AN ASSESSMENT OF METHODS OF TEACHING ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN SELECTED NIGERIAN POLYTECHNICS
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This study was carried out to find out An assessment of methods of
Teaching English language in selected Nigerian polytechnics. There are five (5) research questions formulated to guide this study. There are eighteen (18) secondary schools in Uzo-Uwani local government area of Enugu state. Out of these secondary schools, ten (10) schools were randomly selected through ballot method. In each of the ten (10) schools selected for the study, two (2) classes of SSII were randomly selected using ballot method; this implies that 440 students were selected for the study. Also six (6) English teachers were randomly selected in each schools used for the study through ballot method, this implies that sixty (60) English teachers were used for the study.
Statistic project topics and materials abstracts
The questionnaire was used to collect and analyze the data. The instrument were validated by three (3) experienced English lecturers and two (2) experts in measurement and evaluation all from the department of science and English education of Enugu State of Science and technology (ESUT), and the test-retest method was used to determine the reliability of the instrument. The data collected from the students were analyzed using the mean respondents’ scores.
The result showed that the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of English in secondary schools are as follows; students have negative attitude towards the learning of English, students in English have very poor background, parents have negative attitude towards the learning of English, the learning environment are not well conducive for learning, most of the English teachers are not qualified. It also discussed the implication of the findings and finally recommendations were made to enhance students’ achievement in English.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Background of the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 6
Purpose of the Study 7
Significance of the Study 8
Scope of the Study 9
Research Question 10
Literature Review 11
2.1 English Education 11
2.2 Academic Performance 14
2.3 Factors that Contributes to Poor Academic Performance 15
2.4 Quality of English Teachers 15
2.5 Negative Attitude of Students of English 20
2.6 Effective Use of Instructional Materials 22
2.7 Provision of English Laboratory 23
2.8 Recruitment of Qualified English Teachers 24
2.9 Lack of Adequate Funding from Government 25
2.10 Poor Students’ Background in English 27
2.11 Parental Related Factors 29
2.12 Unconducive School Environment 30
2.13 English Terminology 32
3.0 Research Method 34
3.1 Research Design 34
3.2 Area of the Study 35
3.3 Population of the Study 35
3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques 36
3.5 Instrument for Data Collection 36
3.6 Validation of the Instrument 37
3.7 Reliability of the Instrument 37
3.8 Method of Data Collection 38
3.9 Method of Data Analysis 38
3.10 Decision Rule 39
4.0 Presentation and Analysis of Data 40
4.1 Research Question 1 40
4.2 Research Question 2 42
4.3 Research Question 3 44
4.4 Research Question 4 46
4.5 Research Question 5 48
5.0 Discussion of Findings, Conclusion, Implications
and Recommendations 50
5.1 Discussion of Findings 50
5.2 Conclusion 52
5.3 Recommendations 54
5.4 Limitation of the Study 55
5.5 Summary of the Study 55
5.6 Suggestion for Further Study 57
APPENDIX I 63
APPENDIX II 64
APPENDIX III 70
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Education is an important sector which cannot be fun with any serious country, state, organization or individual and that is why an individual, organization or government uses every means to make sure a good education is provided for her citizens (Adibe, 2001)
The focus of this study is secondary school education. Secondary education is the stage following primary education. It is generally the final stage of compulsory education. In some country, it is a period of compulsory and a period of non-compulsory education. Secondary education is characterized by transition from the typically compulsory education to selective education for adult.
The content and philosophy of Nigeria education must reflect the past, present and drive into the future of Nigeria society in term of the role the individual is expected to play in the present national building process (Vision 20:2020)
Education is the best legacy given to a child; it is the producer of human capital. It is the truth of existence and centre of life. Every human-being depends on education for truthful, peaceful and wise co-existence. It has witnessed active participation by non-governmental agencies, communities and individual as well as government parastatals in order to bring education to the country. Education is an instrument for national development, it fosters on the worth and development of individual to be self-reliant, just and building egalitarian society (Federal Republic of Nigeria [FRN] 2004).
English is all embracing and all encompassing. In virtually all spheres of human endeavor, English was used as an aid in commerce farming and control of environment. English also proved it usefulness in areas of medicine, engineering, administration and aviation just mention but a few. This was when people felt incomplete without the basic knowledge of arithmetic.
English calls for adequate concentration and adequate practices. As learners are involved in these activities they develop interest and get motivated, which are well oriented, they enjoy and concentrate there on, no matter how complicated and involving activities maybe.
According to statistics, academic performance in English among secondary school students has bees on the decline since the end of civil war in 1970. The decline is mostly affecting secondary schools in Uzo-Uwani Local Government Area.
The efforts of the Nigerian government in highlighting the importance of English study in schools by making it compulsory for all students and in addition to the efforts of English Association of Nigeria (MAN) towards the development of English, student still perform poorly in this subject in both internal and external examination.
Obodo (2004:18) highlighted on this by saying that “A teacher achieves this concentration by beginning the lesson in an officious manner with respect to awaking the interest of students and sustaining if through skillful instructional management. In most cases, teachers fall to observe this skillful instructional management and the obvious result is that the more the teacher teaches, the more confused the student will be and the deeper the aversion and fear for the subject”.
Children need to understand spoken and written expression which involves English and its communication means. They must be able to solve problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.
Consequently and currently in Nigeria, students are allowed to study some course on gaining admission into universities because of their poor performance in West African School Certificate Examination (WASCE) or National Examination Council (NECO). In consonance, this study will look into the lapses to the government, curriculum develops, textbooks, publisher, teachers and students, families and their members at large and others involved in the education sectors. The constraints in poor achievement in English, as an adage has it “A problem identified is halfway solved” it implies that knowing the constraints will be of immense help in solving it.
According to Leeichi (2007:41), “Learning is the human activity which least needs manipulation by others” this means that everybody is endowed with the ability to learn but an expert (a qualified teacher has to manipulate the endowment, otherwise it becomes disused). Teaching and learning of English is not exceptional.
Without effective teaching and learning of English there will be poor performance in English work. Considering the recovery and terrible failure of secondary school students in SSCE, the researcher was forced to ask; what are the factors militating against effective teaching and learning? Some of the pertinent questions often ask are: How widespread is the incident of poor external result among Nigerian students?
What is the role of the notation special center in the whole problem? And to what extent have the parent and teacher contributed to the factors militating against effective teaching and learning to student in public examination especially the one being conducted by WAEC and NECO?
Obodo (2004:14) opined that “A shortage of qualified English teachers will result to poor teaching and learning of English and consequently poor achievement and performance of students, which invariably will lead to the production of another generation of poor student achievers who will eventually turn-out to teach English poorly tomorrow”.
This illustrates that any student who develops phobia for English cannot learn well. English is a language of size and order. This explains why some students develop sudden fever whenever it is time for English lesson in a school.
According to National Policy on Education, stated by Obodo (2004), the aims and objectives of secondary education should be as follows:-
- To provide necessary English background for further education
- To stimulate and encourage creativity
- To develop the ability to recognize problems and to solve them with related English knowledge
- To develop precise, logical and abstract thinking
- To develop computational skill
- To generates interest in English and to provide a solid foundation for everyday living
- To foster the desire and ability to be accurate to degree relevant to the problem at hand
From the above objectives of English, it became quite obvious that even the entire world
race depends on the knowledge of English to achieve it aim and objective. But with recurring and terrible failure among secondary school students in SSCE, how can this aim be achieved.
The focus of this study, the researcher wants to know the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of English in secondary schools.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Okpara (2010) stated that over the years students have shown high rate of mass failure in English. He further stated that the problem of mass failure could be attributed on the quality of teaching in schools, saying that unless there was improvement in the teaching and learning in schools, there is little the examination body could do to salvage the already bad situation.
The government, parent, policy makers, English educators, English and different professional organization are bothered about what could be responsible for this factor militating against effective teaching and learning of English.
The researcher is worried about this unfortunate development and he asked, “What are the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of English in secondary schools”?
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The general purpose of this study is to determine the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of English in secondary schools in Uzo-Uwani local government area of Enugu State.
Specifically, the study intends to find out the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of English in secondary schools from:-
- The attitude of students towards English
- Poor foundation from primary English as inherited, affects students’ proficiency in secondary school English
- Parent attitude
- Learning environment
- Quality of English teachers
1.4 SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
The result of this study will be beneficial to students, curriculum planners and developers, parents, textbook publishers, government, teachers.
The result will help students to re-direct their psychological feelings towards English. Also, education planners and policy makers will use the result of this study to proffer possible way for improving the academic factors militating against effective teaching and learning of English in secondary schools.
The result of this study will help the parent in providing the necessary materials needed for effective teaching and learning of English for their children so that they can develop interest in it.
The result of this study will help the government to provide instructional materials to secondary school students’ better performance.
The result of this study will aid English teachers to evaluate themselves and in turn improve upon their teaching method.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study is limited to identifying the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of English in secondary schools in Uzo-Uwani Local Government Area of Enugu State.
This study is limited to the attitude of students, poor foundation in primary English as inherited affects students’ proficiency in secondary school English, parent attitude, environment factors and qualities of English teachers.
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTION
The following research questions were formulated to guide the study:
- What are the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of English in secondary schools “from the attitude of students towards English”
- What are the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of English in secondary schools “from the foundation of English”
- What are the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of English in secondary schools “from the attitude of parents”
- What are the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of English in secondary schools “from the learning environment”
- What are the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of English in secondary schools “from the English teachers”
AN ASSESSMENT OF METHODS OF TEACHING ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN SELECTED NIGERIAN POLYTECHNICS