Category Archives: Management project materials samples

ANALYSIS OF CRUDE PALM OIL

ANALYSIS OF CRUDE PALM OIL

 

 

Click here to download our android mobile app to your phone  for more materials and others

COMPLETE PROJECT  MATERIAL COST 3000 NAIRA

   ORDER NOW

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:

 GTBANK
Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447

First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

We also accept :   ATM transfer , online money  transfer 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>

Call Help Desk Line :  08074466939,08063386834.

After Payment Send Your Payment Details To

08074466939 Or 08063386834,   The Project Title  You  Selected On Our Website , Amount Paid, Depositor Name, Your Email Address, Payment Date. You Will Receive Your Material In Less Than 1 Hour Once We Confirm Your Payment.

WE HAVE SECURITY IN OUR BUSINESS.

MONEY BACK GUARANTEE

You may also need:  web design company in Nigeria   

Bulk sms company in Nigeria

 

 

ABSTRACT

 

This project was carried out to ascertain whether the local palm oil met the required standard.  The analytical test carried out include the free fatty acid test the acid value, iodine value moisture, content, specification value, peroxide value, specific gravity, colour and viscosity.

 

The specific gravity of the oil sample was determined by comparing its weight when filled with the sample and that of water, while its moisture content was analyzed by oven drying the sample for a particular period time.  Titration process was used in the analysis of the saponification value, acid, free fatty aid test, iodine value acid the peroxide value.  The procedure were the same except different indicator that was used for some test e.g starch solution was for peroxide and iodine value while acid/ free fatty acid and saponification test uses phenolphthalein as their titration process.  The viscosity was also determined by allowing the oil sample to flow down at a particular time in the upper section of a viscometer, while its colour was analysis using the titanium plate disc of the colourineter to material it.

Form the test analysis, the result show that the palm oil sample under consideration has a value of specific gravity-0.915g, moisture content-1.729%, saponification value-196.35mg, acid-4769%, free fatty acid-23.97%,iondine value-49.17mg, peroxide value-26mg, colour-1125tianium disc and ciscosity-165.7 centipoises.

However, the obtained result shows hat the oil sample meets the required standard but only needed a little purification process on the moisture content as compared with the international requirement.

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

1.1     Objectives/Scope of Study

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE SURVEY

2.1     Historical Background

2.2     Composition of Crude Palm Oil

2.3     Production of Crude Palm Oil
2.3.1  Local Method of Production Pf Palm Oil
2.3.2  Industrial Method of Production Of palm Oil

2.3.3  Summary of Unit Operations

2.3.4  The General Flow Diagram

2.4    Characterizing/ Properties of Crude Palm Oil

2.5     Redlining Of Crude Palm Oil Physical & Chemical Refining

2.5.1   Physical Refinery Process Description:

2.5.2 Chemical Refining Process

2.6    Uses of Crude Palm Oil

2.7    General Characteristic of Crude Palm Oil

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS

EXPERIMENT 1

  • Determination Of Specific Gravity of Crude Palm Oil Sample
  • Determination For Moisture And Other Volatile Matter Present In The Crude Palm Oil Sample

CHAPTER FOUR

 RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

4.1 Discussion

Reference

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0     INTRODUCTION

Palm tree (Elaeis guineensis) is one plant which grows best in tropical regions.  Palm oil fruit is a drupe consisting of a hard seed surrounded by a soft semi fibrous and semi fleshy pulp. In the center of this stone or nut lies the seed.  The fleshy part of the fruit (the pulp) is at first black in colour, but as it ripens becomes bright red.  Palm fruit common name for member is palm a large fairly of chiefly tropic all trees shmbs and vines, most spies are traces characterized by a crown of compound teases called fronds terminal tall woody, in branched  stem.

 

Also oil palm being a nature of equatorial west Africa and preferring high rainfall and a more open kind a long river banks grow in bunches weighing up to ten kilograms and containing hundreds of fruitless like small plums.  The flesh is oily and the oil ran be recovered by very simple means so that it is probable that palm oil has been recovered and used for human food for tens of thousand of years.  The primitive extraction procedure are still in use in the village today.  A typical method consists of cutting the bunches, usually after climbing the tree and allowing them to ferment in a heap for six to seven days then production takes place.

 

Vegetable as it is generally called is an important product and raw material for most agro allied industries. More emphasis had been placed on vegetable oil from groundnut source in recent time, this had been attainted to its local usages most especially in domestic activities like cooking and as well as its cheap and local method of production but with the new trend in technology, vegetable oil is how being produced from both palm oil and palm kernel fruit.

 

 

For more topics

Continue reading ANALYSIS OF CRUDE PALM OIL

EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION AND PRODUCTIVITY

EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION AND PRODUCTIVITY

(A CASE STUDY OF ESUT, ENUGU)

 

 

Click here to download our android mobile app to your phone  for more materials and others

COMPLETE PROJECT  MATERIAL COST 3000 NAIRA

   ORDER NOW

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:

 GTBANK
Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447

First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

We also accept :   ATM transfer , online money  transfer 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>

Call Help Desk Line :  08074466939,08063386834.

After Payment Send Your Payment Details To

08074466939 Or 08063386834,   The Project Title  You  Selected On Our Website , Amount Paid, Depositor Name, Your Email Address, Payment Date. You Will Receive Your Material In Less Than 1 Hour Once We Confirm Your Payment.

WE HAVE SECURITY IN OUR BUSINESS.

MONEY BACK GUARANTEE

You may also need:  web design company in Nigeria   

Bulk sms company in Nigeria

 

LIST OF TABLES

 

Table 4.1           (Respondents Opinion) will you select

Table 4.1.2                 What has been the effect on your performance.

Table 4.1.3        In what way do you think that worker have shown elements of dissatisfaction with their job.

Table 4.1.4                 How could you rate the motivational factors in the

organisation.

Table 4.1.5                 Does your salary carry you through the month?

Table 4.1.6                 Do you engage in order business outside your work.

Table 4.1.7                 What in your opinion is responsible for it?

Table 4.1.8        Do you think if the condition of service is increased, that productivity could be enhanced.

 

ABSTRACT

 

According to N. C. Abah, motivation is the mind to do a thing because that thing has meaning to the person doing it. (N. C. Abah 1997: 115). Also Emma E. O. Chukwuemeka said that for an individual to be motivated, he must believe that an act on his part must be followed by a given outcome. (Chukwuemeka 1998: 171). Motivation has been defined in terms of how behaviour get started and how it is sustained, is directed, stopped and how it is sustained, is directed stopped and what kind of subjective reaction is present in the organism while all this is going on. (Jonesty Rored) Nebraska symposium on motivation as quoted by N. C. Chantsl pg 97 in his book public personnel and Administration).

The relationship between motivation and productivity is the backbone of this research work. The project is an arduous attempt to study the productivity, using Enugu State University of Science and Technology, (ESUT) as a test group. Specifically, the research intends to isolate and analyse the motivational techniques employed by analyse the motivational techniques employed by the mentioned university to solicit workers co-operation.

Methodologically, this study is descriptive and pattern of descriptive analysis is based on answers to certain research questions formulated by the researcher.

Statistically tool of the chi-square (x2) is used in analyzing the views of the respondents, the high lights drawn thereof;

  1. Promotion of the Enugu State University of Science and Tec is a factor of Educational qualification and handwork.
  2. The workers – boss relationship affects the overall productivity of the organisation.
  3. Bureaucratic processes do not prevent the formulating and implementing effective staff maintenance technique.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Title page

Approval page

Dedication

Acknowledgements

Table of contents

List of tables

Abstract

 

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

1.1    Background of the study

1.2    Statement of the problem

1.3    Objective of the study

1.4    Scope of the study

1.5    Significance of the study

1.6    Definition of terms

References

 

CHAPTER TWO

Review of Related Literature

2.1    Introduction

2.2    Motivation – A theoretical discourse

2.3    Abraham Maslow Hierarchy of need theory

2.4    Fredrick Herzberg’s two-factor theory

2.5    Douglas Mcgregor’s Theory X and Theory Y

2.6    The concept of productivity

2.7    Enugu State University of Science and Technology; background information.

2.8    The governance of the university

2.9    The registry

2.10  Motivation in Enugu State University of Science and Technology

2.11  Discipline procedure

2.12  Suspension

2.13  Summary of the literature reviewed

References

 

CHAPTER THREE

Methodology

3.1    Research design

3.2    Area of the study

3.3    Population of the study

3.4    Sample and sampling procedure

3.5    Instrument for data collection

3.6    Validation of the instrument

3.7    Reliability of the study

3.8    Method of data collection

3.9    Method of data analysis

 

CHAPTER FOUR

Data presentation and analysis

 

 

CHAPTER FIVE    

Discussion, implications and recommendation

5.1    Discussion of results

5.2    Conclusion

5.3    Implication of the result

5.4    Recommendation

5.5    Suggestion for further research

5.6    Limited of the study

References

Bibliography

Questionnaire

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

In any given state different utility functions are performed. Some of these function services can be produced by private individuals but the cost will be high as to be beyond the financial reach of every individual who requires such essential goods, functions and services. In order to avoid such situations government decides to provide these essential functions and services itself. In doing so, the government does not want such services reasons to be under taken by a government departments or agency but instead sets up special institution, gives them legal and economic advice of edicts, decrees or acts of parliament to provide essential services. Among others, such organisation so set up became known broadly as state university or polytechnic.

 

 

Enugu state university of science and technology is Enugu state owned institution of higher learning established by the former Governor of Anambra State Chief (Hon) Dr. Jim ifeanyichuwku Nwobodo in 1980 following the creation of Enugu state in 1991, it became Enugu State University of Science and Technology. The institution is changed with the training of middle and high level manpower, carrying out research geared towards solving human problems among others. To achieve these goals and objectives, the university was staffed with different member of academic and non-academic staff.

Thus, all activities of any organizations are initiated and determined by the persons who make up that institution.

Dale Yoder (1972: 225) argues in affirmative, he contends that working organisations presumably begin with knowing the requirement of people, what ever may be their organisational goals and objectives, they can be implemented only through the end for the capabilities of people. Organisational structure must be manned or staffed, if they are to accomplish anything.

Human effort therefore is central to the attainment of any organisational goal.

The ability to motivate workers in any organisation will go a long way to enhance the organisational out put and productivity. Achievement of the workforce.

 

 

1.2     STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

  1. ESUT staff are not paid as at when due, these had resulted in poor performance of staff.
  2. The staff of ESUT are not usually exposed to in service and other training programmes which had resulted to inefficiency.
  3. ESUT staff are not promoted based on merit but on whether the affected officer knew those in authority and it had caused low productivity, poor performance workers.
  4. Incessant strike actions by staff of Enugu State University of Science and Tec, had also affected productivity of staff.

 

  • PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The search for solution to the problems of motivation and productivity in Enugu State University of Science and Technology has almost proved futile. Those problems are multifarious and have provoked series of researches on how to reduce these anomalies to the warmest minimum and make Enugu University of Science and Technology (ESUT) achieve better result (training of Manpower).          

It is the objective of this research to show that if the motivational strategies are effective, Enugu State University of Science and Technology (ESUT) can improve her level of performance.

Therefore, the specific objective or purpose of this research could be narrowed down as follows:

  1. To examine the effectiveness of the existing motivational strategies like in service and other training programes in ESUT.
  2. To examine the factors effecting the non-payment of salaries in ESUT.
  3. To identify possible steps to be taken in order to solve the problems of low productivity. This will include determining the extent workers negative emotion affects productivity in the institution.
  4. To identify and pin down other variables that impede productivity in ESUT like incessant strike actions by the staff and others if different from the above.

 

 

 

 

1.4     SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The scope of this study is to identify and make recommendation on the effect motivation and productivity. In this regard, Enugu State University of Science and Technology was used as a case study. The study is meant for workers and staff of the university only.

Though this study is limited to ESUT, the findings and recommendations will all be applicable to other universities and tertiary institutions across the country.

 

1.5     RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

According to E. C. Osuala, a hypothesis is a conjectural statement of the relationship between two or more variables.

Oji and Chukwuemeka (1999: 35) also contend that hypothesis are always in declarative sentence form. Therefore, it is not a question.

For the purpose of this study, the following hypothesis will be tested. They include;

Ho:    Increased productivity in ESUT did not impede as a result of poor motivational strategies.

Hi.    Increased productivity in ESUT is impede as a result of poor motivational strategies.

Ho:    The economic crunch experienced nation wide did not impede the favourable result of motivational factors.

Hi:     The economic crunch experienced nation wide impede the favourable result of motivational factors.

Ho:    Poor attitude to work did not impede productivity in Enugu State University of Science and Technology.

Hi:     Poor attitude to work impede productivity in Enugu State University of Science and Technology.

Ho:    Poor attitude to work impede productivity in Enugu State University of Science and Technology.

Hi:     Poor attitude to work impede productivity in Enugu State University of Science and Technology.

 

1.6     THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Research arises according to Charles Worth, when there are problem to solve, peculiarities or puzzles about phenomena or the question of giving meaning to them.

Charles Wroth, (1980: 55) there are many reasons for the study of motivation and productivity in Enugu State University of Science Technology. One hinges on the importance of education to developing and developed nations, another is purely academic interest of knowing if motivation has a positive or negative correlation.

Such an evaluation will help to determine if the objective has been obtained. It would also be interesting to find out if other intervening variables like : –

  • Poor staffing strategies.
  • Bribery
  • Corruption and

Finding could influence performance when motivational strategies managers, are effective. Lasting, organisations, managers, directors and policy formulators will gain a lot if they are aware of these factors that inhibit their employee to or form great performance and productivity.

 

1.8     DEFINITION OF TERMS

ESUT –        Enugu State University of Science and Technology.

Motivation – Is simply defined as the energizing force that induces and

maintains behaviour      

Strike –         For higher pay/against bad working conditions

In Service Training – Is a training conducted side the ministry/

organization by the top officials.

Productivity – Is the increase efficiency and the rate at which goods are

produced.

 

CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR

CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR

A CASE STUDY OF ENUGU NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT ENUGU

 

Click here to download our android mobile app to your phone  for more materials and others

COMPLETE PROJECT  MATERIAL COST 3000 NAIRA

   ORDER NOW

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:

 GTBANK
Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447

First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

We also accept :   ATM transfer , online money  transfer 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>

Call Help Desk Line :  08074466939,08063386834.

After Payment Send Your Payment Details To

08074466939 Or 08063386834,   The Project Title  You  Selected On Our Website , Amount Paid, Depositor Name, Your Email Address, Payment Date. You Will Receive Your Material In Less Than 1 Hour Once We Confirm Your Payment.

WE HAVE SECURITY IN OUR BUSINESS.

MONEY BACK GUARANTEE

You may also need:  web design company in Nigeria   

Bulk sms company in Nigeria

 

ABSTRACT

 

From independence (1960) till date the Nigeria society has been under-going rapid transition with the unavailable and the unusual step  by step transformation  process that affect all social systems of the Nigerian society. The public sector organization being deliberately and hurriedly reformed to avoid the pit falls of the past. Instantly, erratic decisions are being made, new programme established and the old ones re-established with new strategies in an effort to achieve a new social order.

In achieving this social order a number of reforms are introduced into the public sector organizations and these (reforms) tends to be prone to a form of organizational crisis or another.  With regards to the Nigerian  public sector these crisis arise out of situational uncertainties and inadequacies of an organization. These could be as a result of power tussles, inadequate funds, psychological disorientation of employees in an organization and its employers rejection of managements / authorities reforms. Any such crisis is capable of distorting the realization of organizations objectives.

An important step is ensuring success in the realization of these public sector organizations and to understand the dynamics of a particular crisis and implement appropriate remedies on conditions that the change motivators are genius and determined. We all know that the understanding of the dynamics of crisis is lacked in the public sector of Nigerian Economy. It is also true that our administrators in the public sector are always involved in the crisis management. In conclusion, we can see that there is no effective tool for crisis management in the Nigerian public sector.

For this singular reason the Enugu North Local Government (ENLG) was chosen to give a clear picture of public sector organization whose administrators have not been able to note that local government were created to act as an autonomous part of the central government in Nigeria.

In this study we have been able to identify few of the numerous crisis that could hit the ENLG and ranked them in order of probability of occurrence using that crisis with the highest probability in developing a crisis management more for use by organizations in the public sector of the Nigeria economy.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

  • Background of the study
  • Statement of problem
  • Research questions objective of study
  • Objective of study
  • Significance of study
  • Scope and limitation
  • Operational definition of terms

Reference

 

CHAPTER TWO

Review of related literature

2.1     A review of crisis management

2.2     Meaning of crisis

2.3     An overview of crisis management

2.4     Crisis forecast

2.5     Objective of crisis management

Reference

 

CHAPTER THREE

Research methodology and design

3.1     Sources of data

3.2     Data collection

3.3     Statistical tools

3.4     Sample procedure and size

3.5     The population and size

Reference

 

CHAPTER FOUR

Date presentation and analysis

4.1     Presentation of data

4.2     Analysis of data

Reference

 

CHAPTER FIVE

Summary, Recommendation and Conclusion

5.1     Summary of major findings

5.2     Conclusion

5.3     Recommendation

Bibliography

Appendix    I

Appendix    II

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

The Nigerian society is under-going a rapid transition in addition to the inevitable and unusually gradual transformation processes that affect all social systems, the institutions economic, political, legal etc. of the Nigerian society, are being deliberately and hurriedly reformed to avoid the pitfalls of the past new decision programes are established and new strategic adopted all in an effort to achieve a social order.

 

 

One of the on-going strategies to do this is the reform introduced into the public sector by the office of the chief of General Staff (CGS) making the local government an effective third tier of the government. Usually, such reforms tend to point to one form of organizational crisis or another crisis were refers to an usual situation the outcome of which is uncertain or capable of generating conflict. With regards to the Nigerian public sector, it arises out of the inherent disposition of the system to distort the political and administrative processes by its decisions or operations. It also arises from situational uncertainties and inadequacies of an organization.

 

 

There could be power tussle, inadequate funds or time to execute all envisaged projects. Psychological disorientation of the populace / employee and its rejection of the reform. There could be also either a lack of understanding of the full implication of established programmes or a deliberate clinging to politics established primarily to protect institutionalized class relations. Any such crisis is capable of distorting the achievement of the desired objectives of the public sector. Part of the process of ensuring success in the achievement of goals of these public sector organization is to understand the dynamics of such crisis and apply appropriate remedies, provided that thee change motivators are genuine and determined.

 

 

It is a known fact that the understanding of the dynamics of crisis is lacking in the public sector of the Nigerian economy it is equally true that the Chief Executive and administrators in the public sector are involved in the management of crisis rather than in crisis management. From the foregoing, it is seen that there is no effective tool for crisis management in the Nigerian public sector because  of its large size. It is pertinent that an organization within this sector is used as a  reference point in order to limit the wideness of this study. The Enugu North Local Government (ENLG) has been chosen for proper representation of the public sector organization in the economy.

 

 

In this thesis, we intend to identify a few crisis situation that could hit ENLG and through the research, rank them in the order of their probability of occurring. I will then use the crisis with the highest probability, to develop a crisis management tool for organizations within the public sector of the Nigerian economy.

 

 

 

1.1     BACKGROUND OF STUDY

The local’s government has been characterized by instability and discontinuity emanating from one crisis situation or the other. These crisis are often prompted by the activity of the federal government and other environmental factors which usually lead to complete dissolution and or take over of functions of the management group by government appointed administrators. In order words, the LG. of this country have always been subjected to the whims and caprices of the federal government. They were not allowed to make their own decisions as to contributing to the Nigerian economy or either way they give enough financial assistance (authority) to be accountable to the devise inherent is such local government.

 

 

The various government reforms are aimed at stabilizing and rationalizing local government organization or corporations. It is quite unfortunate however that the chosen implementation strategies seen to have resulted in unanticipated policy outcomes. As a matter of fact it is clear to all that the aims of establishing the local government in Nigeria which is to be an effective third tier of the government has not been realized. It is believed that this is mainly due to the inability of the local government to effectively manage the forms  of crisis that afflicted it since their inception.   It is against this background that crisis management in local government is being investigated.

 

 

Every crisis has four (4) main stages and allowing each crisis to pass through the four states has been the bare of effective local government in Nigeria.

The four stages of crisis include:

  • Prodromal stage (early warning stage )
  • Acute stage
  • Chronic stages
  • Resolution stages

Crisis management aim at avoiding the acute and chronic stages of crisis. A crisis is said to be effectively managed if it moves from prodromal to resolution stage we are aware that this has not been the case in the local government their crisis have been known to have gone through the four stages with inevitable consequences.

 

If we take a look at the second republic and early part of the aborted their republic (1988-1989) there were various crisis among which were:

  • Financial crisis
  • Power crisis
  • Manpower crisis
  • Political crisis

The entire above crisis, we unfortunately allowed to go through the four stages and this had their unpleasant effects on the local government in the country. For example, the Enugu North Local Government administration was engulfed by crisis during the year 1988 and 1989. this crisis went through the full cycle which cumulated in the intervention of both the state and federal government leading to the suspension of its popularly elected chairman.

 

 

Another example can be cited from the demonstration carried out by members of the National union of local government (NULGE) Enugu North local government branch on March 9th ’94 protesting for the non-payment of salaries for 6 months.

 

 

Furthermore, the strike action carried out by the National Union of Teacher (NUT) calling for the collection of their annual subventions directly from the federal government and not from the local government because they believe that this cannot be effectively carried out by them. It can be seen that after about two (2) decades of its establishment the local government cannot manage available resources and avoid conflict or crisis from happening.

 

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

It is quite unfortunate that going through literature very little work has been done on how best to handle crisis by scholars and practitioners. In view of these identified lapses, an inquiry into crisis management in the local government has become imperative. It is hoped that this inquiry would stimulate new dimension and direction for crisis management whose overall objective could be the search for an effective and efficient local government administration. In Nigeria, with specific focus on evolving new strategies for building a stable base for local government organization in the country.

 

1.3     RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The basic research questions for this work are:

  • How can we change from crisis management to the management of crisis?
  • How do employee or workers perceive crisis?
  • What factors influence management attitude to crisis?
  • What role does the federal and state government play in local government crisis?

 

This study will attempt to provide appropriate answers / solution to these questions which are regarded as key variables in the local government administration in Nigeria, such answers is hoped would assist in providing insights into the kind of measures to be adopted to ensure effective and efficient crisis management in Nigeria.

 

1.4     OBJECTIVE  OF STUDY

The objective of this research would include:

  • To examine the existing methods of handling crisis in Enugu North Local government and ascertain how corporations are performing within the bonds of available manpower in the local government

 

  • To attempt to appraise the existing and potential manpower for co-operations in local government administration with a view to explaining the extent of their involvement.

 

1.5     SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

The significance of this study work is aimed at developing an effective crisis management tools and thus creating a relatively stable environment becomes clear. In order to make reasonable progress towards achieving the purposes for their creation, the public sector organization requires a relatively stable environment and an effective crisis management tool which is what this study is all about.

 

  • SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The study touches on various forms of crisis that had characterized the public sector organizations in the country.

This using the Enugu North Local Government (ENLG). As a case study, an attempt is made to identify possible crisis that could effect the public sector organizations, their effect and probability of occurring based on the findings, the study attempts to develop crisis management for use in organizations in both public and private sectors.

It is sine-qua-non to mention were that in the course of the preliminary library research, it is discovered that very few up to date materials / literature on the public sector administration in the local government could be found. This is more so in finding documents that dealt with crisis management as it affects public corporation and local government.

 

1.7     DEFINITION OF TERMS

In the course of this work: certain key concept were met along the line which may be interpreted differently for the purpose of this study therefore the following operational definitions are given to these concept thus:

 

Crisis

This is an unusual situation in an organization or corporation the outcome of which is uncertain or capable of generating conflict.

 

Local Government

This is government at the local level exercised through a  representative council, established by law to provide / exercise specific power within defined areas.

 

Public Sector

This is the part of a nations economy which is controlled mainly by the government

 

Crisis Management

Any measure that plans in advance for a crisis (or turning point), any measure that removes the risk and uncertainty from a given situation and thereby allows one to be more in from of crisis management.

 

Rural Development

The process of providing inhabitants of the rural area with basic infrastructure and amenities, which could enhance their standard of living.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCE

 

Anikpo Mark (1985)       Nigerian’s Evolving class structure in area edited Political Economy of Nigeria, Lagos, Longman publisher

Federal Republic of Nigeria Guidelines for local government reforms (1976), Kaduna, Kaduna government Printers.

Rex Ugorji (1989), Management of crisis in business organization, Being a paper presented at a workshop on crisis management organized at Enugu by the federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN ) in partnership with FIDREX management consultant Lagos.  

 

 

CHAPTER TWO

 

REVIEW ON RELATED LITERATURE

2.1     LITERATURE REVIEW

It is pertinent to note also that a few authors have written on local government administration in Nigeria. Fortunately, these authors have all in one way or the other emphasized instability in the local government system; even the local government reform stressed it. To us instability is a corollary of crisis. We shall then proceed to examine what these authors and the reforms had to say about instability and local government administration. Thereafter, we shall look at various seminar papers presented by experts on crisis management in various organizations and institutions.

 

 

Since Nigeria attained independence in 1960 from Britain, several attempts have been made to reorganize or reform the local government system in the country. One hallmark of such reforms proceeding that of 1976 was that each region or state carried out the reorganization its local government system in the way it deemed fit since local government because a regional subject under the 1951 Nigeria constitution. It was therefore not possible to talk of on single system of local government reform prevailing in the country.

The 1976 local government reform broke with the past practice by attempting to evolve for the country a uniform system of local government with minor variations. A major aim of their reform was to stabilize and rationalize government at the local level. In the guideline, federal government emphasizes that responsibilities should be clearly defined and that local government should have adequate financial resources to meet their obligations which are mainly to stimulate developments at the grass root .

 

 

According to Egonwam, although the 1976 local government reforms in Nigeria aimed at decentralizing more power to local bodies, the implementation of the reform, tended to foster centralization of power and authority. To him, this meant that the strategies of implementation chosen could be significantly responsible for centralization as they were influenced by both political and administrative processes lending to unanticipated policy outcome of creating ineffective local government with adequate functions,revenue skilled Another area of instability in the public sector with reference to the local governments is its inadequate financial base. In Nigeria the 1979 constitution of the federal republic accepted local government as a third tier of government like in most countries of the world, local government in Nigeria have five (5) easily discernible sources of revenue open to them. These includes: grants, local tax rate or property tax, fees and charges and loans.

 

 

The 1990 federal government revenue allocation formula stipulates that local government are entitled to fifteen percent (15%) of revenue accruable to the federal government and another fifteen (15%) of the internally generated revenue of the state government.

 

 

Of course these are in addition to finance from traditional internal sources – local revenue. However, the amount internally generated by each of the local government councils is usually very small. These local government are therefore in a situation where they depend almost entirely on the federal and state governments for funds for the performance of their statutory functions.

In his book local government finance in Nigeria, Bello Imam contended that a “function of this paternalism is the financial uncertainty and instability of local government in the country”.

Finally, the local government must endeavor to live within their means because they are infra-sovereign political entities.

Enworom, writing on management of industrial crisis said “it may be necessary sometimes to try to incorporate cultural tradition into the management of industrial crisis rather than adopting the Bismarkian consent that is not the vote of the majority, but by iron and blood that difficult matters are decided” At one time, an ex-chancellor, supposed to be the father of the so called German economic miracle, declared “that the economy determines the fate of man”. Unionist could but agree, but argued that if the economy is man’s fate, it is man’s democratic right to participate directly in deciding his fate. This reminds us that participative management and good communication between employers and employees will definitely minimize conflicts and create a better forum for quick and timely grievance settlement. In summarizing his paper Enworom advised that prevention is better than cure. He maintained that “it is better to present grievances from arising than to solve them once they have arisen”. This advice from Enworom obviously advocates crisis management which is bone of this study rather than management of crisis.

Inyang Eteng, of the university of port Harcourt writing on crisis management in Nigeria university raise the following thought provoking questions:

  • Why does the crisis in Nigeria universities seem to defy solution?

 

  • Why is it that orgies of restriction, dismissals, forced retirements, harassments, detentions and campus massacres, security surveillance, etc all of which have been tried by the state and various governments in office; unable to resolve the crisis once and for all.

 

  • Why have the universities themselves failed to address the issue. With all the faculties of behavioural sciences available at their disposal?

 

  • Why in particular, does the nation seem completely brow-beaten by this crisis?

 

To him, Eteng opines that “answers to these questions is that the crisis has generally been misconstrued and ill defined, with the result that is wrong and inefficacious policies and programmes which compound the crisis have been formulated and implemented

PROMOTING PRODUCTIVITY IN CIVIL SERVICE

PROMOTING PRODUCTIVITY IN CIVIL SERVICE

(A CASE STUDY OF ENUGU STATE CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION)

 

Click here to download our android mobile app to your phone  for more materials and others

COMPLETE PROJECT  MATERIAL COST 3000 NAIRA

   ORDER NOW

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:

 GTBANK
Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447

First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

We also accept :   ATM transfer , online money  transfer 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>

Call Help Desk Line :  08074466939,08063386834.

After Payment Send Your Payment Details To

08074466939 Or 08063386834,   The Project Title  You  Selected On Our Website , Amount Paid, Depositor Name, Your Email Address, Payment Date. You Will Receive Your Material In Less Than 1 Hour Once We Confirm Your Payment.

WE HAVE SECURITY IN OUR BUSINESS.

MONEY BACK GUARANTEE

You may also need:  web design company in Nigeria   

Bulk sms company in Nigeria

 

ABSTRACT

 

This study is a research of the Enugu state civil service commission the purpose of the study includes.

  • To find out whether civil servant are actually performing below standard.
  • To find out whether productivity is really declining in the civil service
  • To find out what the cause are in the civil service
  • To find out measures to be fake in order to arrest the situation

 

While carrying out the research the duties collection method adopted was the questionnaire the statistical toll used was chi- square.  A total of one hundred questionnaires were distributed act of which twenty worse referenced the finding from the hypothesis and research questions show that.

  • Adequate knowledge of job requirement recruitment of motivation and use of official working hand in the civil service.
  • The important of incentives and motivation to increasing efficiency in the civil service.

 

At the and the researcher made recommendations some of them include.

  • Management should improve the working conductive for the staff to achieve organizational goal.
  • They should and have a communication un between them because communication is one of the toll that could to effective management and employs skilled people in order to have efficient out put and to achieve them objectives .
  • Management should also motivate their workers through

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

 

Title page

Certification/Approval page

Dedication.

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Table of content

List of table

 

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

1.1     Background of study.

1.2     Statements of problem.

  • Objective of the study
  • Scope of the study
  • Research questions
  • Research hypothesis
  • Significance of the study

1.8     Limitations of the study

Reference

 

CHAPTER TWO

Review of related literature

  • Meaning of productivity
  • Productivity decline in the civil service
  • Cause of productivity decline in the civil service
  • Conduction for promoting productivity in the civil service

Reference

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

  • Research design
  • Source of data

3.3     Population of the study

3.3    Determination of Sample size

3.5    Sample Technique

3.5     Research Instrument

3.6     Validation of the instrument

3.7     Instrument  Return rate

  • Method of data analysis

References

CHAPTER FOUR

Date presentation and analysis

  • Presentation & analysis data
  • Testing of hypothesis
  • Summary of result.

Reference

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY OF FINDING,  recommendation and conclusion

  • Summary of findings
  • Conclusion
  • Implications of the research findings
  • Suggestion for further research

Reference

Bibliography

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

There historical background the civil service data back to the end of colonial masters and post independence period.

After the second world war there were about 14 British administration in the recitation to Nigerians supported staff and one European stenotherm..  The headquarter of    the most technical departments was in Ebutometa that of the veterinary service was in vow while that agriculture and  forestry was in Ibanda field administration was co-ordination  from two centers Kaduna for  the north and  Lagos later Enugu for  the south. In 1939 southern Nigeria was split into two regions eastern and western region respectively.  The Rechard constitution in 1946 further divided the country into the regions namely.  The northern and eastern regions.  The McPherson constitution of 1951 introduced the apartments of ministers for the regions and at the center, there were also the suggest the independence of the civil service between the politicians in office and the authorities of the central government.

During the Lord Laugard era the duties of all administrative offices were just that of maintaining law and order in the district placed under their immediate administrative control. It was only at the end of world war 11 (two) that effort were made to achieve some social and economic benefit for Nigerians.  It was at that time that such office like the department of marketing and export were established.  In he western Nigeria civil   servant were told that policy making was the exclusive   function of the legislature.  So, the civil savants were to do whatever the legislature wanted them to do. in the eastern state civil servant were to give sound advice to the political leaders control the traditional aspects  of the government  activities and were also to be efficient executives who    could manage and treat all the complex operations of modern state.

 

In   the northern Nigeria the duties of administration office includes to give out him self you service to train people to build up an efficient institution of local government and finally to facilitate  the emergence  of an intelligent and responsible public opinion. The system of administration that    emerged on independence was British in character.  It was also English language that was used as a medium of communication in the conduct of government.  The country sought civil war six years after independence and this was quickly followed by another six years of oil boom which brought about extreme materialism. This gave use to great indiscipline corruption and  a total contemplation of order within    the whole society including  the civil service.  Having discussed the historised background of the civil service and its roles before and after independence, it is necessary at this stage to define the “productivity which is the main objective of this research.

 

Productivity has been defined as the volume of goods and service produced per worker with in some specified unit of the year month week day and hour.  For some years now there has been consistent public outcry about continued decline of productivity in the civil service.  It is for this reason that this work is been carried out in the view to finding the causes and thereby bring about commendation that will promote productivity in the civil in general to achieve a successful result in the programme, this researcher has decided to carry out a case study of Enugu state civil service commission

 

 

  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

There has been consistent low productivity in the civil service since Nigeria become independence.  This study is set out to asses the knowledge of job motivation and use of official work hours in the civil service in order to promote productivity.

 

  • PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The purpose of the present study is to large extent explained by the tittles promoting productivity in the civil service. To be more specific the purpose are as follows.

  1. i) To identify the things that makes civil servant to perform below standard.
  2. ii) To find out the main cause of productivity decline in the civil service commission.

iii) And to determine the measures to be taken in order to arrest the situation

 

 

 

  • SCOPE OF THE STUDY

For one to carry out a research of this nature one would always require adequate provision of finance and accurate information. The inadequate of these factors affected this research in the following.

FINANCE: It has been major in any type of project. This id true in the sense that some has to make some trips from one place to another in research of information. Unfortunately the cost of transportation has uses greatly these days making it difficult for the researcher to level to all the places he would have wanted.

 

LIMITATION OF THE STUDY:     At the time questionnaire were distributed to some members of staff of Enugu state civil service commission. Some felt reluctant  to receive them on the pretence that they were too busy with office work.  Some workers even complained that because they were civil servant they could not answer every question.

 

 

  • RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The research question of the present study are to a large extent explained by  the little promoting productivity in civil service commission specifically they are as follows. Was quite constrained  by times given to carry out a study magnitude.

FINANCE: Lack of sufficient finance was another factor that constrained  the study as there was insufficient found (money) to meeting up with the financial demand of the study.

 

  • RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The research question of the present study are to a large extent explained by  the little promoting productivity in civil service commission specifically they are as follows.

  1. What are the thing that makes civil servant to perform below standard
  2. What are the main cause of productivity decline in the civil service commission
  • What is the measure to be taken modern to arrest the situation?
  • RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

In seeking for ways of promoting productivity in the civil service in Enugu state civil service commission, it is essential that one would have a through understanding of the  low productivity in service, it is when this understanding is there that suggestions can be made to  solve the problems

The following research hypothesis are being considered.

H0:    Adequate knowledge of job acquirement does not promote efficiency

and effectiveness in the civil service

 

H1:    Adequate knowledge of job acquirement does not promote efficiency

and effectiveness in the civil service

H0:    Recruitment of qualified personals does not ensure high performance in

civil service

H1: Recruitment of qualified personals ensure high performance in

civil service

H0:    Incentive and motivation does not promote productivity in civil service.

H1:    Incentive and motivation does not promote productivity in civil service.

H0:    The use of official working house does not promote productivity in the

civil service

H1:              The use of official working house promote productivity in the civil service

 

 

 

  • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The main significance of this study is to promote productivity in the civil service mainly in the Enugu state civil service commission.

If the productivity of Enugu state civil service commission is promoted the following people will benefit from it

  • The civil servant of the commission they will benefit in the sense that the workers in the commission will be enjoying good pay and allowances
  • The government will also benefit from the promotion, in this case government will no more be faced with the problems of state and complains that comes from the civil servant of the commission.

 

 

 

CHAPTER TWO

 

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

  • MEANING PF PRODCTIVITY

The term productivity may be perceived by different people in different ways and situation.

This according to Dr. Solomon he deformed productivity as companies between the quantity of goods and service employed in living out these goods and services.

Another author, A.M Soba defines productivity as the volume of goods and service produced   by a worker within some specified unit of the year week day or hours.

 

 

Productivity is a measure of production efficiency as a relationship between output and input.  Form these definitions, it can be seen how different people lend to view productivity. There is no standard basis of calculation on scale on which productivity could be measured in different situation.  It is rather, a general used relates output to input. In discussing how different people look at productivity.  It will be necessary to hate some people who would at one time or the other be involved in promoting productivity.  For example an economist may want to make companion of productivity in standard internationally or between different organizations.

 

 

An accountant may view productivity in financial terms such as ratio between investment and returns, an engineer will tend to concentrate only in physical asset while a personnel manager may be concerned with measurement technique to obtain result.

 

Finally productivity is the measure of how well resource are brought together in organization and utilized for accomplishing a set of result.  It is reaching the highest level of performance with the least expenditure of resource.  Productivity simple means a combination of effectiveness and efficiency.

Effectiveness have refers to performance while efficiency refers to resource utilization.

 

  • PRODUCTIVITY DECLINE IN THE CIVIL SERVICE

COMMUNICATION AS A MAJOR TOOL IN DIRECTING FUNCTION OF MANAGEMENT

COMMUNICATION AS A MAJOR TOOL IN DIRECTING FUNCTION OF MANAGEMENT

(A CASE STUDY OF NIPOST ORGANIZATION, ENUGU)

 

 

COMPLETE PROJECT  MATERIAL COST 5000 NAIRA OR $10 , 

. A FRESH TOPIC NOT LISTED ON OUR WEBSITE COST 50,000 NAIRA ( UNDERGRADUATE) OR 100,000 FOR SECOND DEGREE STUDENTS. $500. PLUS  FREE SUPPORT UNTIL YOU FINISH YOUR PROJECT WORK. CONTACT US TODAY, WE MAKE A DIFFERENT. DESIGN AND WRITING IS OUR SKILLED.  DESIGN AND WRITING IS OUR SKILLED.

Note: our case study can be change to suit your desire location . we are here for your success.

                                   ORDER NOW

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
 GTBANK
Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment :
Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
 Account Number:  0117780667. 
Swift Code: GTBINGLA 
Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANKER SECURITY GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>DELIVERY PERIOD FOR BANK PAYMENT IS  LESS THAN 2 HOURS

How to transfer from your bank account to All  Nigeriabanks

1. Access Bank:
—-*901#

2. EcoBank:
—-*326#

3. Fidelity Bank:
—-*770#

4. FCMB:
—-*389*214#

5. First Bank
—-*894#

6. GTB:
—-*737#

7. Heritage Bank:
—-*322*030#

8. Keystone Bank:
—-*322*082#

9. Sky Bank:
—-*389*076*1#

10. Stanbic IBTC:
—-*909#

11. Sterling Bank:
—-*822#

12. UBA:
—-*389*033*1#

13. Unity Bank:
—-*322*215#

14. Zenith Bank:
—-*966#

15. Diamond Bank
—-*710*555#

To know your BVN, dial
—-*565*0#.

E.g for First bank…   *894 *Amount *Acct. No. #

Please dail d code from d number u used to register d account from the bank

CALL OKEKE CHIDI C ON :  08074466939,08063386834.

AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO

08074466939 or 08063386834, YOUR PROJECT TITLE  YOU WANT US TO SEND TO YOU, AMOUNT PAID, DEPOSITOR NAME, UR EMAIL ADDRESS,PAYMENT DATE. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR MATERIAL IN LESS THAN 2 HOURS ONCE WILL CONFIRM YOUR PAYMENT.

WE HAVE SECURITY IN OUR BUSINESS.   

MONEY BACK GUARANTEE

 

 

ABSTRACT

 

The purpose of this research project is to reveal communication as a major tool in directing Functions of management, both primary and secondary data were used to elicit information from the sample studied the primary source of data were response from questionnaire and personal interview, while secondary source were form text-books on communication and periodicals.

One hundred questionnaires were distributed to the sample of the staff and management of the organization. There were ninety percent returned and 10% unreturned.

The study revealed that there is no effective channel of communication in the organization.

The investigation reviled that also that the organization takes grapevine information very important.

The researcher finally made a far researching recommendation which includes that there should be an effective channel of communication in the organization.

The researcher also recommends that the junior staff should be given chance to communicate face to face to discuss their problems.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE:

INTRODUCTION

  • General Background to the Subject Matter
  • Problems Associated with the Subject Matter
  • Problems that the Study will be Concerned with
  • The importance of Studying the Area
  • Definition of Important Terms
  • Reference

 

 

CHAPTER TWO:      

    LITERATURE REVIEW

 

  • The origin of the Subject Matter
  • Schools of Thought Within the Subject Area
  • The School of Thought Relevant to the Problem of Study
  • Different Methods of Studying the Problem
  • Summary
  • References

 

CHAPTER THREE:      CONCLUSION

  • Data Presentation
  • Analysis of the Data
  • Recommendation
  • Conclusions

CHAPTER ON

INTRODUCTION

Communication is basic to the existence and survival of any human organization.

As a fundamental tool in management, it has been a primary concern to administrators in all-human institutions, be it business, military, government, education, hospital, research and so on. Whenever there are two or more persons working towards the achievement of set objectives or goals, success will naturally not to achieve if the importance of communication is neglected.

Danyer, (1972) defined management as “being concerned with the direction and control of an enterprises and involves planning and directing of the work of others”. These managerial function cannot be successfully carried out in the absence of a good communication network.

Peter 1955 (pg.112) in his book entitled “The practice of management” pointed out that “ a manager can only make his objective effective by communicating then to the subordinates whose performances required to attain then. He further emphasized that not do decisions have to be made, but they have to be communicated to whom it is meant to know what is expected of then.

In his own contribution, Chese (1984:p.78) postulated that “there is an increasing need for effective employee communication system if the firm is to achieve success?  He explained that” management is realizing that in order to maintain output for the firm, communication channels in the firm must be modern, effective and as humanly personal as possible”

The impact of communication in business organization and or on human being is very enorious. Communication consists for more than telling people things or what to do until a manager learns to understand and becomes skilled in the basic process of transmitting and receiving information he cannot possibly lead or motivate the work in the manner required to set the work done more effectively.

We often communicate unknowingly as others observe our actions and facial experience and drive inferences or conclusions from. “Expert have shown that the percentage of time allocated to communicate is very high ranging from 75% of our warring hours. Five percent of this time is spent in writing 10% increasing, 35% in talking are 50% in listening.

It is therefore not surprising to note that poor communication breeds, spreads and is always the root of organisational problems.

Decision-making is possible without communication effectiveness of communication in any organization breed’s motivation and high moral on employees with its attendant increase in productivity and profitability which is always the major objective of many business.

From all indications, communication is of paramount important in dealing with the human factors throughout his stay in the organization from recruitments to retirement.

Communication integrates the management function and relates it to both internal and external environment. Every system must have interaction and cohesiveness between its sub- system if the to the complex is to accomplish its objectives.

 

  • THE GENERAL BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY:

The Nigeria Postal Services (NIPOST), Started as the postal branch of the posts and Telecommunications Department in 1851, when it was established in Lagos on an arm of the British Post Office.

The primary aim was to organize- well co- ordinate correspondent and remittance between the British Armed forces and consulted in Lagos, Benin Delta areas, the home government and people in Britain. Internal aim conveyance of mails started in 1931 when the Royal Air force conveyed mails by air from Lagos to Port Harcourt and Warri  “Nigeria was admitted into the universal postal union (UPU) on the 10th July 1961.

“The posts and Telecommunication Department was later split into two in 1985. This gave birth to Nigeria Telecommunication limited (NITEL)”,

Nipost became a statutory department in the ministry of communications the same year within this period the department was largely a social service oriented organization. Its services were labour- intensive but with low revenue yielding capacity.  These it was dependent on government for it’s funding in order meet up with its current and capital expenditure.

Today, Nipost has adopted a new structure and in therefore a fully autonomous corporation. Its policy control has been completely served or removed from the parent ministry of communication. The a acronyms  “Nipost” now means “Nigerian Postal service” as against “Nigerian Postal Service Department” that it was before the autonomous status.

This development was eshunicated by decree No. 41 of 1992. The social service implication of the organization to barely m5%.

 

PRIMARY RESPONSIBILITY OF NIPOST

“The primary responsibility of Nipost is established by the decree No. 18 of 1989” were to deal with postal professional and policy issues as:-

  1. Exploration of additional sources for postal revenue
  2. Review of postal tariff.
  3. Strategy to promote development and maintenance of efficient, co-ordinates and economic postal services.
  4. World –wide provision of highly dependable postal link between and among manager’s nations of the universal postal union without discrimination to race.
  5. Provision of efficient counter and remittance services in the state of postage stamps, sales of money and postal orders, sales of international postal pay, coupon and post office registered envelope.

 

 

ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURAL OF NIPOST

The Nigerian postal services is headed by post master- General of the federation who is assisted by five Deputy post master General as follows:-

  • DPMG =  Corporate Services
  • DPMG =  Operations Planning
  • DPMG =  Finance and Investment
  • DPMG =  Engineering and Technical Services
  • DPMG =  Territorial Administration.

There are also units Heads called the senior Assistant Postmaster General (SAPMG), who also report direct to the postmaster General. These are as follows:-

  • SAPMG =    In-charge of internal Audit.
  • SAPMG =  In-charge of investigation and  security
  • SAPMG =   In-charge of commercial

units/public Relation.

  • SAPMG =  In-charge of Legal unit
  • SAPMG =  In-charge of Data processing
  • SAPMG =  In-charge of corporate Planning.

We equally have some Assistant Postmaster- General in-charge within the organization structure.

At the territorial level, the chief Executive is known by the functional title of area Postal manager (APM). He is assisted by Branch/unit Heads. The Branch/unit Heads includes-Domestic operation, personnel Administration, Investigation and securing, Accounts, Internal Audit, Stores, Project Execution/workshop, Commercial unit/Public Relations etc.

At the Districts level, the functional heads are know as the Head Postmasters, report direct to the Area Postal Manager of their various territories.

 

  • PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE SUBJECT MATTER

This research work will try to find answers to following questions:

  1. a) How effective is communication channels in NIPOST organization?

b)         Do subordinates atimes fail to communicate to managers/supervisors

Political leadership and underdevelopment in nigeria.

Political leadership and underdevelopment in nigeria.

(a study of babangida’s  administration)

 

Table of Contents

Chapter one                                                

1.0    introduction                                                         1

1.1    background of study                                    1

1.2    statement of the problem                                     6

1.3    purpose of the study                                    7

1.4    significance of the study                                       8

1.5    research questions                                      9

1.6    scope of the study                                                10

1.7    limitation of the study                                          10

1.8    definition of terms                                                12

 

Chapter two

Literature review

  • Historical background                              14
  • Character of the leadership 23
  • Structure of military government 36
  • Achievement of military government          37
  • Reason for military intervention 39
  • Process of return to civil rule 40
  • Summary of literature review 41

 

Chapter three

3.0    research design and methodology                        44

3.1    design of the study                                      44

3.2    area of the study                                          45

3.3    population of the study                               45

3.4    sample size and sampling techniques                  46

3.5    instrument for data collection                              47

3.6    reliability and validation of instrument                48

3.7 distribution and retrieval of the instrument             48

  • Method of data analysis                      49

 

Chapter four

4.0    data presentation and analysis                            50

4.1    data presentation                                                 50

4.2    data analysis                                                        50

4.3    discussion/analysis of findings

 

Chapter five                                                  

5.1    summary of finding, conclusion and recommendation                                                     58

  • Conclusion                                          59
  • Recommendations                                             61

References                                                            64

Appendix a                                                           66

Appendix a                                                           67

        questionnaire                                                69

 

Abstract

A cursory glance at the economic conditions of nigeria will reveal that underdevelopment has persisted in spite of independence and abundant resources available in the contrary. The cardinal question is why has nigeria not developed given years in independence and abundant human and material resources especially during gowon through babangida’s regime. This work examines underdevelopment in nigeria vis-à-vis political leaders focusing on ibrahim babangida’s administration. Considering the crucial position of leadership in any nation. The researcher persists that the problem of nigeria underdevelopment cannot be understood, or development attained without a redical change in the parasitic and exploitative character of political leadership in nigeria. The persistence of underdevelopment can be attribute to the character of nigeria political leads. The solution of which is by implementation of different kind of underdevelopment, the researcher also focused on the babangida’s administration. 210 which is 20% of total population of 240 copies was used. Data collected using questionnaire and the analysis of data was done by the use of simple percentage. The findings proved that babangida’s administration were not properly motivated and understood the political leadership.

 


Chapter one

  • Introduction

1.1  background of the study

this work examines underdevelopment in juxtaposi with political leadership focusing on general ibrahim babangida’s administration with a view to x-raying the impact of political leadership in the underdevelopment of nigeria.

this project will be centered on two variable underdevelopment and political leadership, underdevelopment as used in this project does not imply absence of development but as uncomparative term as a means of comparing levels of development (ofiong 1980:10). According to aja akpaura (1998:48) under-development means: a relative condition in which a society lacks autonomous capacity to control and mobilize socio-economic formation for a sustainable economic growth and development necessary to effect physical mental, material and technological fulfillment without dependence on external stimuli.

abali (2001:30), in his scholastic ingenuity view under-development as a situation in which the institution of a country in the periphery of international capitalism dependent relations with other countries at the centre of the internal economy. It is the subsidization of internal economy and political forces from the centre.

Underdevelopment implies lack of autonomy and its meaning characterized by poverty by some scholars for a country to be underdeveloped means that the economic potentials of the country or regime has not been fully develop. Desire for independent were socio-economically underdeveloped, because of imperial documentation and control of our governmental, economic and which by implication means expectation that we would become develop with independent (aka 1981:88). Before the arrival of ibrahim badamosi babangida’s administration nigeria has witness five military government and one civilian government which is alhaji shehu shagari’s government. Babangida’s administration came as a result of when he overthrown the government of major gen, mohammed buhari on 27th august 1985. This young man assume office without wasting time he adopted the title “president” instead of the usual head of state, when babangida ushered in  as a president of nigeria people thought that the messiah the need has come not knowing that the administration will record little or no achievement. The researcher is not trying to say that babangida’s government did not record any achievement so far, but for we to evaluate the long stay of this very government you discover that the people of the country witnessed more underdeveloped period than development. Because babangida assumed office as the 6th military head of state on 27th august 1985 stepped aside 29th august 1993.

the reason why the researcher is trying to use babangida’s administration in nigeria because this administration neglected the agricultural sector

Which was the main stay of our economy and faced the (oil well). Babangida’s administration usher in and forget what was her mission and face the so called oil, babangida accused the former government of negligence in agricultural section detaining politician news men and women whom criticize   the government and not creation of job opportunities to the people of the country. So this administration came and forgets what brought him to seat and face the money from oil. Babangida’s administrations leave the country to poor socio-economic development and left the masses in an untold hardship, frustration and anger. Irrespective of long stay on  seat as the president. His deceptive attempts to hand over power from 1990 to 1992 and then 1993, he was forced to step aside. Then failure to hand over to chief mko abiola these was seen as an abuse of people’s mandate.

 

1.2  statement of problem

The nigeria nation is beclouded by the menace of under-development. This has resulted to economic hardship and social miscarriages on the citizenry. “nigeria are having rough time, there is uncontrollable inflation, there is retrenchment, unemployment, factory closure caused by drastic deform in investment and divestments. Moreso, there is a sharp decline in the purchasing power and value of the naira, coupes of social service, low capacity utilization of industries and jobs security nigerians are leaving below poverty line. Nigeria’s position as an under-developed nation has not changed even with flow of money from oil (ikejani clark 1995:132)

the above have become a bone of contention. The researcher hence intends to find out why under-development has persisted so many years after un-dependence in the presence of abundant human and material resources available to the government. Also with standing that nigeria has series of leaders and leadership positions both civilian.

 

1.3  purpose of study

  1. To examine the ways political leadership contributed to the under-development of nigeria amidst the abundant natural and human resources available.

Ii.     To ascertain if there is any way underdevelopment would be ameliorated considering the nigerian situation presently.

Iii.    To find out the problems militating against the leadership in nigeria in their efforts to shun the underdevelopment which is in its persistence.

 

1.4  significance of study

The researcher through this project intends to put forwards the contribution of political leadership to the under-development of nigeria. It stands to prove the importance and the indispensable of the political leadership on proffering solution to under-development of nigeria. It will then equip us with the machinery of taking these short comings and providing solutions to its problems.

The relevance of this study will not be over-emphasized as it serves as a tools for further researches and students of this field.

1.5  research questions

Having seen that there is no way the under-development of nigeria will be discussed or viewed without taking cognizance or understanding the issue of political leadership which is one of the distracting factors in the system. The researcher haven divide into this is now posing the following questions.

  1. In what way has the political leadership contributed to the under-development of nigeria amidst the abundant natural and human resources available?
  2. Is there any way under-development could be ameliorated considering the nigeria situation presently?
  3. What are the problems militating against the leadership in nigerian in their efforts to curb the under-development which is in its persistence.

 

1.6  scope of the study

Any study or problems embark on is targeted on giving or extracting information from a particular environment and administration.

this study is expected, if handled well to cover the administrative apparatus or babangida’s administration and over view of underdevelopment and political leadership. Not all the administration will be covered to have a focus of our study.

 

1.7  limitation of the study

        for effective and efficient exploration of any course there must be potentials set back. If the course of carrying out the study the researcher was faced with a lot limitations. The identifiable ones are as follows; time: time is one of the limitation in the study of this work.

in the first place, as this research work was carried out at student’s level the researcher has to apportion his time such that the demand for other courses could be met.

availability of research materials, there was no sufficient materials in the library to bring up facts, that will be useful in the course of the study. Again the library accommodation was so small that it only contains few students.

Cost:

the cost of transportation was one of the impediments. It was not of place you know about it that transporting myself from one location to another in a bid to collecting materials for the project was one of the hindrance and limitation.

Respondents:

the respondent did not help matters at the initial stage, my respondent were afraid to fill the questionnaire items. It becomes a difficult task for the researcher to convince them with enough reasons why it is necessary for them to fill in the gaps.

 

1.8  definition of terms

Scholastic: it’s connected with schools and education

Characterized: to describe or show the qualities or features of some thing.

Administration: the activities that are done in order to plan, organize and run a business school or other institution.

Oil well: a hole made in the ground to obtain oil.

Socio-economic: this is the use of economics in the study of the society.

COMPLETE PROJECT  MATERIAL COST 5000 NAIRA OR $10 , 

. A FRESH TOPIC NOT LISTED ON OUR WEBSITE COST 50,000 NAIRA ( UNDERGRADUATE) OR 100,000 FOR SECOND DEGREE STUDENTS. $500. PLUS  FREE SUPPORT UNTIL YOU FINISH YOUR PROJECT WORK. CONTACT US TODAY, WE MAKE A DIFFERENT. DESIGN AND WRITING IS OUR SKILLED.  DESIGN AND WRITING IS OUR SKILLED.

Note: our case study can be change to suit your desire location . we are here for your success.

                                   ORDER NOW

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
 GTBANK
Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

Foreign Transaction For Dollars Payment :
Bank Name: GTBank
Branch Location: Enugu State,Nigeria.
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
 Account Number:  0117780667. 
Swift Code: GTBINGLA 
Dollar conversion rate for Naira is 175 per dollar. 

ATM CARD:  YOU CAN ALSO MAKE PAYMENT USING YOUR ATM CARD OR ONLINE TRANSFER. PLEASE CONTACT YOUR BANKER SECURITY GUIDE ON HOW TO TRANSFER MONEY TO OTHER BANKS USING YOUR ATM CARD. ATM CARD OR ONLINE BANK TRANSFER IS FASTER FOR QUICK DELIVERY TO YOUR EMAIL . OUR MARKETER WILL RESPOND TO YOU ANY TIME OF THE DAY. WE SUPPORT CBN CASHLESS SOCIETY. 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>DELIVERY PERIOD FOR BANK PAYMENT IS  LESS THAN 2 HOURS

How to transfer from your bank account to All  Nigeriabanks

1. Access Bank:
—-*901#

2. EcoBank:
—-*326#

3. Fidelity Bank:
—-*770#

4. FCMB:
—-*389*214#

5. First Bank
—-*894#

6. GTB:
—-*737#

7. Heritage Bank:
—-*322*030#

8. Keystone Bank:
—-*322*082#

9. Sky Bank:
—-*389*076*1#

10. Stanbic IBTC:
—-*909#

11. Sterling Bank:
—-*822#

12. UBA:
—-*389*033*1#

13. Unity Bank:
—-*322*215#

14. Zenith Bank:
—-*966#

15. Diamond Bank
—-*710*555#

To know your BVN, dial
—-*565*0#.

E.g for First bank…   *894 *Amount *Acct. No. #

Please dail d code from d number u used to register d account from the bank

CALL OKEKE CHIDI C ON :  08074466939,08063386834.

AFTER PAYMENT SEND YOUR PAYMENT DETAILS TO

08074466939 or 08063386834, YOUR PROJECT TITLE  YOU WANT US TO SEND TO YOU, AMOUNT PAID, DEPOSITOR NAME, UR EMAIL ADDRESS,PAYMENT DATE. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR MATERIAL IN LESS THAN 2 HOURS ONCE WILL CONFIRM YOUR PAYMENT.

WE HAVE SECURITY IN OUR BUSINESS.   

MONEY BACK GUARANTEE

 

CRITICAL ASSESSMENT OF NATIONAL YOUTHS SERVICE CORPS TOWARDS ENHANCING NATIONAL INTEGRATION

CRITICAL ASSESSMENT OF NATIONAL YOUTHS SERVICE CORPS TOWARDS ENHANCING NATIONAL INTEGRATION (A CASE STUDY OF ANAMBRA STATE)

 

Click here to download our android mobile app to your phone  for more materials and others

COMPLETE PROJECT  MATERIAL COST 3000 NAIRA

   ORDER NOW

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:

 GTBANK
Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447

First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

We also accept :   ATM transfer , online money  transfer 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>

Call Help Desk Line :  08074466939,08063386834.

After Payment Send Your Payment Details To

08074466939 Or 08063386834,   The Project Title  You  Selected On Our Website , Amount Paid, Depositor Name, Your Email Address, Payment Date. You Will Receive Your Material In Less Than 1 Hour Once We Confirm Your Payment.

WE HAVE SECURITY IN OUR BUSINESS.

MONEY BACK GUARANTEE

You may also need:  web design company in Nigeria   

Bulk sms company in Nigeria

 

ABSTRACT

THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO REVEAL THE CRITICAL ASSESSMENT OF NATIONAL YOUTHS SERVICE CORPS IN NIGERIA. THE INSTRUMENT USED WERE QUESTIONNAIRE, THE QUESTIONNAIRE WAS USED TO ANSWER THE RESEARCH QUESTIONS MADE UP OF FOUR ITEMS POPULATION FOR THIS STUDY WERE MADE UP OF 120 (ONE HUNDRED AND TWENTY) PEOPLE COMPRISING THE NYSC STAFF AND STAFF OF STUDENT AFFAIRS IN FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC, OKO. THE INSTRUMENT USED WERE SUPERVISOR AND CORRECTED BY THE SUPERVISED BEFORE THE FINAL COPY WAS MADE. THE DATA COLLECTION WAS ANALYSED IN SIMPLE PERCENTAGE IN CHAPTER FOUR (4) BASED ON THE ANALYSIS. MAJOR FINDINGS WERE INDICATED AND CONCLUSION DRAWN. BASED ON THE FINDINGS, THE RESEARCHER FINALLY MADE HER RECOMMENDATIONS. THAT SUPERVISOR SHOULD BE APPOINTED TO SUPERVISE THE CORPS MEMBERS DURING THEIR SERVICE YEAR. ALSO, THAT PROPER ORIENTATION SHOULD BE GIVEN TO THEM SO THAT THE AIM OF ACHIEVING NATIONAL INTEGRATION WILL BE ENSURED CATEGORICALLY FROM THE SCHEME.

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page                                                                i

Approval page                                                         ii

Dedication                                                               iii

Acknowledgement                                                  iv

Abstract                                                                  vi

Table of contents                                                    viii

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION                                                     1

1.1   Background of the study                                4

1.2   Statement of the problem                              7

1.3   Purpose of the study                                       9

1.4   Significance of the study                                10

1.5   Research questions                                                12

1.6   Scope of the study                                          13

1.7   Definition of Terms                                         13

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW                                            16

  • Introduction 16

2.1   Meaning of NYSC                                            17

2.2   Origin of NYSC in Nigeria                               18

2.3   NYSC as a means of practical on the job training and orientation                                       19

2.4   NYSC as a means of proving indigenous manpower needed                                         22

2.5   NYSC and graduates experiment in national integration                                                        24

2.6   Important of NYSC                                         26

2.7   Summary of Related Literature                     27

CHAPTER THREE

METHODOLOGY                                                     37

  • Brief outline of the study 38
  • Design of the study 38
  • Area of the study 39
  • Population of the study 39
  • Sample of the study 40
  • Instruments for data collection 41
  • Validation of instrument 42
  • Distribution and retrieval of the instrument 43
  • Method of data analysis 43

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0   Data presentation and analysis                     45

 

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION

Findings                                                                  53

Summary of findings                                              54

Recommendation                                                    54

Conclusion                                                              57

Limitations of the study                                         58

Suggestions for further studies                              59

Questionnaires                                                       61

Appendix                                                                 65

References                                                              66

 


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Experience, training or Orientation is the power and test of every work done or to be done in human history. The National Youth Service Corps (NYSC) is the only means through which graduates can obtain the best training, orientation of up-bringing of the theoretical context of what they study and equally the challenges to face as an independent entity.

According to Oxford advance learners Dictionary 7th Edition it defines Orientation as training or information that is given before starting a new job, course etc. National Youth Service Corps (NYSC) has it’s emphasis on the idea of orientation and National Integration of graduates of various higher Institutions. With these orientation and Integration, graduate from all tribe, race and ethnic diversities are show how life should be after school and how perform job with the trainer’s supervision. Oxford advance learners Dictionary, Special Price Edition Saw Integration as act or process of mixing people who have previously been separated, usually because of colour, race, religion etc. Therefore National Youth Service Corps is a type of training and integration designed to expose and prepare graduates of higher institutions for this purpose, ie what they are likely to meet after graduation. The scheme or programme affords the opportunity of being familiarized and exposed to various culture, tradition and interaction and equally the experiences needed.

This study however is not aimed at looking at what is training is all about or the meaning of NYSC rather it is to critically assess the National Youth Service Corps towards enhancing National Integration, using Anambra State in Nigeria as a case study. The case study is a state in South East Nigeria which was created to promote integration of people from various race to enhance National Development. These graduates which are integrated and oriented will become managers of human resource and administrators of various ministries in the state and Nigerian at large.

 

1.1  BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

This research work is being conducted to find out or make a critical assessment of NYSC in Nigeria and in Anambra in particular. What NYSC has done or would do for the Nigeria graduates. The National Youth Service Corps is a programme designed to inculcate discipline to the Youths by instilling in them a tradition of industry and dedication and of patriotic and loyal service to the Nation in any situation in which they may find themselves. Secondly the raising of the moral tone of the youths by giving them the opportunity to learn about higher ideals of National achievement and social and cultural improvement. Thirdly the development of attitudes of mind and acquired suitable training, which will make them more amenable to mobilization in the national interest. A also the central focus of this scheme includes the development of common ties among the youths and the promotion of national unity by ensuring that the participants in the scheme are assigned to states other than their states of origin, or residence, that each group assigned to work together, is as representative of the country as possible. The participant the equally exposed to the mode of living of people in different parts of the country with a view to removing pre-judices, eliminating ignorance, and confirming at first hand the many similarities among Nigerian’s of all ethnic groups, the encouragement of the participants in the scheme to seek, at the end of their NYSC service, career employment all over the country thus promoting the free movement of high level manpower in the nation, and finally to induce employers to employ more readily than ever before qualified Nigeria’s irrespective of their state of origin.

Anambra State which is one of the five South East State was created in 1991 under the military regime of General Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida to further enhance Development through manpower procurement, basic infrastructural facilities and other basic necessary amenity Anambra has first creation in and second creation in the year 1991 with their capital at Awka. The orientation camp of NYSC in Anambra is located in Umuanya in Oyi Local Government has ruled Anambra Since it’s creation. Presently the seat is chaired by Peter Obi of all progressive grand Alliance “APGA” for second term.

 

1.2  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

It has been observed that some graduates have some misconception about this programme as provided by federal government. Some graduates for example equate the programme with holidays jobs or as three weeks picnic. Hence, the aims and the commitment is lacking and so the skills and experience to be gained may at the end not be acquired. Infact many of the graduates regards the camp allowances and monthly “Alawie” stipends as vital.

Again, there is reluctance among large numbers of employers to accepts and provide facilities necessary for meaningful service year. Their fear is that must of these graduates are inexperienced to hand certain delicate machines and tools without damaging them during their primary assignment, a situation in which student are not allowed to use certain equipments does not provide the desired motive needed to prepare them for the task ahead.

Also, some of these graduates are not supervised during their primary assignment at all and are not fully secured and protected, as most of them are deployed to a poor locality. All these are challenges which the scheme should addressed.

 

1.3  PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The purpose of the study is to assess critically on the extent of usefulness of National Youth Service Corps. In order to do this, the research work will aim at the following.

  1. To find out whether the graduate participating in NYSC receive full orientation and training.
  2. To find out whether the graduates participating in NYSC gain insight into and about national integration.
  3. To determine whether NYSC helps to generate pool of indigenous trained manpower to meet the needs of the country’s economy.
  4. To investigate whether NYSC has put in adequate machineries to secure and protects the participating graduates.
  5. To determine whether the NYSC helps in securing and protecting the participating graduates in their various places of primary assignment.

 

1.4  SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

From the purpose of the study, it was assured that the scheme is completely different from SIWES, or ordinary long vacation employment of the under-graduate, it is a preparatory programme NYSC as at the time of it’s inception was limited to graduates of various institutions of higher in Nigeria. The scheme has succeeded in establishing a closer collaboration between institutions and industries, which is essential for preparing and integrating people ahead of their ethnic and cultural diversity. Heads of institutions of higher learning in the country have now realized the use fullness and invaluable contribution of NYSC in training graduates as a means of improving the quality of skilled manpower in Nigeria. A standard which the limited resources in the institution cannot provide.

 

1.5  RESEARCH QUESTIONS

In the process of carrying out this research work, the following research questions were used to guide the researcher. The study will attempt to answer to the following questions.

  1. Do graduates who participates in NYSC receive adequate training and orientation?
  2. Is NYSC helping in enhancing national integration and unity?
  3. What machinery has NYSC put in place in generating a pool of indigenous trained manpower needed by the country?
  4. Do the participation graduates receive adequate protection during this programme?

 

1.6  SCOPE OF THE STUDY

In as much as the study is specifically on the critical assessment of National Youth Service Corps towards enhancing National integration, based on this, there is need to carry out a comparative research with a particular state in Nigeria.

This study is limited to Anambra State which is one of the five South East state in Nigeria.  The reason behind this restriction is that the researcher is a student facing both time and financial constraints.

 

1.7  DEFINITION OF TERMS

For the purpose of this, some technical and other terms had been used in the research work which may sound ambiguous. For simplicity, terms that may be new or strange to the readers are explained as they are meant to be under stood by the researcher.

 

Assessment:

NYSC: National Youth Service Corps, a programme designed for training and orientation of graduates against life challenges and for national integration.

Researcher: Used to mean the person who carried out the research work.

Training: A process that involves the acquisition of skills, concepts, rules or attitudes in order to improve present and future performance.

Performance: The ability to carry out duties and responsibilities demanded of their position.

Ethnic Group: Sharing a common origin, culture or language.

Integration: Commune (parts) into a whole bring or come into full membership of a community.

Mobilization: Assemble (troops etc) for active services.

Pre-Judices: Before the administration of justices.

 

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0  INTRODUCTION

       In order to carry out this research work effectively, investigations were made into related work done on this topic. Although not much has been written on this topic, however, there are related works done by some indigenous and foreign authors which are somehow related to this problem. The information gathered are grouped under the following sub-headings.

  1. NYSC as a means of practical on-the-job training and orientation.
  2. NYSC as a means of providing indigenous manpower needed.
  3. NYSC and graduates experiment in national integration.

 

2.1  MEANING OF NYSC

“NYSC” categorically means the National Youth Service Corps scheme it is the only means in which graduates can obtained the best orientation and integration ahead of challenges they are likely to face after graduation.

This experience receive will help to promote National Integration and equally reduces the incessant ethnic diversity. The National Youth Service Corps is very important to every graduates of universities, polytechnics and colleges of education both federal and states to enables the graduates to get and acquire more practical and gainful admission into labour market.

 

2.2  ORIGIN OF NYSC IN NIGERIA

 

 

 

Continue reading CRITICAL ASSESSMENT OF NATIONAL YOUTHS SERVICE CORPS TOWARDS ENHANCING NATIONAL INTEGRATION