THE EFFECT OF GENDER INEQUALITY ON WOMEN EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY
(A STUDY OF MONROVIA STREET, UNGUWAN RIMI – KADUNA)
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The issue of gender inequality is one which has been publicly reverberating through society for decades. The problem of inequality in employment being one of the most pressing issues today in order to examine this situation, one must try to get to the root of the problem and must understand the sociological factors that cause women to have much more difficult time getting the same benefits wages and job opportunities or their male counterparts therefore, this research work will examine the inequalities in policy, actual teaching situations, admission to post-secondary institution, hiring and job benefit and wages, it will also tackle what is being done to solve this problem and what can be done to remedy the situation.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page – – – – – – – – – – i
Declaration – – – – – – – – – ii
Approval page – – – – – – – – – iii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgment – – – – – – – – v
Abstract – – – – – – – – – – vi
Table of Contents – – – – – – – – vii
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY – – – – – 1
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM – – – – – 3
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY – – – – – – 3
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY – – – – – 4
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS – – – – – – 5
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY – – – – – – – 5
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.0 INTRODUCTION – – – – – – – – 6
2.1 THE CONCEPT OF GENDER INEQUALITY – – – 8
2.2 TYPES OF GENDER INEQUALITIES – – – – 10
2.3 THE EFFECT OF GENDER INEQUALITY ON WOMEN EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES – – – – – – – – 13
2.4 MEASURES TO SOLVE GENDER INEQUALITY – – – 16
3.0 INTRODUCTION – – – – – – – – 17
3.1 POPULATION OF THE STUDY – – – – – 18
3.2 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION – – – – – 19
3.3 TECHNIQUE OF DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS – 19
3.4 DATA ANALYSIS – – – – – – – – 21
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.0 INTRODUCTION – – – – – – – – 22
4.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS – – – – 22
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 SUMMARY – – – – – – – – – 30
5.2 CONCLUSION – – – – – – – – 30
5.3 RECOMMENDATION – – – – – – – 31
REFERENCES – – – – – – – – – 33
APPENDIX – – – – – – – – – – 34
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The issue of gender inequality is one which has been publicly reverberally through society for decades. The problem of inequality in employment being one of the most pressing issues today, in order to examine this situation, one must try to get to the root of the problem and must understand the sociological factors that cause women to have a much more difficult time getting the same benefit, wages and job opportunities as their male counterpart. The society in which we live has been shaped historically makes the policy makers have consistently been male and it is important to examine all facts of the problem, but in order to fully tackle the issue on most recognize that this inequality in the work force is rooted in what shape future employees and employers – education. The research work will examine the inequalities in policy, actual teaching situations, admission to post-secondary institution, hiring and job benefits and wages, the situation will also tackle was is being done to solve this problem and what can be done to remedy the situation.
Monrovia Street is an area situated in Ungwan Rimi Gabasawa ward under Kaduna North Local Government with a total of least populated area in Gabasawa ward which is more or less like a GRA consist of civil servants, students and businessmen and women etc. the population has made up different tribe such as Hausa, Yoruba, Gwari, Igbo, Nupe, Katab, etc.
Those living in Monrovia are predominantly civil servants that is 80% of people are said to have gainfully employed either by government or private sectors. And of 20% of them are engaged in commercial activities ranging from trading, tailoring, hair dressing, etc out of which 15% where engaged by men only 5% is engaged by women base on the research.
I found that women were left behind in time of gainful employment as well as commercial activities in the area. In view of above a lot is expected to be done to bridge the gap between the two genders.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Men and Women are both equal and both play vital roles in the creation and development of their families in particular and the society in general indeed; the struggle for legal equality has been one of the major concerns of women movement all over the world. Therefore, the sense of insecurity, humiliation and helplessness always keep a woman mum our whole socialization in such that for any unsuccessful marriage which results the who is held responsible. Cultural beliefs and traditions that discriminate against women may be officially discredited but they continued to flourish at the grassroots level, this has been main of this research work.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
- To find out factors responsible for low employment opportunities of women.
- To find out the effort of Government towards reducing gender inequality.
- To examine the implication of gender inequality in the society.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
A research of this nature has to do with gender issues must be of great significance. Gender inequality in terms of employment opportunities, home management and other issues are very critical. Therefore, this research will be of significance in the following areas:
- The project work is one of the basic requirements for the award of National Diploma in Social Development.
- It is expected to provide solutions to the problem of gender inequality generally and specifically in employment opportunities.
- Considering the roles played by human in home and nation building, if genders imbalances are corrected using the recommendation of this research, the nation would be greater, this is another significance.
- Researchers may find this work as a foundation for further research.
- Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) may find the research work and its recommendation very useful.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- What are the factors responsible for low employment opportunities of women?
- What are the efforts of government towards reducing gender inequality?
- What are the implications of gender inequality in the society?
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
In carrying out the research work, the researcher chose Monrovia Street as area of study and focused on gender inequality on women employment opportunities restricted the finding in the above area.
And most of whom he asked question were women because they are most hit by poverty and vitracy and dominated in terms of wages, salaries and other commercial activities.
In view of the above, the researcher promoted to focus more attention on women in order to find out why the inequality exist and look for a way to find solution and unless something various is done by the government to control the problem.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Gender is a set of characteristics that are seen to distinguish between male and female.
Depending on the context, the discriminating characteristics vary from sex to social role to gender identity (Microsoft Encarta 2009). In 1955, sexologist John Money introduced the terminology distinction between biological sex and gender as a role, before his work, it was uncommon to use gender to refer to anything but grammatical categories. However, Money’s meaning of the word did not become widespread until the 1970s when feminist theory embraced the distinction between biological sex and social construct of gender. Today, the distinction is strictly followed in some context, like feminist literature and in documents such as the World Health Organization (WHO), but in most contexts, even in social Science the meaning of gender has expended to include sex or even to replace the word.
Although this bastardization of the meaning of gender occurred gradually since the 1980s, a small acceleration of the process in the scientific literature was observed when Food and Drug Administration started to use gender instead of sex in 1993. Gender is now commonly used even to refer to the physiology of non-human animals, without any implication of social gender roles.
In the English literature, trichotomy between biological sex, psychological gender, and social sex role first appeared in the feminist paper on transexualism in 1978. Some cultures have specific gender – related social roles that can be considered distinct from gender related social roles that can be considered distinct from male and female, such as the hijra of India and Pakistan.
While the Social Science sometimes approach gender as a social construct, and gender studies particularly do the natural sciences, regard biological and behavioural differences in male an females as influencing the development of gender in human, both inform date about how far biological differences influence gender identity formation.
According to Jacob (1995) “gender is constructed both society through interaction as well as biologically through chromosomes, brain structure and hormonal differences”.
“Gender systems are often dichotomous and literachica;’ binary gender system may reflect into the inequalities that manifest in numerous dimensions of daily life. Gender inequality stems from distinctions, whether empirically grounded or socially constructed” (Jerry, 2000).
2.1 THE CONCEPT OF GENDER INEQUALITY
According to Prof. S. Mahdi (1990 “Gender Inequalities refers to the obvious or hidden disparities among individuals based on the performance of gender”. This problem in simple term is known as Gender Bias which in simple terms meaning the gender stratification or making difference between a girl and a boy. In Nigeria (in the older time) this problem is mainly seen in the rural area because many rural people think that the girl child is burden on them. But now this is also being seen in the urban areas. That is, in offices, institutions, schools and societies. The afflicted world in which we live is characterized by deeply unequal sharing of this burden of adversities between women and men.
However, inequality between men and women can take very many different forms. Indeed, gender inequality is not one homogenous phenomenon, but a collection of disparate and interleaved problems. The issue of gender inequality is one which has been publicly reverberating through societies for decades. The problem of inequality in employment being of the most pressing issues today. In order to examine this situation, one must try to get to the root of the problem and must understand the sociological factors that cause women to have a much difficult time getting the same benefits, wages and job opportunities as their male counterpart. The society in which we live has been shaped historically be males.
However, in many part of the world women receive less attention and health care than men do and particularly girls often receive every much less than boys. As a result of this gender bias the mortality rates of females often exceed those of males in these countries. The concept of missing women was devised to give some idea of the enormity of the phenomenon of women’s adversity in mortality focusing on the women who care simply not there, due to unusually high mortality compared with male mortality rates. In some regions in the world, inequality between women and men directly involves matters of life and death and takes the brutal form of unusually high morality rate of women and a consequent preponderance of women found in societies with little or no gender bias in health care and nutrition (Dr. Justice A.S. Anand, 2009).
2.2 TYPES OF GENDER INEQUALITIES