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A part from the basic objectives of this research thesis, the impartial fulfillment for the award of master degree in Public Administration in the Department of political Science And Defence Studies, Nigerian Defecnce Academy, Kaduna. The thesis was conducted primarily to ascertain the effectiveness of financial incentives to workers motivation in National Board for Technical Education.


The whole research was divided into five chapters. Chapter one deals with the General Introduction, Background to the study, Statement of the Research Problems, Study, Research Questions, Objectives of the study, Hypothesis, Significant of the study,   Methodology, Sources of Data Collections, Scope and Limitations of the Study and Definitions of Terms.


While Chapter two highlight Literature Review and Theatrical Frame Work, introduction motivation Concepts, Extrinsic Motivation, Six basic Desires Concepts, Transcendent motivation, Self determination and Self Control, Motivation and Incentives as viewed by various School of Thought,  Theoretical Framework and Incentive theory.


However, Chapter three discussed extensively on the Historical Background of National Board for Technical Education, Kaduna. Introduction, Functions of the Board, The Structures of the Board, The Departments of the Board, Major Achievement of the Board, Challenges of the Board, Lingering issues in Federal Polytechnics.


Chapter four, presented and analyzed financial incentives to workers motivation in National Board for Technical Education, Data presentations and Analysis, Presentation of Tables, Pie Chart Computation and Major findings.

Chapter five, highlighted the Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations of the Study, Appendices and Bibliography of the Thesis. The researcher gave some recommendations which we hope will help to minimize the problems and enhance productivity, efficiency and Industrial harmony in the Organization. More so, in identifying the above problems not intented to discredit the present system being in operation in the organization but there are merely views as depicted through and felt in the course of the research carried out.

If researcher’s views and suggestions were implemented well, it may definitely lead to greater productivity, job satisfactions and Industrial harmony between the workers and Management of National Board for Technical Education, which will stand the test of time and assist in enhancing workers performance.










Title Page


Approval Page










Table of Contents


1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem

1 – 5

1.3 Research Questions

7 – 8

1.4 Objectives of the Study

8 – 9

1.5 Hypothesis


1.6 Significance of the Study

9 – 10

1.7 Methodology


1.7.1 Sources of Data Collection


1.8 Scope and limitation of the Study

12 – 13

1.8 Definitions of Terms

13 – 14

2.0 Introduction


2.1.1 Motivation Concepts

15 – 16

2.1.2 Intrinsic motivation and the sixteen basic desires concepts

16 – 18

2.1.3 Transcendent motivation, self determination and Self Control

18 – 19


Motivation and incentives as view by various School of thought.

19 – 33

2.2 Theoretical Framework


2.2.1 Theoretical Theory

33 – 35

3.0 Introduction

36 – 37

3.1.1 Functions of the Board

37 – 40

3.1.2 The Structures of the Board


3.1.3 The Board is Structured into Four Departments

40 – 41

3.2 Major Achievements of the Board

46 – 47

3.3 Challenges of the Board

47 – 48

3.4 Lingering Issues in Federal Polytechnics


Financial Incentives to workers motivation in NBTE
4.1 Introduction


4.2 Data Preparation and Analysis

50 – 65

4.3 Pie Chart Computations

65 – 67

4.4 Major Findings

68 – 69

5.1 Summary


5.2 Conclusion


5.3 Recommendations


5.4 References


Appendix I







1.1     Background to the Study       

In the word of Armstrong (1988), the process of motivation is initiated by the conscious and unconscious recognition of an unsatisfied need. A goal is then established which, it is thought will satisfy the need and of course action is determined that lead towards the attainment of a goal. Management should provide incentive schemes and pay workers on the basis of the result they achieve on the job instead of the more physical routine performance series activities and to retain them on their job making them feel satisfied, a motivationally-oriented wage system must adequately distinguish “Naira” wise between the different levels of efficiency for the people performing essentially job and different job categories and specialization.


In every organization, the management emphasis on high productivity, quality of services, quality workmanship, industrial peace, cooperative labour etc. On the other hand, employees need fair wages, job satisfaction, good working conditions, participation in decision making, self recognition and opportunity for advancement.


Organizations and managers have suffered tremendously in trying to utilize their human resources, they usually encounter frequent industrial conflicts and several unresolved agitations by workers and different categories of employees basically steaming from one form of dissatisfaction or the other. The main point of misunderstanding between management and employees/workers in most cases is found in the arrears of inadequate and inequitable monetary rewards.


Financial incentive as we all know is a process of guiding the conduct and influencing people so that they strives individual or group towards the achievement of group goals. Every employee comes to an organization with one motive, to earn a living and financial incentive play a vital role in the lives of these employees. Taking away financial incentive might jeopardize this individual or the group interest. Management on the other hand, established the organization for the purpose of return of investment and profit making, high productivity, quality of services, industrial peace, cooperative labour and to remain a going concern. Skinner B. F. (1953), states that by providing properly scheduled rewards is possible to influence behaviours.


The objective and purpose of this study is to examine whether or not financial incentives has contributed to workers performance and industrial harmony in National Board for technical Education. This research is by no means exhaustive but will help the establishment to take a second look that financial incentives has a significant role to play in maintaining industrial peace, increase productivity and boost the morale of the employees in an establishment.

It has generally been observed and noted that in a sample group of workers performing the same type of job, some do it better than others. This observation will raise and arouse the notion or questions or psychological tendencies, interest and differences in performance.  One school of though holds the view that “differences in performance reflect varying characteristics, abilities and skills on the part of ‘workers’. F.B. Skinner, (1985), an Industrial psychologist argues that differences in performance of workers doing the same kind of job,  might be as a result of extra monetary rewards attached to the job, conductive working environment or friends they meet in the workplace.

As a result of these possibilities, recognition and thorough understanding of workers needs/wants before adopting any form of motivational techniques such as financial rewards (money) human relations, conducive, working environment, leadership and good supervision among others, becomes apparently important since these factors has different influence and impact on different categories of workers and individuals.

The complexity of human nature, expectation, urges and drives/motives make the art of motivation of workers and employees a critical and complex point for consideration. A definite answer could not be reached since people differ in characteristics, background, traits, and needs. Thus it becomes imperative for the manager to incorporate positive motivational incentive programmes to motivate workers


This article highlights various college of education, polytechnics, universities website in Nigeria.


Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo,

Alvan Ikoku College of Education, Owerri,

Alvan Ikoku College of Education, Owerri,

Federal College of Educ. Abeokuta,

Federal College of Education, Eha-Amufu,

Federal College of Education, Kano,

Federal College of Education, Katsina,

Federal college of Education, Kontagora,

Federal College of Education, Obudu,

Federal College of Education, Okene,

Federal College of Education, Okene,

Federal College of Education, Pankshin,

 Federal College of Education, Yola,

Federal College of Education, Zaria,

Federal College of Education (Technical), Akoka,

Federal College of Education (Technical), Asaba,

Federal College of Education (Technical), Bichi,

Federal College of Education (Technical), Gombe,

Federal College of Education (Technical), Gusau,

Federal College of Education (Technical), Omoku,

Federal College of Education (Special) Oyo,

State college of education

College of Education, Agbor,

Akwa-Ibom State College of Education, Afaha-Nsit,

College of Education, Akwanga, ., form and admissions list

College of Education, Akwanga,

Cross River State College of Education, Akamkpa,

Adamu Augie College of Education, Argungu,

College of Education, Azare,

Bayelsa State College of Education, Okpoama,

Emmanuel Alyande College of Education, Oyo,

Enugu State College of Education (Tech.) Enugu,

College of Education, Ekiadolor,

Umar Suleiman College of Education, Gashua,

College of Education, Gindiri,

Michael Otedola College of Primary Education, Moforiji,

College of Education, Port Harcourt,

Adeniran Ogunsanya College of Education, Otto,

Tai Solarin College of Education, Ijebu-Ode,

Tai Solarin College of Education, Ijebu-Ode,

Ebonyi State College of Education, Ikwo,

College of Education, Ikere,

College of Education, Ilesha, .

College of Education, Ilesha,

College of Education, Ilorin,

College of Education, Jalingo,

Kano State College of Education, Kumbotso,

College of Education, Benue,

Kebbi State College of Education, Argungu,

College of Education, Minna,

Nwafor Orizu College of Education, Nsugbe,

College of Education, Oju,

College of Education, Oro,

College of Education, Oro,

Oyo State College of Education, Oyo,

College of Education, Warri,

College of Education, Warri,

FCT College of Education, Zuba,

Private college of education in Nigeria

Angel Crown College of Education, Gidan-Daya, .

Elder Oyama Memorial College of Education, Ofat-Adun,

Assanusiyah College of Education, Odeomu,

African Thinkers Community of inquiry College of Education,

Best Legacy College of Education, Ikirun,

Bauchi Institute for Arabic and Islamic Studies, .

Calvin Foundation College of Education, Naka,

Harvard Wilson College of Education, Aba,

Hill College of Education, Akwanga,

Institute of Ecumenical Education, Enugu,

College of Education, Foreign Links Campus Moro,

College of Education, Foreign Links Campus Moro,

Diamond College of education aba

Muhyideen College of Education, Ilorin,  

ONIT College of Education, Abagana, .

The African Church College of Education, Lagos,

St. Augustine College of Education, Yaba,

Yewa Central College of Education, Ogun,

List of Federal Universities in Nigeria

Abubakar Tafawa Belewa University,

Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria,

Bayero University, Kano,

Federal University, Gashua,

Federal University of Tech, Akure,

Federal University of Petroleum Resources, Effurun,

Federal University of Technology, Minna,

Federal University of technology, Owerri,

Federal University Dutse,

Federal University Dutsin-Ma,

Federal University, Ndufu-Alike,

Federal University, Otuoke,

Federal University, Wukari,

Federal University, Birnin Kebbi,

Federal University, Gusau

Michael Okpara Univeristy of Agric, Umudike, .

Modibbo Adama University of Tech, Yola, .

National Open University of Nigeria,

Nigeria Police Academy Wudil, .

Nigeria defense Academy, Kaduna, .

Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka,

Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, .

University of Abuja, Gwagwalada, .

University of Agriculture Abeokuta,

University of Agriculture Markurdi,

University of Benin,

University of Calabar,

University of Lagos,

University of Maiduguri,

University of Nigeria Nsukka,

University of Port-Harcourt

University of Uyo, .

Usmanu Danfodiyo University,

List of State Universities in Nigeria admission list

Abia State University, Uturu,

Adamawa State University, Mubi,

Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba,

Amrose Alli University, Ikot Akpaden,

Anambra State University of Sc. & Tech, Uli,

Anambra State University of Sc. & Tech, Uli,

Bauchi State Unibversity, Gadau,

Benue State University Markurdi,

Bukar Abba Ibrahim University, Damaturu,

Cross River State University of Sc. & Tech, Calabar, .

Delta State University Abraka,

Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki,

Ekiti State University,

Enugu State University of Sc. & Tech. Enugu,

Gombe State University, Gombe

Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University,

Ignatius Ajuru University of Education,

Imo state University,Owerri,

Jigawa State University,

Kaduna State University, Kaduna

Kano University of Sc. & Tech, Wudil

Kebbi State University, Kebbi,

Kogi State University, Anyigba,.

Kwara State University, Ilorin, .

Ladoke Akintola university of Tech,

Lagos State University Ojo,

Nasarawa State University, Keffi,

Niger Delta University, Yenagoe,

Olabisi Onabanjo University Ago-Iwoye,

Ondo State University of Sc. & Tech, Okitipupa,

Osun State University, Oshogbo,

Plateau State University, Bokkos,

Rivers State University of Sc. & Tech,

Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijebu-ode,

Taraba State University, Jalingo,

Umaru Musa Yar’Adua University,

Private Universities

Achievers University, Owo,

Adeleke University, Ede,

Afe Babalola University, Ado- Ekiti,

African University of Sc. & Tech, Abuja,

Al-hikmah University, Ilorin,

Ajayi Crowther University, Ibadan,

Al-Qalam University, Katsina,

American University of Nigeria, Yola, .

Babcock University, Ilishan,

Baze University,

Bells University of Technology, Otta,

Benson Idahosa University, Benin,

Bingham University, New Karu,

Bowen University, Iwo,

Caleb University, Lagos, .

Caritas University, Enugu,

CETEP City University, Lagos,

Covenant University, Ota,

Crawford University, Igbesa,

Crescent University,

Elizade University, Ilara-mokin, .

Fountain University, Oshogbo,

Gregory University, Uturu,

Hallmark University,

Igbinedion University, Okada

Joseph Ayo Babalola University,Ikeji,

Kwararafa University, Wukari,

Lead City University, Ibadan,

Madonna University, Okija

Mcpherson University, Seriki

Nigerian-Turkish Nile University, Abuja,

Novena University, Ogume,

Obong University, Obong Ntak, .

Oduduwa University, Ipetumodu,

Pan-African University, Lagos,

Paul University, Awka,

Redeemer’s University, Mowe,

Renaissance University, Enugu,

Salem University, Lokoja,]

Tansian University, Umunya, .

University of Mkar

Veritas University, .

Wellspring University, Edo, .

Wesley University of Sc. & Tech, Ondo,

Western Delta University, Oghara

List of all the Federal Polytechnics in Nigeria

    Air Force Institute of Technology Nigerian Air Force,

    Air Force Institute of Technology Nigerian Air Force,

    Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Unwana,

Nigeria Army School of Military Engineering,

     Auchi Polytechnic .

     Auchi Polytechnic .

    Federal Polytechnic, Ado-Ekiti

Federal Polytechnic, Ado-Ekiti .

Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, .

    Federal Polytechnic, Bida,

 Federal Polytechnic, Bida,

   Federal Polytechnic, Damaturu,

     Federal Polytechnic, Ede, Osun State,

 Federal Polytechnic, Ede, Osun State,

 Federal Polytechnic, Ida,

   Federal Polytechnic, Ida, .

  Federal Polytechnic, Ilaro,

     Federal Polytechnic, Ile-Oluji, Ondo State,

    Federal Polytechnic, Mubi,

   Federal Polytechnic, Namoda,

   Federal Polytechnic, Nassarawa,

  Federal Polytechnic, Nekede,

    Federal Polytechnic, Nekede,

Federal Polytechnic, Offa,

 Federal Polytechnic, Offa,

 Federal Polytechnic, Oko,

Federal School of Dental Technology and Therapy,

Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna,

Hussaini Adamu Federal Polytechnic,

Nigeria Army School of Military Engineering,

Federal College of Animal Health and Production Technology

Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic Birnin Kebbi,

Yaba College of Tech,

List of State Polytechnics in Nigeria

 Abraham Adesanya Polytechnic, Ijebu-Igbo,

Abia State Polytechnic, .

Adamawa State Polytechnic,

Akwa-Ibom State Polytechnic, Ikot-Osurua,

Benue State Poly, Ugbokolo,

Gateway Polytechnic, Igbesa,

Rufus Giwa Polytechnic,

Rufus Giwa Polytechnic,

The Polytechnic, Ibadan, .

Institute of Mgt. and Tech,

Imo State Polytechnic, Umuagwo

Kano State Polytechnic,

Kogi State Polytechnic, Lokoja,

Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin,

Lagos State Poly, Ikorodu,

Moshood Abiola Poly,

Nasarawa State Polytechnic

Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic,

Delta State Polytechnic, Ogwashi-Uku,

Osun State Poly, Iree,

Osun State Poly, Iree,

Osun State College of Tech, Esa-Oke,

Delta State Polytechnic, Ozoro,

Plateau State Polytechnic, Barkin-Ladi,

Adamawa State Poly,

Rivers State College of Arts and Science,

Rivers State College of Arts and Science

Rivers State Polytechnic,

Gateway Polytechnic Saapade

Edo State Inst. of Tech and Mgt, Usen,

Niger State Poly, Zungeru, Niger State,

List of Private Polytechnics in Nigeria

Allover Central Polytechnic,

Crown Polytechnics,

Covenant Polytechnic,

Dorben Polytechnic, Bwari-Garam Road,

Fidei Polytechnic, Gboko,

Grace Polytechnic,

Grace Polytechnic,

Igbajo Polytechnic,

The Polytechnic, Ile-Ife, NITEL Road

Lagos City Poly, Ikeja, Lagos State,

Light House Polytechnic, Eubuobanosa,

Interlink Polytechnic,

Kings Polytechnic, Ubiaja,

RONIK Polytechnic,

Shaka Polytechnic, Polytechnic, Benin city,

Temple-Gate Polytechnic,

Wolex Polytechnic

Prime Polytechnic

The Polytechnic Imesi-Ile, Osun

Heritage Polytechnic, Ikot Udota

Ibadan City Polytechnic