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THE EFFECT OF GENDER INEQUALITY ON WOMEN EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY

THE EFFECT OF GENDER INEQUALITY ON WOMEN EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY

(A STUDY OF MONROVIA STREET, UNGUWAN RIMI – KADUNA)

 

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ABSTRACT

The issue of gender inequality is one which has been publicly reverberating through society for decades. The problem of inequality in employment being one of the most pressing issues today in order to examine this situation, one must try to get to the root of the problem and must understand the sociological factors that cause women to have much more difficult time getting the same benefits wages and job opportunities or their male counterparts therefore, this research work will examine the inequalities in policy, actual teaching situations, admission to post-secondary institution, hiring and job benefit and wages, it will also tackle what is being done to solve this problem and what can be done to remedy the situation.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        i

Declaration –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        ii

Approval page     –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iii

Dedication  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iv

Acknowledgment –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        v

Abstract      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        vi

Table of Contents –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        vii

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY  –        –        –        –        –        1

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM –        –        –        –        –        3

1.3     OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY      –        –        –        –        –        –        3

1.4     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY  –        –        –        –        –        4

1.5     RESEARCH QUESTIONS     –        –        –        –        –        –        5

1.6     SCOPE OF THE STUDY       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        5

 

CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.0     INTRODUCTION         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        6

2.1     THE CONCEPT OF GENDER INEQUALITY   –        –        –        8

2.2     TYPES OF GENDER INEQUALITIES               –        –        –        –        10

2.3     THE EFFECT OF GENDER INEQUALITY ON WOMEN EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        13

2.4     MEASURES TO SOLVE GENDER INEQUALITY     –        –        –        16

 

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.0     INTRODUCTION         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        17

3.1     POPULATION OF THE STUDY     –        –        –        –        –        18

3.2     METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION        –        –        –        –        –        19

3.3     TECHNIQUE OF DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS      –        19

3.4     DATA ANALYSIS        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        21

 

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.0     INTRODUCTION         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        22

4.1     CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS       –        –        –        –        22

 

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1     SUMMARY         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        30

5.2     CONCLUSION    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        30

5.3     RECOMMENDATION –        –        –        –        –        –        –        31

REFERENCES    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        33

APPENDIX          –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        34

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The issue of gender inequality is one which has been publicly reverberally through society for decades. The problem of inequality in employment being one of the most pressing issues today, in order to examine this situation, one must try to get to the root of the problem and must understand the sociological factors that cause women to have a much more difficult time getting the same benefit, wages and job opportunities as their male counterpart. The society in which we live has been shaped historically makes the policy makers have consistently been male and it is important to examine all facts of the problem, but in order to fully tackle the issue on most recognize that this inequality in the work force is rooted in what shape future employees and employers – education. The research work will examine the inequalities in policy, actual teaching situations, admission to post-secondary institution, hiring and job benefits and wages, the situation will also tackle was is being done to solve this problem and what can be done to remedy the situation.

 

Monrovia Street is an area situated in Ungwan Rimi Gabasawa ward under Kaduna North Local Government with a total of least populated area in Gabasawa ward which is more or less like a GRA consist of civil servants, students and businessmen and women etc. the population has made up different tribe such as Hausa, Yoruba, Gwari, Igbo, Nupe, Katab, etc.

Those living in Monrovia are predominantly civil servants that is 80% of people are said to have gainfully employed either by government or private sectors. And of 20% of them are engaged in commercial activities ranging from trading, tailoring, hair dressing, etc out of which 15% where engaged by men only 5% is engaged by women base on the research.

 

I found that women were left behind in time of gainful employment as well as commercial activities in the area. In view of above a lot is expected to be done to bridge the gap between the two genders.

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Men and Women are both equal and both play vital roles in the creation and development of their families in particular and the society in general indeed; the struggle for legal equality has been one of the major concerns of women movement all over the world. Therefore, the sense of insecurity, humiliation and helplessness always keep a woman mum our whole socialization in such that for any unsuccessful marriage which results the who is held responsible. Cultural beliefs and traditions that discriminate against women may be officially discredited but they continued to flourish at the grassroots level, this has been main of this research work.

 

1.3     OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

  1. To find out factors responsible for low employment opportunities of women.
  2. To find out the effort of Government towards reducing gender inequality.
  3. To examine the implication of gender inequality in the society.

 

1.4     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

A research of this nature has to do with gender issues must be of great significance. Gender inequality in terms of employment opportunities, home management and other issues are very critical. Therefore, this research will be of significance in the following areas:

  1. The project work is one of the basic requirements for the award of National Diploma in Social Development.
  2. It is expected to provide solutions to the problem of gender inequality generally and specifically in employment opportunities.
  3. Considering the roles played by human in home and nation building, if genders imbalances are corrected using the recommendation of this research, the nation would be greater, this is another significance.
  4. Researchers may find this work as a foundation for further research.
  5. Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) may find the research work and its recommendation very useful.

 

1.5     RESEARCH QUESTIONS

  1. What are the factors responsible for low employment opportunities of women?
  2. What are the efforts of government towards reducing gender inequality?
  3. What are the implications of gender inequality in the society?

1.6     SCOPE OF THE STUDY

In carrying out the research work, the researcher chose Monrovia Street as area of study and focused on gender inequality on women employment opportunities restricted the finding in the above area.

And most of whom he asked question were women because they are most hit by poverty and vitracy and dominated in terms of wages, salaries and other commercial activities.

In view of the above, the researcher promoted to focus more attention on women in order to find out why the inequality exist and look for a way to find solution and unless something various is done by the government to control the problem.

 

 

CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.0     INTRODUCTION

Gender is a set of characteristics that are seen to distinguish between male and female.

Depending on the context, the discriminating characteristics vary from sex to social role to gender identity (Microsoft Encarta 2009). In 1955, sexologist John Money introduced the terminology distinction between biological sex and gender as a role, before his work, it was uncommon to use gender to refer to anything but grammatical categories. However, Money’s meaning of the word did not become widespread until the 1970s when feminist theory embraced the distinction between biological sex and social construct of gender. Today, the distinction is strictly followed in some context, like feminist literature and in documents such as the World Health Organization (WHO), but in most contexts, even in social Science the meaning of gender  has expended to include sex or even to replace the word.

 

 

Although this bastardization of the meaning of gender occurred gradually since the 1980s, a small acceleration of the process in the scientific literature was observed when Food and Drug Administration started to use gender instead of sex in 1993. Gender is now commonly used even to refer to the physiology of non-human animals, without any implication of social gender roles.

In the English literature, trichotomy between biological sex, psychological gender, and social sex role first appeared in the feminist paper on transexualism in 1978. Some cultures have specific gender – related social roles that can be considered distinct from gender related social roles that can be considered distinct from male and female, such as the hijra of India and Pakistan.

While the Social Science sometimes approach gender as a social construct, and gender studies particularly do the natural sciences, regard biological and behavioural differences in male an females as influencing the development of gender in human, both inform date about how far biological differences influence gender identity formation.

According to Jacob (1995) “gender is constructed both society through interaction as well as biologically through chromosomes, brain structure and hormonal differences”.

“Gender systems are often dichotomous and literachica;’ binary gender system may reflect into the inequalities that manifest in numerous dimensions of daily life. Gender inequality stems from distinctions, whether empirically grounded or socially constructed” (Jerry, 2000).

 

2.1     THE CONCEPT OF GENDER INEQUALITY

According to Prof. S. Mahdi (1990 “Gender Inequalities refers to the obvious or hidden disparities among individuals based on the performance of gender”. This problem in simple term is known as Gender Bias which in simple terms meaning the gender stratification or making difference between a girl and a boy. In Nigeria (in the older time) this problem is mainly seen in the rural area because many rural people think that the girl child is burden on them. But now this is also being seen in the urban areas. That is, in offices, institutions, schools and societies. The afflicted world in which we live is characterized by deeply unequal sharing of this burden of adversities between women and men.

 

However, inequality between men and women can take very many different forms. Indeed, gender inequality is not one homogenous phenomenon, but a collection of disparate and interleaved problems. The issue of gender inequality is one which has been publicly reverberating through societies for decades. The problem of inequality in employment being of the most pressing issues today. In order to examine this situation, one must try to get to the root of the problem and must understand the sociological factors that cause women to have a much difficult time getting the same benefits, wages and job opportunities as their male counterpart. The society in which we live has been shaped historically be males.

 

However, in many part of the world women receive less attention and health care than men do and particularly girls often receive every much less than boys. As a result of this gender bias the mortality rates of females often exceed those of males in these countries. The concept of missing women was devised to give some idea of the enormity of the phenomenon of women’s adversity in mortality focusing on the women who care simply not there, due to unusually high mortality compared with male mortality rates.  In some regions in the world, inequality between women and men directly involves matters of life and death and takes the brutal form of unusually high morality rate of women and a consequent preponderance of women found in societies with little or no gender bias in health care and nutrition (Dr. Justice A.S. Anand, 2009).

 

2.2     TYPES OF GENDER INEQUALITIES

FACTORS MILITATING AGAINST EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF MATHEMATICS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

FACTORS MILITATING AGAINST EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF MATHEMATICS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN UZO-UWANI LOCAL     GOVERNMENT AREA OF ENUGU STATE

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                                                                ABSTRACT

This study was carried out to find out the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of mathematics in secondary schools in Uzo-Uwani local government area of Enugu state. There are five (5) research questions formulated to guide this study. There are eighteen (18) secondary schools in Uzo-Uwani local government area of Enugu state. Out of these secondary schools, ten (10) schools were randomly selected through ballot method. In each of the ten (10) schools selected for the study, two (2) classes of SSII were randomly selected using ballot method; this implies that 440 students were selected for the study. Also six (6) mathematics teachers were randomly selected in each schools used for the study through ballot method, this implies that sixty (60) mathematics teachers were used for the study. The questionnaire was used to collect and analyze the data.

 

The instrument were validated by three (3) experienced mathematics lecturers and two (2) experts in measurement and evaluation all from the department of science and computer education of Enugu State of Science and technology (ESUT), and the test-retest method was used to determine the reliability of the instrument. The data collected from the students were analyzed using the mean respondents’ scores. The result showed that the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of mathematics in secondary schools are as follows; students have negative attitude towards the learning of mathematics, students in mathematics have very poor background, parents have negative attitude towards the learning of mathematics, the learning environment are not well conducive for learning, most of the mathematics teachers are not qualified. It also discussed the implication of the findings and finally recommendations were made to enhance students’ achievement in mathematics.

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction                                                                                                           1

Background of the Study                                                                                     1

Statement of the Problem                                                                                   6

Purpose of the Study                                                                                            7

Significance of the Study                                                                                     8

Scope of the Study                                                                                                            9

Research Question                                                                                                 10

 

CHAPTER TWO

Literature Review                                                                                                            11

2.1      Mathematics Education                                                                           11

2.2      Academic Performance                                                                            14

2.3      Factors that Contributes to Poor Academic Performance             15

2.4      Quality of Mathematics Teachers                                                          15

2.5      Negative Attitude of Students of Mathematics                                 20

2.6      Effective Use of Instructional Materials                                               22

2.7      Provision of Mathematics Laboratory                                                 23

2.8      Recruitment of Qualified Mathematics Teachers                              24

2.9      Lack of Adequate Funding from Government                                   25

2.10   Poor Students’ Background in Mathematics                                      27

2.11   Parental Related Factors                                                                          29

2.12   Unconducive School Environment                                                        30

2.13   Mathemaphobia                                                                                        32

 

 

CHAPTER THREE               

3.0      Research Method                                                                                       34

3.1      Research Design                                                                                         34

3.2      Area of the Study                                                                                       35

3.3      Population of the Study                                                                           35

3.4      Sample and Sampling Techniques                                                         36

3.5      Instrument for Data Collection                                                              36

3.6      Validation of the Instrument                                                                  37

3.7      Reliability of the Instrument                                                                   37

3.8      Method of Data Collection                                                                      38

3.9      Method of Data Analysis                                                                          38

3.10   Decision Rule                                                                                               39

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0      Presentation and Analysis of Data                                                        40

4.1      Research Question 1                                                                                 40

4.2      Research Question 2                                                                                 42

4.3      Research Question 3                                                                                 44

4.4      Research Question 4                                                                                 46

4.5      Research Question 5                                                                                 48

 

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0      Discussion of Findings, Conclusion, Implications

and Recommendations                                                                                        50

5.1      Discussion of Findings                                                                               50

5.2      Conclusion                                                                                                   52

5.3      Recommendations                                                                                     54

5.4      Limitation of the Study                                                                             55

5.5      Summary of the Study                                                                             55

5.6      Suggestion for Further Study                                                                 57

REFERENCES                                                                                                            58

APPENDIX I                                                                                                  63

APPENDIX II                                                                                                 64

QUESTIONNAIRE                                                                                        65

APPENDIX III                                                                                                            70

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1      BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The focus of this study is secondary school education. Secondary education is the stage following primary education. It is generally the final stage of compulsory education. In some country, it is a period of compulsory and a period of non-compulsory education. Secondary education is characterized by transition from the typically compulsory education to selective education for adult.

The content and philosophy of Nigeria education must reflect the past, present and drive into the future of Nigeria society in term of the role the individual is expected to play in the present national building process (Vision 20:2020)

Education is the best legacy given to a child; it is the producer of human capital. It is the truth of existence and centre of life. Every human-being depends on education for truthful, peaceful and wise co-existence. It has witnessed active participation by non-governmental agencies, communities and individual as well as government parastatals in order to bring education to the country. Education is an instrument for national development, it fosters on the worth and development of individual to be self-reliant, just and building egalitarian society (Federal Republic of Nigeria [FRN] 2004).

 

 

Mathematics is all embracing and all encompassing. In virtually all spheres of human endeavor, mathematics was used as an aid in commerce farming and control of environment. Mathematics also proved it usefulness in areas of medicine, engineering, administration and aviation just mention but a few. This was when people felt incomplete without the basic knowledge of arithmetic.

Mathematics calls for adequate concentration and adequate practices. As learners are involved in these activities they develop interest and get motivated, which are well oriented, they enjoy and concentrate there on, no matter how complicated and involving activities maybe.

According to statistics, academic performance in mathematics among secondary school students has bees on the decline since the end of civil war in 1970. The decline is mostly affecting secondary schools in Uzo-Uwani Local Government Area.

 

 

The efforts of the Nigerian government in highlighting the importance of mathematics study in schools by making it compulsory for all students and in addition to the efforts of Mathematics Association of Nigeria (MAN) towards the development of mathematics, student still perform poorly in this subject in both internal and external examination.

Obodo (2004:18) highlighted on this by saying that “A teacher achieves this concentration by beginning the lesson in an officious manner with respect to awaking the interest of students and sustaining if through skillful instructional management. In most cases, teachers fall to observe this skillful instructional management and the obvious result is that the more the teacher teaches, the more confused the student will be and the deeper the aversion and fear for the subject”.

Children need to understand spoken and written expression which involves mathematical concepts and number relationship. They must be able to solve problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.

 

 

Consequently and currently in Nigeria, students are allowed to study some course on gaining admission into universities because of their poor performance in West African School Certificate Examination (WASCE) or National Examination Council (NECO). In consonance, this study will look into the lapses to the government, curriculum develops, textbooks, publisher, teachers and students, families and their members at large and others involved in the education sectors. The constraints in poor achievement in mathematics, as an adage has it “A problem identified is halfway solved” it implies that knowing the constraints will be of immense help in solving it.

According to Leeichi (2007:41), “Learning is the human activity which least needs manipulation by others” this means that everybody is endowed with the ability to learn but an expert (a qualified teacher has to manipulate the endowment, otherwise it becomes disused). Teaching and learning of mathematics is not exceptional.

 

Without effective teaching and learning of mathematics there will be poor performance in mathematics work. Considering the recovery and terrible failure of secondary school students in SSCE, the researcher was forced to ask; what are the factors militating against effective teaching and learning? Some of the pertinent questions often ask are: How widespread is the incident of poor external result among Nigerian students? What is the role of the notation special center in the whole problem? And to what extent have the parent and teacher contributed to the factors militating against effective teaching and learning to student in public examination especially the one being conducted by WAEC and NECO?

Obodo (2004:14) opined that “A shortage of qualified mathematics teachers will result to poor teaching and learning of mathematics and consequently poor achievement and performance of students, which invariably will lead to the production of another generation of poor student achievers who will eventually turn-out to teach mathematics poorly tomorrow”.

 

This illustrates that any student who develops phobia for mathematics cannot learn well. Mathematics is a language of size and order. This explains why some students develop sudden fever whenever it is time for mathematics lesson in a school.

According to National Policy on Education, stated by Obodo (2004), the aims and objectives of secondary education should be as follows:-

  • To provide necessary mathematical background for further education
  • To stimulate and encourage creativity
  • To develop the ability to recognize problems and to solve them with related mathematical knowledge
  • To develop precise, logical and abstract thinking
  • To develop computational skill
  • To generates interest in mathematics and to provide a solid foundation for everyday living
  • To foster the desire and ability to be accurate to degree relevant to the problem at hand

From the above objectives of mathematics, it became quite obvious that even the entire world

race depends on the knowledge of mathematics to achieve it aim and objective. But with recurring and terrible failure among secondary school students in SSCE, how can this aim be achieved.

The focus of this study, the researcher wants to know the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of mathematics in secondary schools.

 

1.2      STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Okpara (2010) stated that over the years students have shown high rate of mass failure in mathematics. He further stated that the problem of mass failure could be attributed on the quality of teaching in schools, saying that unless there was improvement in the teaching and learning in schools, there is little the examination body could do to salvage the already bad situation.

The government, parent, policy makers, mathematics educators, mathematics and different professional organization are bothered about what could be responsible for this factor militating against effective teaching and learning of mathematics.

The researcher is worried about this unfortunate development and he asked, “What are the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of mathematics in secondary schools”?

 

1.3      PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The general purpose of this study is to determine the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of mathematics in secondary schools in Uzo-Uwani local government area of Enugu State.

Specifically, the study intends to find out the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of mathematics in secondary schools from:-

  • The attitude of students towards mathematics
  • Poor foundation from primary mathematics as inherited, affects students’ proficiency in secondary school mathematics
  • Parent attitude
  • Learning environment
  • Quality of mathematics teachers

 

1.4      SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY

The result of this study will be beneficial to students, curriculum planners and developers, parents, textbook publishers, government, teachers.

The result will help students to re-direct their psychological feelings towards mathematics. Also, education planners and policy makers will use the result of this study to proffer possible way for improving the academic factors militating against effective teaching and learning of mathematics in secondary schools.

The result of this study will help the parent in providing the necessary materials needed for effective teaching and learning of mathematics for their children so that they can develop interest in it.

The result of this study will help the government to provide instructional materials to secondary school students’ better performance.

The result of this study will aid mathematics teachers to evaluate themselves and in turn improve upon their teaching method.

 

1.5      SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This study is limited to identifying the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of mathematics in secondary schools in Uzo-Uwani Local Government Area of Enugu State.

This study is limited to the attitude of students, poor foundation in primary mathematics as inherited affects students’ proficiency in secondary school mathematics, parent attitude, environment factors and qualities of mathematics teachers.

 

1.6      RESEARCH QUESTION

The following research questions were formulated to guide the study:

  • What are the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of mathematics in secondary schools “from the attitude of students towards mathematics”
  • What are the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of mathematics in secondary schools “from the foundation of mathematics”
  • What are the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of mathematics in secondary schools “from the attitude of parents”
  • What are the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of mathematics in secondary schools “from the learning environment”
  • What are the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of mathematics in secondary schools “from the mathematics teachers”

 

CHAPTER TWO

 

2.0      LITERATURE REVIEW

The review of literature is presented under the following sub-headings:

AN ASSESSMENT OF METHODS OF TEACHING ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN SELECTED NIGERIAN POLYTECHNICS

AN ASSESSMENT OF METHODS OF  TEACHING ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN SELECTED  NIGERIAN POLYTECHNICS

 

 

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ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

We also accept :   ATM transfer , online money  transfer 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>

Call Help Desk Line :  08074466939,08063386834.

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08074466939 Or 08063386834,   The Project Title  You  Selected On Our Website , Amount Paid, Depositor Name, Your Email Address, Payment Date. You Will Receive Your Material In Less Than 1 Hour Once We Confirm Your Payment.

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ABSTRACT

 

This study was carried out to find out An assessment of methods of

Teaching English language in selected Nigerian polytechnics. There are five (5) research questions formulated to guide this study. There are eighteen (18) secondary schools in Uzo-Uwani local government area of Enugu state. Out of these secondary schools, ten (10) schools were randomly selected through ballot method. In each of the ten (10) schools selected for the study, two (2) classes of SSII were randomly selected using ballot method; this implies that 440 students were selected for the study. Also six (6) English teachers were randomly selected in each schools used for the study through ballot method, this implies that sixty (60) English teachers were used for the study.

Statistic project topics and materials abstracts

The questionnaire was used to collect and analyze the data. The instrument were validated by three (3) experienced English lecturers and two (2) experts in measurement and evaluation all from the department of science and English education of Enugu State of Science and technology (ESUT), and the test-retest method was used to determine the reliability of the instrument. The data collected from the students were analyzed using the mean respondents’ scores.

 

The result showed that the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of English in secondary schools are as follows; students have negative attitude towards the learning of English, students in English have very poor background, parents have negative attitude towards the learning of English, the learning environment are not well conducive for learning, most of the English teachers are not qualified. It also discussed the implication of the findings and finally recommendations were made to enhance students’ achievement in English.

Management project topics and materials samples


 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction                                                                                     1

Background of the Study                                                                            1

Statement of the Problem                                                                  6

Purpose of the Study                                                                        7

Significance of the Study                                                                            8

Scope of the Study                                                                                     9

Research Question                                                                                      10

 

CHAPTER TWO

Literature Review                                                                                      11

2.1     English Education                                                                   11

2.2     Academic Performance                                                            14

2.3     Factors that Contributes to Poor Academic Performance                 15

2.4     Quality of English Teachers                                                    15

2.5     Negative Attitude of Students of English                       20

2.6     Effective Use of Instructional Materials                                  22

2.7     Provision of English Laboratory                                             23

2.8     Recruitment of Qualified English Teachers                    24

2.9     Lack of Adequate Funding from Government                         25

2.10   Poor Students’ Background in English                                             27

2.11   Parental Related Factors                                                                   29

2.12   Unconducive School Environment                                          30

2.13   English Terminology                                                                         32

 

 

CHAPTER THREE              

3.0     Research Method                                                                     34

3.1     Research Design                                                                      34

3.2     Area of the Study                                                                    35

3.3     Population of the Study                                                          35

3.4     Sample and Sampling Techniques                                           36

3.5     Instrument for Data Collection                                                         36

3.6     Validation of the Instrument                                                   37

3.7     Reliability of the Instrument                                                    37

3.8     Method of Data Collection                                                      38

3.9     Method of Data Analysis                                                                  38

3.10   Decision Rule                                                                          39

 

free project topics and materials in education

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     Presentation and Analysis of Data                                          40

4.1     Research Question 1                                                                40

4.2     Research Question 2                                                                42

4.3     Research Question 3                                                                44

4.4     Research Question 4                                                                46

4.5     Research Question 5                                                                48

 

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     Discussion of Findings, Conclusion, Implications

and Recommendations                                                                      50

5.1     Discussion of Findings                                                            50

5.2     Conclusion                                                                              52

5.3     Recommendations                                                                             54

5.4     Limitation of the Study                                                           55

5.5     Summary of the Study                                                            55

5.6     Suggestion for Further Study                                                  57

 

REFERENCES                                                                                 58

APPENDIX I                                                                                    63

APPENDIX II                                                                                   64

QUESTIONNAIRE                                                                          65

APPENDIX III                                                                                  70


 

CHAPTER ONE

                                         

  • INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Education is an important sector which cannot be fun with any serious country, state, organization or individual and that is why an individual, organization or government uses every means to make sure a good education is provided for her citizens (Adibe, 2001)

 

 

The focus of this study is secondary school education. Secondary education is the stage following primary education. It is generally the final stage of compulsory education. In some country, it is a period of compulsory and a period of non-compulsory education. Secondary education is characterized by transition from the typically compulsory education to selective education for adult.

The content and philosophy of Nigeria education must reflect the past, present and drive into the future of Nigeria society in term of the role the individual is expected to play in the present national building process (Vision 20:2020)

 

 

Education is the best legacy given to a child; it is the producer of human capital. It is the truth of existence and centre of life. Every human-being depends on education for truthful, peaceful and wise co-existence. It has witnessed active participation by non-governmental agencies, communities and individual as well as government parastatals in order to bring education to the country. Education is an instrument for national development, it fosters on the worth and development of individual to be self-reliant, just and building egalitarian society (Federal Republic of Nigeria [FRN] 2004).

 

English is all embracing and all encompassing. In virtually all spheres of human endeavor, English was used as an aid in commerce farming and control of environment. English also proved it usefulness in areas of medicine, engineering, administration and aviation just mention but a few. This was when people felt incomplete without the basic knowledge of arithmetic.

English calls for adequate concentration and adequate practices. As learners are involved in these activities they develop interest and get motivated, which are well oriented, they enjoy and concentrate there on, no matter how complicated and involving activities maybe.

 

 

According to statistics, academic performance in English among secondary school students has bees on the decline since the end of civil war in 1970. The decline is mostly affecting secondary schools in Uzo-Uwani Local Government Area.

The efforts of the Nigerian government in highlighting the importance of English study in schools by making it compulsory for all students and in addition to the efforts of English Association of Nigeria (MAN) towards the development of English, student still perform poorly in this subject in both internal and external examination.

 

 

Obodo (2004:18) highlighted on this by saying that “A teacher achieves this concentration by beginning the lesson in an officious manner with respect to awaking the interest of students and sustaining if through skillful instructional management. In most cases, teachers fall to observe this skillful instructional management and the obvious result is that the more the teacher teaches, the more confused the student will be and the deeper the aversion and fear for the subject”.

Children need to understand spoken and written expression which involves English and its communication means. They must be able to solve problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.

 

Consequently and currently in Nigeria, students are allowed to study some course on gaining admission into universities because of their poor performance in West African School Certificate Examination (WASCE) or National Examination Council (NECO). In consonance, this study will look into the lapses to the government, curriculum develops, textbooks, publisher, teachers and students, families and their members at large and others involved in the education sectors. The constraints in poor achievement in English, as an adage has it “A problem identified is halfway solved” it implies that knowing the constraints will be of immense help in solving it.

According to Leeichi (2007:41), “Learning is the human activity which least needs manipulation by others” this means that everybody is endowed with the ability to learn but an expert (a qualified teacher has to manipulate the endowment, otherwise it becomes disused). Teaching and learning of English is not exceptional.

 

 

Without effective teaching and learning of English there will be poor performance in English work. Considering the recovery and terrible failure of secondary school students in SSCE, the researcher was forced to ask; what are the factors militating against effective teaching and learning? Some of the pertinent questions often ask are: How widespread is the incident of poor external result among Nigerian students?

 

What is the role of the notation special center in the whole problem? And to what extent have the parent and teacher contributed to the factors militating against effective teaching and learning to student in public examination especially the one being conducted by WAEC and NECO?

 

Obodo (2004:14) opined that “A shortage of qualified English teachers will result to poor teaching and learning of English and consequently poor achievement and performance of students, which invariably will lead to the production of another generation of poor student achievers who will eventually turn-out to teach English poorly tomorrow”.

 

This illustrates that any student who develops phobia for English cannot learn well. English is a language of size and order. This explains why some students develop sudden fever whenever it is time for English lesson in a school.

According to National Policy on Education, stated by Obodo (2004), the aims and objectives of secondary education should be as follows:-

  • To provide necessary English background for further education
  • To stimulate and encourage creativity
  • To develop the ability to recognize problems and to solve them with related English knowledge
  • To develop precise, logical and abstract thinking
  • To develop computational skill
  • To generates interest in English and to provide a solid foundation for everyday living
  • To foster the desire and ability to be accurate to degree relevant to the problem at hand

From the above objectives of English, it became quite obvious that even the entire world

 

 

race depends on the knowledge of English to achieve it aim and objective. But with recurring and terrible failure among secondary school students in SSCE, how can this aim be achieved.

The focus of this study, the researcher wants to know the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of English in secondary schools.

 

 

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Okpara (2010) stated that over the years students have shown high rate of mass failure in English. He further stated that the problem of mass failure could be attributed on the quality of teaching in schools, saying that unless there was improvement in the teaching and learning in schools, there is little the examination body could do to salvage the already bad situation.

The government, parent, policy makers, English educators, English and different professional organization are bothered about what could be responsible for this factor militating against effective teaching and learning of English.

The researcher is worried about this unfortunate development and he asked, “What are the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of English in secondary schools”?

 

 

1.3     PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The general purpose of this study is to determine the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of English in secondary schools in Uzo-Uwani local government area of Enugu State.

Specifically, the study intends to find out the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of English in secondary schools from:-

 

  • The attitude of students towards English
  • Poor foundation from primary English as inherited, affects students’ proficiency in secondary school English
  • Parent attitude
  • Learning environment
  • Quality of English teachers

 

1.4     SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY

The result of this study will be beneficial to students, curriculum planners and developers, parents, textbook publishers, government, teachers.

The result will help students to re-direct their psychological feelings towards English. Also, education planners and policy makers will use the result of this study to proffer possible way for improving the academic factors militating against effective teaching and learning of English in secondary schools.

 

The result of this study will help the parent in providing the necessary materials needed for effective teaching and learning of English for their children so that they can develop interest in it.

The result of this study will help the government to provide instructional materials to secondary school students’ better performance.

The result of this study will aid English teachers to evaluate themselves and in turn improve upon their teaching method.

 

 

1.5     SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This study is limited to identifying the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of English in secondary schools in Uzo-Uwani Local Government Area of Enugu State.

This study is limited to the attitude of students, poor foundation in primary English as inherited affects students’ proficiency in secondary school English, parent attitude, environment factors and qualities of English teachers.

 

 

1.6     RESEARCH QUESTION

The following research questions were formulated to guide the study:

  • What are the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of English in secondary schools “from the attitude of students towards English”
  • What are the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of English in secondary schools “from the foundation of English”
  • What are the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of English in secondary schools “from the attitude of parents”
  • What are the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of English in secondary schools “from the learning environment”
  • What are the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of English in secondary schools “from the English teachers”

 

AN ASSESSMENT OF METHODS OF  TEACHING ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN SELECTED  NIGERIAN POLYTECHNICS

 

THE EFFECT OF INDUSTRIAL ACTION ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN EKITI STATE UNIVERSITY

THE EFFECT OF INDUSTRIAL ACTION ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN EKITI STATE UNIVERSITY

 

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The formation of the Academic staff Union of Universities (INDUSTRIAL) in 1978 has brought about some changes in the academic systems of universities in Nigeria-both positive and negative. While a faction might see the activities of the union as a blessing, some see it as a curse to Nigerians and a channel to frustrate Nigerian students.

 

 

Through numerous Industrial actions such as  strike actions undertaken by the union to compel the government to meet the needs of public universities, lecturers and students, schools have been forced to shut down, academic calendars affected, and students have been frustrated as well as their parents. The union was active in struggles against the military regime during the 1980s. In 1988 the union organized a National Strike to obtain fair wages and university autonomy. As a result, the INDUSTRIAL was proscribed on 7 August 1988 and all its property seized. It was allowed to resume in 1990, but after another strike was again banned on 23 August 1992. However, an agreement was reached on 3 September 1992 that met several of the union’s demands including the right of workers to collective bargaining. The INDUSTRIAL organized further strikes in 1994 and 1996, protesting against the dismissal of staff by the Sani Abacha military regime.

 

 

Disruptions  in  academic  programs  serve  as  non-motivational  factor  to  the  students.  It discourages them  from  learning.  It  is  not  surprising  therefore  that  during  strike  actions,  most students  are  seen  involved  in  diverse  activities  such  as  sexual  immorality,  cyber  scam,  pool betting,  unnecessary  gossips,  watching  of  films  and  reading  comic  materials  for  entertainment purposes  rather  than  reading  their  books.  In the long run, they soon forget about academics and are no longer prepared for class activities which negatively affect their learning capability.

Odubela  (2012)  concluded  that  an  effective  learning  or  an  enhanced  academic  performance  is achieved by successful covering of the course outline timely and before the examination. This is rarely achieved with strike action in place. From the above review therefore, the researcher is of  the  view  that  disruption  in  academic  program  as  caused  by  strike  action  breeds disappointment, frustration, emotional  and psychological trauma, unpreparedness on the part of the students and  lack of motivation, which sum up to non conducive environment for effective learning in Nigerian universities; a situation that dampens human development.

 

 

However, little attention is given to the effects of INDUSTRIAL constant strikes on the academic performance of students in Nigerian universities. This study therefore intends to examine the series of INDUSTRIAL strikes and the direct effects it has on the students’ grade point average (GPA).

 

 

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

 

University worldwide is regarded as the citadel of knowledge, the fountain of intellectualism, the most appropriate ground for the incubation of leaders of tomorrow. However, over the last thirty years in Nigeria, the University system has witnessed an unprecedented Industrial unrest and so many official assaults than other social institution.

Statistics from the National Universities Commission (2002) reveal that since 1992, INDUSTRIAL has  embarked  on  strikes  over  23  times  to  drive  home  its  demands.  As with all Industrial conflicts, strikes have significant wider social consequences.

Many have argued that those in authorities see universities as a burden and as institutions to be exploited and left desolate. To arrest the situation, INDUSTRIAL have went on Industrial actions several times with the recent one in 2013 lingering for more than 6 months. There  is  hardly  a  full  academic session that student and staff crises will not result in loss of studies, delayed graduation for students and economic waste for students, parents and the country as a whole.

However, little attention is given to the effects of INDUSTRIAL constant strikes on the academic performance of students in Nigerian universities. This study therefore intends to examine the series of INDUSTRIAL strikes and the direct effects it has on the students’ grade point average (GPA).

 

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The main of the study is to examine the effect of INDUSTRIAL Strike on academic performance of undergraduates in Nigeria. Specific objectives of the study are:

1. To determine the relationship between INDUSTRIAL strike action and the level of academic performance of undergraduates.

2. To examine the effect of INDUSTRIAL strike actions on undergraduates’ academic performance.

3. To examine the role of the federal government in ensuring non-insistent of strike actions.

4. To examine the role of the society in ensuring smooth running of academic session.

5. To examine the effect of INDUSTRIAL strike on moral status of students.

 

 

1.4  RESEARCH QUESTION

Based on the above stated objectives the study shall answer this question;

1. Is there a relationship between INDUSTRIAL strike action and level of academic performance?

2. What are some of the effect of strike action on students’ academic performance?

3. What role does the federal government play in ensuring non-insistent strike action?

4. How can the society at large contribute to the smooth flow of academic session?

5. What effect does strike has on the moral status of students?

 

 

1.5 HYPOTHESIS OF THE STUDY

Ho: There is no significant relationship between INDUSTRIAL strike and academic performance of Undergraduates in Nigeria.

Hi: There is a significant relationship between INDUSTRIAL strike and academic performance of Undergraduates in Nigeria.

 

 

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

The importance of this study is to bring to the knowledge of the public; the effects of INDUSTRIAL strike actions on our educational system. The impact of strike on our secondary schools and the academic performance of the students by the academic staffs and the secondary schools in enhancing socio-economic and political development of the nation.

 

 

1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The study is limited to undergraduates of the Ekiti State University.

1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS

INDUSTRIAL: Academic Staff Union of Universities.

Teaching: A process which bring about a relative change in behaviour over time in academic situation

Method: this is the procedure in which a goal can be achieved in teaching

Student: A person who is studying at a school or college

Teachers: A person who teaches (profession)

Strike: A time or period when work is not done because of disagreement over pay or working conditions

Academics: Teaching and studying in a college or schools subjects taught to provide skills for the mind rather than for the hand.

 

 

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STUDENTS SATISFACTION WITH LEARNING ENVIRONMENT IN DISTANCE LEARNING UNIVERSITIES IN NIGERIA

STUDENTS SATISFACTION WITH LEARNING ENVIRONMENT IN DISTANCE LEARNING UNIVERSITIES IN NIGERIA

 

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND TO THE STUDIES

Distance learning, sometimes called e-learning, is a formalized teaching and learning system specifically designed to be carried out remotely by using electronic communication. Because distance learning is less expensive to support and is not constrained by geographic considerations, it offers opportunities in situations where traditional education has difficulty operating. Students with scheduling or distance problems can benefit, as can employees, because distance education can be more flexible in terms of time and can be delivered virtually anywhere (Wikipedia, 2015).

 

Studies indicate that distance learning can be as effective as the traditional format and even more satisfactory to students when the methods are appropriate to the teaching tasks, there is student-teacher interaction, and the teachers provide students with appropriate and timely feedback.Distance education has become widespread in the past 10 years. Universities and corporations are seeking to become involved in this ‘‘re-invented’’ form of education. The total enrollment in courses delivered through various forms of distance education between 1997 and 1998 has been estimated at 1.6 million students.

Higher education has become a booming business with annual revenues of 225 billion dollars in 1999. It appears that universities, corporations and governments are profiting from this new learning environment. Considering that more people are pursuing a second degree after earning a baccalaureate, and more full-time employees are seeking to advance their careers by taking training courses, it is important to investigate the level of student satisfaction with the learning environment as the market will continue to grow.

Student satisfaction is an important indicator of the quality of learning experiences (Moore & Kearsley, 1996; Yukselturk & Yildirim, 2008). It is worthwhile to investigate student satisfaction in distance learning settings because new technologies have altered the way that students interact with instructors and classmates (Kaminski, Switzer, & Gloeckner, 2009). The quality of interaction in distance learning settings may depend to a large extent on the technology tools utilized during learning (Parsad & Lewis, 2008). Lack of confidence in using information and communication technology (ICT) may decrease students’ satisfaction during distance learning instruction and in turn lower their performance. As opposed to face-to-face instruction, the nature of distance learning demands greater responsibility on the part of learners (Moore & Kearsley, 1996). Distance learners who are unable to regulate learning efficiently are unlikely to be satisfied (Artino, 2007; Puzziferro, 2008).

However, learning environment studies remain positivistic in nature with the use of instruments to measure the learners’ perceptions and then imposing guidelines for the development of the learning environment though various support elements have been suggested by authors (Walker, 2002, Jegede, Fraser & Fisher, 1998)

In this study, distance learning environment signifies a networked environment where learning activities occur while the instructor and the learner are separated by location and/or time. The researcher will investigate the level of student’s satisfaction with the learning environment in Distance learning.

 

 

 

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

 

Reasons why some students lose interest in a class has been at the center stage of discussion in the recent times.  Given the potential for the introduction of quality deficiency when instituting these new technologies used in distance learning programs, it becomes imperative to monitor and report actual outcomes of the use of such technologies. This study addresses these outcomes of the use of technologies in distance learning from the students’ perspective ion terms of satisfaction.

Past studies have examined attributes associated with student satisfaction. However, the attributes examined in each of these studies have been limited. Previous literature has focused upon one or two components of satisfaction, whereas the literature suggests there are a multitude of variables affecting satisfaction and additional variables associated with satisfaction in distance learning environment. Since the Internet and the use of ICT technology is employed in the course structure of distance learning, additional problems may arise ranging from student’s perception of the technology as assisting or impeding the learning process. However the researcher will find out the determinants of student satisfaction in a distance learning environment and determine their level of satisfaction with such environment.

 

 

1.3   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The following are the objectives of this study:

  1. To ascertain the level of student’s satisfaction with the learning environment in distance learning Universities in Nigeria.
  2. To examine the determinants of students satisfaction in a distance learning environment.
  3. To analyze the factors that can enhance students satisfaction in a distance learning university.

 

1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

  1. What is the level of student’s satisfaction with the learning environment in distance learning Universities in Nigeria?
  2. What are the determinants of student’s satisfaction in a distance learning environment?
  3. What are the factors that can enhance students satisfaction in a distance learning university?

1.5   HYPOTHESISHO: Students are not satisfied with the learning environment in distance learning university in Nigeria.HA: Students are satisfied with the learning environment in distance learning university in Nigeria.

 

 

1.6   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The following are the significance of this study:

  1. This study will be useful for policy makers in education sector on the challenges faced by students that is associated with the learning environment in distance learning universities. This will also prepare students to cope with any challenges faced as a result of the gap created by the distance between the lecturer and the students.
  2. This research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, if applied, it will go to an extent to provide new explanation to the topic.

 

1.7   SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

The scope of this study on student’s satisfaction with learning environment in distance learning universities in Nigeria will cover all the situations related to the learning environment faced by the students of distance learning universities in Nigeria which will be assessed based on the student’s level of satisfaction.

 

LIMITATION OF STUDY

Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

 

 

1.8   DEFINITION OF TERMS

 

Student: a person who is studying at a university or other place of higher education

Learning Environment: refers to the diverse physical locations, contexts, and cultures in which students learn. Since students may learn in a wide variety of settings, such as outside-of-school locations and outdoor environments, the term is often used as a more accurate or preferred alternative to classroom, which has more limited and traditional connotations—a room with rows of desks and a chalkboard, for example.Satisfaction: fulfillment of one’s wishes, expectations, or needs, or the pleasure derived from this.Distance: make (someone or something) far off or remote in position or nature.

 

 

REFERENCES

Artino, A. R. (2007). Online military training: Using a social cognitive view of motivation and self-regulation to understand students’ satisfaction, perceived learning, and choice.

Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 8(3), 191-202.Jegede, O., Fraser, B. J., & Fisher, D. L. (1998). The Distance and Open Learning Environment Scale: Its development, validation and use.

Paper presented at the 69th Annual Meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, San Diego, CA.Kaminski, K., Switzer, J., & Gloeckner, G. (2009). Workforce readiness: A study of university students’ fluency with information technology. 

Computers & Education, 53(2), 228-233.Moore, M. G., & Kearsley, G. (1996). Distance education: A systems view. New York, NY: Wadsworth.Parsad, B., & Lewis, L. (2008). Distance education at degree-granting postsecondary institutions: 2006-07. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2009/2009044.pdf

Puzziferro, M. (2008).Online technologies self-efficacy and self-regulated learning as predictors of final grade and satisfaction in college-level online courses. American Journal of Distance Education, 22(2), 72-89.

Walker, S. (2002). Measuring distance education psychosocial environment. Retrieved 22 January, 2003 from http://www.eaglenest.com/~swalker/publications/TCC_2002/Wikipedia (2015): www.wikipedia.comYukselturk, E., & Yildirim, Z. (2008).

Investigation of interaction, online support, course structure and flexibility as the contributing factors to students’ satisfaction in an online certificate program.Educational Technology & Society, 11(4), 51-65.

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