FINANCING INFRASTRUCTURE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
(A CASE SUDY OF NIGERIA)
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1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Objectives of the study
1.4 Significance of the study
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope of the study
1.7 Selection of sample cities
1.8 Limitations and delimitations of the study
1.9 Definitions of technical terms
- LITERATURE REVIEW
- Financial infrastructure in developing countries earlier approach
- Financing urban infrastructure and services in Nigeria
2.2.1 Immediate priorities
18.104.22.168 Reorientation of public expenditure
22.214.171.124 Targeting the urban poor
126.96.36.199 Counterpart funding from state annual budgets
- Medium term agenda
- Mobilization of state and local revenues
- Property taxes potential –IDF experience
- Public sector borrowing
- Alternative infrastructure financing options
- Private investment
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
- General features of the research
- Method of data collection
- Sources of data
- Location of data
- Tools for data analysis
- Basis selection of sample
- Bases of selection
- Location of sample cities
- Overview of sample cities
- Limitations of information
- Method of data analysis
- Data analysis techniques
- Data presentation
- Data analysis
- Test of hypothesis
- Inter predating data
FINDINGS RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION
- Summary of findings
- BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Nigeria is urbanizing at an astonishing pace. The share of Nigeria’s population increased from 20% in 1970 to about 38% in 1993 (the world banking) of the nearly 110 million Nigerians, about 40 million are now living in cities and towns. The urban population grew at around 5.5% per year from 1980 to 1993 (compared with 2.9% for the national population). This is among the highest urban growth rates in the world, due mainly to migration from rural areas. At current roles, the number of urban dwellers will double in only 13 years. This is equivalent to a city of three million each years. Such growth is creating an immense and largely unmet demand. For urban services such as water, sanitation, road, public transport, waster disposal, health and education.
The physical condition of Nigeria’s infrastructure water supply, sewerage, sanitation, urban road, electricity, drainage, waste disposal, school hospital is generally poor. For example only about half of the people in Nigeria’s urban areas have access to pipe-born water in and, or around their homes. All types of infrastructure suffer from a massive backlog of neglected rehabilitation and maintenance, not to talk of the investments needed to serve future growth. Periodic and routine maintenance by for the most management of municipal wastes – sewage, seepage, and refuses Nigeria major urban environmental problem. Improving waste management is more of a policy and management issue than a technical one. Industrial waste is another major urban environmental concern. The most critical firms with 50 or more employees, these extra costs amount to some 10% of the total machinery and equipment budget. For small firms, the burden is an high as 25%. According to the world bank reports, inadequate public services can also raise cost. For the urban poor, who wither rely on alternative, costly provides (such as water vendors) or spend large amount of time (as in fetching water from inconvenient sources) the world banks, 1995.
A large number of people in Nigeria’s urban area do not have enough income to meet their basic needs of food, shelter and cloth. About 21% of the urban population-8.5 million people (as per 1991 population census) was estimated to be below the poverty line in 1992/93 (the world bank, 1995). Of these, about 1.1 million were classified as “several poor” by the world bank. The vast majority of the urban poor are in cities other than Lagos, such as Onitsha, Kano, Kaduna, Abuja, Enugu, Port Harcourt etc. Their cash income is insufficient to cover minimal standards of food, water, fuel, shelter, medical care, and schooling. The urban poor live in airborne emission are sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides, which pose serious health hazards in urban areas.
Industrial and air pollution need to be dealt with by enforced regulation coupled with economic incentives to change the behavior of industries and users of motor vehicles.
From the foregoing, one will notice that our infrastructures have deteriorated an urban services collapsed. But no one is left in doubt the crucial role urbanization plays as a positive force in economic development. Cities and towns are the home of most industry, commerce, and services. These sectors of the economy can be highly productive. World wide, higher per capital incomes are closely related to higher levels of urbanization. Urban based, non-oil industry and services accounted for about half of Nigeria’s gross domestic product (GDP) between 1995 and 1994. thus, average per capital income in urban areas is around one third higher than in rural areas. This is the basic reason why attention should be focused on financing strategies for urban infrastructure development in Nigeria to boost productivity and growth of our developing economy.
It is on this premise that the author (researcher) wishes to study empirically the sources of finance available and financial strategies available to finance the urban infrastructure and services with regard to Nigeria economy. The problems associated with government past option and agenda towards the restoration of urban “decay”. In this work also, the writer dealt on the institutional arrangement from the world bank and other similar bodies-both in short term (immediate) and medium term.
- STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
As have been noted, the benefit that an economy can derive from infrastructure development cannot be over emphasized. The economic pressures behind urbanization are very powerful. Cities and towns are the home of most industry, commerce, and services. These sectors of the economy can be highly productive. World wide, higher per capital incomes are closely related to higher levels of urbanization