a „resource course‟. 80% of Nigeria‟s revenue flow to the government, 16% covers operational cast and the remaining 4% goes to investors. World Bank has estimated that as a result of corruption, 80% of energy revenues, benefit only 1% of the population (Econspapers, hosted by Swedish Business School Orebro University).
Generally, the manufacturing sector which plays a catalytic role in a modern economy has many dynamic benefits crucial for economic transformation is a leading sector in many aspects (Oguma, 1995) says it creates investment capital at a faster rate than any other sector of the economy. Available evidence showed that the share of manufacturing value in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was 3.2% in 1960. In 1977, its share of GDP increased to 5.4% and in 1992 grew to 13%. The share of the manufacturing in GDP fell to 6.2 in 1993, while overall manufacturing capacity utilization rate fluctuated downwards to 2.4% in 1998.
In 2003, the manufacturing sector accounted for 4% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (Ojo, 1987:256). A country is industrialised when at least one-quarter of this Gross Domestic Product(GDP) is produced in its industrial output arises in the manufacturing section of industrial sectors, and when at
Impact Of Industrial Output On The Economy Of Nigeria (1988-2010)

least one length of its total population is employed in the industrial sectors of the economy. The manufacturing sector is to be dominant in terms of contribution to the Gross Domestic Product of any economy especially that of Nigeria (Auty, 1993).
1.2 Statement Of The Research Problem
The malfunctioning of industrial sector in a country is widely seen as a major handicap improving a country‟s economy and power pushing many governments to encourage or enforce industrialization (Wikipedia, free encyclopaedia). One of the problems bedevilling the Nigeria economy is that of output from its industrial sector of the economy. Admittedly, the decay in the manufacturing sector is the result of diverse factors that conspire to render many industries comatose (ill). The study is therefore necessary to enable a thorough investigation of the problems of the industrial sector especially that of manufacturing industries and various government agencies set up to provide credit facilities to the industrial sector to ensure continual growth of this sector for rapid economic development of this nation. In the light of this exposition, the research work is guided by the following question.

THE IMPACT OF FEMALE LABOUR FORCE ON THE ECONOMIC GROWTH OF NIGERIA (1980-2010)

THE IMPACT OF FEMALE LABOUR FORCE ON THE ECONOMIC
GROWTH OF NIGERIA (1980-2010)

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ABSTRACT
A country’s labour force consists of everyone of the working age, typically above the age of seventeen and below the retirement age of sixty- five. They are characterized by those who are actively employed or seeking employment. The focus of this study is to determine the impact of female participation in labour force on the economic growth in Nigeria between the periods of 1980- 2010. The research also seeks to investigate the determinants of female contribution to economic growth in Nigeria. The objective of this study is to determine the relationship between female labour force and economic growth in Nigeria (GDP).The data used was sourced from the National Bureau of Statistics of various years as well as the CBN Statistical Bulletin (volume 21) December, 2010. The ordinary least square method (OLS) was chosen as the estimation tool because of its advantage over other estimation techniques.The major finding was that female labour force employment has a positive impact on the gross domestic product (GDP) of the Nigeria economy. Based on the findings, some recommendations of policy and suggestions have been made.
viii
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page – – – – – – – – – – -i
Approval Page – – – – – – – – – -ii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – – -iii
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – – -iv
Abstract – – – – – – – – – – -vi
Table of Content — – – – – – – – – -vii
Chapter One
Introduction
1.1 Background of the Study – – – – – – -1
1.2 Statement of the Problem – – – – – – -4
1.3 Objectives of the Study- – – – – – – -6
1.4 Statement of Hypothesis – – – – – – -7
1.5 Relevance of the Study – – – – – – – -7
1.6 Scope of the Study – – – – – – – -8
1.7 Limitations of the Study – – – – – – -8
Chapter Two
Literature Review
ix
2.1 Theoretical Literature – – – – – – – -9
2.2 Empirical Literature – – – – – – – 26
2.3 Economic Analysis of Women’s Contribution To
Economic Growth in Nigeria – – – – – – – 30
2.4 Limitations of the Previous Studies – – – – – 35
Chapter Three
3.1 Methodology – – – – – – – – 36
3.2 Model Specification – – – – – – – – 37
3.2 Methods of Evaluation – – – – – – – 37
3.4 Model Justification — – – – – – – 39
3.5 Data Requirement and Sources – – – – – 40
Chapter Four
Presentation and Analysis of Results
4.1 Presentation of Regression Result – – – – – 41
4.2 Result Interpretation – – — – – – – 41
Chapter Five
Summary, Recommendationsand Conclusion
5.1 Summary – – – – – – – – – 48
5.2 Policy Recommendations – – – – – – 48
5.3 Conclusion – – – – – – – – – 50
Bibliography – – – – – – – – – 51
1
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Gender differentiation and productivity are critical issues that are central to the socio-economic life of any country. Women contribute half or more of the country’s population, but they contribute much less than men towards the value of recorded production both quantitatively in labour force participation and qualitatively in educational achievement and skilled manpower (Olukemi, 2008). The extent to which these phenomena are discussed varies from country to country. While the developed countries have practicallygraduated from endemic problems of gender differentiation, their less developed counterparts are still battling it. A close overview of world economies show that women have often been looked down upon in terms of their ability to contribute to the economic well- being of their families which invariably has some correlation to a nation’s economic growth. The under-utilization of female labour as well has obvious implications for economic welfare and growth. In particular, the participation of women in labour force appears to depend much more on the social environment than is the case for men.
2
In the light of the above, arguments have risen in favour or against women in their roles towards economic growth and development. Traditional African Gender Theory suggests that women are less important such that they are relegated to the upkeep of domestic chores. It is therefore not surprising that the clamors for more birth were and are still being emphasized till date. The theory holds that women should in no way be found rubbing minds with their husbands in family meetings, and community gatherings. Traditionally, women were regarded as homemakers, who oversee and coordinate the affairs and activities at home. Previously, in Africa, women remained at home while their husbands and sons went out to the farm to work. However, women are never idle at home. They are engaged in manual processing of food crops and other farm produce in addition to their housekeeping duties. The neo-classical are in support of this idea as they failed to acknowledge society induced differences between men and women in the face of economic growth. Thus, they remarked that markets clear automatically given pareto efficiency and that what is economically rational at the individual level is also economically rational for the society as a whole.
Despite these extreme views, there exists a clarion call all over the world for increased women participation in the socio- economic development
3
of nations. This is because of the roles that women play in economic growth and development. Danish (2001) notes that women opportunities to contribute to the development of societies need should be improved.Otherwise, economic growth in developing countries will be constraint and the ability to care for the environment in these countries reduced. One of the studies conducted by World Bank in 2003, shows that investments in women yield large social and economic returns, adding that young girls and boys should have the same opportunities to lead full and productive lives.
With the advent of Western education, industrialization and paid employment, men as well as women drifted into the modern sector of the economy. And today, there are visible changes in the perception of women, principally because they have greater opportunities for education than before. It is therefore not in doubt that economically empowered women play veritable role in household decision- making, with greater bargaining power to increase spending on education, health and other areas of family needs. Such women especially the economically sound ones, have better opportunities for entrepreneurship and to earn higher wages

THE RELATIVE IMPACT OF OIL AND NON-OIL EXPORTS ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA: 1983-2007

THE RELATIVE IMPACT OF OIL AND NON-OIL EXPORTS ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA: 1983-2007

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9. Sky Bank:
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ABSTRACT

The study is made up of two independent models, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and Investment respectively. The independent variables Oil export, Non-oil export, Real exchange rate and Inflation rate were modeled to capture their effect on GDP and Investment respectively.

The study employed Log Linear Model. Following the empirical findings in this study, we observed that, Non-oil export have not contributed a lot to economic growth in Nigeria but other indicators exert enough pressure on the strength of the economy, evidence from the result of the first model. Judging from the result of the second model, Oil export proves a negative non significant variable with investment growth in Nigeria.

The study recommends appropriate economic policies, institutional reforms and massive political will for the country to address the issues of dwindling exportation of Non-oil sector and the trap of Dutch Disease associated with oil-dependency.

 

Pages

LIST OF TABLE

Unit Root Test for Stationarity ——————————————- 42

Co-integration Result —————————————————— 45

Modeling Log of Differenced GDP by OLS ————————— 45

Modeling Log of Differenced INV by OLS —————————- 46

Summary of t-statistic test for model 1 ———————————- 50

Summary of t-statistic test for model 2 ———————————- 52

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page —————————————————————-        i

Approval page ———————————————————-        ii

Dedication ————————————————————–         iii

Acknowledgement —————————————————–         iv

Abstract —————————————————————–          v

List of tables ———————————————————–          vi

Table of content ——————————————————-          vii

CHAPTER ONE

  • Introduction ——————————————————- 1

1.1 Background of study ———————————————                    1

1.2 Statement of problem ——————————————–           3

1.3 Objective of the study ——————————————-           5

1.4 Statement of hypothesis —————————————–           5

1.5 Significance of the study —————————————-           6

1.6 Scope and limitations of the study —————————–            6

CHAPTER TWO

2.1 Meaning of oil and non-oil exports —————————-           7

2.2 A brief historical perspective on oil in Nigeria ————–             7

2.3 Oil and economic policies in Nigeria ————————-             10

2.4 The Dutch-Disease ———————————————-            15

2.5 The boom and burst periods in oil sector and policy response —–17

2.6 Macroeconomic policies and structure of Non-oil export in Nigeria-22

2.7 Oil export, Non-oil export and Economic growth in Nigeria ——- 26

Empirical Literature—————————————————-29

CHAPTER THREE

Research methodology——————————————————–35

3.1 Model Specification——————————————————35

3.2 Method of Evaluation—————————————————-37

CHAPTER FOUR

4.1 Data presentation———————————————————41

4.2 Data Analysis ————————————————————44

CHAPTER FIVE

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation—————————58

5.1 Summary——————————————————————58

5.2 Conclusion—————————————————————-61

5.3 Recommendation———————————————————62

BIBLIOGRAPHY———————————————————66

Appendix

 

CHAPTER ONE

                                  INTRODUCTION

1.1THE BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Oil, a very versatile and flexible, non-reproductive, depleting, natural (hydrocarbon) is a fundamental input into modern economic activity, providing about 50% of the total energy demand in the world. (Anyanwu J.C. et al, 1997)

Petroleum or crude oil is an oily, bituminous liquid consisting of a mixture of many substances, mainly the element of carbon and hydrogen known as hydrocarbons. It also contains very small amounts of non-hydrocarbon elements, chief amongst which are sulphur (about 0.2 to 0.6% in weight), then nitrogen and oxygen. (Anyanwu J.C. et al, 1997)

Non-oil exports comprises of agricultural products, solid mineral, textile, tyre, manpower, etc. it is made up of every other thing we export, except petroleum products. In the decades of the 1960s and 1970s, the Nigeria economy was dominated by agricultural commodity exports. Such commodities include cocoa, groundnut, cotton and palm produce. From the mid 1970s, crude oil became the main export produce of the Nigerian economy. (Anyanwu J.C. et al 1997)

The development of the petroleum (oil) industry in the country began in 1909. It started with exploration activities by the German Bitumen Corporation, but their search for oil seized after the First World War because the Germans started the war and lost in the war. With Nigeria being under British sectorial control, it was only natural that the Germans had to stop their exploration activities.

In 1937, an oil prospecting license was granted to shell D’Arcy Exploration parties. The first commercial discovery of crude oil in Nigeria was made in 1956 by shell at Oloibiri. The company started production and in 1961 the Federal government of Nigeria issued ten oil prospecting licenses on the continental shelf to five companies. Each license covered was subject to the payment of N1 million. With this generous concession full-scale on-shore and off –shore oil exploration began.

Oil was found in commercial quantities at Oloibiri in the Niger delta, further discoveries at Afam and Boma established the country as an oil-producing nation. The Nigerian crude oil is described as a sweet type because of its lightness and its low sulphur content. It was largely sought-after in the international oil market.

The global perception of Nigeria is that of a really blessed oil producing nation, but with a growing poverty index. (Maaji Umar YAKUB, 2008). The problems of low economic performance of Nigeria cannot be attributed solely to instability of earnings from the oil sector, but as a result of failure by government to utilize productively the earnings from the export of crude oil from the mid 1970s to develop other sectors of the economy. Nigeria is among the poorest countries in the world, with the poverty incidence estimated at 54% in 2006. The economy has been substantially unstable, a consequence of the heavy dependence on oil revenue and the volatility in its prices. The oil boom of the 1970s led to the neglect of non-oil tax revenue, expansion of the public sector, and deterioration in financial discipline and accountability. In turn, oil-dependency exposed Nigeria to oil price volatility which threw the country’s public finance into disarray.

This study will examine the relative impact of oil and non-oil export on economic growth in Nigeria.

 

  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Oil is a major source of energy in Nigeria and the world (in general). Oil being the mainstay of the Nigerian economy plays a role, vital role in shaping the economy and political destiny of the country. It was towards the end of the Nigerian civil war (1967-1970) that the oil industry began to play a prominent role on the economic life of the country.

Non-oil product on the other hand plays an important role in the economic growth and development of the country. Non-oil exports, especially agricultural product like groundnut, palm oil, cotton, natural rubber, coffee, gum Arabic, sesame seed, etc. was our main stay before the period of the oil boom. It was during that period (that is, period of oil boom) that Nigerians neglected non-oil exports to an extent.

Nigeria can be categorized as a country that is primarily rural, that is, it depends on primary product export (especially, oil product). Since the attainment of independence in 1960 it has experienced ethnic, regional and religious tensions, magnified by significant disparities in economic, educational and environmental development in the south and in the north. This could be partly attributed to the major discovery of oil in the country which affects and is affected by economic and

THE PERFORMANCE OF MONETARY POLICY IN THE NIGERIAN ECONOMY (1980-2010)

THE PERFORMANCE OF MONETARY POLICY IN THE NIGERIAN ECONOMY (1980-2010)

 

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Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
 Account Number:  0117780667. 
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Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANKER SECURITY GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

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1. Access Bank:
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2. EcoBank:
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3. Fidelity Bank:
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4. FCMB:
—-*389*214#

5. First Bank
—-*894#

6. GTB:
—-*737#

7. Heritage Bank:
—-*322*030#

8. Keystone Bank:
—-*322*082#

9. Sky Bank:
—-*389*076*1#

10. Stanbic IBTC:
—-*909#

11. Sterling Bank:
—-*822#

12. UBA:
—-*389*033*1#

13. Unity Bank:
—-*322*215#

14. Zenith Bank:
—-*966#

15. Diamond Bank
—-*710*555#

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E.g for First bank…   *894 *Amount *Acct. No. #

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TABLE OF CONTENT
Certification ———————————————————————— i
Acknowledgement —————————————————————-ii
Dedication ————————————————————————–iii
Abstract —————————————————————————–iv
CHAPTER ONE
1.1 Introduction —————————————————————-1
1.2 Background of the study ————————————————-1
1.3 Statement of the problem ———————————————–7
1.4 Objectives of the study —————————————————8
1.5 Statement of hypothesis ————————————————-9
1.6 Scope and limitations of the study ————————————-9
1.7 Significance of the study ————————————————-9
CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Literature review ————————————————————11
2.0.1 Conceptual definition of monetary policy —————————–11
2.0.2 Evolution of the monetary policy framework in Nigeria ————12
2.0.3 Review of the monetary policy before the Structural
Adjustment Programme (SAP) ————————————————–16
2.1 Theoretical literature review ———————————————19
2.1.1 Monetary policy under the Structural Adjustment
Programme (SAP) —————————————————————–19
2.1.2 Nigeria monetary policy experience ————————————-23
2.2 Empirical literature review ———————————————–28
2.2.1. Framework of monetary policy in targeting inflation —————28
2. 2.2 An appraisal of the performance of monetary policy in Nigeria –30
2.2.3 Suggestion for dealing with inflation in Nigeria ———————–33
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Research methodology ——————————————————-37
3.1 Model specification ———————————————————–37
3.2 Method of evaluation ——————————————————–39
3.2.1Unit root test —————————————————————–39
3.2.2Presentation of co-integration and error corrections —————-40
3.2.3 Diagnostic tests ————————————————————–40
3.3 Justification of the model —————————————————-40
3.4 Research approach ———————————————————–41
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Presentation of data and discussion of results ————————–42
4.1 Presentation of data ———————————————————-42
4.1.1 Unit Root Test —————————————————————-42
4.1.2 Co-integration Test ———————————————————-45
4.2 Economic Opinion, Interpretation/Appriori Criteria ——————–48
4.3 Statistical Criteria of the Results ———————————————48
4.3.1 T-test —————————————————————————-48
4.3.2 F-test —————————————————————————-49
4.4 Economic Criteria —————————————————————50
4.4.1 Test for Autocorrelation —————————————————–50
4.4.2 Normality test ——————————————————————51
4.4.3 Test for multicollinearity —————————————————–52
CHAPTER FIVE
Summary ——————————————————————————-55
Conclusion ——————————————————————————58
Recommendations ——————————————————————–59
Bibliography —————————————————————————-61

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this project work is based on the relative performance of monetary policy in the Nigerian economy. This work discussed the meaning of monetary policy is as combination of measures designed to regulate the value, supply and cost of money in an economy in consonance with the expected value of economies activities. The study shows further, the aims and objectives of monetary policy which includes price stability, maintenance of balance of payment equilibrium, promotion of employment, tackling inflation, output growth and sustainable development. The literature review shed more light on conceptual and evolutionary framework of monetary policy in Nigeria, review of monetary policy before and offer the structural adjustment programme (SAP), and appraisal of the performance of monetary policy in Nigeria were thoroughly discussed. also appropriate measures for managing inflation in the economy were also suggested from the research instruments and techniques, if was observed that there are leakages in velocity of money through corrupt practices in the system and diabolic means of creating cash flow which causes inflation, multiplicity of unemployment and low output growth. The research work, also showed the interplay between the gross domestic product (GDP) and other monetary policy variables (real exchange rate, real interest rate, money supply and liquidity ratio), and their respective contribution to the economy. In conclusion this project suggests total means of curling corruption using the various law enforcements in the country.
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
For most economies, the objectives of monetary policy include price stability, maintenance of balance of payments equilibrium, promotion of employment and output growth, sustainable development. These objectives are necessary for the attainment of internal and external balance, and the promotion of long run economic growth. The importance of price stability derives from the harmful effect of price volatility which undermines the objectives. This is indeed a general consensus that domestic price fluctuations undermines the role of monetary values as a store of value, and frustrate investments and growth.
Ajayi and Ojo (1981) and fisher (1993), empirical states on inflation, growth and productivity have confirmed the long run inverse relationship between inflation and growth. When decomposed into its components, that is growth due to capital accumulation, productivity growth, and the growth rate of the labour force, the negative association between inflation and growth has been traced to the strong negative relationship between it and capital accumulation as well as productivity growth respectively. The importance of these empirical findings is that stable prices are essential for growth due to capital accumulation, productivity growth, and the growth rate of the labour force, the negative association between inflation and growth has been traced to the strong negative relationship between it and capital accumulation as well as productivity growth
respectively. The importance of these empirical findings is that stable prices are essential for growth. The success of monetary policy depends on the operating economic environment, the institutional framework adopted, and the implementation of monetary policy is the responsibility of the central bank of Nigeria (CBN). The mandates of the CBN as specified by the CBN Act of 1958 include;
 Issuance of legal tender currency.
 Maintaining external reserves to safeguard the international value of the currency.
 Promoting monetary stability and a sound financial system.
 Acting as banker and financial adviser to the federal government.
However, the current monetary policy framework focuses on the maintenance of price stability while the promotion of growth and employment are the secondary goals of monetary policy. The performance of monetary policy depends on some legal framework upon which it operates. The legal framework are quantitative general or indirect and second, qualitative selective or direct. The effect effects the level of aggregate demand through the supply of money, cost of money and availability of credit. Out of the two types of instruments, the first category include bank are variations, open market operation, and required reserve ratio. They are meant to regulate the overall level of credit in the economy through commercial banks. The selective credit control aims at controlling specific types of credit. This includes changing margin requirement and regulation of consumer’s credit (M.L Jhingan, 2003).
In any economy, the conducts of both policies are normally rooted through banking institutions that play in the intermediation process. The role of bringing lenders and borrowers together through this process the central bank plays a very important role in determining the price of money (Ebhodaghe, 1996). Therefore, monetary policy is important in its own right from the past view of monetary economists and policy maker’s interns of its impacts on the economy. Of all tools available to government for directing the cause of the economy, monetary policies have proven to be the most visible instrument for achieving medium term stabilization objectives (CBN guideline 2002). Indeed monetary policy formulation and implementation emerged as a critical government responsibility so that the economy does not go astray. Policies are made not only for their own sake rather for achieving some desired goals over a given period of time.
Generally, the primary objectives of monetary policy is concerned with the application of expansionary monetary policy measures during economic recession and contractionary monetary policy controls money supply because it is believed that its rate of growth has an effect on inflation. The basic aim of monetary policies is not to aggregate themselves but the aggregate in the real sectors of the economy such as, level of capital price stabilization and economic development. Policies are designed in order to change the trend of some monetary variables in particular direction so as to induce the desired behavioral change in the monetary policy. The central bank’s role is to conduct appropriate monetary policy that is consistent with the main economic objectives that will help the growth of gross domestic product (GDP), sustainable inflation are and stable balance of payment position. This is done by putting in place the direct or indirect monetary approach so as to control monetary trends. In this regards the CBN determines the amount
of money to be supplied that is consistent with the nation’s macro-economic objectives and manipulate the monetary instrument at its disposal in order to achieve the stated objectives. Monetary policy influences the macrocosmic objectives because it is believed that there occurs a relationship between the real variables. Monetary policy affects all aspects of our economic and financial decisions whether to buy a car, build a house, start up a business or to expand the existing ones, whether to send one’s child to school or to make the child learn trade. Money supply or monetary policy tries to influence the performance of the economy as reflected in key macro-economic indicators like inflation, GDP and employment. It works by affecting aggregate demand across the economy, that is, individuals’ and firms’ willingness and stability to spend on goods and services. In doing this, monetary policy has two fundamental goals to promote maximum sustainable output and employment and to maintain sustainable price level in the economy. The job of stabilizing output in the short run and promoting price stability in the long run involves several steps first, the central bank tries to estimate how the economy is doing now and how it is likely to do in the medium term, then, it compares this estimates to its goals for the output and the price level, if there is a gap between the estimates and the goals, the CBN have to decide on how forcefully and swiftly to act to close the gap. Estimate of the current economic conditions are not as even as the most up-to-date data on key variables like employment, growth, productivity etc, largely reflect condition in the past. So to get a reasonable estimate of the current and medium term economic conditions, the central bank tries to find out what the most relevant economic developments are such as government spending, economic conditions abroad, financial conditions at home and abroad and the use of new technologies