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LOCAL GOVERNMENT AUTONOMY AND GRASS ROOT DEVELOPMENT

LOCAL GOVERNMENT AUTONOMY AND GRASS ROOT DEVELOPMENT (A CASE  OF NSUKKA LOCAL GOVERNMENT OF ENUGU STATE)

 

 

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ABSTRACT

Local government  Autonomy and grass root development ( A case of Nsukka Local government of Enugu state). The purpose of the study is to determine how local government autonomy has affected grass root development in Nsukka Local government Area of Enugu State. A total population of seven hundred and fifth staff working at Nsukka Local government was chosen for the study. The sample for the study was 213 staff using yaro yamani method. Three (3) research questions were formulated to guide the study. Data analysis was done using simple percentage.

 

The major findings of the study were: Nsukka Local government lacks political autonomy as the State government interferes in their bye-law and policy making process, the Local government is not been financed properly and even when financed the State will hinder such by interfering through the State joint Local government Account, administratively, the state determine, discipline, recruit, promote etc the Local government staff and thereby denying administrative autonomy over their personnel. Despite these problems, it was recommended that: Nsukka Local government should have control over it’s finance, their personnel should be appointed, recruited, promoted, discipline by themselves. They should equally make their bye-law and other policy making themselves so as to boost it’s autonomy.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE:

INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………..1

1.0     Background of the study ……………………………………….………1

  • Statement of problem……………………………………………………5
  • Purpose of the study…………………………………………….………7
  • Research Question ………………………………………………………8
  • Statement Hypothesis ……………………………..……………………9
  • Theoretical frame work………………………………………..………10
  • Significance of the study………………………………………………11
  • Scope of the study……………………………………..………………12
  • Limitation of the study…………………………………………………12
  • Definition of terms …………………………………………………..13

 

 

CHAPTER TWO:

Review Literature ……………………………………………………………16

  • Introduction …………………………………………………..………16
  • Indices for measuring Local Government autonomy………….…….19
  • The quest for Local Government autonomy and 1976 Local Government reform………………………………………………….20
  • Gras root development ………………………………………………22
  • Challenges to full Local Government autonomy…………..………..24
  • Summary of the literature Review ………………………………….25

 

CHAPTER  THREE:

RESEARCH DESING AND METHODOLOGY…………………….…….27

3.0     Design of the study………………………………………………….27

3.1     Area of the study……………………………………………….…….27

3.2     Population of the study………………………………………..…….28

3.3     Sample size / sampling techniques…………………………….…….28

3.4     Instrument  for data collection ………………………………..…….29

3.5     Reliability of  the instruments ………………………………….……….29

3.6     Validity of the instruments ……………………………………………….29

3.7     Distribution and Retrieval of the instrument  ……………………….29

3.8     Method of  data Analysis …………………………………………….30

CHAPTER FOUR:

4.0     DATA  PRESENTATION  AND ANALYSIS ……………………………31

4.1     Data  Presentation  and Analysis …………………………………….31

4.2     Analysis of research question …………………………….………….32

4.3     Testing of Hypothesis    ……………………………………….…….39

4.4     Interpretation of results ……………………………………………….48

CHAPTER  FIVE:

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS / CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

  • Summary of Findings ………………………………………………….49
  • Conclusion ……………………………………….……………………….51
  • Recommendation ……………………………………………………….52

References………………………………………………………………….54

Appendix A………………………………………………………….…….55

Questionnaires …………………………………………….……….…….56

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

  • BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

 

The struggle for Local Government Autonomy in Nigeria has been a recurring issue. It is as old as the history of Nigeria colonial state. Local government Administration practiced anywhere in the world is largely dependent on the historical, geographical, political and economic life of the citizens. Nigeria with a long history of slavery. Colonization, as well as military and civilian administration which have to a large extent determined the system of local government Administration up till date. This work intend accessing the various reforms or ordinance that the local government system in Nigeria has witnessed since 1914 during the amalgamation of the Northern and Southern protectorate by Fredrick Lord Laggard.

 

The Local Government during this period of 1914 is based on the Native Authority system whereby indirect rule and exploitation was the order of the day. According to Ogunna (1996), Native Authority is the traditional political authority at the Local Level which formed part of the machinery of British colonial government charged with the responsibilities of maintaining law and order. Based on the Native Authority ordinance of 1916, a unified Local Government System was established in the Northern part because of their Emirate system of Administration practice before the colonial Administration. This Native Authority was later extended to the East and South with varying degree of success. This native Authority did not satisfy the needs and aspiration of the local people and it arouse agitation from the rural citizens especially from the educated elites in the southern Nigeria craving or desiring for a greater participation in their own affair.

The Native Authority Ordinance failed because it has no autonomy to meet up with the demands of the citizen and as a result, the first Local Government reform was ushered in. Thus after the second World War in 1945, the colonial policies on Local Government changed coupled with the demands for greater participation and this led to the adoption of the representative or liberal democratic system of Local Government in the 1950s.

 

The 1950 Local Government reform serves as a foundation on which modern Local Government was built in Nigeria as it abolished the native Authority system. This reform paved way for the following features in Local Government system; it has a three tier system (country, district and local council), it was granted the power of taxation as a source of funding, it introduced popularly elected Local Government council but the franchise is based on tax payers and it equally recognize that the Local Government should be given adequate autonomy as the council were given financial and Administrative power. According to Ogunna (1996). This reform introduced representative democratic Local Government system on the negative side. It suffered from conflicts among the tiers, inadequate funding, poor staffing, bribery and mal administration. As a result of these problems coupled with intense politicking, no reform could be initiated until the military seized power in 1966 which rudely terminated the first republic. The 1966 Local Government reform was to correct the ills of the Local Government system they inherited.

 

However, all these reforms did not ensure a complete autonomy of Local Government system until the introduction of the 1976 Local Government reform under the military administration of General Olusegun Obasanjo. This reform marked a turning point in Local Government Administration in the country. This reform were the federal government response to the recommendation of Chief Jerome Udoji public service review commission of 1974. The reform aim to make the Local Government more effective in their primary role of bringing development to the grassroots. It established a multi-purpose single tier system throughout the country, with the same structure and function. Local Government were recognized as a third tier of government with the federal structure. It provided for the Local Government to receive their statutory allocation from Federal Government through the State

Government. They were democratized through popular or indirect election. The Local Government were given specific function to perform and enshrined in the fourth schedule of the 1979 constitution. Local Government were granted a relatively high level of autonomy.

From all indications, this reform is very important and distinct from other reforms and that is why Adamolekun (1979:3) has observed, what distinguished the 1976 Local Government reform from all the previous reform exercise in the country is the formal and clearly recognition of the Local Government as constituting a distinct level of government with definite boundaries, clearly stated functions and provision for ensuring adequate human and financial resources.

Despite all these constitutional provisions which granted the Local Government autonomy in all ramifications, there is still little or no development they have brought to the rural dwellers which ought to be their utmost share from the National cake.

At this juncture, the researcher is solely directed at accessing the impact, status, entity and autonomous existence of Nsukka Local Government in the development of their grass root.

1.1         STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The rate of interference and control which the State and Federal Government put on Nigerian Local Government cannot be over emphasized. This which has eaten up the Local Government, does not only affect the Local Government Chairmen and Councilors but as well as the local people who feel neglected in the National cake, resources, and revenue allocations, the high rate of over dependency by the Local Government on the federal and state Government in terms of finance administration. Some Authors, scholar and Administrator argue that this tier of government should be scraped away irrespective of it’s constitutional and legal frame work.

To the Chairman and Councilors, it posses a problem as regards to law making, policies and implementation functions allocated to them by the constitution.

Administratively, the personnel and human resources management of the Local Government in term of recruitment, promotion, security and disciplines staff within it’s area of jurisdiction is not free and fair. The State and Federal Government control them through the introduction of the integrated staff system.

Financially, Local Government do not enjoy autonomy. Their freedom to impose local taxes, generate and allocate revenue within it’s assigned source, allocates it’s financial and material resources, determine and authorize it’s budget is greatly influence by both the Federal and State Government. The statutory allocation which they receive through the State -joint Local Government Account is highly hampered by the State Governors.

Therefore, it is these view that the researcher deem it necessary to examine and access how autonomous Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu state is in relation to grass root development.

  • PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The main objectives of this research work is to determine how Local Government Autonomy has affected the grass root development in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu State.

However, in specific terms, the study is based at the following points:

I       To acertain whether the process of law making and policy implementation by the Councilors and Chairmen affects the grass root development of Nsukka Local Government Area.

ii      To determine how the personnel Administration of Nsukka Local Government Area hampers it’s grass root development

iii     To determine whether State interference in the financial allocation of Nsukka Local Government affects it’s grass root development.

1.3   RESEARCH QUESTION

The following research questions has been constructed as a guide to the success of this research work in order to obtain a useful result.

I       To  what extent has the process of law making and policy implementation by the Councilors and Chairmen affects the grass  root development of Nsukka Local Government Area.

ii      To what extent has the personnel Administration in Nsukka Local Government hampers it’s grass root development.

iii     To what extent has the State interference in the financial allocation of Nsukka Local Government affects it’s grass root development.

1.4   STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS

Ho:   Law making process and policy implementation by the Councilors and Chairmen does not affect the grass root development of Nsukka Local Government Area.

Hi:    Law making process and policy implementation by the councilors and chairman does not affect the grass root development of Nsukka Local Government Area.

Ho:   The personnel Administration of Nsukka local government does not hamper it’s grass root development.

Hi:    The personnel Administration of Nsukka local government does not hamper it’s grass root development.

Ho:   The State interference in the financial allocation of Nsukka Local Government does not affect it’s grass root development.

Hi:    The State interference in the financial allocation of Nsukka Local Government does not affect it’s grass root development.

  • THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

The researcher employ General system theory in the course of this work.

This theory has so many writers on it such as Almond (1960), Easton (1965), Adamolekun (1983) and Offiong (1996). This theory argue that every system, including political system has a sub-system, including political system has a sub-system which make up the entire system. They have assigned function and provided with enabling empowerment, including resources, appropriate authority that enable them discharge their responsibility optimally.

 

Applying this brief exposition of the political system analysis to the Nigerian local government system, the local government in the country constitute the sub-system. They must be handled well in terms of being fed with adequate inputs (that is resources and appropriate authorities) as provided in the constitution of the federal republic of Nigeria so that they can contribute appropriately to the goals of Nigerian political system as well as it’s stability. Form these, it is very useful to realize the importance of the general system theory in handling Local Government Autonomy in Nigeria.

They has been assigned with responsibilities to perform which benefit the people, not as part of Federal or State Government. So, if Local Government is not treated as a sub-system, it will bring frustration to the performance of their function and on the long run bring dissatisfaction among the rural people and their National cake will be neglected too.

  • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This research work would be of benefit to the rural people in Nsukka Local Government of Enugu State. At the end of this work, the rural people will be able to enjoy their constitutional right which is rural development and when such is granted to them, they will no longer feel neglected in the National cake which has been their utmost need from the Local Government.

For scholars, researchers and Authors, they could also use or gather information to review this work and also use it as a reference to any related work they are writing since this work is reliable and validated.

1.7   SCOPE OF THE STUDY

Local Government Autonomy and Grass root development. A of study of Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu State.

1.8   LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The researcher encountered so many constraint while carrying out this research work. The problems and the solutions are as follows: lack of power supply by the Enugu electricity Distribution Company (EEDC) Since power supply has been a serious problem in Oko community, the researcher re-schedule reading at night to day time so as to avoid the problem of power supply.

Lack of fund: This problem was solved as it propel the researcher to borrow money from friend and families to supplement the cash saved before this work.

Lack of time: The researcher adjusted most of it’s programmes that does not add any value to the success of this work.

Lack of material: Since there is no sufficient material for the research work, the researcher joined a study group were most of the problems confronting the work is discussed and settle. The researcher equally made out time to visit the cyber café for more information so as to supplement the information gotten from study group.

These are the problems encountered by the researcher and how the researcher equally over come it so as to make this work successful.

 

1.9   DEFINITIONS OF TERMS

The following terms are used in this study which have unique meaning that could be subjected to different meaning form different persons; are defined as follows:

GOVERNMENT: It is a machinery through which the will of a State (country) is formulated expressed and attained

AUTONOMY: It is the freedom for a country, a region or an organization to govern itself independently; the ability to act and make decision without being controlled by anyone.

REFORM: This means the improvement or amendment of what is wrong, corrupt and unsatisfactory.

ORDINANCE: It is a degree or law promulgated by a state or National Government without the consent of the legislature such as for raising revenue through new taxes or mobilization of resources during an emergency.

AUTHORITY: It is define as the process or right to give order and enforce obedience.

ALLOCATION: It means an authorization to incur expenses or obligation up to a specific amount, purpose and within a specified period.

ENTITY EXISTENCE:  A Government or organization is said to be an entity if it has the ability with essential corporate power, names to engage into contract, sue and be sued and acquire properties.

DEVELOPMENT: It means a process in whitish something passes by degree to a different stage (especially a more advanced or mature stage).

GOVERNMENT AS A TIER: A government character and entity existence.

NATIVE: Characteristics of or existing by virtue of geographic origin.

ADMINISTRATION: Is all about getting things done with co-coordinated effort of man using effective use of other available resources to get things done.

PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT: It is that part of management process which is primarily concerned with human constituents in an organization.

CONSTITUTION: It is a whole body, fundamental laws, custom belief etc according to a particular state operation.

 

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LEADERSHIP AND MOTIVATION AS ESSENTIAL TOOLS FOR ORGANISATIONAL GROWTH AND EXPANSION

LEADERSHIP AND MOTIVATION AS ESSENTIAL TOOLS FOR ORGANISATIONAL GROWTH AND EXPANSION ( A CASE STUDY OF UNION BANK PLC, ABA)

 

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MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
 GTBANK
Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

We also accept :   ATM transfer , online money  transfer 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>

Call Help Desk Line :  08074466939,08063386834.

After Payment Send Your Payment Details To

08074466939 Or 08063386834,   The Project Title  You  Selected On Our Website , Amount Paid, Depositor Name, Your Email Address, Payment Date. You Will Receive Your Material In Less Than 1 Hour Once We Confirm Your Payment.

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ABSTRACT

(People entering employing organization) go into these organization with a lot of expectation in mind, in most cases, they (seek) good salary and other motivational factors if they are to be retained in the organization these motivation. Job security, efficient medical services, pension scheme, recognition, transportation, housing, good working condition, promotion among others. Where these leadership appear adequate and meet the expectation of staff. They are retained. Apart from its ability to retain the staff, good leadership system is also capable of motivating work to put in their best in the performance of their efforts are adequately rewarded. Absence of good reward would bring about decline in performance, which will automatically effects the organizational growth in order to get the best out of staff, banks try to motivate their staff in such a way that they are motivated to perform at their best so as to increase the growth of their organization there by entiancing profit. It is in recognition of these facts that we want to examine the leadership and motivation of union bank Plc, using their branch at Aba as a case study to find out if staff are well motivated so as to enable it compete favourably with other financial / institutes / Banking industries in the country and the researchers findings pointed to the fact that leadership and motivation bring about the growth of an organization.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1      Background of the study

1.2      Statement of the problem

1.3      Objectives of the study

1.4      Research questions

1.5      Research Hypotheses

1.6      Significance of the study

1.7      Scope and limitations of the study

1.8      Definition of terms

 

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.0      Introduction

2.1      Non-financial motivation

2.2      Philosophies of human nature and motivation

2.3      Expectancy motivation theory (Victor Vroom)

2.4      Situation / contingency theory of leadership

2.5      Motivation of the Nigeria worker

2.6      Summary of review of related literature

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.0      Introduction

3.1      Research Design

3.2      Area of the study

3.3      Population of the study

3.4      Sample and Sampling technique

3.5      Methods of Data collection

3.6      Methods of Data Analysis

 

CHAPTER FOUR

PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

4.0      Introduction

4.1      Analysis of questionnaire

4.2      Result of testing of hypothesis

 

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1      Restatement of the problem

5.2      Summary of findings

5.3      Conclusion

5.4      Recommendations

5.5      Suggestion for further study

References

Questionnaire.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The most important human activities is leadership questions and motivation, ever since people began forming groups to accomplish aims, they could not achieve their aims as individuals. Leadership has been essential to ensure the coordination of individual efforts. A society has come to rely increasingly on group efforts and as many organized group have become large, the task of leaders has been rising in importance.

Leadership we know have no universal definition some leadership scholars have defined it according to their views.

Therefore leadership could be seen as a social influencing process for the attainment of goals. A leader is the most influential person in an organization who provides direction, guides group activities and ensures that group objectives are attained (Nwachukwu, 1999:146) furthermore he saw leadership as a process where one person exerts social influence over the members of a group.

Motivation are those various reason why people work, may be to earn respect among associate to earn salary and wages to acquire prestige and honour. In all these variety of reasons, culture seems to be a determing factor what actual make the between healing and sick organization and the worker. According to Howell and Dipboye (1982) they mostly depends on organization ability to discover sustain and meet the workers need.

Therefore motivation can be seen as what ever thing that makers a person to bring out his or her best.

Management is the process of utilizing resources of a firm that accomplish designated objectives.

  1. PROFILE OF UNION BANK PLC, ABA

Union Bank of Nigeria Plc was established in 1917 as a colonial Bank with its fist branch in Lagos. In 1925, Bardays Bank acquired the colonial Bank, which resulted in the change of the Bank’s name to Bardays Bank (Dominion colonial and overseas). Following the enactment to be incorporated locally, Barclays Bank (D.C.O) in 1969 was incorporated as Barclays Bank of Nigeria Limited. The ownership structure of Bardays Bank emained un-changed until 1971 when 8.33% of the Banks shares were offered to Nigerians in the same year, the Bank was listed on the Nigerian stock exchange. As a result of the Nigerian Enterprises Promotion Act of 1972, the federal government of Nigeria acquired 51.67% of the Bank shares, which left Bardays Bank Plc, London with only 40%. By the enactment of the 1972 and 1977 Nigeria Enterprises promotion Acts, Bardays Bank International disposed its share holding to Nigeria in 1979. To reflect the new ownership structure and in compliance the name Union Bank of Nigeria Plc.

Union Bank Group operates an interlocking organizational structure whereby some board members of union Bank of Nigerian Plc act as external directors in subsidiaries and associated companies. This arrangement, ensures effective oversight and participation in the decision making process of these companies thereby safeguarding the Banks investments.

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Management of organization have over the years been faced with a lot of problems which have in one way or the other hindered organizational growth and development some of these problems could be seen as follow: indiscipline of workers, high rate of absenteeism, high labour turn-over, job irritability, lack of motivation and reduced productivity.

INDISCIPLINE OF WORKER: This has contributed a lot to the problems of organizations. Some workers have been found in the habit of disobeying simple instructions from their superiors, which in one way or the other jeopardize organizational growth and development.

HIGH RATE OF ABSENTEEISM:- The rate at which workers absent themselves from duty without permission from the appropriate authority for reasons best known to them have really pose a problem on management of organizations.

HIGH LABOUR TURN OVER:- The rate at which people go out of an organization (skilled and unskilled workers) is also a problem which have retard productivity in many organizations.

JOB IRRITABILITY: This may come as a result of tiredness of the job, due to lack of enthusian on the said job. This is also a problem to organization.

Lack of motivation:- eg low pay, poor performance appraisal lack of staff training and lack of staff promotion will retard workers from doing their work effectively and efficiently since their efforts are not rewarded as at when due.

REDUCED PRODUCTIVITY: This is also a problem to management of organization. When productivity is reduced, an organization tends to suffer.

1.3     OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The researcher tends to find out the effects of leadership and motivation in management of organizations she find out this research work in order to know the effect of autocratic and laisser faire styles of leadership on workers productivity and how best to boast employees morale and increase their sense of belonging which in turn will lead to increased productivity in organization. She tends to discover how best leadership and motivation will minimize the problems encountered by organizations. This study aims at determing the clausable course and effect relationship by observing existing consequences and then reflecting back on the data so collecting clause able courses e.g A researcher. Who wants to find out the effect of class size on the performance of students should compare the class size of some years and corresponding the over all performance of the class for several group, this involves an investigation past event, development and experiment. Investigation comprises a thorough evaluation and analysis of evidences in order to establish facts.

One which sees to abstain how some dimension valuables or characteristics of a given population change with time. The study attempts to describe the nature and degree of growth maturity and valuations in behaviours among members of the group.

1.4     RESEARCH QUESTIONS

This research project tends to answer the following questions.

1)      What are the effect of leadership and motivation on management of organizations?

2)      Does the type of leadership practiced affect employees morale and consequently their output

3)      Is there any effect of employee’s behavior on organizational productivity?

1.5     RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

A hypothesis is a proposition assumed for the sake of argument or a theory to be proved or disproved by to facts. It is an assumed answer to a problem. It is also a guide to a research work.

H01: Lack of motivation in organization does not lead to low productivity.

H02: The type of leadership an organization practiced does not affect employee’s morale and their output.

1.6     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The significance of this research work lends creduce to this exercise. It serves as an enlightenment to management of organizations on how best to boost the morale of their employees through motivation which in turn increases their sense of belonging and their output. This work will also serve as a panacea to management of organizations in arriving at dependable solutions to management consultants. This work will serve as a guide to political leaders on the type of leadership style they will adopt, which will faster peace and stability in the society.

This work will serve as a guideline for future researchers to critically examine the concept of leadership and motivation on effective management f organization. This work is also significant to the researcher for the fulfillment f the award of the High National Diploma.

1.7     SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

This research work is restricted to the office of Union Bank of Nigeria Plc, Aba branch. It is limited to the effect of leadership and motivation in management of organization. All thing been equal, the researcher would like to cover as much area as possible but it is impossible because of some circumstances, which was beyond his control.

The constraints could be seen as follows: Finance, lack of time due to the tight schedule of academic calendar, unwillingness of some of the respondents to answer questions, posed by the researcher, rainfalls which restricted the researchers movement and act of God. All these place limitation on the extent the researcher can go.

 

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1.8     DEFINITION OF TERMS

1)      Motivation: Can be defined as a process of the reason one does or behaves in a particular way. He is motivated entirely by self interest. To make what to do especially that involves hard work and effort.

2)      Organizational: Can be defined as a group of people who from a business, club, etc. together in order to achieve a particular aim. To work for a business (political) voluntary organization, the world health organization. He’s the president of a large international organization.

3)      Leadership: It state or position of being a leader. Leadership it is the ability to be a leader or the qualities a good leader should have: leadership qualities / skills, strong leader is needed to captain the team. A group of leaders of a particular organization, etc.

4)      Growth: It is the process (of people animals or plants) the process of growing physically, mentally or emotionally, lack of water will stunt the plant’s growth. Remove dead leaves to encourage new growth a concern with personal (mental and emotional) growth and development, growth hormones designed to make grow faster.

5)      Management: The term management has been used in different way’s to describe an essential aspect of organizational activities which determine how people should work and the materials to be used in achieving organizational goals.

6)      Business: The term business has been generally defined as an occupation, task or duty which a person undertakes to earn a living.

7)      Economic system: The economic system determines the pattern of ownership of factors of production and economic resources and the production and distribution of goods and services.

8)      Organizing: Is defined as involving the determination of activities to be performed in order to achieve goals.

9)      Communication: Is the medium through which information is passed. In essence, to communicated is to pass information. Information is anything that reduces or eliminates the uncertainty in any given situation. Information is needed by everyone working in an organization to do his or her duty very well.

10)    Information system: Is a set of resources man, materials and procedure defined to attain information goals within a socio-economic environment which produces and utilizes the system as tool for development (Hayes, 1975).

 

CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

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THE EFECT OF UNCONTROLABLE IMPORTATION ON INDEGINEOUS INDUSTRIES

THE EFFECT OF UNCONTROLLABLE IMPORTATION ON INDIGENOUS INDUSTRIES  (A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA BREWERIES PLC)

 

COMPLETE PROJECT  MATERIAL COST 3000 NAIRA

 

                                   ORDER NOW

MAKE YOUR PAYMENT  INTO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING BANKS:
 GTBANK
Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447
First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

We also accept :   ATM transfer , online money  transfer 

OR
PAY ONLINE USING YOUR ATM CARD. IT IS SECURED AND RELIABLE.

Enter Amount

form>

Call Help Desk Line :  08074466939,08063386834.

After Payment Send Your Payment Details To

08074466939 Or 08063386834,   The Project Title  You  Selected On Our Website , Amount Paid, Depositor Name, Your Email Address, Payment Date. You Will Receive Your Material In Less Than 1 Hour Once We Confirm Your Payment.

WE HAVE SECURITY IN OUR BUSINESS.   

MONEY BACK GUARANTEE

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ABSTRACT

 

The purpose of this study is to the effect of uncontrollable importation of indigenous industries with particular reference to Nigeria Breweries Enugu.

Due to the unprecedented growth in manufacturing and  Merchandising industries over the fears, inventory has been accorded the save cost of those industries.  It therefore follows that in trying to hold the industries in those manufacturing organization, the level of these should be adequately and properly controlled with the view to minimizing costs.

Hence, in conducting research, the researcher made use of oral interview and questionnaire she also reviewed other  related literatures necessary to provide the required date for study. The data collected for the study were analysed in tables using chi-squares.

The findings were that through the management lives as much as the can, there are lapses in inventory control system also on the valuation of stock, the researcher found out that the company uses the first-in-first-out (FIFO)method of stock valuation in valuing her stock.

This is because of inherent benefits in its and commanded by the SAS, /AS and SSAP.

Based on findings, we have recommended among other things that the local source of raw materials should be made to suppl7y the firm when required.

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • General background to the subject matter
  • Problems associated with the subject matter
  • Problems that the study will be concerned
  • Importance of studying the area
  • Definition of important terms
  • References

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

  • The origin of subject are
  • School of thoughts within the subject area
  • The school of relevant to the problem of study
  • Different methods of studying the problem
  • Summary
  • References

 

CHAPTER THREE

CONCLUSION

3.1     Data presentation

  • Data analysis
  • Recommendation
  • Reference

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 INTRODUCTION   GENERAL BACKGROUND TO THE SUBJECT MATTER

The president of manufacturing association of Nigeria, Rufus Giwa (200.p16) define industry thus:

“Industry, particularly, miniaturization is  the motive force for development. In fact, industrialization is more than engine of growth. It is also the catalyst for technological, financial and socio-economical advancement.

Trade, and more specifically foreign trade have astronomically been instrumental in man’s bids towards betterment of his lifer on earth.

Today, we can enjoy and make use of automobile made in far away Japan as if they  grow in air gradens. Other articles which we can’t dream of producing even in the next millennium liters our markets as if they were going out of fashion.  All these are courtesy of foreign trade and broadly on one  of its two-pronged  division. “Importation”. A very important concept is but like a two-edge sword, it can destroy if not carefully handled.

  1. A study on how foreign products crowd our market, and how our local industries are nose-division into oblivion show that we are  already receiving a fair does of rough handing under the sharp claws of this excessive importation.“The Nigeria trade Journal” of March/April 1980, analyzing our  trade statistics put the total of Beer and stout importation at N7,562,135. people shouted and rose dust over it that it is excessive, but what have we to say today that people 200m off from the country Just to import tooth picks and toilet tissues?The millions of graduates that our academic institutions turn out annually have their fate hanging over the balance. With hands supporting their checks , and all hope on divine intervention they helplessly watch as our few industries fold up in their hundreds.

    Retrenchment and counter retrenchment of workers have become so common as the few cresting ones battle to   break even and remain in contention. Consequently, unemployment and poor standard of living can’t be more adventurous.

    An it idle man they said is the devils tool coupling with the fact that both ends must meet, arm-robbery, fraud, bribery, corruption and other social vices exert domination. Hence our country can’t help wining the inglorious “most corrupt country” award in the year 2000.

    Our surviving industries virtually are at the end of their letter judging from the lamentable figures they post in their annual report as profit after exuberant tax from a government that don’t spare their selves a through about their welfare instead of re-investment or expansion, the  little token that will succeed  in dropping into their counter went into unreasonable advisement which they see as their last resort to remain in contention in the ever growing competitive market.

    These and many more have been the plight of our indigenous  industries consequently upon excessive importation. This work try to look into the effect of this practice and how to curtail its excessive. It will make a steep further to put forward, measures towards remaining the vandalized state of our indigenous industry.

     

     

    1.2     PROBLEM ASSOCIATED WITH THE SUBJECT MATTER

    The subject matter is that which have a hamper of problems under it care: below  are some of the them.

    1. DPERSSION AND DUMPING: With more and more goods from           broad finding their ways undisturbed and unrestrained into the country,           compiling with the locally made ones, a situation where supply  will           exceed demand  will emerge. And not only will our wobbled economy           and ingenious industries suffer a great depression, but also the nation           will be turned into in dumping ground.
    2. EXCESSIVE COMPETITION: Our weak industries became so much of       the market share from day to day fell to these foreign goods. and to fight back in their own effeminate way in order to still remain in contention,   our indigenous industries resort to aggressive promotion which drain their meager income and adversely effect their level of operation.

     

    iii.        UNEMPLOYMENT: With a generous portion of the market under            the..

 

 

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FUNCTIONS AND ACHIEVEMENTS OF GOVERNMENT SUPPORT AGENCIES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF ENTERPRENUERSHIP IN ENUGU STATE.

FUNCTIONS AND ACHIEVEMENTS OF GOVERNMENT SUPPORT AGENCIES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ENUGU STATE.

(A CASE STUDY OF NATIONAL DIRECTORATE OF EMPLOYMENT (N.D.E)

 

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TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE:

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study
  • Statement of the problem
  • Purpsoe of the study
  • Scope of the study
  • Research hypothesis
  • Significance of the study
  • Definition of terms

References

 

 

 

CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE

  • Introduction
  • Entrepreneurship development
  • Need, scope, and characteristics of entrepreneurship
  • Various government support agencies and their functions

References

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

  • Research design
  • Area of the study
  • Population of the study
  • Sample and sampling procedure/technique
  • Instrument of data collection
  • Validation of the instrument
  • Reliability of the instrument
  • Method of data collection
  • Method of data analysis

References

 

CHAPTER FOUR:

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

  • Presentation and analysis
  • Testing of hypothesis
  • Summary of results

References

 

CHAPTER FIVE

DISCUSSIONS, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION

  • Discussion of results/findings
  • Conclusions
  • Implications of the research findings
  • Recommendation
  • Limitations of the study
  • Suggestions for further research

References

Bibliography

Appendages/appendices

Questionnaires.

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Entrepreneurship started when people began to produce more products than they required, as such they had to exchange these surplus with others who also wanted to dispose off their surplus. By this way, producers came to realize that they can concentrated in their areas of production to produce more and then exchange with what they needed. Therefore, through this exchange of products, entrepreneurship started.

According to Schumpeter (1961) Entrepreneurship means doing new things or doing  things that are already being done in a new way.

Nnenna B.Ani (1999) described entrepreneurship as a creative and innovative response to the environment such responses can take place in any field of social endavour, for instance, in business industry, agriculture, education, social work and the like.

An entrepreneur is different from a manager who only plans organizes and controls a business idea after it has been successfully initiated by the entrepreneur”Lawal A.A Et Al (1998), According to Ani Nnnenna B. (1999) a typically Nigeria entrepreneur is self made man who ,might be said to have strong will to succeed, he might engage the services of others like friends, mates, in laws etc to help him in his work or production through this way Nigerians in the olden days  were engaged in entrepreneurship”. Early entrepreneurship characterized with production or manufacturing in which case the producer most often started with a small capital, most of it from his own savings. Early entrepreneurship started with trade by barter even before the advent of any form of money.

In Nigerian modern entrepreneurship started with the coming of the Colonial masters, who brought in their wears and made Nigerians their  middlemen. Most of the modern entrepreneur were engaged in retail trade or sole proprietorship.

One of the major factors that has in many ways discouraged the flow of entrepreneurship development in this country is the value system brought about by formal education. For many decades formal education has been the preserve of the privilege. With formal education, people had the opportunity of being employed in civil service, because in those days the economy was large enough to absorb into the prestigious occupation all Nigerians with some form of formal education. The value system discouraged entrepreneurship  in Nigeria for the colonial masters to solve their goods, because if Nigerians continue to be enterprising, they would not have had market for their goods. as such, the system made Nigerians to be depends on the colonial masters to supply her with the needed products.

Again , the contract between Nigerian entrepreneurs and foreign entrepreneurs during the colonial era was very detrimental and the  competitive business strategy of the foreign entrepreneurs was ruinous and also against moral standards established by the society. For example, the united African company (UAO) that was responsible for a sustain percentage of the  import and export trade of Nigerian, has the policy of dealing directly with produced and refused to make use of the service of Nigeria entrepreneurs. The refusal of the expatriate to utilize the services of local business man inhibited the expansion and acquisition of necessary skills and attitude. For this reasons many eventually folded up. Hose that folded built up a resentment against business which become very demoralizing to other prospective entrepreneurs. As a result, the flow of entrepreneurship in the country was slowed down. But with more people being educated and the fact that government could no longer employ most school leavers, economy programs to encourage individuals to go into private business and self reliant were initiated (Theodore Gieger in Nwachukwu C.C (1990).

In view of the impact of entrepreneurship in improving the socio-economic conditions of the state, the government  have made initiatives to promote indigenous entrepreneurship in small scale business. According to Lawal A.A 91998:2) typically actions of the government take the form of policy initiatives and directives to organization such as ministry of commerce and industry, national directorate of employment, ministry of labour and productivity, center for management development, research institutes to act as executing agencies with responsibility for stimulating, supporting and sustaining entrepreneurship development.

The researcher believes that a study of the functions as well as the achievement of the national directorate of employment (NDE) in Enugu state would help to evaluate the role of government support agencies in entrepreneurship development within the state.

 

1.2     STATE,MENT OF THE PROBLEM.

In Enugu state, various government support agencies have been set up by the government to assist entrepreneurship development and encourage the rapid development of small and medium scale industries. These agencies were established because government owned organization can no longer cope with employment of graduates and school leavers. Further more, the graduates and school leavers have to establish their own small business, which will help in solving the problems of unemployment and economic development.

Therefore, in carrying out this research it is very important to study the problems listed below.

  1. Examine the mandates for establishing the NDE.

 

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THE ROLE OF NIGERIAN STOCK EXCHANGE IN INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT

THE ROLE OF NIGERIAN STOCK EXCHANGE IN INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT

 

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PROPOSAL

This project research study whose subject matter is on the role of Nigerian stock exchange in industrial development is stated to be presented in the normal fine chapter of a project work.

For a general insight and a fair understanding of the intended course of action and various form of presentation evaluation and analysis of data collection from successive interview questionnaires administration as well as other source of data collection like news letters, security market journal and business times. It is proposed to briefly run of short preview of the expected contents of each chapter and preliminary pages of the enter work.

The work started with the preliminary page which include the title page approval page, proposal, dedication, acknowledgment and table of  content.

The first chapter which fellows the preliminary page starts with the general introduction. This means paging attention to the exposure of the topic under research. Therefore a background of the study and statement of problem will be use to achieve this aim. Also the objective and significance of the study will be revealed along side with hypothetical statement and research question. The chapter finally ends up with the disclosure  of the scope and limitation of the study.

Chapter two carries a general review of available relevant literature hence books text book are the expected literature re-reviewed for general searching and  support of existing information about the stocks exchanges .

Chapter there covers the research design and methodology. Here the general features of the research procedure, development of research material and treatment  of data will be given therefore the modes and series of tasks under taken to ensure a successful research  and data collection will form the basic discussion under this chapter.

The preservation and analysis of data from the main subject matter of chapter four  the data collected therefore are presented analyzed and concluded upon.

The last chapter which is chapter fine will discuss the findings of the research works. This will be followed by necessary conclusion and recommendation. Also this project work will  end with the information which includes definition of terms. Bibliography, appendix and questionnaires.

Finally, therefore the research have decided to take up this study on the role of Nigerian stock exchange in industrial development just because of her interest on the  benefit of the stock exchange and the effects it has on the industry development.

 

ABSTRACT

 

The Nigerian stock exchange (NSE) has been created to serve various function such as often of business guideline to top business management concerning cost of capital for the Nigerian stock exchange provides avenues for  long term investment. These function credited to the stock exchange is expected to create positive effect on the general business and industrial growth of the country.

However, this research work is determined to evaluate the effect of the stock. Exchange   on the general business growth especially in recent years. In carrying out the research work with the above aim in mind efforts will be made to disclose relevant findings thus drawing necessary solutions and recommendations to alleviate some anticipated problem on the Nigerian stock exchange to be disclosed during the research work.

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

  • Introduction

1.1     Background of the study

  • Statement of study
  • Objective of study
  • Research question’
  • Hypothesis formulation
  • Significance of the study
  • Scope of the study
  • Limitation of
  • Definition of term
  • Reference

 

CHAPTER TWO

  • Literature review

2.1     Evolution of the stock exchange

  • Historical development of the Nigerian stock
  • General relationship of the stock exchange and the economy
  • Advantage of the stock exchange as a source fund to the industry
  • Functions of the stock exchange in influencing the development parameters

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

  • Introduction to the study

3.1     Research design

  • Area of study
  • Population of the study
  • Sample size determination
  • Instrument for data collection
  • Validation of instrument
  • Reliability of the instrument
  • Method of data collection
  • Method of data analysis
  • Reference

 

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

  • Presentation and analysis of data
  • Testing of hypothesis
  • Summary of result.

 

 

 

CHAPTER FIVE

DISCUSSION  RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION

  • Discussion of result findings
  • Conclusion
  • Recommendation
  • Suggestion for further study
  • Bibliography

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Industrial growth forms the basis for industrial development is not only needed for its ability to improve living standard. It also acts as a weapon for building national strength and prestige. Therefore industrial development implies the increase of industrial, expansion of quality and quality of output and the institutionalization of industrial growth process. It also involve  technical activities of a own routine nature concerned with translating research findings or other with translating research findings or other scientific knowledge into products or process.

With the concept of investment as a central factor in the acceleration of industrial growth and development and the prominence given to industrialization, steps have the establishment of the Nigerian stock exchange (NSE) the evolution of  continued existence of the Nigeria stock exchange has always been small lots of shares to e  parceled into lumbs large enough to be bought by institutions provide vast numbers of  different shares to be trades and providing a  broad market in government securities its economic significance depends on its ability to mop up financial capital for investment purpose these include providing liquidity and enhancing these marketability of new issues of stock thus reducing the real costs to business firm by expanding the scope for obtaining fund.

 

 

Other functions of the stock exchange include the offer of guidance to the business management in relation to the present cost of capital so that the business man  can determine his level of investment appropriate  to the firm. Access to the  vast number of capital that are in very small amount of money that in their aggregate have s commend over vast quantities of wealth. It also make it possible for the transfer of funds that imposes only a minimum of administrative efforts he lender. By  this activity the  stock exchange is able to provide an avenue for long term investment to be financed by funds provided by individuals many of whom to make it available for a short term or with draw it at will.

 

The competitive nature of the stock exchange makes it possible to allocate funds efficiently which is achieved by the market ability to available companies securities in a manner based on the capitalized value of the company’s expected future earnings.

 

 

Apparently, only if stock are valued in this way will funds be provided most abundantly   and at most reasonable terms to the most promising innovation who accounting to the classical economic theory has the greatest use for them and who is the one that can obtain the profits which will serve as the investors rewards. And it in when shares are valued in relation to the  expected capitalized value of the firm that effective disciplinary advice which punishes management whose operation are inefficient or unprofitable.

Therefore a reliable rate which results from investment in new factories, machinery, equipment and  material to increase the physical capital stock of the nation. The stock exchange market plays an important role in propping up financial capital and provision of market for quoted stock so as  to chance the fulfillment of these economic growth parameters. This investing so as to actualize the economic growth.

 

 

 

1.2     STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The ignorance of the stock exchange has brought about how participation of firm and individual engaging in the stock exchange and this has also limited the availability of stocks and shares that  could be traded on the stock market. The stock market is faced with the problem of valley in delivering and settlement of stock transaction.

For the fact that the number of quoted security is small and the total capitalization is about 335 billion which is nothing when compared with…

 

 

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