FINANCING INFRASTRUCTURE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

FINANCING INFRASTRUCTURE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

(A CASE SUDY OF NIGERIA)

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CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

1.1     Background of the study

1.2     Statement of problem

1.3     Objectives of the study

1.4     Significance of the study

1.5     Significance of the study

1.6     Scope of the study

1.7     Selection of sample cities

1.8     Limitations and delimitations of the study

1.9     Definitions of technical terms

REFERENCES

 

CHAPTER TWO

  • LITERATURE REVIEW
    • Financial infrastructure in developing countries earlier approach
    • Financing urban infrastructure and services in Nigeria

2.2.1 Immediate priorities

2.2.1.1 Reorientation of public expenditure

2.2.1.2 Targeting the urban poor

2.2.1.3 Counterpart funding from state annual budgets

  • Medium term agenda
  • Mobilization of state and local revenues
  • Property taxes potential –IDF experience
  • Public sector borrowing
  • Alternative infrastructure financing options
  • Private investment

REFERENCES

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

  • General features of the research
  • Method of data collection
  • Sources of data
  • Location of data
  • Tools for data analysis
  • Basis selection of sample
  • Bases of selection
  • Location of sample cities
  • Overview of sample cities
  • Limitations of information
  • Method of data analysis
  • Data analysis techniques

 

 

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Data presentation
  • Data analysis
  • Test of hypothesis
  • Inter predating data

 

CHAPTER FIVE

FINDINGS RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION

  • Summary of findings
  • Conclusion
  • Recommendations

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

 

 

 CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Nigeria is urbanizing at an astonishing pace.  The share of Nigeria’s population increased from 20% in 1970 to about 38% in 1993 (the world banking) of the nearly 110 million Nigerians, about 40 million are now living in cities and towns.  The urban population grew at around 5.5% per year from 1980 to 1993 (compared with 2.9% for the national population).

 

This is among the highest urban growth rates in the world, due mainly to migration from rural areas.  At current roles, the number of urban dwellers will double in only 13 years.  This is equivalent to a city of three million each years.  Such growth is creating an immense and largely unmet demand.  For urban services such as water, sanitation, road, public transport, waster disposal, health and education.

 

The physical condition of Nigeria’s infrastructure water supply, sewerage, sanitation, urban road, electricity, drainage, waste disposal, school hospital is generally poor.  For example only about half of the people in Nigeria’s urban areas have access to pipe-born water in and, or around their homes.  All types of infrastructure suffer from a massive backlog of neglected rehabilitation and maintenance, not to talk of the investments needed to serve future growth.  Periodic and routine maintenance by for the most management of municipal wastes – sewage, seepage, and refuses Nigeria major urban environmental problem.  Improving waste management is more of a policy and management issue than a technical one.

 

Industrial waste is another major urban environmental concern.  The most critical firms with 50 or more employees, these extra costs amount to some 10% of the total machinery and equipment budget.  For small firms, the burden is an high as 25%.  According to the world bank reports, inadequate public services can also raise cost.  For the urban poor, who wither rely on alternative, costly provides (such as water vendors) or spend large amount of time (as in fetching water from inconvenient sources) the world banks, 1995.

 

A large number of people in Nigeria’s urban area do not have enough income to meet their basic needs of food, shelter and cloth.  About 21% of the urban population-8.5 million people (as per 1991 population census) was estimated to be below the poverty line in 1992/93 (the world bank, 1995). Of these, about 1.1 million were classified as “several poor” by the world bank.  The vast majority of the urban poor are in cities other than Lagos, such as Onitsha, Kano, Kaduna, Abuja, Enugu, Port Harcourt etc.  Their cash income is insufficient to cover minimal standards of food, water, fuel, shelter, medical care, and schooling.

 

The urban poor live in airborne emission are sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides, which pose serious health hazards in urban areas. Industrial and air pollution need to be dealt with by enforced regulation coupled with economic incentives to change the behavior of industries and users of motor vehicles.

 

From the foregoing, one will notice that our infrastructures have deteriorated an urban services collapsed.  But no one is left in doubt the crucial role urbanization plays as a positive force in economic development.  Cities and towns are the home of most industry, commerce, and services.  These sectors of the economy can be highly productive.  World wide, higher per capital incomes are closely related to higher levels of urbanization.

 

Urban based, non-oil industry and services accounted for about half of Nigeria’s gross domestic product (GDP) between 1995 and 1994.  thus, average per capital income in urban areas is around one third higher than in rural areas.  This is the basic reason why attention should be focused on financing strategies for urban infrastructure development in Nigeria to boost productivity and growth of our developing economy.

 

It is on this premise that the author (researcher) wishes to study empirically the sources of finance available and financial strategies available to finance the urban infrastructure and services with regard to Nigeria economy.  The problems associated with government past option and agenda towards the restoration of urban “decay”.  In this work also, the writer dealt on the institutional arrangement from the world bank and other similar bodies-both in short term (immediate) and medium term.

 

  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

As have been noted, the benefit that an economy can derive from infrastructure development cannot be over emphasized.  The economic pressures behind urbanization are very powerful.  Cities and towns are the home of most industry, commerce, and services.  These sectors of the economy can be highly productive. World wide, higher per capital incomes are closely related to higher levels of urbanization

 

 

 

Below is the website of our various clients from various higher institutions of learning. These are universities, polytechnic and college of education website in Nigeria.

Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo,

Alvan Ikoku College of Education, Owerri,

Alvan Ikoku College of Education, Owerri, .

Federal College of Educ. Abeokuta, .

Federal College of Education, Eha-Amufu, .

Federal College of Education, Kano, .

Federal College of Education, Katsina, .

Federal college of Education, Kontagora, .

Federal College of Education, Obudu, .

Federal College of Education, Okene, .

Federal College of Education, Okene, .

Federal College of Education, Pankshin, .

 Federal College of Education, Yola, .

Federal College of Education, Zaria, .

Federal College of Education (Technical), Akoka, .

Federal College of Education (Technical), Asaba, .

Federal College of Education (Technical), Bichi, .

Federal College of Education (Technical), Gombe, .

Federal College of Education (Technical), Gusau, .

Federal College of Education (Technical), Omoku, .

Federal College of Education (Special) Oyo, .

 

 

State college of education

College of Education, Agbor, .

Akwa-Ibom State College of Education, Afaha-Nsit, .

College of Education, Akwanga, .

College of Education, Akwanga, .

Cross River State College of Education, Akamkpa, .

Adamu Augie College of Education, Argungu, .

College of Education, Azare, .

Bayelsa State College of Education, Okpoama, .

Emmanuel Alyande College of Education, Oyo, .

Enugu State College of Education (Tech.) Enugu, .

College of Education, Ekiadolor, .

Umar Suleiman College of Education, Gashua, .

College of Education, Gindiri, .

Michael Otedola College of Primary Education, Moforiji, .

College of Education, Port Harcourt, .

Adeniran Ogunsanya College of Education, Otto, .

Tai Solarin College of Education, Ijebu-Ode, .

Tai Solarin College of Education, Ijebu-Ode, .

Ebonyi State College of Education, Ikwo, .

College of Education, Ikere, .

College of Education, Ilesha, .

College of Education, Ilesha, .

College of Education, Ilorin, .

College of Education, Jalingo, .

Kano State College of Education, Kumbotso, .

College of Education, Benue, .

Kebbi State College of Education, Argungu, .

College of Education, Minna, .

Nwafor Orizu College of Education, Nsugbe, .

College of Education, Oju, .

College of Education, Oro, .

College of Education, Oro, .

Oyo State College of Education, Oyo, .

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College of Education, Warri, .

College of Education, Warri, .

FCT College of Education, Zuba, .

 

Private college of education

Angel Crown College of Education, Gidan-Daya, .

Elder Oyama Memorial College of Education, Ofat-Adun, .

Assanusiyah College of Education, Odeomu, .

African Thinkers Community of inquiry College of Education, .

Best Legacy College of Education, Ikirun, .

Bauchi Institute for Arabic and Islamic Studies, .

Calvin Foundation College of Education, Naka, .

Harvard Wilson College of Education, Aba, .

Hill College of Education, Akwanga, .

Institute of Ecumenical Education, Enugu, .

College of Education, Foreign Links Campus Moro, .

College of Education, Foreign Links Campus Moro, .

Diamond College of education aba . past questions,jamb news, admission form and list

Muhyideen College of Education, Ilorin, .

ONIT College of Education, Abagana, .

The African Church College of Education, Lagos, .

St. Augustine College of Education, Yaba, .

Yewa Central College of Education, Ogun, .

 

 

List of Federal Universities in Nigeria

Abubakar Tafawa Belewa University, .

Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, .

Bayero University, Kano, .

Federal University, Gashua, .

Federal University of Tech, Akure, .

Federal University of Petroleum Resources, Effurun, .

Federal University of Technology, Minna, .

Federal University of technology, Owerri, .

Federal University Dutse, .

Federal University Dutsin-Ma, .

Federal University, Ndufu-Alike, .

Federal University, Otuoke, .

Federal University, Wukari, .

Federal University, Birnin Kebbi, .

Federal University, Gusau

Michael Okpara Univeristy of Agric, Umudike, .

Modibbo Adama University of Tech, Yola, .

National Open University of Nigeria, .

Nigeria Police Academy Wudil, .

Nigeria defense Academy, Kaduna, .

Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, .

Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, .

University of Abuja, Gwagwalada, .

University of Agriculture Abeokuta, .

University of Agriculture Markurdi, .

University of Benin, .

University of Calabar, .

University of Lagos, .

University of Maiduguri, .

University of Nigeria Nsukka, .

University of Port-Harcourt, .

University of Uyo, .

Usmanu Danfodiyo University, .

List of State Universities

Abia State University, Uturu, .

Adamawa State University, Mubi, .

Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba, .

Amrose Alli University, Ikot Akpaden, .

Anambra State University of Sc. & Tech, Uli, .

Anambra State University of Sc. & Tech, Uli, .

Bauchi State Unibversity, Gadau, .

Benue State University Markurdi, .

Bukar Abba Ibrahim University, Damaturu, .

Cross River State University of Sc. & Tech, Calabar, .

Delta State University Abraka, .

Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, .

Ekiti State University, .

Enugu State University of Sc. & Tech. Enugu, .

Gombe State University, Gombe

Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, .

Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, .

Imo state University,Owerri, .

Jigawa State University, .

Kaduna State University, Kaduna .

Kano University of Sc. & Tech, Wudil

Kebbi State University, Kebbi, .

Kogi State University, Anyigba, .

Kwara State University, Ilorin, .

Ladoke Akintola university of Tech, .

Lagos State University Ojo, .

Nasarawa State University, Keffi, .

Niger Delta University, Yenagoe, .

Olabisi Onabanjo University Ago-Iwoye, .

Ondo State University of Sc. & Tech, Okitipupa, .

Osun State University, Oshogbo, .

Plateau State University, Bokkos, .

Rivers State University of Sc. & Tech, .

Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijebu-ode, .

Taraba State University, Jalingo, .

Umaru Musa Yar’Adua University, .

Private Universities

Achievers University, Owo, .

Adeleke University, Ede, .

Afe Babalola University, Ado- Ekiti, .

African University of Sc. & Tech, Abuja, .

Al-hikmah University, Ilorin, .

Ajayi Crowther University, Ibadan, .

Al-Qalam University, Katsina, .

American University of Nigeria, Yola, .

Babcock University, Ilishan, .

Baze University, .

Bells University of Technology, Otta, .

Benson Idahosa University, Benin, .

Bingham University, New Karu, .

Bowen University, Iwo, .

Caleb University, Lagos, .

Caritas University, Enugu, .

CETEP City University, Lagos, .

Covenant University, Ota, .

Crawford University, Igbesa, .

Crescent University, .

Elizade University, Ilara-mokin, .

Fountain University, Oshogbo, .

Gregory University, Uturu, .

Hallmark University, .

Igbinedion University, Okada

Joseph Ayo Babalola University,Ikeji, .

Kwararafa University, Wukari, .

Lead City University, Ibadan, .

Madonna University, Okija

Mcpherson University, Seriki

Nigerian-Turkish Nile University, Abuja, .

Novena University, Ogume, .

Obong University, Obong Ntak, .

Oduduwa University, Ipetumodu, .

Pan-African University, Lagos, .

Paul University, Awka, .

Redeemer’s University, Mowe, .

Renaissance University, Enugu, .

Salem University, Lokoja, .

Tansian University, Umunya, .

University of Mkar

Veritas University, .

Wellspring University, Edo, .

Wesley University of Sc. & Tech, Ondo, .

Western Delta University, Oghara

List of all the Federal Polytechnics

    Air Force Institute of Technology Nigerian Air Force, .

    Air Force Institute of Technology Nigerian Air Force, .

    Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Unwana, .

Nigeria Army School of Military Engineering, .

     Auchi Polytechnic .

     Auchi Polytechnic .

    Federal Polytechnic, Ado-Ekiti .

Federal Polytechnic, Ado-Ekiti .

Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, .

    Federal Polytechnic, Bida, .

 Federal Polytechnic, Bida, .

   Federal Polytechnic, Damaturu, .

     Federal Polytechnic, Ede, Osun State, .

         Federal Polytechnic, Ede, Osun State, .

 Federal Polytechnic, Ida, .

   Federal Polytechnic, Ida, .

  Federal Polytechnic, Ilaro, .

     Federal Polytechnic, Ile-Oluji, Ondo State, .

    Federal Polytechnic, Mubi, .

   Federal Polytechnic, Namoda, .

   Federal Polytechnic, Nassarawa, .

  Federal Polytechnic, Nekede, .

    Federal Polytechnic, Nekede, .

Federal Polytechnic, Offa, .

 Federal Polytechnic, Offa, .

 Federal Polytechnic, Oko, .

Federal School of Dental Technology and Therapy, .

Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna, .

Hussaini Adamu Federal Polytechnic, .

Nigeria Army School of Military Engineering, .

Federal College of Animal Health and Production Technology, .

Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic Birnin Kebbi, .

Yaba College of Tech, .

List of State Polytechnics in Nigeria

 Abraham Adesanya Polytechnic, Ijebu-Igbo, .

Abia State Polytechnic, .

Adamawa State Polytechnic, .

Akwa-Ibom State Polytechnic, Ikot-Osurua, .

Benue State Poly, Ugbokolo, .

Gateway Polytechnic, Igbesa, .

Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, .

Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, .

The Polytechnic, Ibadan, .

Institute of Mgt. and Tech, .

Imo State Polytechnic, Umuagwo, .

Kano State Polytechnic, .

Kogi State Polytechnic, Lokoja, .

Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin, .

Lagos State Poly, Ikorodu, .

Moshood Abiola Poly, .

Nasarawa State Polytechnic, .

Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic, .

Delta State Polytechnic, Ogwashi-Uku, .

Osun State Poly, Iree, .

Osun State Poly, Iree, .

Osun State College of Tech, Esa-Oke, .

Delta State Polytechnic, Ozoro, .

Plateau State Polytechnic, Barkin-Ladi, .

Adamawa State Poly, .

Rivers State College of Arts and Science, .

Rivers State College of Arts and Science, .

Rivers State Polytechnic, .

Gateway Polytechnic Saapade, .

Edo State Inst. of Tech and Mgt, Usen, .

Niger State Poly, Zungeru, Niger State, .

List of Private Polytechnics in Nigeria

Allover Central Polytechnic, .

Crown Polytechnics, .

Covenant Polytechnic, .

Dorben Polytechnic, Bwari-Garam Road, .

Fidei Polytechnic, Gboko, .

Grace Polytechnic, .

Grace Polytechnic, .

Igbajo Polytechnic, .

The Polytechnic, Ile-Ife, NITEL Road, .

Lagos City Poly, Ikeja, Lagos State, .

Light House Polytechnic, Eubuobanosa, .

Interlink Polytechnic, .

Kings Polytechnic, Ubiaja, .

RONIK Polytechnic, .

Shaka Polytechnic, Polytechnic, Benin city, .

Temple-Gate Polytechnic, .

Wolex Polytechnic, .

Prime Polytechnic, .

The Polytechnic Imesi-Ile, Osun, .

Heritage Polytechnic, Ikot Udota, .

Ibadan City Polytechnic, .

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