PROPER ACCOUNTING AND BUDGET IMPLEMENTATION IN NIGERIA WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO ENUGU STATE
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As regards the rapid increase in the socio economic problems of this nation, the wastage of millions of naira at project sites and the collapse of our economic sectors especially the financial houses, the writer decided to survey the avenues in which these wasted funds could be curtailed and our economic problems ameliorated.
Based on these assumption most of these problems arose as a result of poor budgetary and economic policy implementation. On this note, the writer introduced the study in chapter one of this project with a clear statement of problems inherent in poor budgetary plans and implementation.
In chapter two which is on review of related literature, there was effort made in definition of budget. All definitions have one thing in common that budget is an estimate and refers to future.
Chapter three states the design and methodology which include the sources of data, interview questions samples used and method of investigation.
Chapter four is the data analysis collected, the questions and questionnaire are analysed with number, percentage and degree of respondents affirmed to a particular answer.
The chapter five and last chapter contains findings, conclusion and recommendations.
In conclusion, it is hoped that our planners and policy implementers should learn a lot from the write up and change the phase of our economy in Enugu state to a right and benefiting system.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
- INTRODUCTION 1
- BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 2
- STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS 4
- OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 10
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 11
- HYPOTHESIS 13
- SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY 14
- DEFINITION OF TERMS 16
- REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 21
- MEANING OF GOVERNMENT BUDGET21
- OBJECTIVE OF BUDGET 33
- CONTENTS OF BUDGET DOCUMENT 35
- BUDGETARY PROCEDURES 37
- REPETITIVE BUDGETING 47
- EFFECTS OF INFLATION ON BUDGET 51
- RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
- SOURCES OF DATA 53
- INTERVIEW QUESTIONS 55
- SAMPLE USED 57
- METHODS OF INVESTIGATION 59
- PRESENTATION ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
- TESTING OF HYPOTHESIS 62
- CONCLUSIONS 90
- RECOMMENDATIONS 92
Proper accounting: The word proper means strict decorous of decent. It could be actual in conformity to the expected rule. Then accounting entails responsibility, answerable for or held in charge. Therefore merging these two words proper accounting we can coin them to be decorous or decent responsibility.
In this case, the question may be is there any proper accountability in our private and public sectors from the very beginning of our independence till this very moment. These few words proper accounting have been very vital in the restructuring of any economic system of any nation. The cause of every coup detats in Nigeria and the world at large is nothing but mainly for the sales of proper accountability. General Buhari and general idiagbon aggressive came into power for the quest of proper accountability. And general Abacha crowned the whole thing up by his wide speed of improper accountability.
The doom in our banking sector and other financial institutions are matters of attention. Is it the failed contracts, failed parastatals and even the external and internal crisis in our business sectors? All these and many other embezzlement problems that rake the counting have made the writer to probe into some of the matters and look for possible solutions.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
For the past ages, man as a rational and devine animal, has been struggling with procurement of a reasonable standard of living the ways of managing his perpetual inadequate human and material resources to give him its expected maximum utility. The eventful development of a well organized society gave birth to the institution of government.
During the 15th century, when mercantilism was the order of the day, government had the right to interfere with the economic process to protect the interest of the nation as then seen in the view point of international trade mainly.
During the 18th century, Adams Smith and other great authors came out with the system of lasses faire”. The system suited its own period but the general depression of the 20th century showed that it was not after all an economic panacea ( i.e. economic universal cure) people have to look for other economic solution. At this point, the economic scientists have to enter into the field and researches.
Thus, it was during this time that Keynes out with his own postation. To be precise, during the 1930’s Keynesian economics development and emphased the cyclical movement of economic and the need to tamper such movement by artificially manipulating the through and depressions in the cycle in order to facilitate a better economic order.
In fact, it was policy implication of Keynesian economies that have contributed to the trends which led to economic planning and budgeting as a tool in political administration.
Presently Nigeria as a nation is moving towards the 50th age of independence. Within the previous 39 years, so many budget have been pronounced and many of them are policies. All these budgets and polices were made to enhance the Nigerian standard of living which is presently nothing to talk about. We had fully experience the poor living standard of the citizens from the date of the nations independence till the present as government promisingly budgets.
- STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
Since independence, so many budgets have been made ranging from the federal done to state and local government areas. These budgets when made follow a technique and formulated method of implementations. Another problem is to know if the implementations are the proper ways to follow.
The means by which funds for the realization of this budgets are sourced, the source of this funds and the rendering returns on stewardship rotating to the